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Kinnickinnic River @ South 27th Street (RI 12)

400

360

Average Number of Days Per Year

320

280

240

200

160

120

80

40

0
>10

9-10

8-9

7-8

6-7

5-6

4-5

3-4

2-3

1-2

0-1

Average DO (mg/L)

Kinnickinnic River @ South 27th Street (RI 12)


400

360

Average Number of Days Per Year

320

280

240

200

160

120

80

40

0
>5000

4000-5000

3000-4000

2000-3000

1000-2000

600-1000

400-600

0-400

Average Fecal Coliform (#/100ml)

Kinnickinnic River @ South 27th Street (RI 12)


400

360

Average Number of Days Per Year

320

280

240

200

160

120

80

40

0
>0.5

0.45-0.5

0.4-0.45

0.35-0.4

0.3-0.35

0.25-0.3

0.2-0.25

0.15-0.2

0.1-0.15

0.05-0.1

0-0.05

AverageTP (mg/L)

Kinnickinnic River @ South 27th Street (RI 12)


400

360

Average Number of Days Per Year

320

280

240

200

160

120

80

40

0
>200

175-200

150-175

125-150

100-125

75-100

50-75

25-50

0-25

AverageTSS (mg/L)

South 27th Street (RI-12) Reach 807


Chloride
Flow Conditions

C onc e ntra tion (m g/L)

1000

Planning Standard (1000 mg/L)


Mid-range
Flows

Moist
Conditions

High
Flows

Box & Whiskers


Low
Flows

Dry
Conditions

100

10

1
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Flow Duration Interval (%)

Modeled Flow Data; Chloride Field Data

70

80

90

100

South 27th Street (RI-12) Reach 807


Dissolved Oxygen
Flow Conditions

Regulatory Standard- Special Variance (2 mg/L)

Box & Whiskers

100

C onc e ntra tion (m g/L)

Mid-range
Flows

Moist
Conditions

High
Flows

Low
Flows

Dry
Conditions

10

1
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Flow Duration Interval (%)

Modeled Flow Data

70

80

90

100

South 27th Street (RI-12) Reach 807


Fecal Coliform
Flow Conditions
1.E+05

Regulatory Standard- Special Variance (2,000 cfu/100 mL)


Mid-range
Flows

Moist
Conditions

High
Flows

Box & Whiskers


Dry
Conditions

Low
Flows

C onc e ntra tion (c fu/1 0 0 m L)

1.E+04

1.E+03

1.E+02

1.E+01

1.E+00
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Flow Duration Interval (%)

Modeled Flow Data

70

80

90

100

South 27th Street (RI-12) Reach 807


Total Phosphorus
Flow Conditions

Planning Standard (0.1 mg/L)

Box & Whiskers

1.00

C onc e ntra tion (m g/L)

Mid-range
Flows

Moist
Conditions

High
Flows

Low
Flows

Dry
Conditions

0.10

0.01
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Flow Duration Interval (%)

Modeled Flow Data

70

80

90

100

South 27th Street (RI-12) Reach 807


Total Suspended Solids
Flow Conditions

Reference Concentration (17.2 mg/L)

Box & Whiskers

1000

C onc e ntra tion (m g/L)

Mid-range
Flows

Moist
Conditions

High
Flows

Low
Flows

Dry
Conditions

100

10

1
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Flow Duration Interval (%)

Modeled Flow Data

70

80

90

100

Watershed Restoration Plan

Fact Sheet for Assessment Point KK-10

Assessment Point: KK-10


The following data are excerpts from multiple reports. While the same location in the
Kinnickinnic watershed is represented, the assessment point IDs differ. Throughout the
following data, Assessment Point KK-10 is also represented by:
o Reach RI-13
o RI-13
o South 7th Street
o Kinnickinnic River Near the Upstream Limit of the Estuary

94
59

894

io n

Villa ge of
WEST MILW AUKE E

ve
al A

SOUTH 43RD ST REET DIT CH

re

st

om

ve

38

20 t h St

27 t h St

35 t h St

o
el

43 r d S t

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
W
WE
ES
S TT A
A LL LL II S
S

ve
tA

Fo

60 t h St

45

794

B ur nha m S t

B ur nha m S t

Linc oln A v e

Linc oln A v e

COMBINED SEWER AREA

24

KINNICKINNIC RIVER

C le v e la nd A v e

T
Ok la hom a A v e

Fo

t
es

om

C le v e la nd A v e

ve

Ok la hom a A v e

C ha s e A v e

6t h S t

13 t h St

20 t h St

35 t h St

43 r d S t

60 t h St

27 t h St

LYONS PARK CREEK

62

C le m en t Av e

N at

13 t h St

100

59

181

59

32

Mo rg an A v e

Mo rg an A v e

241

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
S
S TT .. FF R
RA
AN
NC
C II S
S

WILSON PARK CREEK


H owa r d A ve

CHEROKEE PARK CREEK

894

36

45

43

B oliv ar A ve

94
38

La y ton A v e

62

Pe nn sy lv a nn ia A v e

H owe ll Av e

6t h S t

La y ton A v e

13 t h St

24

894

35 t h St

43

20 t h St

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
D
E LL D
G
N FF II E
EN
EE
RE
GR

27 t h St

100

VIL LA MANN CREEK

Edg e rt on A ve

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
C
CU
UD
DA
AH
HY
Y

WILSON PARK CREEK

HOLMES AVENUE CREEK

32

Gr a nge Av e

Gr a nge Av e

119

Village of
HALES CORNERS

Village of
GREENDALE

62

LEGEND
Water

KK WATERSHED

Waterbodies
Watersheds
Subwatersheds
Civil Divisions

1,150 2,300
Feet

4,600

WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN


KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
September 24, 2008

ve
Burnham St
Burnham St

H
st
re
Fo

Linc oln Ave

Linc oln Ave

COMBINED SEWER AREA

KINNICKINNIC RIVER
Cleveland Ave

Okla homa Ave

e
Av

20th St

27th St

e
Av

35th St

o it

43rd St

l
Be

60th St

SOUTH 43RD STREET DITCH

om

H
st
re
Fo

om

Cleveland Ave

e
Av
Okla homa Ave

Chase Ave

6th St

13th St

20th St

27th St

35th St

43rd St

60th St

LYONS PARK CREEK

Clement Ave

A
na l

13th St

o
Nati

Morgan Ave

Morgan Ave

WILSON PARK CREEK


Howard Ave

CHEROKEE PARK CREEK

Bolivar Ave

VILLA MANN CREEK


Lay ton Ave

Pennsy lvannia Ave

Howell Ave

6th St

13th St

20th St

27th St

35th St

Lay ton Ave

Edgerton Ave

WILSON PARK CREEK

HOLMES AVENUE CREEK

Gra nge Ave

Gra nge Ave

LEGEND
Water

Waterbodies
Watersheds

Aerial Map

Subwatersheds
Routing Reach Tributary Area
Combined Sewer Service Area
Civil Divisions

1,100 2,200
Feet

4,400

WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN


KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
September 24, 2008

94
59

ve

38
13th St

20th St

Lincoln Ave

Lincoln Ave

43rd St

24
Cleveland Ave

Cleveland Ave

60th St

KK-9

KK-3

KK-10
Oklahoma Ave

20th St

ve

43rd St

eA

27th St

s
re
Fo

Oklahoma Ave

om
tH

35th St

32

Morgan Ave

KINNICKINNIC RIVER

Morgan Ave

62

Clement Ave

it

m
Ho
st
re

eA

13th St

lo
Be

27th St

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
W
WE
ES
S TT A
A LL LL II S
S

Fo

KK-2

e
Av

794

Burnham St

Burnham St

60th St

45

Villa ge of
WEST MILWAUKEE

Av e

Chase Ave

894

nal

6th St

o
Na ti

35th St

100

59

181

59

KK-1

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
S
S TT .. FF R
RA
AN
NC
C II S
S

241

Howard Ave

894

KK-8

KK-7
36

45

43

Bolivar Ave

94
38

Layton Ave

62

Pennsylvannia Ave

Howell Ave

Layton Ave

6th St

24

KK-6
Y
35th St

894

13th St

Y
43

43

20th St

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
D
E LL D
G
N FF II E
EN
EE
RE
GR

27th St

100

Edger ton Ave

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
C
CU
UD
DA
AH
HY
Y

KK-4

KK-5

32

Grange Ave

Grange Ave

119

Village of
HALES CORNERS

Village of
GREENDALE

62

ZZ

ZZ

LEGEND

Assessment Points

32

Combined Sewer Service Area

KK Watershed
Model Reach Tributary Area

Water
Routing Reach Tributary Area
Watershed
Waterbodies
Civil Division

1,200 2,400
Feet

4,800

WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN


KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
September 24, 2008

Cleveland Ave

165

167
166A
166

163
164

260

Okla homa Ave

Cha se Ave

6th St

13th St

27th St

20th St

MI05

Clem ent Ave

168

KK-10

Morgan Ave

Howard Ave

Boli var Ave

LEGEND

Assessment Points
CSO
SSO
NonContact Cooling Water

Water

Civil Division

Assessment Point Map : KK-10

Routing Reach Tributary Area


Watershed
Combined Sewer Service Area
Waterbodies

380

760
Feet

1,520

WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN


KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
September 24, 2008

KK-10
Clevelan d Ave

Clem ent Ave

Chase Ave

13th St

6th St

Oklahom a Ave

Mor gan Ave

Howard Ave

LEGEND
Assessment Points
Water
Waterbodies
Watersheds
Routing Reach Tributary Area

Land Use

Agriculture

Outdoor Recreation, Wetland, and Woodland, Open Lands

High Density Residential

Manufacturing and Industrial

Institutional and Governemntal

Civil Divisions

Low Density Residential


Commercial

Transportation, Communication, and Utilities


Surface Water

Land Use Map : KK-10

Combined Sewer Service Area

380

760
Feet

1,520

WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN


KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
September 24, 2008

Menomonee River - Variance Standards/Targets


Constituent

Measure

Standard/Target
1

Variance Standard - Geometric mean not to exceed


Fecal Coliform

1,000 counts/100 ml
1

Variance Standard - Less than 10% of all samples/month


1

2,000 counts/100 ml

Dissolved Oxygen (DO)

Variance Standard - Minimum Concentration

2 mg/l

Total Suspended Solids (TSS)

USGS Median TSS Reference Concentration (estimated


background concentration)

17.2 mg/l

Total Phosphorus (TP)

Flashiness
1

Planning Guideline
Richards Baker Flashiness Index (quantifies the frequency
and rapidity of short-term changes in stream flow; the index
ranges from 0 - 2, with 0 being constant flow)

Variance standards are from Chapter NR 104 of the Wisconsin Administrative Code apply.

0.1 mg/l

indicator only

Kinnickinnic River Watershed Restoration Plan Fact Sheet


KK-10, Reach 806, RI-13, Kinnickinnic River Near the Upstream Limit of the Estuary (South 7th Street)
Data resulting from model runs:

Figure
Flashiness index

Overall Project
Analysis
Team Assessment
Good to Moderate The Flashiness Index quantifies the frequency and rapidity of short-term changes in stream flow. The index ranges from 0

Dissolved oxygen
v. days per year
Fecal coliform v.
days per year

Very Good

Phosphorus v.
days per year
Suspended solids
v. days per year
Monthly chloride
grab samples (CL
not from models)
Monthly
dissolved oxygen
Monthly fecal
coliform

Poor

Monthly
phosphorus
Monthly
suspended solids

Poor

Variable (some
good, some bad)

Good
Inconclusive (no
winter data)
Very Good
Moderate to Poor

Good

to 2, with 0 being constant flow. The flashiness is slightly high at this location.
Typically, aquatic communities need 5 mg/l or more of dissolved oxygen to survive. Concentrations at this site
consistently exceed this level as well as the variance standard of 2 mg/l.
For recreational uses, lower fecal coliform counts (a measure of bacteria) are better (preferably under 400 counts / 100ml).
The counts on majority of the days are either below 400 or above 5,000. A goal in this case may be to determine the
conditions that create the above 5,000 days and discourage recreational use on days that meet these conditions. As there
is a variance that allows the fecal coliform to reach 2,000, another goal could be to find ways to decrease coliform loads in
order to increase the number of days that have fewer than 2,000 counts.
Phosphorus is a nutrient that can lead to increased growth of algae. The concentrations on most days are above the 0.1
mg/l planning guideline and the concentrations exceed 0.5 mg/l on some days.
Suspended solids cause water to become cloudy. This can clog the gills of fish and invertebrates, make feeding difficult,
and lead to sediment deposition (poor habitat). The concentrations on most days fall below 25 mg/l.
These samples show chloride values below levels that are acutely toxic to fish and invertebrates. Concentrations in March
often exceed the chronic toxicity threshold. However, a common source of chloride is road salt and there is no winter
data. .Winter chloride concentrations would be expected to exceed Marchs chloride concentrations.
Note the lower dissolved oxygen concentrations during the summer. This is normal due to the decreased solubility of
oxygen in warmer water.
While the ranges of values are fairly consistent throughout the year, note that the medians decline during the summer
swimming season. This may be related to the die-off of bacteria due to solar radiation. Also, the summer accounts for
many of the below 400 days mentioned above while the winter and early spring have many of the above 5,000 days.
Phosphorus concentrations consistently exceed the planning guideline, though the upper extremes tend to decline during
the late spring, summer, and early fall. This may be related to uptake by plants during the growing season.
Suspended solids concentrations tend to be lower in the winter months. This is may be due to frozen conditions,
decreased construction activity, and low-impact storms (snow doesnt pound the soil like rain).

Figure
Chloride by flow
(Cl not from
models)
Dissolved oxygen
by flow
Fecal coliform by
flow

Overall Project
Analysis
Team Assessment
Inconclusive (no
It is difficult to assess chloride without data from the winter months; however, it appears that when chloride is not being
actively applied, some amount is in a reservoir that is gradually released and is particularly noticeable during mid-to-dry
winter data)
Good
Moderate to Poor

Phosphorus by
flow

Poor

Suspended solids
by flow

Good

conditions. At high flow conditions, dilution takes over, lowering the chloride concentration.
Dissolved oxygen concentrations as shown here are consistent among the flow conditions.
Generally, a pollutant that is present at high concentrations during high flows and low concentrations during low flows
(fecal coliform, in this case) is attributed primarily to non-point sources. Infrequent sewer overflows (once every 2-5
years) would only contribute during the high flows when a substantial non-point load is already present. Note that during
periods with the highest flows, fecal coliform counts exceed the variance standard and during moist conditions, fecal
coliform counts exceed the variance standard over 50% of the time. During dry conditions and low flows, the standard is
met nearly all of the time. These times would be the safest time for recreational uses (boating, wading, swimming).
Concentrations of phosphorus are greatest at high and low flows, although concentrations exceed the planning guideline
under all flow conditions. The higher concentrations at flow extremes suggests a background source that is particularly
noticeable during low flows (perhaps due to inputs of non-contact cooling water) as well as non-point sources of
phosphorus at high flows.
Suspended solids increase with increased flows. This suggests a prevalence of non-point sources. The concentrations
exceed the reference concentration predominantly during the high flow condition. These conditions most often occur
following large storms or major snow-melt events. The suspended solids may come from runoff that carries a sediment
load, from stream bank erosion, or re-suspended stream sediments.

Flashiness index
Reach
RI-13

Location
South 7th Street

Richards Baker Flashiness Index


0.87

Average Daily Flows

South 7th Street (806)

AVERAGE DAILY FLOW (CFS)

250

200

150

100

50

0
Jan Jan Feb Mar Mar Apr May Jun Jun Jul Aug Aug Sep Oct Nov Nov Dec

Existing Water Quality Data

Assessment
Point

Water Quality
Indicator

KK-10
Fecal Coliform Bacteria
Kinnickinnic River
(annual)
near Upstream
Limit of Estuary

Fecal Coliform Bacteria


(May-September: 153
days total)

Dissolved Oxygen

Total Phosphorus

Statistic

Mean (cells per 100 ml)

Total Suspended Solids

Copper

5,659

Percent compliance with single sample


standard (<2,000 cells per 100 ml)1

80

Geometric mean (cells per 100 ml)

492

Days of compliance with geometric mean


standard (<1,000 cells per 100 ml)1

296

Mean (cells per 100 ml)

2,660

Percent compliance with single sample


standard (<2,000 cells per 100 ml)1

90

Geometric mean (cells per 100 ml)

361

Days of compliance with geometric mean


standard (<1,000 cells per 100 ml)1

150

Mean (mg/l)

6.6

Median (mg/l)

6.3

Percent compliance with dissolved


oxygen standard (>2 mg/l)1

100

Mean (mg/l)

0.052

Median (mg/l)

0.031

Percent compliance with recommended


phosphorus standard (0.1 mg/l)
Total Nitrogen

Condition
Existing

88

Mean (mg/l)

0.66

Median (mg/l)

0.67

Mean (mg/l)

8.5

Median (mg/l)

5.0

Mean (mg/l)

0.0036

Median (mg/l)

0.0013

Variance standards are from Chapter NR 104 of the Wisconsin Administrative Code apply.

Kinnickinnic River @ South 7th Street (RI 13)


400

360

Average Number of Days Per Year

320

280

240

200

160

120

80

40

0
>10

9-10

8-9

7-8

6-7

5-6

4-5

3-4

2-3

1-2

0-1

Average DO (mg/L)

Kinnickinnic River @ South 7th Street (RI 13)


400

360

Average Number of Days Per Year

320

280

240

200

160

120

80

40

0
>5000

4000-5000

3000-4000

2000-3000

1000-2000

600-1000

400-600

0-400

Average Fecal Coliform (#/100ml)

Kinnickinnic River @ South 7th Street (RI 13)


400

360

Average Number of Days Per Year

320

280

240

200

160

120

80

40

0
>0.5

0.45-0.5

0.4-0.45

0.35-0.4

0.3-0.35

0.25-0.3

0.2-0.25

0.15-0.2

0.1-0.15

0.05-0.1

0-0.05

Average TP (mg/L)

Kinnickinnic River @ South 7th Street (RI 13)


400

360

Average Number of Days Per Year

320

280

240

200

160

120

80

40

0
>200

175-200

150-175

125-150

100-125

75-100

50-75

25-50

0-25

Average TSS (mg/L)

South 7th Street (RI-13) Reach 806


Chloride
Flow Conditions

C onc e ntra tion (m g/L)

1000

Planning Standard (1000 mg/L)


Mid-range
Flows

Moist
Conditions

High
Flows

Box & Whiskers


Low
Flows

Dry
Conditions

100

10

1
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Flow Duration Interval (%)

Modeled Flow Data; Chloride Field Data

70

80

90

100

South 7th Street (RI-13) Reach 806


Dissolved Oxygen
Flow Conditions

Regulatory Standard- Special Variance (2 mg/L)

Box & Whiskers

100

C onc e ntra tion (m g/L)

Mid-range
Flows

Moist
Conditions

High
Flows

Low
Flows

Dry
Conditions

10

1
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Flow Duration Interval (%)

Modeled Flow Data

70

80

90

100

South 7th Street (RI-13) Reach 806


Fecal Coliform
Flow Conditions
1.E+05

Regulatory Standard- Special Variance (2,000 cfu/100 mL)


Mid-range
Flows

Moist
Conditions

High
Flows

Box & Whiskers


Dry
Conditions

Low
Flows

C onc e ntra tion (c fu/1 0 0 m L)

1.E+04

1.E+03

1.E+02

1.E+01

1.E+00
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Flow Duration Interval (%)

Modeled Flow Data

70

80

90

100

South 7th Street (RI-13) Reach 806


Total Phosphorus
Flow Conditions

Planning Standard (0.1 mg/L)

Box & Whiskers

1.00

C onc e ntra tion (m g/L)

Mid-range
Flows

Moist
Conditions

High
Flows

Low
Flows

Dry
Conditions

0.10

0.01
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Flow Duration Interval (%)

Modeled Flow Data

70

80

90

100

South 7th Street (RI-13) Reach 806


Total Suspended Solids
Flow Conditions

Reference Concentration (17.2 mg/L)

Box & Whiskers

1000

C onc e ntra tion (m g/L)

Mid-range
Flows

Moist
Conditions

High
Flows

Low
Flows

Dry
Conditions

100

10

1
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Flow Duration Interval (%)

Modeled Flow Data

70

80

90

100

APPENDIX 4D

Kinnickinnic River Watershed

Point Area
Total NP load
per acre

3.0

400
350

2.5

300
2.0

250
200

1.5

150

1.0

100
0.5

50
0

0.0

Nonpoint load (billion counts/acre/year)

Assessment point area (thousand acres)

Baseline Fecal Coliform - Total


Nonpoint Load
Assessment

Baseline Annual Fecal Coliform Loads Ranked by


Total Nonpoint Load Per Acre
Assessment
Point
KK-5
KK-2
KK-6
KK-1
KK-3
KK-10
KK-8
KK-9
KK-7
KK-4

Total load
(billion
counts)
361,866
327,952
202,882
247,097
469,448
376,749
583,598
185,810
145,038
458,078

Assessment
Total Nonpoint Load per
Point Area
acre (billion
(acres)
counts/acre/year)
1,073
337
1,097
299
685
296
853
290
1,674
280
1,366
276
2,178
268
766
243
615
236
2,477
185

Baseline Total Phosphorus - Total


Assessment
Nonpoint Load
Point Area
3.0

Total NP load per


acre

1.00
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.10
0.00

2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0

Nonpoint load (pounds/acre/year)

Assessment point area (thousand acres)

Kinnickinnic River Watershed

Baseline Annual Total Phosphorus Loads Ranked by


Total Nonpoint Load Per Acre
Assessment
Point

Total load
(pounds)

KK-5
KK-6
KK-2
KK-8
KK-10
KK-4
KK-1
KK-7
KK-3
KK-9

1006
599
894
1727
1065
1846
625
444
1204
541

Assessment
Point Area
(acres)
1073
684.8
1097.4
2177.91
1366.17
2476.9
853.21
614.85
1674.26
765.8

Total Nonpoint Load per


acre (pounds/acre/year)
0.94
0.88
0.82
0.79
0.78
0.75
0.73
0.72
0.72
0.71

Kinnickinnic River Watershed

Point Area
Total NP load
per acre

3.0
2.5

0.35
0.30
0.25

2.0

0.20
1.5
0.15
1.0

0.10

0.5

0.05

0.0

0.00

Baseline Annual Total Suspended Solids Loads Ranked by


Total Nonpoint Load Per Acre
Assessment
Point
KK-5
KK-2
KK-6
KK-10
KK-8
KK-4
KK-7
KK-3
KK-9
KK-1

Total load
(tons)
322
279
157
293
444
442
109
280
128
142

Assessment
Total Nonpoint Load per
Point Area
acre (tons/acre/year)
(acres)
1073
0.30
1097.4
0.25
684.8
0.23
1366.17
0.21
2177.91
0.20
2476.9
0.18
614.85
0.18
1674.26
0.17
765.8
0.17
853.21
0.17

Nonpoint load (tons/acre/year)

Assessment point area (thousand acres)

Baseline Total Suspended Solids - Total


Nonpoint Load
Assessment

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

Chapter 5: Identify Solutions and Develop Management Strategies to Achieve


Goals
5.1

Goals Identified in the Watershed Planning Effort

As discussed in Chapter 3, the Executive Steering Committee of the Southeastern Wisconsin


Watersheds Trust, Inc. (SWWT) determined that the water quality goals from the Southeastern
Wisconsin Regional Planning Commissions (SEWRPC) Regional Water Quality Management
Plan Update (RWQMPU) should be used for the Watershed Restoration Plan (WRP). Through
discussions at Watershed Action Team (WAT) and Science Committee meetings, focus areas
were developed that reflect the linkage between water quality parameters and water usage.
Consistent with the focus areas for the WRP as identified in Chapter 3, the management
strategies need to address the following critical areas:
1) Bacteria/Public Health
Fecal coliform bacteria are an indicator of pathogens, or microscopic organisms that can
make people sick. The committees agreed that public health should be a top priority of
the WRP. High levels of fecal coliforms are more of a concern during warm weather
months because that is when people contact the water in the stream the most. One of the
biggest concerns in the Kinnickinnic River watershed is the unknown or unidentified
sources of fecal coliform and achieving reductions and compliance with water quality
standards in warm weather months. A discussion of why fecal coliform was used in the
analysis for the WRP, and the caveats that go with it, is provided in Section 7.2.1 of the
WRP.
2) Habitat/Aesthetics
The committees stressed that habitat issues include not only physical features, but water
quality components as well. As discussed in Chapter 3, this WRP acknowledges that
aesthetic improvement does not always relate directly to water quality or habitat
improvement, but in many cases they are linked. In addition, aesthetic improvement is
strongly related to quality of life issues and environmental justice issues. See Chapter 3,
Section 3.3 for additional discussion regarding these linkages.
The Science Committee identified physical features, such as concrete-lined channels and
increased buffer widths as important considerations for habitat/aesthetics, but the
consensus was that the WRP should also consider the following parameters:
Chloride
Total suspended solids (TSS)
Sediment
Dissolved oxygen (DO) /biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
Water temperature
Trash - defined as pet litter, waterfowl impacts, and refuse with the
understanding that there is some overlap with other pollutants

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Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

Flow/flood impacts
3) Nutrients/Phosphorus
In-stream phosphorus concentrations tend to be variable throughout the Kinnickinnic
River watershed. While there do not appear to be many problems with algal growth
within the watershed, phosphorus has been identified as an issue along the nearshore area
of Lake Michigan.
The management strategies also consider nitrogen, copper, legacy pollutants such as
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and emerging contaminants such as pharmaceuticals and
personal care products (PPCPs). However, these pollutants are not a primary focus for the WRP
and should be addressed in future studies.
The use of real-time data was stressed as an important implementation tool. The USGS and
MMSD have installed monitoring facilities at select locations along the Kinnickinnic River.
These facilities provide water quality, temperature, and flow data to resource managers on a realtime basis. The availability of real-time data facilitates an improved understanding of stream
parameters under varied conditions. The USGS posts real-time monitoring data for Wisconsin at
the following website:
http://waterdata.usgs.gov/wi/nwis/current/?type=quality

With regard to aesthetic and habitat improvements, the Kinnickinnic River Watershed Action
Team (WAT) identified the issues and desired improvements summarized below, which are also
listed in Chapter 3, Section 3.3.
1) Manmade channels/concrete channels
The WAT committee suggested that concrete linings be removed and stream channels be
naturalized. The concrete removal and naturalization would make the river more
attractive and appear less like a drainage ditch. See Chapter V of SEWRPC Technical
Report No. 39 for locations of drop structures and concrete-lined channels in the
Kinnickinnic River.1 Other considerations included removing streams from enclosed
conduit (stream daylighting) and reintroduction of stream meanders. Daylighting
streams and reintroducing meanders would immediately improve habitat and aesthetics
(vistas) and have the effect of drawing people to the river, but potential impacts to public
safety and flooding also need to be considered.
2) In-stream conditions
The WAT committee made a number of suggestions regarding improvements to instream conditions. In general, these suggestions addressed habitat and in-stream physical
conditions. The suggestions included the following:
Eliminate barriers to fish passage (add fish ladders)
Introduce environmentally-friendly sheet piling and bulkheads
1

SEWRPC, Water Quality Conditions and Sources of Pollution in the Greater Milwaukee Watersheds, Technical
Report No. 39, Chapter V, Surface Water Quality Conditions and Sources of Pollution in the Kinnickinnic River
Watershed (November 2007)

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Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

Reduce litter via programs (i.e., source control)


Reduce algae blooms
Remove the sediment island south of Lincoln Avenue (if not natural)
Limit motor boat use upstream of Becher Street
Increase diversity and complexity to the system
3) Riparian areas
Riparian areas are the lands that are adjacent to the Kinnickinnic River streambanks.
Riparian areas protect and buffer the stream from pollutant loadings. To maximize their
protective benefits, the WAT committee suggested that riparian areas be kept vegetated.
The vegetation should be managed to enhance native biological diversity. The WAT
committee also suggested riparian areas should be expanded to a minimum of 120 feet.
Structures should also be removed from riparian areas that are also located within the
floodplain. Other WAT committee suggestions involving riparian areas along the
Kinnickinnic River included the following:
Construct, treat, and restore wetlands
Implement geese management and gull management, if applicable
Implement mandates to address imperviousness with any new development and
redevelopment
Remove coal pile at the port or provide a buffer between the pile and the river (if
possible)
Improve public access to the river; mandate public access with any new
development (indirect improvement through increased recreational use and
awareness of the river)
Create more trails along river
4) In-stream and riparian areas
For both in-stream and riparian areas, the WAT committee suggested that native species
be restored and invasive species be removed. Also, efforts should be made to use less
road salt within the watershed.
5) Desired uses
The WAT committee identified several desired uses for the Kinnickinnic River, including
bird watching, kayaking and canoeing. The feasibility of these uses would be enhanced
by clearly identifying access points along the river. Fishing, with the ability to consume
fish, was also identified as a desired use. The WAT committee also indicated that simply
living along the river would be desirable.
6) Overarching and vision
The WAT committee indicated that education and signage should play a prominent role
in improving the Kinnickinnic River and the rivers identity within the community.
Educational programs and materials need to be available to both the general public and to
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Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

children. Signage needs to be improved to provide information on safety and historical


aspects of the river. Physically, signage also needs to be sensitive to the existing
environment. The committee also suggested that studies be conducted, a plan developed
to both define and determine how to most effectively manage usage and density along the
river. An entity should be appointed to manage usage. The WAT committees vision is
that the Kinnickinnic River becomes an integral part of the community that supports life
and public health and that the community views the river as an asset.
These focus areas and goals were considered as the management strategies were developed for
the Kinnickinnic River WRP. The framework to be used for these management strategies will be
based upon the same theme as the RWQMPU. Both the WRP and the RWQMPU used
categories of facilities, policies, operational improvements and programs. These strategies can
interact with one another. For example, consider the construction of a new system or facility. A
new system will require new operational procedures. These new operational procedures will be
based upon policies and involve new programs. The categories are simply a way to characterize
the management strategies as they are developed.
5.2

Management Strategies to Achieve Goals

The management strategies (FPOPs) must be identified and developed to reduce the loads in a
cost effective manner to achieve the goals identified in Chapter 3. The approach to reduce
pollutant loads in the Kinnickinnic River watershed is predicated on the assumption that the
existing regulations for point and nonpoint sources of pollution will be implemented. In other
words, the analysis assumes that the recommended management strategies used to meet these
regulations, identified in the 2020 Facilities Plan (2020 FP) and SEWRPCs RWQMPU, are in
place. These management strategies would then be the foundation on which new management
strategies are added to achieve the desired goals.
These management strategies (FPOPs) are grouped in the following three categories and
discussed in subsequent sections in this chapter:
1) Existing regulatory management strategies (Table 5-1)
2) Other management strategies in various stages of implementation (Table 5-2)
3) Management strategies recommended for implementation by the RWQMPU, but not yet
implemented (Table 5-3)
These tables summarize the strategies identified in the RWQMPU that could be used to achieve
the goals identified for the Kinnickinnic River watershed. Each table corresponds to one of the
three categories of management strategies identified above. The tables indicate which area (or
areas) of focus each FPOP primarily addresses. The table also presents selected responsible
parties and participants. For addition detail, see SWWT membership list and governmental
management agency designations and selected responsibilities (Planning Report No.50 Tables
93-99) located in Appendices 5B and 5C.

5-4

Watershed Restoration Plan

5.3

Kinnickinnic River

Existing Regulatory Management Strategies to Achieve Goals

Pollutant loading in the Kinnickinnic River is a function of point sources and nonpoint sources.
The management strategies (FPOPs) discussed in this chapter address pollutant loading from
both types of sources. Table 5-1 summarizes the existing regulatory management strategies
(FPOPs) to achieve goals. The table includes: the focus pollutant that the strategy addresses, the
agencies responsible for implementation and compliance, and the status of the regulatory
strategy as of October 2009.

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Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

TABLE 5-1
SUMMARY OF EXISTING REGULATORY MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES (FPOPS) TO ACHIEVE GOALS
Area of Focus Primarily Addressed
Bacteria/Public
Health (FC, E. Coli,
Pathogens)

Habitat/Aesthetics
(Flow, TSS, Cl ,
Trash, Pet Litter,
etc.)

Nutrients
(Phosphorus)

Point source control

WDNR, MMSD,
and
municipalities

Regulatory program
underway

CSO/SSO reduction program

WDNR, MMSD,
and
municipalities

Regulatory program
underway

WPDES stormwater permits


(MS4)

WDNR and
municipalities

Regulatory program
underway

WDNR and
municipalities

Regulatory program
underway

WDNR

Regulatory program
underway

Management Strategy
(FPOP)

NR 151
Vacuum street sweeping
Infiltration systems
Parking lot
implementation of MCTTs
Vacuum sweeping
parking lots
Wet detention basins
Phosphorus fertilizer ban

Responsible
and/or
Participating
Organization

Comment

MMSD Chapter 13 revisions

MMSD and
municipalities

Regulatory program
underway with
revision in progress

Transportation controls
TRANS 401
NR 151

WDNR,
WisDOT, and
WI Department
of Commerce

Regulatory program
underway

5-6

Continued...

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River
TABLE 5-1

SUMMARY OF EXISTING REGULATORY MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES (FPOPS) TO ACHIEVE GOALS


Area of Focus Primarily Addressed

Management Strategy
(FPOP)

Bacteria/Public
Health (FC, E. Coli,
Pathogens)

Programs to detect and


eliminate illicit discharges and
control pathogens that are
harmful to public health

TMDL, EAP, watershed


permitting and/or watershed
trading

Habitat/Aesthetics
(Flow, TSS, Cl ,
Trash, Pet Litter,
etc.)

Phosphorus water quality


standard
Notes:
Additional detail on all strategies can be found in the RWQMPU Planning Report No.
50, Chapters X and XI
Cl- = Chlorides
CSO = Combined Sewer Overflow
EAP = Environmental Accountability Project
FC = Fecal coliform
FPOP = Facilities, Policies, Operational Improvements, Programs
GLWI = Great Lakes WATER Institute
KK = Kinnickinnic River
MCTT = Multi-chambered treatment train
MS4 = Municipal Separate Storm Sewer
NGO = Non-governmental organization

Nutrients
(Phosphorus)

Responsible
and/or
Participating
Organization

Comment

Municipalities
and NGOs with
assistance from
UWM GLWI and
MMSD

Program needed for


the KK watershed as
is being
implemented in the
Menomonee River
watershed

WDNR and
USEPA

Could evolve from


the WRP

WDNR

Regulation being
drafted by WDNR

NR 151 = Wis. Admin. Code Natural Resources (NR) 151 Runoff Management
SSO = Sanitary Sewer Overflow
TMDL = Total Maximum Daily Load
TRANS 401 = WisDOT CHAPTER TRANS 401: Construction Site Erosion Control
and Stormwater Management Procedures for Department Actions
TSS = Total suspended solids
USEPA = U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
UWM = University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
WDNR = Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
WisDOT = Wisconsin Department of Transportation
WPDES = Wisconsin Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
WRP = Watershed Restoration Plan

5-7

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

5.3.1 Details on the Existing Regulatory Management Strategies to Achieve Goals


The following sections summarize the various regulatory strategies listed in Table 5-1.
Additional detail on regulatory strategies can be found in Chapter VI of SEWRPCs Planning
Report No. 50.
5.3.2 Existing Point Source Control Regulations
Combined Sewer Overflow and Sanitary Sewer Overflow
Point source impacts on the Kinnickinnic River watershed have been studied and evaluated for
many decades. The MMSD 2020 FP and the RWQMPU reviewed the status of point source
controls and found that they had progressed to the point that additional improvement in water
quality needed to focus on nonpoint sources such as stormwater runoff. Still, the point source
control plans are vitally important to watershed restoration.
The 2020 FP developed an approved plan to meet the regulatory requirements regarding
MMSDs point sources (e.g., SSOs, CSOs, and water reclamation facility WRF] effluent). The
2020 FP concluded that, as a result of the substantial investment that has already been made to
effectively reduce both SSOs and CSOs, the MMSD has reached a point of diminishing returns
in terms of the additional water quality benefits that would result from further significant capital
investment to further reduce sewer overflows. The MMSD, however, was required by the 2002
WDNR Stipulation to submit a Wet Weather Control Plan that meets its permit requirements and
other requirements (discussed in Section 9.6.4 of Chapter 9 in the 2020 Facilities Plan Report).
The 2020 planning process concluded that a 5-year level of protection (LOP) for SSO control
under future 2020 population and land use conditions is consistent with state and federal
requirements. It is important to note that the MMSD facilities are currently in compliance with
point source pollution abatement measures required under state and federal laws. The new
facilities recommended in the 2020 FP are to continue to achieve a 5-year LOP assuming the
anticipated growth in population and land use.
The recommended facilities from the 2020 FP that directly address SSO and CSO control and
are assumed to be implemented include the following:
Implementation of a Wet Weather Peak Flow Management Program (WWPFMP)
Pumping capacity from the Inline Storage System (ISS) to the Jones Island Water
Reclamation Facility (JIWRF) of 180 million gallons per day
Additional treatment capacity at the South Shore Water Reclamation Facility (SSWRF)
of 150 MGD
The 2020 FP also assumed that SSOs from the municipalities would also achieve a 5-year LOP.
This overall plan for CSO and SSO control was approved by the WDNR and is the
recommendation of the RWQMPU.

5-8

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

Existing Wisconsin Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permitted Industrial Discharges


There are 14 noncontact cooling water discharges in the Kinnickinnic River watershed. All of
this noncontact cooling water is treated drinking water from municipal water supplies that is used
for cooling at industrial facilities and does not come into direct contact with any raw material,
product, byproduct, or waste. The water does contain phosphorus, in the form of phosphate,
which is added in the water treatment process as a safety measure to prevent metal pipes from
corroding and leaching metals such as lead into the drinking water. There are currently no other
cost effective substitutes for phosphate. Therefore, the phosphorus load to the Kinnickinnic
River from noncontact cooling water discharges is assumed to be a constant for planning
purposes.
Also, other pollutant loads from industrial point sources represented in the water quality model
are based on permitted discharge limits. No changes to these permitted limits were assumed to
occur between the existing and the future water quality models. All discharge data have been
updated based upon data available through 2008.
An additional industrial point source of note is General Mitchell International Airport, which
discharges to Wilson Park Creek and is a permitted discharge with a specific stormwater permit.
This permit allows the airport to discharge noncontact cooling water and stormwater that can
contain contaminants common to airports, including deicing fluids.
5.3.3 Existing Nonpoint Source Regulatory Programs
Wis. Admin. Code Natural Resources 216 Stormwater Discharge Permits
The administrative rules for the state stormwater discharge permit program are set forth in Wis.
Admin. Code Natural Resources (NR) 216 Stormwater Discharge Permits, which took effect on
November 1, 1994. These rules were most recently repealed and replaced effective August 1,
2004. In general, the following entities are required to obtain discharge permits under NR 216:
1) An owner or operator of an MS4 serving an incorporated area with a population of
100,000 or more
2) An owner or operator of an MS4 notified by WDNR prior to August 1, 2004 that they
must obtain a permit
3) An owner or operator of an MS4 located within an urbanized area as defined by the U.S.
Bureau of the Census
4) An owner or operator of an MS4 serving a population of 10,000 or more in a
municipality with a population density of 1,000 persons or more per square mile as
determined by the U.S. Bureau of the Census
5) Industries identified in Section NR 216.21.18
6) Construction sites, except those associated with agricultural land uses, for those
commercial buildings regulated by Wis. Admin. Code Commerce (Comm) 50 through 64
and WisDOT projects that are subject to the liaison cooperative agreement between the
WDNR and WisDOT

5-9

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

Municipal Permits
On January 19, 2006, the WDNR issued a general stormwater discharge permit applicable to
MS4s for areas that do not have individual permits and that are one of the following:
1) An urbanized area with a minimum population of 50,000 people as determined by the
U.S. Bureau of the Census, or
2) A municipality with a population of 10,000 or more and a population density of 1,000
persons or more per square mile, or
3) An area that drains to an MS4 that is designated for permit coverage.
The general permit specifies conditions under which stormwater may be discharged to waters of
the state for the purpose of achieving water quality standards. It establishes conditions for
discharges to state-designated outstanding or exceptional resource waters. When an MS4
discharges to an impaired waterbody listed in Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA), the
following conditions must be met:
1) The permittees written stormwater management program must specifically identify
control measures and practices that are to be applied in an attempt to reduce, with the
goal of eliminating, the discharge of pollutants of concern that contribute to the
impairment of the receiving water
2) The permittee may not initiate a new discharge of a pollutant of concern to an impaired
waterbody or increase the discharge of such a pollutant to an impaired waterbody unless
receiving water quality standards will be met or WDNR has approved a total maximum
daily load (TMDL) for the impaired waterbody
3) For discharges to a waterbody for which a TMDL has been established, the permittee
must determine if additional stormwater runoff controls are required to meet the TMDL
wasteload allocation
The general stormwater discharge permit establishes requirements for the following:
1) Public education and outreach
2) Public involvement and participation
3) Illicit discharge detection and elimination
4) Construction site pollutant control
5) Post-construction stormwater management and a pollution prevention program
The construction site pollutant control requirements and the post-construction control
requirements are based on the standards for new development, redevelopment, and transportation
facilities as set forth in NR 151 and NR 216.
The following NR 216 municipalities are in the Kinnickinnic River watershed:
1) City of Milwaukee
2) City of Greenfield
3) City of West Allis

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Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

4) Village of West Milwaukee


5) City of Cudahy
6) City of St. Francis
Industrial Stormwater
Industrial stormwater discharges are permitted unless the industry certifies to WDNR that their
facilities have no exposure of stormwater to industrial materials or activities that could
contaminate it. By state code, this certification occurs every five years. An exclusion under the
Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) that postponed National Pollutant
Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit application deadlines for most stormwater
discharges associated with industrial activity at facilities that are owned or operated by small
municipalities, including construction activity over five acres, was removed from the NR 216
regulation. All listed industrial facilities, whether municipally or privately-owned, will require
permit coverage as per federal regulations.
There are 45 industrial facilities that have stormwater discharge permits in the Kinnickinnic
River watershed.
Construction Site Stormwater Discharges
This provision was revised to lower the threshold for permit coverage from five acres to one acre
of land disturbance. Areas less than one acre in size are also subject to regulation on a case-bycase basis if they are deemed to be a significant source of pollution to waters of the state.
Municipalities may request and become authorized to provide state construction site permit
coverage on behalf of WDNR.
Wis. Admin. Code Natural Resources 151 Runoff Management
Through 1997 Wisconsin Act 27, the State Legislature required the WDNR and the Department
of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection (DATCP) to develop performance standards for
controlling nonpoint source pollution from agricultural and nonagricultural land and from
transportation facilities. The performance standards are set forth in NR 151, which became
effective on October 1, 2002, and was revised in July 2004. This regulation includes the
following provisions:
Agricultural Performance Standards (not relevant for the Kinnickinnic River watershed
due to the lack of agricultural operations)
Nonagricultural (urban) Performance Standards
The nonagricultural performance standards set forth in NR 151 encompass two major
types of land management. The first includes standards for areas of new development
and redevelopment and the second includes standards for developed urban areas. The
performance standards address the following areas:
o

Construction sites for new development and redevelopment

Post construction phase for new development and redevelopment

Developed urban areas

Non-municipal property fertilizing

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Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

Chapter NR 151 standards require that municipalities with WPDES stormwater discharge
permits reduce the amount of total suspended solids in stormwater runoff from areas of existing
development that is in place as of October 2004 to the maximum extent practicable, according to
the following standards:
By March 10, 2008, the NR 151 standards called for a 20% reduction
By October 1, 2013, the standards call for a 40% reduction
Also, permitted municipalities must implement 1) public information and education programs
relative to specific aspects of nonpoint source pollution control; 2) municipal programs for
collection and management of leaf and grass clippings; and 3) site-specific programs for
application of lawn and garden fertilizers on municipally controlled properties with over five
acres of pervious surface. Under the requirements of NR 151, by March 10, 2008, incorporated
municipalities with average population densities of 1,000 people or more per square mile that
were not required to obtain municipal stormwater discharge permits must now implement those
same three programs.
In addition, regardless of whether a municipality is required to have a stormwater discharge
permit under NR 216, NR 151 requires that all construction sites that have one acre or more of
land disturbance must achieve an 80% reduction in the sediment load generated by the site. With
certain limited exceptions, those sites required to have construction erosion control permits must
also have post-development stormwater management practices to reduce the total suspended
solids load from the site by 80% for new development, 40% for redevelopment, and 40% for
infill development occurring prior to October 1, 2012. After October 1, 2012, infill development
will be required to achieve an 80% reduction. If it can be demonstrated that the solids reduction
standard cannot be met for a specific site, total suspended solids must be controlled to the
maximum extent practicable. Note that during the development of this WRP, participants
observations indicated that methods and installation are key factors that determine the
effectiveness of erosion control measures at construction sites.
Section NR 151.12 requires infiltration of post-development runoff from areas developed on or
after October 1, 2004, subject to specific exclusions and exemptions as set forth in Sections
151.12(5)(c)5 and 151.12(5)(c)6, respectively. In residential areas, either 90% of the annual
predevelopment infiltration volume or 25% of the post-development runoff volume from a twoyear recurrence interval 24-hour storm is required to be infiltrated. However, no more than 1%
of the area of the project site is required to be used as effective infiltration area. In commercial,
industrial and institutional areas, 60% of the annual predevelopment infiltration volume or 10%
of the post-development runoff volume from a two-year recurrence interval 24-hour storm is
required to be infiltrated. In this case, no more than 2% of the rooftop and parking lot areas are
required to be used as effective infiltration area.
Section NR 151.12 also generally requires impervious area setbacks of 50 feet from streams,
lakes, and wetlands. This setback distance is increased to 75 feet around NR 102-designated
outstanding or exceptional resource waters or NR 103-designated wetlands of special natural
resource interest. Reduced setbacks from less susceptible wetlands and drainage channels of not
less than 10 feet may be allowed.

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Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

Transportation Facility Performance Standards


Transportation facility performance standards that are set forth in NR 151 and in Wis. Admin.
Code Transportation (TRANS) 401 Construction Site Erosion Control and Storm Water
Management Procedures for Department Actions cover the following areas:
Construction sites
Post-construction phase
Developed urban areas
The standards of TRANS 401 are applicable to WisDOT projects.
All of the municipalities in the watershed are, or will be, required to meet NR 151 standards to
the maximum extent practicable under the conditions of their WPDES municipal stormwater
discharge permits issued pursuant to NR 216. By implementing controls to meet the standards of
NR 151, municipalities will address the following:
1) Control of construction site erosion
2) Control of stormwater pollution from areas of existing and planned urban development,
redevelopment, and infill
3) Infiltration of stormwater runoff from areas of new development
Urban best management practices that would be installed under this recommendation to control
nonpoint source pollution from existing or new development could include the following:
1) Runoff infiltration/evapotranspiration and/or pollutant filtration devices such as grassed
swales, infiltration basins, bioretention facilities, rain gardens, green roofs, and porous
pavement
2) Stormwater treatment facilities, such as wet detention basins, constructed wetlands, and
sedimentation/flotation devices
3) Maintenance practices such as vacuum sweeping of roads and parking lots
The benefits of full implementation of the urban standards set forth under NR 151 in reducing
fecal coliform bacteria, total suspended solids, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and heavy metals
loads delivered to the streams of the study area and in reducing runoff volumes through
infiltration practices were explicitly represented in the water quality modeling analyses
conducted as part of the RWQMPU and refined under the development of this WRP. They are
reflected in the future condition water quality results presented in Chapter 4.
The projected future analysis includes load reductions from existing sources and from new
sources. Chapter NR 151 holds the line with assumed growth in that the loads without NR 151
would grow. As directed by the Wisconsin Natural Resources Board resolution of May 22,
2002, in 2007, WDNR began amending NR 151 and related administrative rules to clarify
language, modify grant criteria to reflect program priorities, and update certain provisions based
on improved data. More information about NR 151 regulation revisions is available from the
WDNR scope statement, which can be accessed at the following website:

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Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

http://dnr.wi.gov/runoff/pdf/rules/nr151/ScopeStatement.pdf. As of October 2009, the rule


revision timeline had not been established.2
Phosphorus Fertilizer Ban
The state of Wisconsin enacted a ban on the sale of phosphorus-containing fertilizers that will
take effect on April 1, 2010. It is expected that this ban will have a reduction on phosphorus
loads to the Kinnickinnic River watershed due to the reduced application of fertilizers that
contain phosphorus.
Total Maximum Daily Load or Environmental Accountability Project
The recommendations of this WRP may include the following regulatory actions as a next step in
the process of improving water quality in the Kinnickinnic watershed:
TMDL: This is an analysis that determines what levels of a given pollutant a waterbody
can receive without the uses of that waterbody being impaired. The federal CWA
requires that a TMDL be developed for each waterbody listed on the CWA Section
303(d) impaired waters list.3 As of the date of this WRP, the only stream reaches in the
Kinnickinnic River watershed that are on that list are located in the estuary portion of the
main stem of the river, downstream from the study area for this WRP. The estuary
portion of the Kinnickinnic River is impaired by E. coli, polychlorinated biphenyls,
phosphorus and unspecified metals. The Southeastern Wisconsin Watersheds Trust,
Inc.'s Policy Committee is considering issues related to possible the addition of
Kinnickinnic River watershed stream reaches to the impaired waters list. If any reaches
were to be identified through that process, the WDNR would make the decision as to
whether they should be added to the impaired waters list. Designation of additional
reaches as impaired could facilitate future development of a TMDL. This WRP sets forth
an integrated plan for improvement of water quality that can be pursued with or without
establishment of TMDLs.
Phosphorus Water Quality Standard
The WDNR is in the process of adopting phosphorus water quality standards. When adopted,
this new standard will require an examination of all sources of phosphorus in the Kinnickinnic
River watershed to assess actions needed to meet the new water quality standard.
5.4

Other Management Strategies in Various Stages of Implementation

Table 5-2 summarizes all of the existing management strategies that are being implemented to
some degree in the Kinnickinnic River watershed. The table identifies the focus area the strategy
addresses, the agencies that are responsible for implementing the management strategy, and a
comment on the status of the management strategy as of October 2009.

WDNR, NR 151 Rule Revision, http://www.dnr.wi.gov/runoff/rules/, Revised January 27, 2010


WDNR, 2008 Methodology for Placing Waters on the Impaired Waters List, http://www.dnr.wi.gov/org/water/
wm/wqs/303d/2008/2008methodology.htm (last revised February 17, 2008)
3

5-14

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

TABLE 5-2
OTHER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN VARIOUS STAGES OF IMPLEMENTATION
Area of Focus Primarily Addressed

Management Strategy
(FPOP)

Bacteria/Public
Health (FC, E. Coli,
Pathogens)

Stream channel dredging

KK River flushing station

Develop according to
approved land use plans

Habitat/Aesthetics
(Flow, TSS, Cl ,
Trash, Pet Litter,
etc.)

Nutrients
(Phosphorus)

Responsible
and/or
Participating
Organization

USEPA and WDNR

Major project underway


(downstream of KK
River in estuary).

MMSD

Part of the MMSD 2020


Facilities Plan
(downstream of KK
River in estuary).

Milwaukee County,
SEWRPC, and
municipalities

In general,
municipalities and
Milwaukee County are
following SEWRPC
land use plans.

Comment

Continued...

5-15

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

TABLE 5-2
OTHER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN VARIOUS STAGES OF IMPLEMENTATION
Area of Focus Primarily Addressed

Management Strategy
(FPOP)
Maintain and preserve
environmentally significant
lands
Ongoing programs
Greenseams
Ongoing planning
efforts

Bacteria/Public
Health (FC, E. Coli,
Pathogens)

Habitat/Aesthetics
(Flow, TSS, Cl ,
Trash, Pet Litter,
etc.)

Nutrients
(Phosphorus)

Responsible
and/or
Participating
Organization
MMSD, SEWRPC,
WDNR, and others
such as land trusts

Comment
The potential future
environmental corridor
of the KK River
watershed is preserved
by the sewer extension
process.
The MMSD
Greenseams Program
will continue to look for
opportunities in the KK
River watershed.
Other future actions
under consideration by
Milwaukee County and
by the Kinnickinnic
River Corridor
Neighborhood Planning
process.
Continued...

5-16

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

TABLE 5-2
OTHER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN VARIOUS STAGES OF IMPLEMENTATION
Area of Focus Primarily Addressed
Bacteria/Public
Health (FC, E. Coli,
Pathogens)

Habitat/Aesthetics
(Flow, TSS, Cl ,
Trash, Pet Litter,
etc.)

Nutrients
(Phosphorus)

Expand riparian buffers

WisDOT, MMSD,
and municipalities

I-94 North-South
Freeway Project is
evaluating various
options (concentrating
on the Villa Mann Creek
area).
The Kinnickinnic River
Corridor Neighborhood
Planning process is
evaluating options.
Milwaukee County is
looking at the
expansion of
parkland/buffers.
The River Revitalization
Foundation may initiate
a project in the KK
River watershed.

Manage pet litter

Milwaukee County
and municipalities

Program support
through municipal
ordinances.

Riparian litter and debris


control

Milwaukee County,
NGOs, and
municipalities

Program support
through municipal
ordinances and citizen
cleanup efforts.

Management Strategy
(FPOP)

Responsible
and/or
Participating
Organization

Comment

Continued...

5-17

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

TABLE 5-2
OTHER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN VARIOUS STAGES OF IMPLEMENTATION
Area of Focus Primarily Addressed

Management Strategy
(FPOP)
Research and implement
projects on nonpoint pollution
controls
Concrete channel renovation
and rehabilitation (includes
drop structures)

Bacteria/Public
Health (FC, E. Coli,
Pathogens)

Habitat/Aesthetics
(Flow, TSS, Cl ,
Trash, Pet Litter,
etc.)

Nutrients
(Phosphorus)

Responsible
and/or
Participating
Organization

Comment

MMSD, NGOs, and


municipalities

The MMSD is
continuing its
stormwater
demonstration grants.

WisDOT, MMSD,
and municipalities

The I-94 North-South


Freeway Project is
working with the MMSD
on issues involving Villa
Mann Creek.
The MMSD will
consider these aspects
in future watershed
channel rehabilitation
projects.
The Kinnickinnic River
Corridor Neighborhood
Planning process.
Continued...

5-18

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

TABLE 5-2
OTHER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN VARIOUS STAGES OF IMPLEMENTATION
Area of Focus Primarily Addressed

Management Strategy
(FPOP)

Bacteria/Public
Health (FC, E. Coli,
Pathogens)

Habitat/Aesthetics
(Flow, TSS, Cl ,
Trash, Pet Litter,
etc.)

Nutrients
(Phosphorus)

Responsible
and/or
Participating
Organization

Comment

Limit number of culverts,


bridges, drop structures, and
channelized stream segments
and incorporate design
measures to allow for
passage of aquatic life

WisDOT,
Milwaukee County,
MMSD, and
municipalities

The Kinnickinnic River


Corridor
Neighborhood Planning
process is evaluating
options with the MMSD
to enhance the
connectiveness of the
KK River watershed.
The I-94 North-South
Freeway Project is
working with the MMSD
on issues involving Villa
Mann Creek.
The MMSD will
consider these aspects
in future watershed
channel rehabilitation
projects.

Remove abandoned bridges


and culverts or reduce culvert
length

MMSD and
municipalities

The MMSD and


municipalities working
with WDNR and private
owners to consider this
type of action as
development occurs.
Continued...

5-19

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

TABLE 5-2
OTHER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN VARIOUS STAGES OF IMPLEMENTATION
Area of Focus Primarily Addressed

Management Strategy
(FPOP)

Bacteria/Public
Health (FC, E. Coli,
Pathogens)

Habitat/Aesthetics
(Flow, TSS, Cl ,
Trash, Pet Litter,
etc.)

Nutrients
(Phosphorus)

Responsible
and/or
Participating
Organization

Comment

To the extent practicable,


protect remaining natural
stream channels including
small tributaries and
shoreland wetlands

Milwaukee County,
MMSD, and
municipalities

Milwaukee County,
municipalities, and the
MMSD are addressing
this issue. See notes
section at the end of
this table for a
reference to a recentlycompleted stream
assessment report that
addresses this strategy.

Restore, enhance, and


rehabilitate stream channels
to provide increased water
quality and quantity of
available fisheries habitat

WisDOT,
Milwaukee County,
MMSD, and
municipalities

Various projects
underway by the
MMSD, WisDOT, and
municipalities.

Monitor fish and


macroinvertebrate
populations

USGS, WDNR, and


NGOs

Active programs
supported by the
MMSD. Potential for
NGO effort with
foundation and SWWT
support.

Continue collection programs


for household hazardous
wastes and expand such
programs to communities that
currently do not have them

MMSD

The MMSD has


program for the entire
KK River watershed.
Continued...

5-20

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

TABLE 5-2
OTHER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN VARIOUS STAGES OF IMPLEMENTATION
Area of Focus Primarily Addressed

Management Strategy
(FPOP)

Bacteria/Public
Health (FC, E. Coli,
Pathogens)

Continue and support of


programs to reduce the
spread of exotic invasive
species, including public
education programs
Continue and possibly
expand current MMSD,
WDNR, and USGS water
quality monitoring programs,
including Phases II and III of
the MMSD corridor study

Nutrients
(Phosphorus)

Continue and possibly


expand USGS stream
gauging program
Continue citizen-based water
quality monitoring efforts

Habitat/Aesthetics
(Flow, TSS, Cl ,
Trash, Pet Litter,
etc.)

Responsible
and/or
Participating
Organization

Comment

WDNR

Various efforts
underway.

MMSD, WDNR,
USGS, and NGOs

The MMSD conducts


water quality monitoring
and supports the
Corridor Study. These
are the key foundations
of the watershed water
quality monitoring effort.
The NGOs with
foundation support are
another important
element, concentrating
on the detection of
unknown fecal coliform
sources.

USGS

The MMSD and


municipalities are
supporting this effort.

NGOs

The NGOs are leading


this effort in cooperation
with the SWWT with
foundation support.
Continued...

5-21

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

TABLE 5-2
OTHER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN VARIOUS STAGES OF IMPLEMENTATION
Area of Focus Primarily Addressed
Bacteria/Public
Health (FC, E. Coli,
Pathogens)

Habitat/Aesthetics
(Flow, TSS, Cl ,
Trash, Pet Litter,
etc.)

Nutrients
(Phosphorus)

Continue maintenance of
MMSD conveyance system
modeling tools

MMSD

The MMSD continues


this effort, which is a
key element in point
source (CSO and SSO)
control efforts.

Continue maintenance of
watershed-wide riverine water
quality models (LSPC)

MMSD and
SEWRPC

The MMSD and


SEWRPC continue
support through the
WRP.

Green Milwaukee

City of Milwaukee
and MMSD

Projects underway and


the MMSD is
developing Green
Infrastructure Plan.

MMSD

The MMSD conducting


study to support flood
management and
rehabilitation activities.

Management Strategy
(FPOP)

Sediment Transport Study

Responsible
and/or
Participating
Organization

Comment

Continued...

5-22

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

TABLE 5-2
OTHER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN VARIOUS STAGES OF IMPLEMENTATION
Area of Focus Primarily Addressed

Management Strategy
(FPOP)
Wilson Park Creek Flood
Protection Project

Bacteria/Public
Health (FC, E. Coli,
Pathogens)

Habitat/Aesthetics
(Flow, TSS, Cl ,
Trash, Pet Litter,
etc.)
X

Notes:
Additional detail on all strategies can be found in the RWQMPU Planning Report No. 50,
Chapters X and XI
Cl- = Chlorides
CSO = Combined Sewer Overflow
FC = Fecal coliform
FPOP = Facilities, Policies, Operational Improvements, Programs
KK = Kinnickinnic River
LSPC = Loading simulation program, a watershed modeling system that includes
algorithms for simulating hydrology, sediment, and general water quality
NGO = Non-governmental organization

Nutrients
(Phosphorus)

Responsible
and/or
Participating
Organization
MMSD

Comment
Project addresses risks
associated with
structures located in the
floodplain.

SEWRPC = Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission


SSO = Sanitary Sewer Overflow
SWWT = Southeastern Wisconsin Watershed Trust, Inc.
TSS = Total suspended solids
USEPA = U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
USGS = U.S. Geological Survey
WDNR = Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
WisDOT = Wisconsin Department of Transportation
WRP = Watershed Restoration Plan

5-23

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

5.5
Management Strategies Recommended for Implementation in the Regional Water
Quality Management Plan Update but Not Yet Implemented
Table 5-3 summarizes all of the management strategies that were recommended in the
RWQMPU but are not actively being implemented in the Kinnickinnic River watershed. The
table includes the focus area the strategy addresses, the responsible agencies for initiating the
implementation of the management strategy, and a comment on the management strategy as of
October 2009.
For additional detailed information, Chapters X and XI of the RWQMPU can be viewed at the
following website:
http://www.sewrpc.org/publications/pr/pr-050_part-1_water_quality_plan_for_greater_mke_
watersheds.pdf

5-24

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

TABLE 5-3
MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES RECOMMENDED FOR IMPLEMENTATION IN THE
REGIONAL WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATE BUT NOT YET IMPLEMENTED
Area of Focus Primarily Addressed

Management Strategy
(FPOP)
Bacteria ID program

Bacteria/Public
Health (FC, E. Coli,
Pathogens)

Habitat/Aesthetics
(Flow, TSS, Cl ,
Trash, Pet Litter,
etc.)

Nutrients
(Phosphorus)

Responsible
and/or
Participating
Organization

Comment

NGOs and
municipalities

Establish similar
program currently
underway in
Menomonee River
watershed.

Road salt reduction

WisDOT and
municipalities

Consider
implementation of
innovative anti-icing
and deicing programs
to reduce the use of
road salt as utilized by
some Milwaukee area
municipalities. See
Road Salt Article in
Appendix 5A)

Disconnect residential roof


drains from sanitary and
combined sewers and
infiltrate roof runoff, including
rain barrels and rain gardens

Municipalities

Establish similar
program currently
underway in
Menomonee River
watershed.

Restore wetlands,
woodlands, and grasslands
adjacent to the stream
channels and establish
riparian buffers

Milwaukee County,
MMSD, and
municipalities

Milwaukee County, the


MMSD or land trusts
may implement this
strategy.
Continued...

5-25

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

TABLE 5-3
MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES RECOMMENDED FOR IMPLEMENTATION IN THE
REGIONAL WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATE BUT NOT YET IMPLEMENTED
Area of Focus Primarily Addressed

Management Strategy
(FPOP)

Bacteria/Public
Health (FC, E. Coli,
Pathogens)

Consider more intensive


fisheries management
measures where warranted

Habitat/Aesthetics
(Flow, TSS, Cl ,
Trash, Pet Litter,
etc.)

Nutrients
(Phosphorus)

Responsible
and/or
Participating
Organization

Comment

WDNR

As fish passage
impediments are
eliminated, the
applicability of this
program will be
increased.

Milwaukee County
and municipalities

Vegetated buffers
discourage waterfowl
congregation. Some
actions already
implemented.

Implement programs to
discourage unacceptably
high numbers of waterfowl
from congregating near
water features

Assess and evaluate the


significance for public health
and aquatic and terrestrial
wildlife of the presence of
PPCPs in surface waters

MMSD

The MMSD is working


with various entities in
researching this issue.

Implement collection
programs for expired and
unused household
pharmaceuticals

MMSD

The MMSDs program


provides sound
implementation for this
issue.

WDNR and USGS


with support from
MMSD

Program should be
expanded as
recommended in the
2020 FP and
RWQMPU.

Establish long-term fisheries


and macroinvertebrate
monitoring stations

Continued...

5-26

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

TABLE 5-3
MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES RECOMMENDED FOR IMPLEMENTATION IN THE
REGIONAL WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATE BUT NOT YET IMPLEMENTED
Area of Focus Primarily Addressed

Management Strategy
(FPOP)

Bacteria/Public
Health (FC, E. Coli,
Pathogens)

Habitat/Aesthetics
(Flow, TSS, Cl ,
Trash, Pet Litter,
etc.)

Nutrients
(Phosphorus)

Responsible
and/or
Participating
Organization

Comment

Establish long-term aquatic


habitat monitoring stations

WDNR and USGS


with support from
MMSD

Program should be
expanded as
recommended in the
2020 FP and
RWQMPU.

Monitor exotic and invasive


species

WDNR

Various actions
underway.

Follow recommendations of
the regional water supply
plan regarding maintenance
of groundwater recharge and
discharge areas

WisDOT, MMSD,
and municipalities

Preservation of
groundwater
discharge zones in the
watershed will
preserve base flow to
waterways.

Improve aesthetics

WisDOT, MMSD,
NGOs, and
municipalities

The Kinnickinnic River


Corridor
Neighborhood
Planning process is
evaluating this issue.

Notes:
Additional detail on all strategies can be found in the RWQMPU Planning Report No. 50,
Chapters X and XI
2020 FP = MMSD 2020 Facilities Plan
Cl- = Chlorides
FC = Fecal coliform
FPOP = Facilities, Policies, Operational Improvements and Programs

NGO = Non-governmental organization


PPCPs - Pharmaceutical and personal care products
RWQMPU = Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update
TSS = Total suspended solids
USGS = United States Geological Survey
WDNR = Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
WisDOT = Wisconsin Department of Transportation

5-27

Watershed Restoration Plan

5.6

Kinnickinnic River

Summary

Tables 5-1, 5-2, and 5-3 give a summary of the management strategies (FPOPs) that are being
implemented or available for implementation to improve bacteria (public health), habitat, and
nutrient (phosphorus) loading in the Kinnickinnic River watershed.
These strategies will be evaluated in the next chapter in terms of their ability to reduce loads to
the watershed. The strategies will be prioritized based upon their anticipated impact on
improving water quality and habitat.

5-28

APPENDIX 5A

A Fresh Look at Road Salt: Widespread Aquatic Toxicity and

Water Quality Impacts on Local, Regional, and National Scales

Steven R. Corsi*,1, David J. Graczyk1, Steven W. Geis2, Nathaniel L. Booth1, Kevin D. Richards1

U.S. Geological Survey, Middleton, Wisconsin, USA; 2Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene,

Madison, Wisconsin, USA

AUTHOR EMAIL ADDRESS: srcorsi@usgs.gov

Corresponding author phone: (608) 821-3835; fax: (608) 821-3817; email: srcorsi@usgs.gov.

ABSTRACT

While road salt runoff influence on water quality has been documented for at least forty years, a new

10

perspective on the severity of aquatic toxicity impact was gained by a focused research effort directed

11

at winter runoff periods. Dramatic impacts were observed on local, regional, and national scales.

12

Locally, samples from 7 of 13 Milwaukee area streams during two road salt runoff events exhibited

13

toxicity in Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas bioassays and had chloride concentrations up

14

to 6,470 mg/L. In long term testing, Wilson Park Creek in Milwaukee was sampled 37 times from

15

1996 to 2008 with resulting chloride concentrations up to 7,730 mg/L. Toxicity was observed in 72%

16

of these samples in chronic bioassays and 43% in acute bioassays. Regionally in eastern and southern

17

Wisconsin, continuous specific conductance sensors were deployed as chloride surrogates in 11

18

watersheds with urban land use ranging from 6% to 100%. Elevated specific conductance was present

19

during cold-weather months at all sites with continuing effects during warm weather months at sites

20

with the greatest effect. Specific conductance was measured as high as 30,800 S/cm (Cl = 11,200

21

mg/L). Estimated chloride concentrations exceeded USEPA acute water quality criteria (860 mg/L) at

55% of these sites and chronic (230 mg/L) water quality criteria at 100% of these sites. Nationally,

USGS historical chloride data was examined for 13 northern and 4 southern metropolitan areas.

Chloride concentrations exceeded USEPA water quality criteria at 51% (acute criteria) and 23%

(chronic criteria) of the 168 northern monitoring locations during cold-weather months. Only 15%

(chronic) and 1% (acute) of sites exceeded criteria during warm-weather months. At southern sites, 2%

and 4% of sites had samples that exceeded chronic water quality criteria during cold- and warm-

weather months respectively; no samples at southern sites exceeded acute criteria.

BRIEF: Road salt has widespread aquatic toxicity and water quality impacts on urban streams

9
10

Introduction

11

and transportation corridors. Four broad issues suggest that road salt runoff is a serious and increasing

12

threat to the nations receiving waters. First, there is a multitude of historical evidence documenting

13

detrimental effects of road salt on water chemistry and aquatic life. This issue was recognized at least

14

as early as the 1960s (1). Studies have continued each decade since with additional and more

15

comprehensive evidence of water quality impacts from road salt. A small sampling of these studies

16

include reporting of specific water quality impacts such as increased chloride and sodium

17

concentrations, seasonality, climatic and land use influence, density gradients, and influence on

18

sediment pore water, mixing and alteration of turnover in lakes (2-5), and aquatic toxicity impacts (2,

19

6, 7, 7). Second, road salt usage in the United States has increased steadily beginning in the 1940s

20

through

21

production-sales, (8)). Average annual salt sales in the United States for deicing purposes by decade

22

beginning in 1940 were 0.28 (1940s), 1.1 (1950s), 4.1 (1960s), 8.7 (1970s), 8.8 (1980s), 13.0

23

(1990s), and 16.0 (2000-08) million metric tons per year. Third, urban development is increasing each

Road salt runoff poses an increasing threat to aquatic ecosystems with influence from urban land use

the

current

decade

(http://www.saltinstitute.org/Production-industry/Facts-figures/US-

year (9) which adds to the impervious area on which winter deicing operations are conducted. This

collective information suggests that the increasing road salt usage trends of the previous seven decades

will likely continue. Fourth, chloride and to a large degree Na, the two primary ions in road salt, remain

in solution, making it difficult with present day technology to design effective management practices

for reduction of road salt loadings to receiving waters after application. Currently, reduction in usage

appears to be the only effective road salt runoff management strategy.

In addition to effects on water quality and aquatic ecosystems, other detrimental impacts from road

salt applications include damage to terrestrial vegetation, degraded soil biota, increased soil

salinization, toxicity to terrestrial wildlife, increased exposure to ferrocyanides (an anti-caking

10

additive), and corrosion of automobiles and transportation infrastructure (7, 10).

11
12

Road salt is commonly applied in granular form or as brine in liquid form on paved surfaces to

13

prevent snow and ice buildup on roads, parking lots, sidewalks, and driveways that could otherwise

14

pose automobile and pedestrian safety hazards. Usage includes application by municipalities, county -

15

and state road maintenance departments, institutions, private contractors, private business owners, and

16

homeowners. A number of application technologies are currently in use, some of which have been

17

described in a report that examined application methods for reducing environmental impact (10).

18

Roadway Weather Information Systems are used by some applicators for timely forecasting of deicing

19

events enabling early deployment of application equipment. Trucks of various size are used to transport

20

the salt, and spinners or conveyors mounted on the trucks are used to deliver salt from the truck to

21

the pavement. Ground speed controlled salt applicators are used by some to vary application based on

22

vehicle speed and achieve a consistent application rate independent of the speed of the vehicle. Some

23

trucks carry liquid pre-wetting agents such as salt brine or magnesium chloride that is applied to road

24

salt prior to application. This enhances bonding between road salt and the pavement or ice surface

minimizing the bounce or overspray effects and reducing overall application needs. Brine or other

liquid deicers are also used as anti-icers by applying them directly to the pavement before freezing

precipitation events, reducing the bond between snow or ice and the pavement surface.

4
5

The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of road salt runoff on surface water and

aquatic organisms. To achieve this, water quality investigations were conducted on a local and regional

scale. On a national scale, analysis of historical data was conducted for 17 metropolitan areas in the

U.S. In the Milwaukee metropolitan area, streams were sampled for chloride, specific conductance, and

aquatic toxicity to assess direct impact on aquatic organisms. In southern and eastern Wisconsin,

10

streams were monitored continuously for specific conductance, a surrogate for chloride, to assess

11

potential impact on aquatic organisms. Nationally, data were mined from the USGS National Water

12

Information System (NWIS) for chloride concentrations from streams sampled between 1969 and

13

2008. Data were compared to USEPA water quality criteria and analyzed for seasonality as a measure

14

of the national influence of road salt runoff.

15
16

Methods

17

Study Sites:

18

Local scale: Twelve streams in the Milwaukee metropolitan area and one reference stream

19

north of Milwaukee were sampled in February and March 2007 for determination of water chemistry

20

and aquatic toxicity (Table 1, Figure 1). Twelve of the streams had substantial urban land use

21

contribution and the reference stream had 80% natural areas and no urban land use (Parnell Creek).

22

Drainage areas of these streams ranged from 16.4 km2 (6.33 mi2) at Willow Creek to 1833 km2 (872

23

mi2) at the Milwaukee River (Table 1). A 14th stream, Wilson Park Creek, was monitored selectively

24

from 1997 through 2007 during deicing periods. Sample results from these 14 streams reported in this
4

paper include chloride, specific conductance, and bioassays using Pimephales promelas and

Ceriodaphnia dubia.

Table 1. Watershed characteristics for study sites in Wisconsin organized by geographic location.

Insert Table 1 here.

5
6

1
2

Figure 1. Location of study sites in Wisconsin and metropolitan areas in the United States used for
aquatic toxicity evaluation from road salt.

Insert Figure 1 here.

4
5

Regional scope: Eleven streams in central and southern Wisconsin were monitored using

continuous specific conductance sensors with resulting data used as an indication of road salt runoff

(Table 1, Figure 1). These streams represent a gradient of land use including urban influence ranging

from 6.0% to 100%.

9
10

National scope: Individual water quality samples for chloride in 17 major metropolitan areas around

11

the country were retrieved from NWIS, the U.S. Geological Survey national water quality database

12

(Figure 1). Candidate streams were selected based on the latitude and longitude of the monitoring

13

location and its proximity to major urban land-use areas. Streams ultimately chosen for this study

14

included streams that were sampled for chloride between 1969 and 2008, had at least 12 samples in the

15

cold-weather months (November to April) and 12 samples in the warm-weather months (May to

16

October), and a drainage area of less than 2600 km2. A total of 12005 samples from 162 sites in the

17

northern part of the United States and 2378 samples from 50 sites in the southern part of the United

18

States (south of St. Louis) were used.

19
20

Water-Quality Sampling: For the 13 Milwaukee area streams, sampling periods were targeted at

21

events with road salt application and subsequent runoff. Continuous specific conductance data was

22

available real-time at Wilson Park Creek and was used as an indicator of road salt presence in

23

Milwaukee area streams for these sampling events. A threshold of 10,000 S/cm in Wilson Park Creek

24

was considered to signify substantial road salt influence and was therefore used to initiate sample

25

collection at these sites. Water-quality samples were collected manually in these streams during the
6

February 26 and March 7, 2007 sampling periods. For the wadeable streams, samples were collected by

submerging sample bottles directly into the stream approximately at the center of the stream. For the

non-wadeable streams, sample bottles were lowered into the water with a weighted-bottle sampler from

a bridge at three locations across the stream (11). Comparison of the relation between chloride and

specific conductance was used to assess potential bias in results. All samples were within 10% of the

resulting linear regression except those with chloride concentration less than 230 mg/L where chloride

and sodium are no longer the dominant ions influencing specific conductance. Flow-weighted

composite samples were collected at Wilson Park Creek from 1997 through 2007 using refrigerated

automatic samplers and Teflon-lined polyethylene sample tubing (model 3700R, Isco Industries,

10

Lincoln, Nebraska). Specific details of the sampling protocol used to collect and process water samples

11

from this site have been previously published (12).

12

Weather data was retrieved from three nearby NOAA weather stations (General Mitchell

13

International Airport, Mount Mary, and Germantown). On February 24, 25 and 26, 2007 average

14

snowfall was 16, 15 and 2 cm (0.9, 1.7, and 0.2 cm water equivalent), and maximum air temperatures

15

were -0.5o, 2.8

16

activities on roads, parking lots, driveways, and sidewalks in the Milwaukee area. On March 7, there

17

was an average of 5.7 cm of snow (0.4 cm water equivalent), and maximum air temperature of 0.5oC.

18

This was not enough snow to trigger a general plowing however salt was applied on paved surfaces to

19

melt snow and ice. Salt application and temperatures greater than 0oC for both of these events resulted

20

in runoff from impervious areas leading to storm sewers, and eventually to receiving streams.

and 2.8oC respectively. This snowfall triggered plowing operations and salt deicing

21

Measurements from continuously deployed specific conductance sensors were recorded at least every

22

hour and as frequently as every 5-min depending on the individual site and specific hydrologic

23

conditions. Instantaneous specific conductance was measured in the 13 Milwaukee area streams at the

time of the 2007 sampling periods. All specific conductance sensors were maintained in accordance

with standard USGS methods (13).

3
4

Analytical methods:

Chloride analyses for Wisconsin samples were done at the Wisconsin

State Laboratory of Hygiene using USEPA method 325.2. The method quantification limit was 2.0

mg/L. Average spike recovery during the study period was 100.6% with a standard deviation of 3.3%

(n=472). Duplicate analyses resulted in an average relative percent difference of 0.86% with a standard

deviation of 1.37% (n = 473).

9
10

Toxicity Tests. Pimephales promelas and C. dubia bioassays were conduced at the WSLH in

11

Madison, Wisconsin in accordance with standard U.S. EPA methods (14-16) and modified U.S. EPA

12

methods (16) to determine acute (lethal endpoints) and chronic effects (sublethal endpoints) for water

13

samples. Further description of bioassay methods is provided in the supporting information.

14

The 25% inhibition concentrations (IC 25 ) were computed using the IC P method developed by the

15

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (17).

16
17

Results

18

in the Milwaukee metropolitan area exhibited toxicity in samples collected during road salt application

19

periods in February and March, 2007 (Figure 2). Adverse response in C. dubia tests occurred in

20

samples with chloride concentrations of 1,610 mg/L or greater mg/L. Adverse response in Pimephales

21

promelas tests occurred in samples with chloride concentrations of 2,940 mg/L or greater. The IC 25

22

values computed using measured chloride concentrations in these stream samples were 1,050 mg/L for

23

C. dubia and 1,810 mg/L for Pimephales promelas. These values are similar to those reported by

24

Environment Canada in a summary of numerous laboratory studies on road salt (7). Chloride

Runoff samples in the Milwaukee Area. Results from seven of the 12 urban-influenced watersheds

concentration was elevated above the EPA Acute Water Quality Criteria concentration of 860 mg/L in

eight of these samples and above the EPA Chronic Water Quality Criteria concentration of 230 mg/L in

11 of these samples indicating potential for aquatic toxicity effects. A sample collected at the rural

reference site during the February sampling period had a chloride concentration of 20.4 mg/L and did

not exhibit toxicity.

6
7

Specific conductance results from continuous monitoring in Wilson Park Creek in Milwaukee during

2007 indicates that conditions similar to the February and March 2007 sampling periods were common

occurrences during the cold-weather period of 2007 (Figure 3).

10
11

Insert Fig 2 here

12

Figure 2. Chronic bioassay results in relation to chloride concentration in samples collected from 13

13

streams in the Milwaukee, WI metropolitan area, February-March, 2007: (A) C. dubia survival and

14

mean young produced and (B) Pimephales promelas survival and mean weight.

15
16

Insert Fig 3 here

17
18

Figure 3. Specific conductance in Wilson Park Creek in Milwaukee, WI during 2007 in reference to

19

aquatic toxicity sampling periods (triangles) for 13 Milwaukee area streams.

20
21
22

Long-term toxicity from road salt: Results from 37 samples collected from 1997 to 2007 at Wilson

23

Park Creek in Milwaukee demonstrate long-term toxicity effects in numerous samples and a distinct

relation to chloride concentration (Figure 4). Concentrations at which chronic result effects are

observed from this long-term sampling program are very similar to corresponding concentrations

where chronic effects were observed from the 2007 sampling events in the Milwaukee metropolitan

area. In chronic C. dubia assays, no young were produced when chloride concentration was 1770 mg/L

or greater (43% of samples) and complete mortality was observed at chloride concentrations of 2,420

and greater (38% of samples) with initial toxic effects beginning between 600 and 1,100 mg/L. It is

difficult to determine the exact concentration road salt effects begin for chronic C. dubia assays due to

variability and potential confounding contaminants in urban runoff. Mortality was also observed in

acute C. dubia assays for all samples with chloride concentrations greater than 1900 mg/L. In chronic

10

Pimephales promelas assays, reduced weight and survival is present when concentrations are 2920

11

mg/L or greater. In Pimephales promelas acute assays, only two samples were influenced with initial

12

effects occurring between 4,660 and 6,290 mg/L.

13
14

10

Insert Fig 4 here

2
3

Figure 4. Bioassay results in relation to chloride concentration in samples collected from Wilson Park

Creek in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1997-2007: (A) C. dubia survival and mean young produced in

chronic bioassays, (B) Pimephales promelas survival and mean weight in chronic bioassays, (C) C.

dubia survival in acute bioassays, and (D) Pimephales promelas survival in acute bioassays.

7
8

Regional scale influence: Continuous monitoring of road salt runoff. Eleven streams in urban

regions of Wisconsin were monitored with continuous specific conductance sensors during cold- and

10

warm-weather periods selectively from 1998 to 2008 (Table 1). Between one and 10 years of data were

11

available depending on the individual site. Urban land use percentage in these watersheds varied

12

between 6.0 and 100% (Table 1). Linear regression from concurrent analysis of chloride and specific

13

conductance in samples from these streams resulted in R2 = 0.994. However, residuals for specific

14

conductance less than 1,400 S/cm were negatively biased indicating influence of other ions on

15

specific conductance below this level. Constraining data in the regression to include only samples with

16

specific conductance greater than 1,400 S/cm reduced negative bias at low concentrations

17

considerably and resulted in a line with a slope of 0.374 and intercept of -328 (R2 = 0.997, figure S1 in

18

supporting information). This regression is used for the remainder of this paper to provide chloride

19

concentration estimates (referred to as Cl est ) from measurement of specific conductance. The maximum

20

observed specific conductance in these streams increased with increasing urban land use (Figure 5).

21

The maximum Cl est for seven of these sites exceeded the USEPA acute water quality criteria value of

22

860 mg/L (18). The maximum Cl est at all 11 sites exceeded USEPA chronic water quality criteria value

23

of 230 mg/L (18) with a maximum Cl est of 289 mg/L for the least impacted stream.

24
11

1
2

Insert Fig 5 here

3
4

Figure 5. Maximum specific conductance compared to urban land use percentage in 11 Wisconsin

streams with reference to US Environmental Protection Agency water quality criteria for chloride (18).

6
7

The highest continuous specific conductance results at these eleven sites occurred specifically during

cold-weather months (Figure 6). The most dramatic impacts from road salt runoff were observed at

Lincoln and Wilson Park Creeks in Milwaukee with specific conductance often exceeding 10,000

10

S/cm (Cl est = 3,4l0) and at times exceeding 20,000 S/cm (Cl est = 7,150 mg/L, Figure 6A). Both of

11

these watersheds have urban land use of 98% or greater. Maximum monthly specific conductance at

12

four sites with a medium influence ranged between 3,000 and 8,000 S/cm (Figure 6B). These sites

13

had 26 69% urban land use. Maximum monthly values at four sites with low influence were still

14

substantially impacted by chloride in cold-weather months, but maximum monthly specific

15

conductance was less than 3,000 S/cm (Figure 6B). These sites had 6.0 30 % urban land use. While

16

most of these watersheds were small to medium in size with a drainage area of 25 to 280 km2, the

17

Milwaukee River at Milwaukee has a drainage area of 1,800 km2 and still was impacted by road salt

18

runoff in cold-weather months with a maximum specific conductance of 2,850 S/cm. In all months,

19

the average monthly maximum specific conductance was greatest in the sites with urban land use of

20

98% or greater followed by those with 26-69% urban land use, and least in sites with less than 26%

21

urban land use (Table 1, Figure 6).

22
23

In some cases, specific conductance decreased through the warm-weather months, reaching a

24

minimum in October (Figure 6C). Specific conductance in the highly urban watersheds, Wilson Park
12

Creek and Lincoln Creek, decreased from May through October by 34% and 39% respectively (Figure

6). The average monthly maximum in these two streams was greater than 1,200 S/cm throughout the

entire year. Specific conductance data from Oak Creek (63% urban land use) also decreased steadily

from May through October with a total decrease of 26%. Other sites either did not have sufficient data

to evaluate warm-weather conditions or did not exhibit this effect.

6
7

Figure 6. Monthly maximum specific conductance from continuous monitoring at 11 sites in

Wisconsin over a gradient of urban influence.

Insert Fig 6 here

10
11

National scope. USGS chloride sample results from streams near metropolitan areas were retrieved

12

from 1969 to 2008 for assessment of potential road salt influence throughout the country and to

13

provide context to the more intensive Wisconsin study results (Figure 7). The maximum number of

14

sites per metropolitan area was 29 (Denver) and the maximum number of samples per metropolitan

15

area was 1,690 (Cleveland).

16
17

A total of 898 samples were collected and analyzed for chloride at 21 monitoring locations within the

18

Milwaukee area. Results exceeded 230 mg/L chloride in at least one sample at 90% of monitoring sites

19

during cold-weather months and 33% of monitoring sites during warm-weather months (Figure 7A).

20

Similarly, 57% of these monitoring sites exceeded 860 mg/L chloride in at least one sample during

21

cold-weather months, and none during warm-weather months (Figure 7B).

22
23

Most of the metropolitan areas included in the analysis in the northern part of the United States

24

demonstrated the same pattern as the Milwaukee area sites. A total of 51% of all 168 represented
13

northern monitoring locations had at least one sample with concentrations exceeding 230 mg/L during

cold-weather months and 15% during warm-weather months. A total of 23 % of northern monitoring

locations had at least one sample with concentrations exceeding 860 mg/L during cold-weather months

and 1% during warm-weather months. Ten of thirteen metropolitan areas had more monitoring sites

that had a chloride sample result exceeding 230 mg/L during cold-weather months than during warm-

weather months. Nine metropolitan areas had more monitoring sites with sample results that exceeded

860 mg/L during cold-weather months than during warm-weather months. Only two northern

metropolitan areas had monitoring sites with concentrations greater than 860 mg/L during warm-

weather months.

10
11

At monitoring locations in the four southern metropolitan areas, few samples exceeded the water

12

quality criteria concentrations and no common seasonal pattern was detected. Only 2% and 4% of

13

monitoring locations had samples exceeding 230 mg/L during warm- and cold-weather months

14

respectively; samples from the southern sites did not exceed 860 mg/L. Several other southern

15

metropolitan areas were analyzed but not included because monitoring locations either had insufficient

16

data or marine-water influence.

17
18

14

Insert Fig 7 here


Figure 7. Comparison of chloride concentrations to chronic (A) and acute (B) USEPA water quality criteria for warm weather months and
cold weather months in streams from northern and southern urban areas. Bars indicate the percent of sites for each Metropolitan area that
had at least one sample result greater than the water quality criteria.

15

1
2

Discussion

local, regional, and national scales. The presented long- and short-term runoff sampling programs in

Wisconsin demonstrate a substantial effect from road salt on stream water quality and aquatic life.

Bioassay results from runoff events confirm that the observed high concentrations of road salt cause

acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms. In addition, continuous specific conductance results

indicate that elevated levels of road salt were present multiple times per year each year of monitoring. It

is likely that populations of aquatic organisms in these streams and others with such road salt influence

are limited to salt-tolerant species. Effects on aquatic organisms have previously been demonstrated

10

Detrimental impacts from road salt runoff to surface water presented in this study were evident on

using a salt tolerance biotic index (Chloride Contamination Index, CCI) in Toronto area streams (19).

11
12

The results from continuous monitoring of specific conductance in Lincoln and Wilson Park Creeks in

13

Milwaukee indicate that exposures to elevated levels of chloride in these streams were common for

14

extended periods of time, even through the summer months. These results have broad implications

15

considering that traditional chronic toxicity assessments consider relatively short time periods of 7-14

16

days. Exposures over multiple months add a level of complexity to traditional toxicity assessments.

17

Similar to results from Lincoln and Wilson Park Creeks in Milwaukee, a study of groundwater influence

18

on stream chemistry in Massachusetts confirmed that chloride from highway deicing applications

19

persisted throughout the year as a source of contamination to nearby surface water (20). Elevated

20

chloride concentrations were present in groundwater, interflow, and stream water even during warm-

21

weather months.

22
23

In addition to stream-water quality, previous studies have found a detrimental influence from road salt

24

on water quality in lakes and groundwater. A study of road salt influence in the Twin Cities

25

Metropolitan Area of Minnesota demonstrated a degradation of water quality in urban lakes due to

26

application of road salt (5). Concentrations of sodium and chloride in these lakes were 10 and 25 times

16

higher, respectively, than nearby non-urban lakes. Long-term data analysis from these lakes indicated an

increasing trend in lake salinity over 25 years that was correlated to the purchase of road salt by the state

of Minnesota. A study of groundwater in Ohio indicated that chloride concentration in wells near regular

deicing activity in the northern part of the state were elevated, with multi-year means ranging from 124-

345 mg/L (21). Concentrations at these sites rarely returned to background concentrations (7-37 mg/L)

through the study period.

7
8

The analysis of historical chloride data from urban areas around the country indicated potential for

considerable and widespread impact from road salt on surface water quality and aquatic life. Despite the

10

limitation that sample results from these selected areas were from numerous studies not necessarily

11

designed to capture periods of road salt runoff, the influence of road salt is clear. Streams with urban

12

influence throughout the country in areas where road salt is applied are at risk for substantial

13

contamination and detrimental effect on aquatic life.

14
15

Some research on the influence of urban land use on aquatic life in streams has previously identified a

16

level of 7-12% impervious surface percentage where decreases in biological integrity are observed (22,

17

23) while recent research indicates that stream degradation may begin with even lower levels of urban

18

development (24). Much of the work investigating this aquatic life degradation have focused on ambient

19

water chemistry, habitat and other physical, hydrologic, and hydraulic factors (25). The relation of

20

chloride concentrations and specific conductance with urban land use shown in this study and a recent

21

study of the northern United States (26) indicates that road salt runoff is an important factor in the

22

biological integrity of urban streams in the northern United States. While chloride sampling has been

23

included in previous evaluations of urban stream water quality (24), water quality sampling did not

24

specifically focus on periods of winter runoff and may not fully represent the severity of road salt

25

influence.

26

17

To better understand the relation between urban land use and stream biology, focused monitoring

should be done to characterize the range of chloride concentrations and duration of road salt influence in

streams during deicing periods. However, because of the episodic nature of road salt runoff, the full

range of in-stream road salt influence is difficult to characterize without use of continuous monitoring

and event monitoring focusing on deicing periods. Manual sampling during critical road salt runoff

periods is difficult because of inclement weather and poor driving conditions during freezing

precipitation. A periodic or fixed-interval sampling plan that does not focus on deicing events will not

fully characterize road salt influence except by happenstance.

Environmental management or mitigation of this issue is complex. Application of road salt to clear

10

streets and parking lots of snow and ice is conducted for human safety and for improved societal

11

function. Management solutions must take into account environmental issues as well as political,

12

economic, and safety aspects. Balancing all of these factors is necessary to achieve a solution that is

13

acceptable by all affected people as well as maintaining a minimal impact on the environment. Added to

14

these issues is the diversity of applicators in urban areas. City maintenance crews deice roadways, public

15

parking lots and sidewalks while a host of private applicators deice commercial, institutional and

16

industrial areas, and home owners apply deicers to residential driveways and sidewalks. Alternative

17

chemicals are available (at higher costs), but each of the alternative chemicals have unique

18

environmental and/or economic impacts as well. For example, use of organic salts such as calcium

19

magnesium acetate would reduce chloride loading, but would increase biochemical oxygen demand and

20

increase potential for oxygen depletion in receiving waters. The increasing trends in road salt usage and

21

expanding urban development do not offer promise that reduction of the environmental impact of road

22

salt is forthcoming in the near future. Greater aquatic toxicity and water quality impacts seem likely if

23

these trends continue. Regardless of methods chosen, reducing the impact of road salt on the

24

environment will take a substantial and sustained effort coupled with consideration of numerous

25

interconnected factors.

18

ACKNOWLEDGMENT Support for this research was provided by Milwaukee Metropolitan

Sewerage District, General Mitchell International Airport, and the U.S. Geological Survey. We thank the

biomonitoring and inorganic chemistry units of the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene as well as

many people in the U.S. Geological Survey for their contributions. Any use of trade, product, or firm

names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

6
7

Supporting Information Available

conductance. This information is available free of charge via the Internet at http://pubs.acs.org.

A description of bioassay methods and a graph of the relation between chloride and specific

References

10
11

1. Judd, J.H. Effect of Salt Runoff from Street Deicing on a Small Lake. The University of Wisconsin Madison: Madison, Wisconsin, 1969;

12
13
14

2. Hanes, R.E.; Zelazny, L.W.; Blaser, R.E. Effects of Deicing Salts on Water Quality and Biota-Literature Review and Recommended Research. National Cooperative Highway Research Program:
Washington, DC, 1976; Vol. NCHRP report 91.

15
16

3. Scott, W.S. An analysis of factors influencing deicing salt levels in streams. J. Environ. Manage.
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17
18

4. Sorenson, D.L.; Mortenson, V.; Zollinger, R.L. A review and synthesis of the impacts of road salting
on water quality. Utah Department of Transportation: Salt Lake City, UT, 1996; Vol. UT-95.08.

19
20

5. Novotny, E.V.; Murphy, D.; Stefan, H.G. Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt. Sci.
Total Environ. 2008, 406, 131-144.

21
22
23

6. Williams, D.D.; Williams, N.E.; Cao, Y. Spatial differences in macroinvertebrate community


structure in springs in southeastern Ontario in relation to their chemical and physical environments. Can.
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25

7. Environment Canada Priority Substances List Assessment Report Road Salts. Environment Canada:
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8. Kelly, T.D. and Matos, G.R. Historical Statistics for Mineral and Material Commodities in the
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9. Lubowski, R.N.; Vesterby, M.; Bucholtz, S.; Baez, A.; Roberts, M.J. Major Uses of Land in the
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19

1
2

11. U.S. Geological Survey Collection of water samples (ver. 2.0). U.S. Geological Survey: 2006; Vol.
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3
4
5

12. Corsi, S.R.; Booth, N.L.; Hall, D.W. Aircraft and runway deicers at General Mitchell International
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6
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8

13. Gibs, J.; Wilde, F.D.; Heckathorn, H.A. Use of miltiparameter instruments for routine field
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9
10

14. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Methods for Measuring the Acute Toxicity of Effluents and
Receiving Waters to Freshwater and Marine Organisms. EPA: Washington, DC, 2002;

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13

15. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Short-term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of
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14
15
16

16. Geis, S.W.; Fleming, K.; Mager, A.; Reynolds, L. Modifications to the fathead minnow (Pimephales
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Chem. 2003, 22, 2400-2404.

17

17. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ICp calculation program, Release 1.0. 1988,

18
19

18. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Chloride--1988.
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19. Williams, D.D.; Williams, N.E.; Cao, Y. Road salt contamination of groundwater in a major
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24

20. Ostendorf, D.W.; Peeling, D.C.; Mitchell, T.J.; Pollock, S.J. Chloride persistence in a deiced access
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26. Mullaney, J.R.; Lorenz, D.L.; Arntson, A.D. Chloride in groundwater and surface water in areas
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21

Cleveland

Minneapolis

Milwaukee Detroit
Chicago
Indianapolis
Columbus
St. Louis

Salt Lake City


Denver

Hartford
Philadelphia
Washington, DC

Tulsa
Dallas

Atlanta

San Antonio

92

88

46

WISCONSIN

50

100 Kilometers

Monitoring
locations

14 locations near
Milwaukee, WI

43

FIGURE 1

A
120%
Survival

C. Dubia
Survival and young produced
(percent of control)

100%

Young produced

80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

Chloride (mg/L)

B
140%
Fathead Minnow

Survival

Survival and weight


(percent of control)

120%

Weight

100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

Chloride (mg/L)

FIGURE 2

5000

6000

7000

14000

Aquatic toxicity
sampling period

Specific Conductance (S/cm)

12000

10000

8000

6000

4000

2000

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

FIGURE 3

April

May

Chronic test results

Pimephales Promelas
160

160
140
120

Survival

100

Weight

140

Young produced

Weight and survival


(percent of control)

Young produced and survival


(percent of control)

C. dubia

80
60
40
20

Survival

120
100
80
60
40
20

0
0

2000

4000

6000

8000

Chloride (mg/L)

2000

4000

6000

8000

Chloride (mg/L)

Acute test results

C
C. dubia

120

120
Survival

100

Survival percentage

Survival percentage

D
Pimephales promelas

80
60
40
20
0

Survival

100
80
60
40
20
0

2000

4000

6000

8000

Chloride (mg/L)

2000

4000
Chloride (mg/L)

FIGURE 4

6000

8000

Maximum specific conductance


Estimated USEPA water-quality criteria
Acute
Chronic

30000
20000
10000
5000

10000

1000
230
1000

10

20

30
40
50
60
70
Urban land use percentage

FIGURE 5

80

90

100

Chloride (mg/L)

Maximum specific conductance (S/cm)

100000

Specific Conductance (S/cm)

32000

Full year
High influence sites

24000

16000

8000

Au
gu
st
Se
pt
em
be
r
O
ct
ob
er

Ju
ly

ay

Ju
ne

Ap
ri l

N
ov
em
be
D
r
ec
em
be
r
Ja
nu
ar
y
Fe
br
ua
ry
M
ar
ch

Specific Conductance (S/cm)

8000

Full year
Low-medium influence sites

6000

4000

2000

er

r
be

ct
O

em

Se

pt

ob

st

Au

gu

ly
Ju

ne
Ju

ay
M

ril
Ap

ch

ar

ry

y
Fe

br

ua

ar
nu

Ja

be
em

ec
D

ov

em

be

C
3200

Specific Conductance (S/cm)

Warm months
Low, medium, high influence
2400

1600

800

May

June

July

August

Maximum monthly maximum


Average monthly maximum
Minimum monthly maximum

September

Low SC influence (4 sites)


Medium SC influence (4 sites)
High SC influence (2 sites)
Estimated USEPA
water-quality criteria
Acute
Chronic

FIGURE 6

October

A
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%

Chronic Water Quality Criteria (230 mg/L)


Northern Sites

55%

16%
0%
Chicago

St. Louis Milwaukee

Detroit

Denver

Minn. Cleveland
St. Paul

B
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%

Southern Sites

Nov.Apr.
MayOct.

0%
0%
Indian- Columbus Salt Lake
apolis
City

0%
DC

0% 0%
Philadelphia

Hartfort,
CT

San
Antonio

0% 0%

0% 0%

0%

Atlanta

Dallas

Tulsa

2% 4%

All North All South

Acute Water Quality Criteria (860 mg/L)


Northern Sites

Southern Sites

Nov.Apr.
MayOct.

25%

Chicago
12/968/873

0%
0%
St. Louis Milwaukee
6/30/108

21/898/606

0%
Detroit
6/101/99

sites/NovApr samples/MayOct samples

0%
0%
Minn. Cleveland
St. Paul

Indianapolis

0% 0%
0%
Columbus Salt Lake
City

29/579/367 15/370/318 7/1690/1489

7/276/199

11/413/339

0%
Denver

0% 0%

0% 0%
DC
Philadelphia

12/706/339 17/276/230

Urban area

FIGURE 7

14/203/287

0% 0%
Hartfort,
CT

0% 0%
San
Antonio

0% 0%
Atlanta

0% 0%
Dallas

5/229/174

19/565/177

22/700/370

6/98/519

1% 0% 0%
0% 0%
Tulsa
All North All South
3/20/94

162/6739/5266

50/1383/995

Table 1. Watershed characteristics for study sites in Wisconsin organized by geographic location
Land use percentage
Drainage Area
Natural Areas1
(km2)
Monitoring location
USGS site ID
Urban
Agriculture
Milwaukee metropolitan area
24.8
98
0
2
Lincoln Creek at Milwaukee
040869416
89.9
30
44
25
Menomonee River at Menomonee Falls
04087030
51
44
38
18
Little Menomonee at Milwaukee
04087070
47.1
87
4
9
Underwood Creek at Wauwatosa
04087088
26.7
99
0
1
Honey Creek at Wauwatosa
04087119
318
61
25
15
Menomonee River at Wauwatosa
04087120
48.7
98
0
2
Kinnickinnic River at Milwaukee
04087159
Milwaukee River at Milwaukee
04087000
1800
16
54
30
Milwaukee River at Clybourne Ave
04087012
1833
17
53
30
Oak Creek at South Milwaukee

04087204

64.7

63

21

16

Root River at Greenfield

04087214

38.1

92

Root River near Franklin

04087220

127

67

15

18

Willow Creek near Germantown


Wilson Park Creek at Milwaukee

040870195
040871488

16.4
29.4

24
100

47
0

29
0

Green Bay area, Madison area, small communities, and rural


Duck Creek near Howard

04072150

280

74

20

Garners Creek at Kaukauna


Parnell Creek near Dundee

04084468
04086175

53.6

69

25

21.8

20

80

Pheasant Branch Creek at Middleton

05427948

47.4

26

67

W. Branch Starkweather Creek at Madison

05428600

31.3

50

42

Delavan Lake Inlet at Lake Lawn


Badger Mill Creek at Verona

05431017
05435943

56.5
52.6

6
39

66
49

28
12

1-Natural areas include forest, grasslands, wetlands and water.

Supporting Information
A Fresh Look at Road Salt: Widespread Aquatic Toxicity and
Water Quality Impacts on Local, Regional, and National Scales
Steven R. Corsi1, David J. Graczyk1, Steven W. Geis2, Nathaniel L. Booth1, Kevin D. Richards1
1

U.S. Geological Survey Wisconsin Water Science Center, Middleton, Wisconsin, 53562;
2

Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, Madison, Wisconsin, 53718


(two total pages)

Methods
Toxicity Tests. Pimephales promelas and Ceriodaphnia. dubia bioassays were conduced at the
WSLH in Madison, Wisconsin in accordance with standard U.S. EPA methods (U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (2002a); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2002b)) and modified U.S. EPA
methods (Geis et al. (2003)) to determine acute (lethal endpoints) and chronic effects (sublethal
endpoints) for the water samples. Static renewal acute tests were conducted at 20oC and chronic tests at
25oC. Both were conducted with a 16:8-hour light:dark cycle. Surface water samples collected during
road salt runoff periods were stored at 4oC upon delivery from the field. Aliquots were removed to
prepare test solutions daily. Samples were warmed in a water bath to the appropriate test temperature.
Surface water samples were assayed without dilution.
Pimephales promelas acute tests were initiated with 4-14 day old juveniles. Prior to 2006, each
replicate consisted of five fish, which was subsequently increased to ten fish per replicate. The fish
were placed in 250 ml plastic cups containing 200 ml of sample. Each treatment consisted of four
replicates per sample. Treatment solutions were renewed daily and fish were fed with live brine shrimp
two hours prior to the 48-h test renewal. The bioassay was ended at 96-h and survival was recorded as
the acute endpoint.
C. dubia acute tests were initiated with young less than 24-h old. Treatments consisted of four
replicates per sample containing five C. dubia per replicate. Test chambers were 30 ml plastic cups

each containing 15 ml sample volume. Test solutions were renewed at 24-h. The C. dubia acute test
was terminated at 48-h when survival was recorded.
Pimephales promelas chronic growth tests were initiated with <24-hour-old larval fish. Live brine
shrimp were fed to the fish three times daily. The tests were terminated on day 7, when the fish were
sacrificed, dried, and weighed for determination of growth as the chronic endpoint. In 2000, methods
were modified to address mortality due to bacterial pathogens which are commonly found in the study
site streams. Prior to 2000, test treatments consisted of four 250 ml plastic cups, each containing 200
ml of sample and 10 larval fish. Tests were revised after 2000 with 30 ml plastic cups, each containing
25 ml of test solution. Replicates were increased with the method modification from four to ten
replicates, with only two fish per test chamber (Geis et al. (2003)).
In the C. dubia chronic reproduction test, organisms were fed a combination of yeast/cerophyll/trout
food and the green algae Selenastrum capricornutum with each water renewal. Production of young
was recorded daily, and the tests were terminated after 80% of controls released their third brood (6 to
7 days). Test chambers consisted of 30 ml plastic cups, each containing 20 ml of test solution. Each
treatment consisted of 10 replicates with one organism per test chamber. The number of young
produced was used as the chronic endpoint.

Results
Figure S1. Relation of chloride to specific conductance using data from 17 Wisconsin streams.

7000
Cl < 230 mg/L
Cl > 230 mg/L
Cl = 0.363 X SC - 271
for Cl 230 mg/L

6000

Cl all

5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000 12000
SC all

14000

16000

18000 20000

SUPPORTING DOCS FIGURE

APPENDIX 5B

Audubon Society

Natural Resources Conservation Service

City of Milwaukee

Pier Wisconsin

Federation of Environmental Technologists

River Revitalization Foundation

Greater Milwaukee Association of Realtors

Schlitz Audubon Nature Center

Greater Milwaukee Convention & Visitor Bureau

Sierra Club, Great Waters Group

Great Lakes Commission

Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning


Commission

Growing Power
International Joint Commission
Keep Greater Milwaukee Beautiful, Inc.
Menomonee Valley Partners
Metropolitan Builders Association
Milwaukee Community Service Corps
Milwaukee County Parks, Recreation and Culture
Development

University of Wisconsin Extension Basin Initiative


UW -Extension Basin Education Program
UW-Sea Grant Institute
Urban Ecology Center
Urban Open Space Foundation
U.S. EPA Great Lakes National Program Office
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District

Walleyes for Tomorrow

Milwaukee Riverkeeper

WE Energies

Milwaukee River Basin Partnership

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources

Milwaukee Urban Garden

Wisconsin Wastewater Operators Association

National Park Service

16th Street Community Health Center

Appendix 5B

SWWT MEMBERSHIP
Kinnickinnic River WRP
.]

APPENDIX 5C

Table 93
LOCAL GOVERNMENTAL MANAGEMENT AGENCY DESIGNATIONS AND SELECTED
RESPONSIBILITIES AND PRIORITIZATION FOR THE POINT SOURCE POLLUTION ABATEMENT ELEMENT OF THE
RECOMMENDED REGIONAL WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATE FOR THE GREATER MILWAUKEE WATERSHEDS
Upgrade
Wastewater
Treatment
Plant
According to
Recent Site
Study or
Facilities Plan
[High Priority]a

Construct
and Maintain
Intercommunity
Trunk Sewer
[High Priority]a

Construct
and Maintain
Local Sewer
System
[High Priority]a

Abate
Combined
Sewer
Overflow
[Medium
Priority]a

Evaluate
the Need
to Reduce
Clearwater
Infiltration
and Inflow
[High Priority]a

Eliminate
Discharges
from All Points
of Sewage
Flow Relief
[High Priority]a

Implement
CMOM
Program
[High Priority]a

Prepare
Facilities Plans
[Medium
Priority]a

Point Source
Management Agency

Refine and
Detail Sewer
Service Area
[Low Priority]a

Maintain and
Operate
Wastewater
Treatment
Plant
[High Priority]a

Dodge Countyb .....................................................


Village of Lomira .................................................

-X

-X

---

---

-X

---

-X

---

-X

---

Fond du Lac Countyb ...........................................


Village of Campbellsport .....................................
Village of Eden....................................................

-X
--

-X
--

----

----

-X
X

----

-X
X

----

-X
X

----

Kenosha County
None ...................................................................

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Milwaukee County .................................................


Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District .........
City of Cudahy ....................................................
City of Franklin ....................................................
City of Glendale ..................................................
City of Greenfield ................................................
City of Milwaukee ................................................
City of Oak Creek ...............................................
City of St. Francis ...............................................
City of South Milwaukee .....................................
City of Wauwatosa ..............................................
City of West Allis .................................................
Village of Bayside ...............................................
Village of Brown Deer .........................................
Village of Fox Point .............................................
Village of Greendale ...........................................
Village of Hales Corners .....................................
Village of River Hills ............................................
Village of Shorewood ..........................................
Village of West Milwaukee ..................................
Village of Whitefish Bay ......................................

-X
-------X
------------

-X
-------X
------------

-X
-------X
------------

-X
-X
------------------

--X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

-X
--------------------

-X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

-X
-------X
-X
-X
X
--X
----

--X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

----------------------

Ozaukee County ....................................................


City of Cedarburg ................................................
City of Mequon....................................................
City of Port Washington ......................................
Village of Fredonia ..............................................
Village of Grafton ................................................
Village of Newburg ..............................................
Village of Saukville ..............................................
Village of Thiensville ...........................................
Town of FredoniaWaubeka
Area Sanitary District ......................................

----------

-X
-X
X
X
X
X
--

----X
-----

----------

-X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

----------

-X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

-X
--X
X
-X
X

-X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

-X
---X
X
---

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

667

668

Table 93 (continued)

Point Source
Management Agency

Refine and
Detail Sewer
Service Area
[Low Priority]a

Maintain and
Operate
Wastewater
Treatment
Plant
[High Priority]a

Upgrade
Wastewater
Treatment
Plant
According to
Recent Site
Study or
Facilities Plan
[High Priority]a

Construct
and Maintain
Intercommunity
Trunk Sewer
[High Priority]a

Racine County .......................................................


City of Racine .....................................................
Village of Caledonia
Caledonia West Utility District.........................
Caledonia East Utility District..........................
Village of Mt. Pleasant ........................................
Mt. Pleasant Utility District No. 1.........................
Village of North Bay ............................................
Village of Sturtevant ............................................
Village of Union Grove ........................................
Village of Wind Point ...........................................
Town of Raymond ...............................................
Town of Yorkville Sewer Utility District No. 1 ......

------------X

-X
-------X
--X

--------------

Sheboygan Countyb .............................................


Village of Adell ....................................................
Onion River Sewerage Commission ...................
Village of Cascade ..............................................
Village of Random Lake ......................................
Town of LyndonLake Ellen Sanitary District......
Town of Scott Sanitary District No. 1 ..................

-X
X
X
X
-X

-X
X
X
X
-X

Washington County ..............................................


City of West Bend ...............................................
Village of Germantown........................................
Village of Jackson ...............................................
Village of Kewaskum...........................................
Village of Newburg ..............................................
Town of TrentonWallace
Lake Sanitary Districtc ....................................
Town of West BendSilver
Lake Sanitary District ......................................

-------

Waukesha County .................................................


City of Brookfield .................................................
City of Muskego ..................................................
City of New Berlin ...............................................
Village of Butler...................................................
Village of Elm Grove ...........................................
Village of Menomonee Falls................................
Town of Brookfield ..............................................

Construct
and Maintain
Local Sewer
System
[High Priority]a

Abate
Combined
Sewer
Overflow
[Medium
Priority]a

Evaluate
the Need
to Reduce
Clearwater
Infiltration
and Inflow
[High Priority]a

Eliminate
Discharges
from All Points
of Sewage
Flow Relief
[High Priority]a

Implement
CMOM
Program
[High Priority]a

Prepare
Facilities Plans
[Medium
Priority]a

--------------

-X
-X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
-X

--------------

-X
-X
X
X
X
X
-X
--X

-X
-X
X
X
X
X
X
X
----

-X
-X
X
X
X
X
X
X
--X

-X
-X
X
X
X
-X
--X
X

--------

--------

-X
-X
X
X
X

--------

-X
X
X
X
-X

-X
------

-X
-X
X
-X

--------

-X
-X
X
X

----X

-X
-----

-X
X
X
X
X

-------

-X
X
X
X
X

-X
-X
X
X

-X
X
X
X
X

---X
---

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

---------

-X
-------

---------

--X
X
-----

-X
X
X
X
X
X
X

---------

-X
X
X
X
X
X
--

-X
---X
X
--

-X
X
X
X
X
X
X

---------

aGeneralized priorities are assigned by recommendation. For certain municipalities or agencies, the priority for implementing a given recommendation may be higher or lower than the assigned priority, depending on specific circumstances and changed
conditions over time.
bFor those municipalities located outside the Southeastern Wisconsin Region, the management agency designation is advisory only.
cThe Wallace Lake Sanitary District also serves part of the Town of Barton.
Source: SEWRPC.

Table 94
GOVERNMENTAL MANAGEMENT AGENCY DESIGNATIONS AND SELECTED RESPONSIBILITIES
AND PRIORITIZATION FOR THE RURAL NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION ABATEMENT SUBELEMENT OF THE
RECOMMENDED REGIONAL WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATE FOR THE GREATER MILWAUKEE WATERSHEDS

Restricting
Livestock
Access to
Streams
[Medium Priority]a

Managing
Milking
Center
Wastewater
[Medium Priority]a

Expanded
Oversight of Private
Onsite Wastewater
Treatment Systems,
Including
Establishment of
Utility Districtsb
[Medium Priority]a

Rural Nonpoint Source


Management Agency

Implement
Practices to Reduce
Cropland Soil Erosion
to T or Below
[Medium Priority]a

Manure and
Nutrient
Management
[High Priority]a

Control
Barnyard
Runoff
[High Priority]a

Establish
Riparian
Buffers
[High Priority]a

Convert Marginal
Cropland and
Pasture to
Wetlands and
Prairies
[High Priority]a

Dodge Countyc.....................................................
Dodge County Drainage Board ..........................
Town of Lomira ..................................................

X
---

X
---

X
---

X
X
--

X
---

X
---

X
---

X
-X

Fond du Lac Countyc ..........................................


Fond du Lac County Drainage Board ................
Town of Ashford .................................................
Town of Auburn .................................................
Town of Byron ....................................................
Town of Eden.....................................................
Town of Osceola ................................................

X
-------

X
-------

X
-------

X
X
------

X
-------

X
-------

X
-------

X
-X
X
X
X
X

Kenosha County...................................................
Kenosha County Drainage Boardd ....................
Town of Paris .....................................................

X
---

X
---

X
---

X
X
--

X
---

X
---

X
---

X
-X

Milwaukee County ................................................


Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District ........
City of Franklin ...................................................

X
---

----

----

X
X
--

X
X
--

----

----

--X

Ozaukee County ...................................................


Ozaukee County Drainage Board ......................
Town of Cedarburg ............................................
Town of Fredonia ...............................................
Town of FredoniaWaubeka
Area Sanitary District .....................................
Town of Grafton .................................................
Town of Port Washington...................................
Town of Saukville ...............................................

X
----

X
----

X
----

X
X
---

X
----

X
----

X
----

X
-X
X

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

X
X
X
X

Racine County ......................................................


Racine County Drainage Board .........................
Town of Dover ...................................................
Town of Raymond ..............................................
Town of Yorkville ...............................................
Town of Yorkville Sewer Utility District No. 1 .....

X
------

X
------

X
------

X
X
-----

X
------

X
------

X
------

X
-X
X
X
X

Sheboygan Countyc ............................................


Sheboygan County Drainage Board ..................
Town of Greenbush ...........................................
Town of Lyndon .................................................
Town of LyndonLake Ellen Sanitary District.....
Town of Mitchell .................................................
Town of Scott .....................................................
Town of Scott Sanitary District No. 1 .................
Town of Sherman ..............................................

X
---------

X
---------

X
---------

X
X
X
--X
----

X
---------

X
---------

X
---------

X
-X
X
X
X
X
X
X

669

670

Table 94 (continued)

Rural Nonpoint Source


Management Agency

Implement
Practices to Reduce
Cropland Soil Erosion
to T or Below
[Medium Priority]a

Manure and
Nutrient
Management
[High Priority]a

Control
Barnyard
Runoff
[High Priority]a

Establish
Riparian
Buffers
[High Priority]a

Convert Marginal
Cropland and
Pasture to
Wetlands and
Prairies
[High Priority]a

Restricting
Livestock
Access to
Streams
[Medium Priority]a

Managing
Milking
Center
Wastewater
[Medium Priority]a

Expanded
Oversight of Private
Onsite Wastewater
Treatment Systems,
Including
Establishment of
Utility Districtsb
[Medium Priority]a

Washington County .............................................


Washington County Drainage Board .................
Town of Barton ..................................................
Towns of Barton and TrentonWallace
Lake Sanitary District .....................................
Town of Farmington ...........................................
Town of Germantown.........................................
Town of Jackson ................................................
Town of Kewaskum ...........................................
Town of Polk ......................................................
Town of Richfield ...............................................
Town of Trenton .................................................
Town of Wayne ..................................................
Town of West Bend ...........................................

X
---

X
---

X
---

X
X
--

X
---

X
---

X
---

X
-X

-----------

-----------

-----------

-----------

-----------

-----------

-----------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

Waukesha County ................................................


Waukesha County Drainage Board ...................
Town of Lisbon ..................................................

X
---

X
---

X
---

X
X
--

X
---

X
---

X
---

X
-X

State of Wisconsin
Department of Agriculture, Trade
and Consumer Protection ..............................
Department of Commerce..................................
Department of Natural Resources .....................

X
-X

X
-X

X
-X

X
-X

--X

X
-X

X
---

-X
--

Federal Agencies
U.S. Department of Agriculture ..........................
Farm Services Agency .......................................
Natural Resources Conservation Service ..........

--X

X
---

X
---

-X
X

X
---

----

----

----

Land Trustse
Kenosha/Racine Land Trust ..............................
Milwaukee Area Land Conservancy ..................
Ozaukee-Washington Land Trust ......................
Waukesha County Land Conservancy ...............

-----

-----

-----

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

-----

-----

-----

aGeneralized priorities are assigned by recommendation. For certain municipalities or agencies, the priority for implementing a given recommendation may be higher or lower than the assigned priority, depending on specific circumstances and changed
conditions over time.
bIn some counties, existing county programs may be providing the additional oversight of POWTS recommended for town utility districts to perform. In these instances, it may not be necessary to form town utility districts for the sole purpose of providing
supplemental oversight of POWTS.
cFor those municipalities located outside the Southeastern Wisconsin Region, the management agency designation is advisory only.
dAs of the date of publication of this report, Kenosha County did not have an active drainage board.
eWhile land trusts are not governmental agencies, they could play a significant role in implementing certain recommendations.
Source: SEWRPC.

Table 95
GOVERNMENTAL MANAGEMENT AGENCY DESIGNATIONS AND SELECTED RESPONSIBILITIES
AND PRIORITIZATION FOR THE URBAN NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION ABATEMENT SUBELEMENT OF THE
RECOMMENDED REGIONAL WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATE FOR THE GREATER MILWAUKEE WATERSHEDS

Urban Nonpoint Source


Management Agency
Dodge Countyb ....................................................
Village of Lomira ................................................
Town of Lomira ..................................................
Fond du Lac Countyb ..........................................
Village of Campbellsport ....................................
Village of Eden...................................................
Town of Ashford .................................................
Town of Auburn .................................................
Town of AuburnForest Lake
Improvement Association ..............................
Town of Byron ....................................................
Town of Eden.....................................................
Town of Empire ..................................................
Town of Forest ...................................................
Town of Osceola ................................................
Town of OsceolaMud Lake Protection
and Rehabilitation District (P&RD)
or Lake Associationc .....................................
Town of OsceolaKettle Moraine
Lake Association ...........................................
Town of OsceolaLong
Lake Fishing Club, Inc. ..................................

Implementation
of Construction
Erosion Control
Requirements and
Nonagricultural
(Urban) Performance
Standards of
Chapter NR 151
[High Priority]a

Programs
to Detect Illicit
Discharges to
Storm Sewer
Systems and
Control UrbanSourced Pathogens
[High Priority]a

Human Health
and Ecological
Risk Assessments
to Address
Pathogens in
Stormwater Runoff
[High Priority]a

Chloride
Reduction
Programs
[High Priority]a

Fertilizer
Management and
Information and
Education
[Medium
Priority]a

Residential
Roof Drain
Disconnection
[Medium
Priority]a

Beach and
Riparian Debris
and Litter Control
[High Priority]a

Pet Litter
Management
[Medium
Priority]a

Bacteria
and Pathogen
Research and
Implementation
Projects
[High Priority]a

X
X
X

X
X
--

----

X
X
--

X
---

-X
--

----

X
X
--

----

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
---

------

X
X
X
---

X
---X

-X
X
---

X
X
X
---

X
X
X
---

------

-X
X
X
X
X

-------

-------

-------

X
----X

-------

X
------

-------

-------

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Kenosha County...................................................
Town of Paris .....................................................

X
X

---

---

X
--

X
--

---

X
--

---

---

Milwaukee County ................................................


Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District ........
City of Cudahy ...................................................
City of Franklin ...................................................
City of Glendale .................................................
City of Greenfield ...............................................
City of Milwaukee ...............................................
City of Oak Creek ..............................................
City of St. Francis ..............................................
City of South Milwaukee ....................................
City of Wauwatosa .............................................
City of West Allis ................................................
Village of Bayside ..............................................
Village of Brown Deer ........................................
Village of Fox Point ............................................
Village of Greendale ..........................................
Village of Hales Corners ....................................
Village of River Hills ...........................................
Village of Shorewood .........................................
Village of West Milwaukee .................................
Village of Whitefish Bay .....................................

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

-X
--------------------

X
-X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

-X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
-X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

-X
--------------------

671

672

Table 95 (continued)

Urban Nonpoint Source


Management Agency

Implementation
of Construction
Erosion Control
Requirements and
Nonagricultural
(Urban) Performance
Standards of
Chapter NR 151
a
[High Priority]

Programs
to Detect Illicit
Discharges to
Storm Sewer
Systems and
Control UrbanSourced Pathogens
[High Priority]a

Human Health
and Ecological
Risk Assessments
to Address
Pathogens in
Stormwater Runoff
[High Priority]a

Chloride
Reduction
Programs
[High Priority]a

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
---

------------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
---

X
X
X
X
-X

-----

-----

Fertilizer
Management and
Information and
Education
[Medium
Priority]a

Residential
Roof Drain
Disconnection
[Medium
Priority]a

Beach and
Riparian Debris
and Litter Control
[High Priority]a

Pet Litter
Management
[Medium
Priority]a

Bacteria
and Pathogen
Research and
Implementation
Projects
[High Priority]a

X
X
-X

-X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
---

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
-X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
---

------------

X
X
-X

-----

X
-X
--

-----

-----

Ozaukee County ...................................................


City of Cedarburg ...............................................
City of Mequon...................................................
City of Port Washington .....................................
Village of Fredonia .............................................
Village of Grafton ...............................................
Village of Newburg .............................................
Village of Saukville .............................................
Village of Thiensville ..........................................
Town of Cedarburg ............................................
Town of Fredonia ...............................................
Town of FredoniaSpring Lake Protection
and Rehabilitation District (P&RD)
or Lake Associationc .....................................
Town of Grafton .................................................
Town of Port Washington...................................
Town of Saukville ...............................................
Town of SaukvilleMud Lake Protection
and Rehabilitation District (P&RD)
or Lake Associationc .....................................

-X
X
X

-----

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Racine County ......................................................


City of Racine ....................................................
Village of Caledonia ...........................................
Village of Mt. Pleasant .......................................
Village of North Bay ...........................................
Village of Sturtevant ...........................................
Village of Union Grove .......................................
Village of Wind Point ..........................................
Town of Dover ...................................................
Town of Norway .................................................
Town of Raymond ..............................................
Town of Yorkville ...............................................

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
-----

-------------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
-----

X
X
X
X
-X

-X
X
X
X
X
X
X
-----

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
-----

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
-----

-X
-----------

Sheboygan Countyb ............................................


Village of Adell ...................................................
Village of Cascade .............................................
Village of Random Lake .....................................
Village of Random LakeRandom
Lake Association, Inc.....................................
Town of Greenbush ...........................................
Town of Holland .................................................
Town of Lyndon .................................................
Town of LyndonLake Ellen
Sanitary District No. 1 ....................................
Town of Mitchell .................................................
Town of Scott .....................................................
Town of Sherman ..............................................

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

-----

X
X
X
X

-X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

-----

-X
X
X

-----

-----

-----

X
--X

-----

X
----

-----

-----

-X
X
X

-----

-----

-----

X
----

-----

X
----

-----

-----

X
-----

Table 95 (continued)

Urban Nonpoint Source


Management Agency
Washington County .............................................
City of West Bend ..............................................
City of West BendBarton Pond Lake
Protection and Rehabilitation District
(P&RD) or Lake Associationc ........................
Village of Germantown.......................................
Village of Jackson ..............................................
Village of Kewaskum..........................................
Village of Newburg .............................................
Town of Addison ................................................
Town of Barton ..................................................
Town of BartonSmith Lake Protection
and Rehabilitation District (P&RD)
or Lake Associationc .....................................
Towns of Barton and TrentonWallace
Lake Sanitary District .....................................
Town of Farmington ...........................................
Town of FarmingtonLake Twelve
Protection and Rehabilitation District
(P&RD) or Lake Associationc ........................
Town of FarmingtonGreen Lake Property
Owners of Washington County ......................
Town of Germantown.........................................
Town of Jackson ................................................
Town of Kewaskum ...........................................
Town of Polk ......................................................
Town of Richfield ...............................................
Town of Trenton .................................................
Town of Wayne ..................................................
Town of West Bend ...........................................
Town of West BendBig Cedar Lake
Protection and Rehabilitation District .............
Town of West BendLittle Cedar Lake
Protection and Rehabilitation District .............
Town of West BendSilver Lake
Sanitary District and Silver Lake
Protection and Rehabilitation District .............
Town of West Bend Lucas Lake
Protection and Rehabilitation District
(P&RD) or Lake Associationc ........................
Waukesha County ................................................
City of Brookfield ................................................
City of Muskego .................................................
City of New Berlin ..............................................
Village of Butler..................................................
Village of Elm Grove ..........................................
Village of Menomonee Falls...............................
Town of Brookfield .............................................
Town of Lisbon ..................................................

Implementation
of Construction
Erosion Control
Requirements and
Nonagricultural
(Urban) Performance
Standards of
Chapter NR 151
a
[High Priority]

Programs
to Detect Illicit
Discharges to
Storm Sewer
Systems and
Control UrbanSourced Pathogens
[High Priority]a

Human Health
and Ecological
Risk Assessments
to Address
Pathogens in
Stormwater Runoff
[High Priority]a

Chloride
Reduction
Programs
[High Priority]a

Fertilizer
Management and
Information and
Education
[Medium
Priority]a

Residential
Roof Drain
Disconnection
[Medium
Priority]a

Beach and
Riparian Debris
and Litter Control
[High Priority]a

Pet Litter
Management
[Medium
Priority]a

Bacteria
and Pathogen
Research and
Implementation
Projects
[High Priority]a

X
X

X
X

---

X
X

X
X

-X

X
X

X
X

---

-X
X
X
X
X
X

-X
X
X
X
---

--------

-X
X
X
X
---

X
X
----X

-X
X
X
X
---

X
X
X
X
X
-X

-X
X
X
X
---

--------

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

-X

---

---

---

X
X

---

X
X

---

---

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

-X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

----------

----------

----------

X
-------X

----------

X
-------X

----------

----------

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
---

----------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

-X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
---

----------

673

674

Table 95 (continued)

Urban Nonpoint Source


Management Agency

Implementation
of Construction
Erosion Control
Requirements and
Nonagricultural
(Urban) Performance
Standards of
Chapter NR 151
a
[High Priority]

Programs
to Detect Illicit
Discharges to
Storm Sewer
Systems and
Control UrbanSourced Pathogens
[High Priority]a

Human Health
and Ecological
Risk Assessments
to Address
Pathogens in
Stormwater Runoff
[High Priority]a

Chloride
Reduction
Programs
[High Priority]a

Fertilizer
Management and
Information and
Education
[Medium
Priority]a

Residential
Roof Drain
Disconnection
[Medium
Priority]a

Beach and
Riparian Debris
and Litter Control
[High Priority]a

Pet Litter
Management
[Medium
Priority]a

Bacteria
and Pathogen
Research and
Implementation
Projects
[High Priority]a

State of Wisconsin
Department of Commerce..................................
Department of Natural Resources .....................
Department of Transportation ............................
University of Wisconsin-Extension .....................

X
X
X
--

-----

-X
---

-X
X
--

-X
-X

-----

---X

---X

-X
---

Federal Agencies
U.S. Department of the Interior,
Geological Survey .........................................
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ..............
U.S. Department of Transportation ....................

----

----

X
---

--X

----

----

----

----

X
X
--

Nongovernmental Organizations
Keep Greater Milwaukee Beautiful, Inc. .............
Friends of Milwaukees Rivers ...........................

---

---

---

---

---

---

X
X

---

---

aGeneralized priorities are assigned by recommendation. For certain municipalities or agencies, the priority for implementing a given recommendation may be higher or lower than the assigned priority, depending on specific circumstances and changed
conditions over time.
bFor those municipalities located outside the Southeastern Wisconsin Region, the management agency designation is advisory only.
cThis lake district or association does not currently exist, but is recommended to be established.
Source: SEWRPC.

Table 96
GOVERNMENTAL MANAGEMENT AGENCY DESIGNATIONS AND SELECTED RESPONSIBILITIES
AND PRIORITIZATION FOR THE INSTREAM WATER QUALITY MEASURES SUBELEMENT OF THE RECOMMENDED
REGIONAL WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATE FOR THE GREATER MILWAUKEE WATERSHEDSa

Management Agency

Stream
Rehabilitation
[Medium Priority]b

Conduct
Engineering
Studies Related
to Possible
Renovation of the
Kinnickinnic River
Flushing Station
[Medium Priority]b

Require
Preparation of
Dam Abandonment
and Associated
Riverine
Restoration Plans
[Low Priority]b

Implement
Recommendations
Related to Culverts,
Bridges, Drop
Structures, and
Channelized Streams
[Medium Priority]b

Restoration
and Remediation
of Contaminated
Sediment Sites and
Expansion of the
Milwaukee Harbor
Estuary Area of Concern
[High Priority]b

Fisheries
Protection
and Enhancement
[Medium Priority]b

Navigational
Dredging

Dredged
Material
Disposal

Consider
Revisions to
Water Use
Objectives

Dodge County ..............................................


Village of Lomira ................................................
Town of Lomira ..................................................

----

----

----

X
X
X

----

X
X
X

----

----

----

Fond du Lac County ......................................


Village of Campbellsport ....................................
Village of Eden...................................................
Town of Ashford .................................................
Town of Auburn .................................................
Town of Byron ....................................................
Town of Eden.....................................................
Town of Empire ..................................................
Town of Forest ...................................................
Town of Osceola ................................................

-----------

-----------

-----------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

-----------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

-----------

-----------

-----------

Kenosha County ...........................................


Town of Paris .....................................................

---

---

---

X
X

---

X
X

---

---

---

Milwaukee County .........................................


Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District ........
City of Cudahy ...................................................
City of Franklin ...................................................
City of Glendale .................................................
City of Greenfield ...............................................
City of Milwaukee ...............................................
Port of Milwaukee ..............................................
City of Oak Creek ..............................................
City of St. Francis ..............................................
City of South Milwaukee ....................................
City of Wauwatosa .............................................
City of West Allis ................................................
Village of Bayside ..............................................
Village of Brown Deer ........................................
Village of Fox Point ............................................
Village of Greendale ..........................................
Village of Hales Corners ....................................
Village of River Hills ...........................................
Village of Shorewood .........................................
Village of West Milwaukee .................................
Village of Whitefish Bay .....................................

X
X
---------------------

-X
---------------------

-----------------------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
-X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

-----------------------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
-X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

-------X
---------------

-------X
---------------

-----------------------

Ozaukee County ...........................................


City of Cedarburg ...............................................
City of Mequon...................................................
City of Port Washington .....................................
Village of Fredonia .............................................
Village of Grafton ...............................................

-------

-------

-------

X
X
X
X
X
X

-------

X
X
X
X
X
X

-------

-------

-------

675

676

Table 96 (continued)

Management Agency

Stream
Rehabilitation
[Medium Priority]b

Conduct
Engineering
Studies Related
to Possible
Renovation of the
Kinnickinnic River
Flushing Station
[Medium Priority]b

Require
Preparation of
Dam Abandonment
and Associated
Riverine
Restoration Plans
[Low Priority]b

Implement
Recommendations
Related to Culverts,
Bridges, Drop
Structures, and
Channelized Streams
[Medium Priority]b

Restoration
and Remediation
of Contaminated
Sediment Sites and
Expansion of the
Milwaukee Harbor
Estuary Area of Concern
[High Priority]b

Fisheries
Protection
and Enhancement
[Medium Priority]b

Navigational
Dredging

Dredged
Material
Disposal

Consider
Revisions to
Water Use
Objectives

Ozaukee County (continued)


Village of Newburg .............................................
Village of Saukville .............................................
Village of Thiensville ..........................................
Town of Cedarburg ............................................
Town of Fredonia ...............................................
Town of Grafton .................................................
Town of Port Washington...................................
Town of Saukville ...............................................

---------

---------

---------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

---------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

---------

---------

---------

Racine County ..............................................


City of Racine ....................................................
Village of Caledonia ...........................................
Village of Mt. Pleasant .......................................
Village of North Bay ...........................................
Village of Sturtevant ...........................................
Village of Union Grove .......................................
Village of Wind Point ..........................................
Town of Dover ...................................................
Town of Norway .................................................
Town of Raymond ..............................................
Town of Yorkville ...............................................

-------------

-------------

-------------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

-------------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

-------------

-------------

-------------

Sheboygan County........................................
Village of Adell ...................................................
Village of Cascade .............................................
Village of Random Lake .....................................
Town of Greenbush ...........................................
Town of Holland .................................................
Town of Lyndon .................................................
Town of Mitchell .................................................
Town of Scott .....................................................
Town of Sherman ..............................................

-----------

-----------

-----------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

-----------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

-----------

-----------

-----------

Washington County.......................................
City of West Bend ..............................................
Village of Germantown.......................................
Village of Jackson ..............................................
Village of Kewaskum..........................................
Village of Newburg .............................................
Town of Addison ................................................
Town of Barton ..................................................
Town of Farmington ...........................................
Town of Germantown.........................................
Town of Jackson ................................................
Town of Kewaskum ...........................................
Town of Polk ......................................................
Town of Richfield ...............................................
Town of Trenton .................................................
Town of Wayne ..................................................
Town of West Bend ...........................................

------------------

------------------

------------------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

------------------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

------------------

------------------

------------------

Table 96 (continued)

Management Agency

Stream
Rehabilitation
[Medium Priority]b

Conduct
Engineering
Studies Related
to Possible
Renovation of the
Kinnickinnic River
Flushing Station
[Medium Priority]b

Require
Preparation of
Dam Abandonment
and Associated
Riverine
Restoration Plans
[Low Priority]b

Implement
Recommendations
Related to Culverts,
Bridges, Drop
Structures, and
Channelized Streams
[Medium Priority]b

Restoration
and Remediation
of Contaminated
Sediment Sites and
Expansion of the
Milwaukee Harbor
Estuary Area of Concern
[High Priority]b

Fisheries
Protection
and Enhancement
[Medium Priority]b

Navigational
Dredging

Dredged
Material
Disposal

Consider
Revisions to
Water Use
Objectives

Waukesha County .........................................


City of Brookfield ................................................
City of Muskego .................................................
City of New Berlin ..............................................
Village of Butler..................................................
Village of Elm Grove ..........................................
Village of Menomonee Falls...............................
Town of Brookfield .............................................
Town of Lisbon ..................................................

----------

----------

----------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

----------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

----------

----------

----------

State of Wisconsin
Department of Natural Resources .....................
Department of Transportation ............................

---

---

X
--

X
X

X
--

X
X

---

---

X
--

Federal Agencies
U.S. Department of the Interior,
Fish & Wildlife Service ...................................
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ..............
U.S. Department of Transportation ....................
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers ...........................

-----

-----

---X

--X
X

-X
---

---X

---X

-----

X
X

aDesignation of management agencies is not required under the Federal Clean Water Act. Thus, these designations are advisory only.
bGeneralized priorities are assigned by recommendation. For certain municipalities or agencies, the priority for implementing a given recommendation may be higher or lower than the assigned priority, depending on specific circumstances and changed
conditions over time.
Source: SEWRPC.

677

678

Table 97
GOVERNMENTAL MANAGEMENT AGENCY DESIGNATIONS AND SELECTED RESPONSIBILITIES
AND PRIORITIZATION FOR THE INLAND LAKE WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT SUBELEMENT OF THE
RECOMMENDED REGIONAL WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATE FOR THE GREATER MILWAUKEE WATERSHEDSa

Inland Lake
Management Agency

Establish
a Lake Protection
and Rehabilitation
District or a Lake
Association
[High Priority]b

Preparation
or Updating
of Lake
Management
Plans
[High Priority]b

Consider Preparation
of Detailed Plans
for Milwaukee
County Lagoons
and Implement
Recommendations
in Milwaukee
County Lagoon
Management Plan
[High Priority]b

Dodge County.......................................................
None ..................................................................

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Fond du Lac County ............................................


Town of Auburn .................................................
Town of AuburnForest Lake
Improvement Association ..............................
Town of Osceola ................................................
Town of OsceolaMud Lake Protection
and Rehabilitation District (P&RD)
or Lake Associationc .....................................
Town of OsceolaKettle Moraine
Lake Association ...........................................
Town of OsceolaLong Lake
Fishing Club, Inc. ...........................................

---

---

---

---

---

X
--

---

X
X

---

X
--

---

---

---

X
X

X
--

-X

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Kenosha County...................................................
None ..................................................................

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Milwaukee County ................................................


None ..................................................................

---

---

X
--

---

---

---

---

---

Ozaukee County ...................................................


Town of Fredonia ...............................................
Town of FredoniaSpring Lake Protection
and Rehabilitation District (P&RD)
or Lake Associationc .....................................
Town of Saukville ...............................................
Town of SaukvilleMud Lake Protection
and Rehabilitation District (P&RD)
or Lake Associationc .....................................

---

---

---

---

---

-X

---

X
X

X
--

X
--

---

---

---

X
X

X
--

-X

Implement
Washington County
Lake and Stream
Classification Plan
[High Priority]b

Implement
Waukesha County
Lake and Stream
Classification Plan
[High Priority]b

Abate Nonpoint
Source Pollution
According to Plan
Recommendations
[High Priority]b

Implement a
Community-Based
Informational Program
[High Priority]b

Review and
Evaluate Proposed
Land Use Changes
for Lake-Related
Impacts
[High Priority]b

--

--

--

--

Racine County ......................................................


None ..................................................................

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Sheboygan County ..............................................


Village of Random Lake .....................................
Village of Random LakeRandom
Lake Association, Inc.....................................
Town of Lyndon .................................................
Town of LyndonLake Ellen
Sanitary District No. 1 ....................................

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

X
X

---

X
--

---

---

---

X
--

X
--

-X

--

--

--

--

--

Washington County .............................................


City of West Bend ..............................................
City of West BendBarton Pond Lake
Protection and Rehabilitation District
(P&RD) or Lake Associationc ........................
Town of Barton ..................................................

---

---

---

-X

---

X
X

X
--

X
--

---

---

X
X

X
--

-X

---

Table 97 (continued)

Inland Lake
Management Agency
Washington County (continued)
Town of BartonSmith Lake Protection
and Rehabilitation District (P&RD)
or Lake Associationc .....................................
Town of BartonWallace Lake
Sanitary District .............................................
Town of Farmington ...........................................
Town of FarmingtonLake Twelve
Protection and Rehabilitation District
(P&RD) or Lake Associationc ........................
Town of FarmingtonGreen Lake Property
Owners of Washington County ......................
Town of West Bend ...........................................
Town of West BendBig Cedar Lake
Protection and Rehabilitation District .............
Town of West BendLittle Cedar Lake
Protection and Rehabilitation District .............
Town of West BendSilver Lake
Sanitary District and Silver Lake
Protection and Rehabilitation District .............
Town of West BendLucas Lake Protection
and Rehabilitation District (P&RD) or
Lake Associationc..........................................

Establish
a Lake Protection
and Rehabilitation
District or a Lake
Association
[High Priority]b

Preparation
or Updating
of Lake
Management
Plans
[High Priority]b

Consider Preparation
of Detailed Plans
for Milwaukee
County Lagoons
and Implement
Recommendations
in Milwaukee
County Lagoon
Management Plan
[High Priority]b

Implement
Washington County
Lake and Stream
Classification Plan
[High Priority]b

Implement
Waukesha County
Lake and Stream
Classification Plan
[High Priority]b

Abate Nonpoint
Source Pollution
According to Plan
Recommendations
[High Priority]b

Implement a
Community-Based
Informational Program
[High Priority]b

Review and
Evaluate Proposed
Land Use Changes
for Lake-Related
Impacts
[High Priority]b

--

--

--

--

---

---

---

X
X

--

X
--

-X

--

--

--

--

--

X
--

---

---

---

X
X

X
--

-X

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Waukesha County ................................................


None ..................................................................

---

---

---

---

X
--

---

---

---

State of Wisconsin
Department of Natural Resourcesd ...................
University of WisconsinExtension ....................

-X

X
--

---

X
--

X
--

X
--

X
X

----

aDesignation of management agencies is not required under the Federal Clean Water Act. Thus, these designations are advisory only.
bGeneralized priorities are assigned by recommendation. For certain municipalities or agencies, the priority for implementing a given recommendation may be higher or lower than the assigned priority, depending on specific circumstances and changed
conditions over time.
cThis lake district or association does not currently exist, but is recommended to be established.
dIt is recommended that the WDNR develop lake management plans for Auburn, Crooked, and Mauthe Lakes, which are located in the Northern Unit of the Kettle Moraine State Forest.
Source: SEWRPC.

679

680

Table 98
GOVERNMENTAL MANAGEMENT AGENCY DESIGNATIONS AND SELECTED RESPONSIBILITIES
AND PRIORITIZATION FOR THE AUXILIARY WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN SUBELEMENT OF THE
RECOMMENDED REGIONAL WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATE FOR THE GREATER MILWAUKEE WATERSHEDSa

Management Agency

Maintain and
Expand Public
Health-Related
Monitoring at
Beaches
[High Priority]b

Identify Local
Sources of
Contamination
by Conducting
Sanitary Surveys
at Beaches with
High Bacteria
Countsc
[High Priority]b

Implement
Remedies at
Beaches with
High Bacteria
Countsd
[High Priority]b

Dodge County.......................................................
None ..................................................................

---

---

Fond du Lac County ............................................


Town of AuburnForest Lake
Improvement Association ..............................
Town of OsceolaMud Lake Protection
and Rehabilitation District (P&RD)
or Lake Associatione .....................................
Town of OsceolaKettle Moraine
Lake Association ...........................................
Town of OsceolaLong Lake
Fishing Club, Inc. ...........................................

Waterfowl
Control Where
a Nuisance or
Health Hazard
[High Priority]b

Implement
and Refine
the Lakewide
Management
Plan for Lake
Michigan
[Medium
Priority]b

---

---

--

--

--

--

Household
Hazardous
Waste Collection
Programs
[High Priority]b

Pharmaceutical
and Personal
Care Product
Collection
Programs
[High Priority]b

Information
and Education
Programs
Regarding Exotic
Invasive Species
[Medium
Priority]b

Develop a Policy
Regarding Water
Temperatures
and Thermal
Discharges into
Waterbodies
[Medium
Priority]b

Support
and Continue
Ongoing
Water Quality
Monitoring
Programs
[High Priority]b

---

X
--

X
--

---

---

---

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Kenosha County...................................................
None ..................................................................

---

---

---

---

---

X
--

X
--

---

---

---

Milwaukee County ................................................


Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District ........
City of Cudahy ...................................................
City of Milwaukee ...............................................
City of South Milwaukee ....................................
Village of Fox Point ............................................
North Shore Health Departmentf ...................
Village of Shorewood .........................................
Village of Whitefish Bay .....................................
Shorewood-Whitefish Bay
Health Department ....................................

--X
X
X
-X
---

--X
X
X
-X
---

X
--X
X
X
--X

X
------X
X

----------

-X
--------

-X
--------

----------

----------

X
X
--------

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Ozaukee County ...................................................


Town of FredoniaSpring Lake Protection
and Rehabilitation District (P&RD)
or Lake Associatione .....................................
Town of SaukvilleMud Lake Protection
and Rehabilitation District (P&RD)
or Lake Associatione .....................................

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Racine County ......................................................


City of Racine ....................................................
Village of North Bay ...........................................
Village of Wind Point ..........................................

-X
X
X

-X
X
X

-X
X
X

-X
X
X

-----

X
----

X
----

-----

-----

-X
---

Sheboygan County ..............................................


Village of Random Lake .....................................
Village of Random LakeRandom
Lake Association, Inc.....................................
Town of LyndonLake Ellen Sanitary
District No. 1 ..................................................

-X

-X

---

---

---

X
--

X
--

---

---

---

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Table 98 (continued)

Maintain and
Expand Public
Health-Related
Monitoring at
Beaches
[High Priority]b

Identify Local
Sources of
Contamination
by Conducting
Sanitary Surveys
at Beaches with
High Bacteria
Countsc
[High Priority]b

Implement
Remedies at
Beaches with
High Bacteria
Countsd
[High Priority]b

X
X

X
X

--

Waterfowl
Control Where
a Nuisance or
Health Hazard
[High Priority]b

Implement
and Refine
the Lakewide
Management
Plan for Lake
Michigan
[Medium
Priority]b

---

---

--

--

--

Household
Hazardous
Waste Collection
Programs
[High Priority]b

Pharmaceutical
and Personal
Care Product
Collection
Programs
[High Priority]b

Information
and Education
Programs
Regarding Exotic
Invasive Species
[Medium
Priority]b

Develop a Policy
Regarding Water
Temperatures
and Thermal
Discharges into
Waterbodies
[Medium
Priority]b

Support
and Continue
Ongoing
Water Quality
Monitoring
Programs
[High Priority]b

---

X
--

X
--

---

---

---

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Waukesha County ................................................


None ..................................................................

---

---

---

---

---

---

X
--

---

---

X
--

Regional Agency ..................................................


Southeastern Wisconsin Regional
Planning Commission ....................................

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

State of Wisconsin
Department of Administration, Coastal
Zone Management Program ..........................
Department of Natural Resources ....................
University of Wisconsin-Extension .....................
University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Program ......

-X
---

-X
---

-X
---

-----

X
X
-X

-----

-----

-X
X
X

-X
---

-X
---

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

X
--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

----

----

----

----

----

----

----

----

----

----

Management Agency
Washington County .............................................
City of West Bend ..............................................
City of West BendBarton Pond Lake
Protection and Rehabilitation District
(P&RD) or Lake Associatione ........................
Town of BartonSmith Lake Protection
and Rehabilitation District (P&RD)
or Lake Associatione .....................................
Town of BartonWallace Lake
Sanitary District .............................................
Town of FarmingtonLake Twelve
Protection and Rehabilitation District
(P&RD) or Lake Associatione ........................
Town of FarmingtonGreen Lake Property
Owners of Washington County ......................
Town of West BendBig Cedar Lake
Protection and Rehabilitation District .............
Town of West BendLittle Cedar Lake
Protection and Rehabilitation District .............
Town of West BendSilver Lake
Sanitary District and Silver Lake
Protection and Rehabilitation District .............
Town of West BendLucas Lake Protection
and Rehabilitation District (P&RD)
or Lake Associatione .....................................

Federal Agencies
U.S. Department of the Interior,
Fish & Wildlife Service ...................................
U.S. Department of the Interior,
Geological Survey .........................................
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ..............
National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration ................................................
Nongovernmental Organizations ........................
Riveredge Nature Center ...................................
Friends of Milwaukees Rivers ...........................

681

682

Table 98 (continued)

Management Agency

Expand USGS
Stream Gage
Network to Include
the Nine ShortTerm Sites
Established for
the Regional
Water Quality
Management
Plan Update
[High Priority]b

Extend Operation
of USGS Gages
on Wilson Park
Creek (3 Gages),
Holmes Avenue
Creek (1 Gage),
Mitchell Field
Drainage Ditch
(1 Gage), and the
Little Menomonee
River (1 Gage)
[High Priority]b

Dodge County.......................................................
None ..................................................................

---

---

Fond du Lac County ............................................


Town of AuburnForest Lake
Improvement Association ..............................
Town of OsceolaMud Lake Protection
and Rehabilitation District (P&RD)
or Lake Associatione .....................................
Town of OsceolaKettle Moraine
Lake Association ...........................................
Town of OsceolaLong Lake
Fishing Club, Inc. ...........................................

Establish and
Maintain LongTerm Fisheries,
Macroinvertebrate,
and Habitat
Monitoring Stations
in Streams
[Medium Priority]b

Continue
Consolidation of
Water Quality
Monitoring Data
and Adopt
Common Quality
Assurance and
Control Procedures
Along with
Standardized
Sampling Protocols
[High Priority]b

Conduct
Aquatic Plant
Habitat and
Fish Survey
Assessments in
Inland Lakes
[Medium Priority]b

---

---

Establish LongTerm Trend Inland


Lake Water Quality
Monitoring Stations
[Medium Priority]b

Continue to
Monitor and
Document the
Occurrence of
Exotic Invasive
Species
[Medium Priority]b

Maintain the
HSPF, FFS,
Streamlined
MOUSE, and
MACRO Computer
Models Developed
Under the MMSD
2020 Facilities Plan
[Medium Priority]b

Maintain the
LSPC, ECOMSED,
and RCA Computer
Models Developed
Under the
RWQMPU and
the MMSD 2020
Facilities Plan
[Medium Priority]b

---

---

---

---

---

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Kenosha County...................................................
None ..................................................................

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Milwaukee County ................................................


Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District ........
City of Cudahy ...................................................
City of Milwaukee ...............................................
City of South Milwaukee ....................................
Village of Fox Point ............................................
North Shore Health Departmentf ...................
Village of Shorewood .........................................
Village of Whitefish Bay .....................................
Shorewood-Whitefish Bay
Health Department ....................................

----------

X
X
--------

-X
--------

-X
--------

----------

----------

----------

-X
--------

----------

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Ozaukee County ...................................................


Town of FredoniaSpring Lake Protection
and Rehabilitation District (P&RD)
or Lake Associatione .....................................
Town of SaukvilleMud Lake Protection
and Rehabilitation District (P&RD)
or Lake Associatione .....................................

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Racine County ......................................................


City of Racine ....................................................
Village of North Bay ...........................................
Village of Wind Point ..........................................

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

Sheboygan County ..............................................


Village of Random Lake .....................................
Village of Random LakeRandom
Lake Association, Inc.....................................
Town of LyndonLake Ellen Sanitary
District No. 1 ..................................................

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Table 98 (continued)

Management Agency
Washington County .............................................
City of West Bend ..............................................
City of West BendBarton Pond Lake
Protection and Rehabilitation District
(P&RD) or Lake Associatione ........................
Town of BartonSmith Lake Protection
and Rehabilitation District (P&RD)
or Lake Associatione .....................................
Town of BartonWallace Lake
Sanitary District .............................................
Town of FarmingtonLake Twelve
Protection and Rehabilitation District
(P&RD) or Lake Associatione ........................
Town of FarmingtonGreen Lake Property
Owners of Washington County ......................
Town of West BendBig Cedar Lake
Protection and Rehabilitation District .............
Town of West BendLittle Cedar Lake
Protection and Rehabilitation District .............
Town of West BendSilver Lake
Sanitary District and Silver Lake
Protection and Rehabilitation District .............
Town of West BendLucas Lake Protection
and Rehabilitation District (P&RD)
or Lake Associatione .....................................

Expand USGS
Stream Gage
Network to Include
the Nine ShortTerm Sites
Established for
the Regional
Water Quality
Management
Plan Update
[High Priority]b

Extend Operation
of USGS Gages
on Wilson Park
Creek (3 Gages),
Holmes Avenue
Creek (1 Gage),
Mitchell Field
Drainage Ditch
(1 Gage), and the
Little Menomonee
River (1 Gage)
[High Priority]b

---

Establish and
Maintain LongTerm Fisheries,
Macroinvertebrate,
and Habitat
Monitoring Stations
in Streams
[Medium Priority]b

Continue
Consolidation of
Water Quality
Monitoring Data
and Adopt
Common Quality
Assurance and
Control Procedures
Along with
Standardized
Sampling Protocols
[High Priority]b

Conduct
Aquatic Plant
Habitat and
Fish Survey
Assessments in
Inland Lakes
[Medium Priority]b

---

---

---

--

--

--

--

--

--

Establish LongTerm Trend Inland


Lake Water Quality
Monitoring Stations
[Medium Priority]b

Continue to
Monitor and
Document the
Occurrence of
Exotic Invasive
Species
[Medium Priority]b

Maintain the
HSPF, FFS,
Streamlined
MOUSE, and
MACRO Computer
Models Developed
Under the MMSD
2020 Facilities Plan
[Medium Priority]b

Maintain the
LSPC, ECOMSED,
and RCA Computer
Models Developed
Under the
RWQMPU and
the MMSD 2020
Facilities Plan
[Medium Priority]b

---

---

---

---

---

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Waukesha County ................................................


None ..................................................................

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Regional Agency ..................................................


Southeastern Wisconsin Regional
Planning Commission ....................................

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

State of Wisconsin
Department of Administration, Coastal
Zone Management Program ..........................
Department of Natural Resources ....................
University of Wisconsin-Extension .....................
University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Program ......

-----

-X
---

-X
---

-X
X
--

-X
---

-X
---

-X
---

-----

-----

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

X
--

X
--

X
--

X
X

---

---

---

---

---

Federal Agencies
U.S. Department of the Interior,
Fish & Wildlife Service ...................................
U.S. Department of the Interior,
Geological Survey .........................................
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ..............
National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration ................................................
Nongovernmental Organizations ........................
Riveredge Nature Center ...................................
Friends of Milwaukees Rivers ...........................

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

----

----

----

-X
X

----

----

----

----

----

683

684

Table 98 Footnotes

aDesignation of management agencies is not required under the Federal Clean Water Act. Thus, these designations are advisory only.
bGeneralized priorities are assigned by recommendation. For certain municipalities or agencies, the priority for implementing a given recommendation may be higher or lower than the assigned priority, depending on specific circumstances and changed
conditions over time.
cNeed for sanitary survey depends on results of public health monitoring.
dNeed for remedies depends on results of public health monitoring and sanitary surveys.
eThis lake district or association does not currently exist, but is recommended to be established.
fThe North Shore Health Department includes the City of Glendale and the Villages of Brown Deer, Fox Point, and River Hills.
Source: SEWRPC.

Table 99
GOVERNMENTAL MANAGEMENT AGENCY DESIGNATIONS AND SELECTED RESPONSIBILITIES
AND PRIORITIZATION FOR THE GROUNDWATER WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN SUBELEMENT OF THE
RECOMMENDED REGIONAL WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATE FOR THE GREATER MILWAUKEE WATERSHEDSa

Groundwater
Management Agency

Map Groundwater
Recharge Areas Outside
the Southeastern
Wisconsin Region
[Low Priority]b

Consider the
Recommendations of the
Regional Water Supply Plan
Regarding Maintenance of
Groundwater Recharge Areas
[Medium Priority]b

Consider the
Recommendations of the
Regional Water Supply Plan
in Evaluating Sustainability of
Proposed Developments and
in Local Land Use Planning
[Medium Priority]b

Map Groundwater
Contamination
Potential in Areas
Outside the Southeastern
Wisconsin Region
[Low Priority]b

Consider Potential
Impacts on Groundwater
Quality of Stormwater
Infiltration from Proposed
Development
[High Priority]b

Develop and
Implement UtilitySpecific Water
Conservation Programs
[Low Priority]b

Dodge County ..............................................


Village of Lomira ................................................

X
--

X
X

X
X

X
--

X
X

X
X

Fond du Lac County ......................................


Village of Campbellsport ....................................
Village of Eden...................................................
Town of Ashford .................................................
Town of Auburn .................................................
Town of Byron ....................................................
Town of Eden.....................................................
Town of Empire ..................................................
Town of Forest ...................................................
Town of Osceola ................................................

X
----------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
----------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

Kenosha County ...........................................


Town of Paris .....................................................

---

X
X

X
X

---

X
X

X
X

Milwaukee County .........................................


City of Cudahy ...................................................
City of Franklin ...................................................
City of Glendale .................................................
City of Greenfield ...............................................
City of Milwaukee ...............................................
City of Oak Creek ..............................................
City of St. Francis ..............................................
City of South Milwaukee ....................................
City of Wauwatosa .............................................
City of West Allis ................................................
Village of Bayside ..............................................
Village of Brown Deer ........................................
Village of Fox Point ............................................
Village of Greendale ..........................................
Village of Hales Corners ....................................
Village of River Hills ...........................................
Village of Shorewood .........................................
Village of West Milwaukee .................................
Village of Whitefish Bay .....................................

---------------------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

---------------------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

Ozaukee County ...........................................


City of Cedarburg ...............................................
City of Mequon...................................................
City of Port Washington .....................................
Village of Fredonia .............................................
Village of Grafton ...............................................
Village of Newburg .............................................
Village of Saukville .............................................
Village of Thiensville ..........................................

----------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

----------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

685

686

Table 99 (continued)

Groundwater
Management Agency

Map Groundwater
Recharge Areas Outside
the Southeastern
Wisconsin Region
b
[Low Priority]

Consider the
Recommendations of the
Regional Water Supply Plan
Regarding Maintenance of
Groundwater Recharge Areas
[Medium Priority]b

Consider the
Recommendations of the
Regional Water Supply Plan
in Evaluating Sustainability of
Proposed Developments and
in Local Land Use Planning
[Medium Priority]b

Map Groundwater
Contamination
Potential in Areas
Outside the Southeastern
Wisconsin Region
b
[Low Priority]

Consider Potential
Impacts on Groundwater
Quality of Stormwater
Infiltration from Proposed
Development
[High Priority]b

Develop and
Implement UtilitySpecific Water
Conservation Programs
[Low Priority]b

Ozaukee County (continued)


Town of Cedarburg ............................................
Town of Fredonia ...............................................
Town of Grafton .................................................
Town of Port Washington...................................
Town of Saukville ...............................................

------

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

------

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

Racine County ..............................................


City of Racine ....................................................
Village of Caledonia ...........................................
Village of Mt. Pleasant .......................................
Village of North Bay ...........................................
Village of Sturtevant ...........................................
Village of Union Grove .......................................
Village of Wind Point ..........................................
Town of Dover ...................................................
Town of Norway .................................................
Town of Raymond ..............................................
Town of Yorkville ...............................................

-------------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

-------------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

Sheboygan County........................................
Village of Adell ...................................................
Village of Cascade .............................................
Village of Random Lake .....................................
Town of Greenbush ...........................................
Town of Holland .................................................
Town of Lyndon .................................................
Town of Mitchell .................................................
Town of Scott .....................................................
Town of Sherman ..............................................

X
----------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
----------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

Washington County.......................................
City of West Bend ..............................................
Village of Germantown.......................................
Village of Jackson ..............................................
Village of Kewaskum..........................................
Village of Newburg .............................................
Town of Addison ................................................
Town of Barton ..................................................
Town of Farmington ...........................................
Town of Germantown.........................................
Town of Jackson ................................................
Town of Kewaskum ...........................................
Town of Polk ......................................................
Town of Richfield ...............................................
Town of Trenton .................................................
Town of Wayne ..................................................
Town of West Bend ...........................................

------------------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

------------------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

Table 99 (continued)

Groundwater
Management Agency

Map Groundwater
Recharge Areas Outside
the Southeastern
Wisconsin Region
b
[Low Priority]

Consider the
Recommendations of the
Regional Water Supply Plan
Regarding Maintenance of
Groundwater Recharge Areas
[Medium Priority]b

Consider the
Recommendations of the
Regional Water Supply Plan
in Evaluating Sustainability of
Proposed Developments and
in Local Land Use Planning
[Medium Priority]b

Map Groundwater
Contamination
Potential in Areas
Outside the Southeastern
Wisconsin Region
b
[Low Priority]

Consider Potential
Impacts on Groundwater
Quality of Stormwater
Infiltration from Proposed
Development
[High Priority]b

Develop and
Implement UtilitySpecific Water
Conservation Programs
[Low Priority]b

Waukesha County .........................................


City of Brookfield ................................................
City of Muskego .................................................
City of New Berlin ..............................................
Village of Butler..................................................
Village of Elm Grove ..........................................
Village of Menomonee Falls...............................
Town of Brookfield .............................................
Town of Lisbon ..................................................

----------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

----------

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

aDesignation of management agencies is not required under the Federal Clean Water Act. Thus, these designations are advisory only.
bGeneralized priorities are assigned by recommendation. For certain municipalities or agencies, the priority for implementing a given recommendation may be higher or lower than the assigned priority, depending on specific circumstances and changed
conditions over time.
Source: SEWRPC.

687

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

CHAPTER 6: ESTIMATE THE LOAD REDUCTIONS AND OTHER


BENEFITS EXPECTED FROM MANAGEMENT MEASURES
6.1

Introduction

Chapters 1 through 5 of this watershed restoration plan (WRP) have described the goals for the
Kinnickinnic River watershed, identified and quantified the pollutant loads from all of the
sources, and listed a suite of existing and recommended management measures. The next step is
to determine the potential benefit that would result from implementing each of the potential
management measures. These potential benefits are needed to: (a) determine if the proposed
management measures will be sufficient to achieve the desired watershed goals, and (b) to help
prioritize the most effective measures.
One useful way to determine the potential benefits of the management measures is to quantify
the expected load reductions. Pollutant load reductions directly translate into improved water
quality and are an easy way to convey information to the general public. However, it is difficult
to develop quantifiable load reductions for all of the issues of concern within the Kinnickinnic
River watershed. For example, some goals (e.g., improved aesthetics) are only indirectly related
to pollutant loads and trying to link them to one or even a few specific pollutants and source
loads is difficult or inappropriate. Therefore, this chapter reports not only the expected load
reductions for those management measures for which information exists, but also includes a
description of measures for which load reductions cannot be quantified.
Also included is the priority rating for the various actions based upon Southeastern Wisconsin
Regional Planning Commissions (SEWRPC) Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update
(RWQMPU). These priorities were offered as a starting point for further discussion with the
Southeastern Wisconsin Watersheds Trust, Inc. (SWWT) and Watershed Action Team (WAT).
Modifications to the priority ratings and additional actions developed by the SWWT committees
are presented in Chapter 7. The recommended implementation schedule is presented in Chapter
8.
6.2
Expected Load Reductions from the Regional Water Quality Management Plan
Update
To support the development of the Kinnickinnic River WRP, the models that were developed to
support the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) 2020 Facilities Plan (2020 FP)
and the RWQMPU were updated to run through December 31, 2007. The purpose of this update
was to account for the known changes in the watershed that occurred during earlier model
development. The updated modeling results for the Kinnickinnic River watershed model were
found to accurately simulate observed flows and water quality conditions and were used to
support development of the WRP.
Expected load reductions for the Kinnickinnic River watershed were estimated from the
modeling that was completed to support the 2020 FP, the RWQMPU, and the Kinnickinnic River
WRP. In some ways, these load reductions represent an upper estimate of the load reductions
that could be achieved in the watershed because they are based on full implementation of a
variety of management measures that were deemed to be possible during development of the
RWQMPU. However, it should be noted that several management measures included in this

6-1

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

WRP (e.g., the statewide ban on phosphorus in fertilizers) were not included in the model runs.
Furthermore, better information continues to be gathered about the significance of some of the
key pollutant sources in the watershed (e.g., illicit sewer connections and other unknown sources
of fecal coliform). It is therefore possible that load reductions greater than those anticipated for
the RWQMPU could eventually be realized.
The modeling results for the major components of the RWQMPU are summarized in Table 6-1,
Figure 6-1 and Figure 6-2 and reveal several significant outcomes:
Loads of total suspended solids (TSS) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) increase
from Baseline Year 2000 to Planned 2020 Future with Planned Growth conditions
whereas total phosphorus (TP) loads stay about the same and fecal coliform loads
slightly decrease.
Implementation of Wis. Admin. Code Natural Resources (NR) 151 Runoff Management,
(non-Agriculture [Ag] only), as called for under the RWQMPU, results in an 11% decrease
in TP loads, a 24% decrease in TSS loads, a 12% decrease in BOD loads, and a 13%
decrease in fecal coliform loads, relative to planned 2020 future with planned growth
conditions.
Implementation of the Point Source Plan, as called for under the RWQMPU, results in
additional load reductions of 7% for TP, 1% for TSS, 3% for BOD, and 21% for fecal
coliform, relative to planned 2020 future with NR 151(non-Ag only) conditions.
Implementation of the remaining measures in the recommended RWQMPU results in
additional load reductions of 4% for TP and 29% for fecal coliform, relative to the
planned 2020 future with point source plan (5-Year LOP). No additional load reductions
are predicted for TSS or BOD.

6-2

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

TABLE 6-1
PROJECTED EFFECTIVENESS OF ACTIONS PLANNED PRIOR TO THE INITIATION OF THE
WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN
TP

TSS

BOD

(LBS/YR)

(TONS/YR)

(LB/YR)

Fecal
Coliform
(COUNTS/YR)

A. Baseline Year 2000

12,777

2,649

408,478

4.89E+15

B. Planned 2020 Future with Planned


Growth

12,756

2,731

414,343

4.81E+15

C. Planned 2020 Future with NR 151 (nonAg only)

11,413

2,064

363,241

4.17E+15

D. Planned 2020 Future Load Reductions


with NR 151 (non-Ag only) (B-C)

-1,343

-667

-51,102

-6.40E+14

E. Planned 2020 Future Percent


Reduction with NR 151 (non-Ag only)
(B vs. C)

-11%

-24%

-12%

-13%

F. Planned 2020 Future with Point Source


Plan (5-Year LOP)

10,600

2,040

351,781

3.28E+15

G. Planned 2020 Future Load Reductions


with the Point Source Plan (C-F)

-813

-24

-11,460

-8.90E+14

H. Additional Percent Reduction from the


Point Source Plan (C vs. F)

-7%

-1%

-3%

-21%

I. RWQMPU Recommended Plan

10,181

2,048

350,492

2.32E+15

J. RWQMPU Additional Planned


Reductions (F-I)

-419

-1,289

-9.60E+14

K. RWQMPU Recommended Plan


Additional Percent Reduction (F vs. I)

-4%

0%

0%

-29%

L. RWQMPU Planned 2020 Future


Reductions vs. Baseline (A-I)

-2,596

-601

-57,986

-2.57E+15

M. RWQMPU Planned 2020 Future


Percent Reductions vs. Baseline (A-I)

-20%

-23%

-14%

-53%

Notes:
BOD = Biochemical oxygen demand
LOP = Level of protection
NR 151 = Wis. Admin. Code Natural Resources (Chapter NR) 151, Runoff Management
TP = Total phosphorus
TSS = Total suspended solids
Negative values and percentages indicate load reductions between planned actions being compared.

6-3

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

14

450
400
350

10

BOD (1,000 lbs/yr)

TP (1,000 lbs/yr)

12

8
6
4
2

250
200
150
100
50

5.E+12

3,000

Fecal coliform (counts/yr)

2,500
TSS (tons/yr)

300

2,000
1,500
1,000
500
0

4.E+12
3.E+12
2.E+12
1.E+12
0.E+00

Baseline
Year 2020 with planned growth no management measures
Year 2020 with NR 151 (non-Ag only) implementation only
Year 2020 with NR 151 (non-Ag only) and Point Source Plan (5Year LOP)
RWQMPU Recommended Plan includes NR 151 (non-Ag only),
Point Source Plan and other recommendations
FIGURE 6-1: PROJECTED ANNUAL LOADS BY PARAMETER FOR THE MAJOR COMPONENTS OF
THE REGIONAL WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATE

6-4

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

BOD Annual Load

TP Annual Load
0%

0%

-11%

-11%

-22%

-22%

-33%

-33%

-44%

-44%

-55%

-55%

Fecal Coliform Annual Load

TSS Annual Load


0%

0%

-11%

-11%

-22%

-22%

-33%

-33%

-44%

-44%

-55%

-55%

Year 2020 with planned growth no management measures


Year 2020 with NR 151(non-Ag only) implementation only
Year 2020 with NR 151(non-Ag only) and Point Source Plan (5-Year
LOP)
RWQMPU Recommended Plan includes NR 151(non-Ag only),
Point Source Plan and other recommendations
FIGURE 6-2: PERCENT REDUCTION IN ANNUAL LOADS BY PARAMETER FOR THE MAJOR
COMPONENTS OF THE REGIONAL WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATE, RELATIVE
TO THE BASELINE
Notes:
Percent is calculated as the difference between the component and baseline conditions divided by baseline conditions.
The absence of a bar representing Year 2020 with planned growth no management measures indicates that no material
reductions are projected for that parameter, relative to the baseline.

6-5

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

The remainder of this section presents the individual load reductions and other anticipated
benefits for each of the specific management measures presented in Chapter 5. A summary of
the load reductions and other benefits of actions included in this WRP is shown in Table 6-2.
TABLE 6-2
EFFECTIVENESS OF REGIONAL WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATE
RECOMMENDED ACTIONS
Management
Measure

TP

TSS

BOD

Fecal
Coliform

Chlorides

Flow/Habitat

No impact

No impact

No impact

Only minor
impacts expected

Phosphorus
1
fertilizer ban

20%
No impact
reduction in
loads from
residential
grass

MMSD Chapter 13
revisions

Only minor Only minor Only minor Only minor Only minor
10 to 20%
impacts
impacts
impacts
impacts
impacts
reduction in peak
expected
expected
expected
expected
expected
runoff rate from
disturbed areas
(Note: Those
reductions do not
translate into instream reductions
of 10 to 20%.)

Programs to detect
and eliminate illicit
discharges

Only minor Only minor Only minor Potential Only minor


Only minor
impacts
impacts
impacts
16 - 48%
impacts
impacts expected
expected
expected
expected reduction in expected
watershed
2
loads

Expand riparian
areas

8%
8%
Only minor Only minor Only minor Significant benefit
reduction in reduction in impacts
impacts
impacts
to habitat
watershed watershed expected
expected
expected
loads
loads

Manage pet litter

Only minor Only minor Only minor


50%
Only minor
Only minor
impacts
impacts
impacts reduction in impacts
impacts expected
expected
expected
expected loads from expected
residential
grass

Concrete channel
renovation and
rehabilitation

Only minor Only minor Only minor Only minor Only minor Significant benefit
impacts
impacts
impacts
impacts
impacts
to habitat
expected
expected
expected
expected
expected

6-6

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

TABLE 6-2 Continued


EFFECTIVENESS OF REGIONAL WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATE
RECOMMENDED ACTIONS
Management
Measure

TP

TSS

BOD

Fecal
Coliform

Chlorides

Flow/Habitat

Limit number of
Only minor Only minor Only minor Only minor Only minor Significant benefit
culverts, bridges,
impacts
impacts
impacts
impacts
impacts
to habitat
drop structures, and expected
expected
expected
expected
expected
channelized stream
segments
Remove abandoned Only minor Only minor Only minor Only minor Only minor Significant benefit
bridges and culverts impacts
impacts
impacts
impacts
impacts
to habitat
expected
expected
expected
expected
expected
Protect remaining
natural stream
channels

Only minor Only minor Only minor Only minor Only minor Significant benefit
impacts
impacts
impacts
impacts
impacts
to habitat
expected
expected
expected
expected
expected

Restore, enhance,
and rehabilitate
stream channels

Only minor Only minor Only minor Only minor Only minor Significant benefit
impacts
impacts
impacts
impacts
impacts
to habitat
expected
expected
expected
expected
expected

Road salt reduction

Only minor
impacts
expected

Rain barrels/rain
gardens program
(30% of homes)

1.5%
1%
Only minor
10%
Only minor
reduction in reduction in impacts reduction in impacts
watershed watershed expected watershed expected
loads
loads
loads

No impact

No impact

No impact Potential for


Only minor
20%
impacts expected
reduction
2% decrease in
flashiness

Notes:
BOD = Biochemical oxygen demand
TP = Total phosphorus
TSS = Total suspended solids
The RWQMPU recommended a reduction in the use of fertilizers this new Phosphorus Ban exceeds the RWQMPU
recommendation.
The RWQMPU assumed that 33% of illicit discharges would be eliminated, which corresponds to a 16% reduction in watershed
loads. Elimination of more than 33% of illicit discharges would result in load reductions that exceed the reductions noted in the
RWQMPU. If 100% of the discharges were eliminated, the watershed load of fecal coliforms would be reduced by 48%.

6.2.1 Committed Programs


Committed programs include efforts that are already well underway and will continue or those
that can be expected to be implemented because they are regulatory requirements.
Wis. Admin. Code Natural Resources (NR) 151 Runoff Management
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update high priority)
The expected load reductions from the urban requirements of NR 151 were quantified during the
development of the 2020 FP, the RWQMPU, and this WRP. A combination of best management
practices (BMPs) is anticipated to be used to meet these requirements, including vacuum

6-7

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

sweeping of streets and parking lots, infiltration systems, parking lot implementation of multichambered treatment train (MCTTs), and wet detention basins.
Compared to Year 2000 Baseline conditions, the impact of this rule will result in load reductions
that range from 11% for TP to 15% for fecal coliform as shown in Figure 6-2.
Programs to detect and eliminate illicit discharges and control pathogens that are harmful to
public health
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update high priority)
As shown in Chapter 4, unknown sources are considered to contribute approximately 60% of the
fecal coliform load to the Kinnickinnic River watershed. These sources may be caused by illicit
connections to the storm sewer system, leaking sewers, or other unidentified sources. A bacterial
identification program could therefore be very effective at reducing loads if it can pinpoint the
specific nature and location of these sources and if they can be removed. As recommended in
the RWQMPU, to address the threats to public health and degradation of water quality resulting
from human-specific pathogens and viruses entering stormwater systems, each municipality in
the study area should implement a program consisting of the following:
1) Enhanced storm sewer outfall monitoring to test for fecal coliform bacteria in dry- and
wet-weather discharges
2) Molecular tests for presence or absence of human-specific strains at outfalls where high
fecal coliform counts are found in the initial dry-weather screenings
3) Additional dry-weather screening upstream of outfalls where human-specific strains are
found to be present, with the goal of isolating the source of the discharge
4) Elimination of illicit discharges that were detected through the program described in the
preceding three steps
Additionally, comments received during the development of this WRP recommended monitoring
and testing of sewer infrastructure in the vicinity of new construction projects or new sewer
connection projects.
It is anticipated that the program outlined above would also identify cases where the unknown
fecal coliform sources are not illicit connections and the primary source of bacteria is stormwater
runoff. Examples could include nonpoint sources such as parks along streams where people
walk their dogs or impervious surfaces with large numbers of waterfowl. To adequately assess
the appropriate way to deal with such bacterial sources (and the potentially associated
pathogens), it is recommended that public health and ecological risk assessments be conducted to
address pathogens in stormwater runoff. Depending on the findings of the risk assessments,
consideration should be given to pursuing innovative means of identifying and controlling
possible pathogen sources in stormwater runoff.
Combined Sewer Overflow / Sanitary Sewer Overflow Reduction Program (Point Source Plan)
(Sanitary Sewer Overflow: Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update high priority,
Combined Sewer Overflow: Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update medium priority)
The expected load reductions from the existing Point Source Plan were quantified during the
development of the 2020 FP, the RWQMPU, and the Kinnickinnic River WRP. Relative to the
Planned 2020 Future with NR 151 (non-Ag only) condition, these additional load reductions are

6-8

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

anticipated to range from less than 1% for TSS to 21% for fecal coliform and are presented in
Figure 6-1 and Figure 6-2.
Industrial noncontact cooling water discharges
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update, included but not prioritized)
There are 14 known noncontact cooling water dischargers in the Kinnickinnic River watershed
and, as shown in Chapter 4, these dischargers are a significant source of TP. It is believed that
the phosphorus is contained in the source water because the two water utilities within the
watershed, Milwaukee Water Works and the city of Cudahy Water Utility, both add a
phosphorus compound to their drinking water. The phosphorus compounds are added as
corrosion control to prevent certain metals from leaching from distribution systems and building
plumbing materials into the treated water. Given the public health benefits involved and the
reliability of the current technology, the Milwaukee Water Works has indicated that it would not
consider changing its current practice.
Recognizing the public health benefits involved, it is not recommended that the water utilities
end their current practice. It is, however, recommended that various groups (universities, the
Milwaukee 7 Water Council, etc.) and water utilities in the study area give further consideration
to changing to an alternative technology that does not increase phosphorus loading if such a
technology is both effective in controlling corrosion in pipes and cost-effective for the utility to
implement. This development would have watershed-wide significance as well as the potential
to revolutionize a national (and perhaps world-wide) practice.
Industrial stormwater
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update, included but not prioritized)
Pollutant loads from industrial point sources are represented in the water quality model based on
permitted discharge limits. No changes to these permit limits are assumed to occur between the
existing and the future water quality models.
Wisconsin Pollutant Discharge Elimination System stormwater permits (Municipal Separate
Storm Sewer System)
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update, included but not prioritized)
The requirements placed on the Wisconsin Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (WPDES)
stormwater permittees in the Kinnickinnic River watershed are described in Chapter 5. These
requirements include a number of specific management measures that are individually described
elsewhere in this chapter, such as illicit discharge detection and elimination as well as postconstruction stormwater management.
Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District Chapter 13 revisions
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update, included but not prioritized)
Proposed revisions to the MMSD surface water and storm water rules (Chapter 13) stipulate
additional runoff management requirements for redevelopment. Based on the models developed
for the 2020 FP and the RWQMPU, these requirements are anticipated to reduce peak flow from
the re-developed area by 10 to 20%, as summarized below. Reduced peak flow will also lead to
reduced loads of a variety of pollutants, including TSS, TP, BOD, and fecal coliform.
1) If demolition or construction during redevelopment will disturb an area larger than 2
acres, then the redevelopment shall include runoff management techniques that will
6-9

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

reduce the runoff release rate by the amount listed in the following table for the 1% / 100year and 50% / 2-year storms, unless runoff management is required according to sec.
13.10(2), MMSD rules or if the exclusions of sec. 13.10(3)(a), (c), or (e) apply.

Area Disturbed by Demolition


or Construction

Reduction to the Existing


Runoff Release Rate from
the Site

Between 2 acres and 3.5 acres

10%

From 3.5 to 5 acres

15%

Greater than 5 acres

20%

2) If soil or groundwater contamination or other site features make the runoff release rate
reduction required by sub. (1) unreasonably stringent, then the redevelopment shall
achieve the greatest practicable reduction. The site development storm water
management plan shall describe the features that restrict runoff management options and
the reasons for the proposed runoff management techniques.
6.2.2 Other Management Strategies in Various Stages of Implementation
This section discusses the potential effectiveness of a range of other management strategies that
are being implemented to some degree in the Kinnickinnic River watershed.
Stream channel dredging
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update high priority)
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Wisconsin Department of Natural
Resources (WDNR) began work on a $22 million stream channel dredging project of the
Kinnickinnic River in June 2009. The project is intended to remove 170,000 cubic yards of
contaminated sediment between Becher Street and Kinnickinnic Avenue. The cleanup will result
in the removal of about 1,200 pounds of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 13,000 pounds of
polyaromatic hydrocarbons (a byproduct of petroleum) that are contaminating the river. The
dredged material will be transported by barge and disposed in a special cell within the
Milwaukee Area Confined Disposal Facility at Jones Island, owned by the city of Milwaukee
and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
Maintain and preserve environmentally significant lands
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update high priority)
The Districts Greenseams Program is an important example of ongoing efforts to maintain and
preserve environmentally significant lands. The purpose of Greenseams is to purchase natural
wetlands to retain stormwater and reduce the risk of future flooding problems. Although no
Greenseams projects currently exist in the Kinnickinnic River watershed, this WRP recommends
that they be initiated. Purchased properties provide multiple benefits to the local community in
the form of open space and wildlife habitat. The preservation of open space and wildlife habitat
provides the public with passive recreation opportunities to quietly enjoy natural settings without
extensive public facilities.

6-10

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

Note: increased recreational opportunities will benefit the Kinnickinnic River watershed.
Recreation can increase awareness of the river as well as impact amenity value, personal
relationships to the river, and community connections necessary to provide the financial
resources necessary to address water quality concerns.
Expand riparian buffers and maintain groundwater seepage
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update high priority)
Modeling conducted in support of the 2020 FP, the RWQMPU, and the Kinnickinnic River WRP
indicated that the expansion of riparian areas in a rural portion of the Root River watershed
would reduce loads of TSS, TP, and total nitrogen (TN) to the stream by approximately 8%.
This is consistent with values found in the general literature, including urban areas, and is
therefore considered a good approximation for the Kinnickinnic River watershed. While
planning for expansion of riparian buffers, note that ongoing maintenance is an important
consideration for these areas.
Riparian litter and debris control
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update high priority)
Efforts to remove litter and debris from riparian areas of the Kinnickinnic River watershed will
greatly improve the aesthetic value of the streams and could also result in improved habitat
conditions for aquatic life. The SEWRPC indicates that addressing aesthetics also includes the
management of invasive species and the rehabilitation of in-stream and riparian habitat for both
human purposes as well as ecological purposes. See SEWRPCs MR-194 in Appendix 4A for a
complete discussion of impairments and response.
Research and implement projects focused on nonpoint pollution controls
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update high priority)
A great deal of information is already available on the effectiveness of various nonpoint source
pollution controls using the work completed for the RWQMPU. However, this WRP
recommends that studies be continued to refine those practices that make the most sense for the
Kinnickinnic River watershed, both in terms of environmental benefit and acceptance by local
stakeholders. This refinement should include continuation of the MMSDs yearly nonpoint
demonstration projects with an emphasis on documentation of the source reduction data. Future
work should include analysis of the performance of the various demonstration projects already
funded.
To the extent practicable, protect remaining natural stream channels including small
tributaries and shoreland wetlands
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update high priority)
Riparian habitat conditions can have a strong influence on water quality and existing natural
stream channels should be protected. Wooded riparian buffers are a vital functional component
of stream ecosystems and are instrumental in the detention, removal, and assimilation of
nutrients, soil, and other pollutants from or by the water column. Therefore, a stream with good
riparian habitat is better able to prevent erosion and moderate the impacts of high nutrient loads
than a stream with poor habitat. Wooded riparian buffers can also provide shading that reduces
stream temperatures and increase the dissolved oxygen (DO) saturation capacity of the stream.

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Continue collection programs for household hazardous wastes and expand such programs to
communities that currently do not have them
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update high priority)
Leftover household products that contain corrosive, toxic, ignitable, or reactive ingredients are
considered to be household hazardous waste. Common products include paints, cleaners, oils,
batteries, and pesticides. Improper disposal of household hazardous wastes include pouring them
down the drain, on the ground, into storm sewers, or putting them in the trash. Collection
programs allow communities to safety dispose of these wastes, thus protecting the environment
and reducing threats to public health.
Continue and possibly expand current Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District, Wisconsin
Department of Natural Resources, and U.S. Geological Survey water quality monitoring
programs, including Phases II and III of the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District
Corridor Study
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update high priority)
Continued agency water quality monitoring will be essential to track the progress of the
management measures included in the WRP.
Continue and possibly expand U.S. Geological Survey stream gauging program
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update high priority)
Continued stream gauging efforts will be essential to track the progress of the management
measures included in the WRP. The MMSD plans to install 4 real-time water quality monitoring
stations in the Kinnickinnic River watershed in the future.

Continue citizen-based water quality monitoring efforts


(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update high priority)
Continued citizen-based water quality monitoring will be essential to track the progress of the
management measures included in the WRP. See Appendix 4A for recommendations for citizenbased monitoring.

Manage pet litter


(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update medium priority)
Improved pet litter management can be accomplished through a variety of efforts, including fines
for failure to comply with established ordinances and a public education program that includes
signs, pick-up bags and receptacles in key areas as well as inclusion of pet litter control in overall
public water quality informational brochures and newsletters. The effectiveness of a pet litter
control program is dependent on its implementation and enforcement, but could result in an
approximate 50% reduction in fecal coliform loads from grassed residential areas.
Renovation of Kinnickinnic River Flushing Station
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update medium priority)
The Kinnickinnic River flushing system pumps water from Lake Michigan into the river and was
constructed in the early 1900s to improve water quality in the lower reach of the Kinnickinnic
River. In 2002, a preliminary engineering study reviewed options for renovating the intake and
the outlet structures of the system. The intake structure was noted as being severely deteriorated
and a public safety hazard. The outlet structure was filled with silt and debris that could not be

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easily removed because of access issues. The buildup of silt and debris were thought to be
significantly reducing the capacity of the pump station and the ability of the system to improve
the downstream water quality of the Kinnickinnic River. Rehabilitation of the flushing station is
planned to occur from 2012 through 2014 and will lead to improved downstream water quality,
especially for DO.
Concrete channel renovation and rehabilitation (includes drop structures)
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update medium priority)
A significant portion of the streams in the Kinnickinnic River watershed consist of concrete
channels and there are an estimated 259 structures within the 1% probability floodplain. To
partially address this problem, a project is underway to rehabilitate approximately 12,000 linear
feet of concrete channel liner from South Chase Avenue to South 27th Street. The rehabilitation
consists of replacing the concrete channel liner, where feasible, with a bioengineered channel
alternative. Once completed, this project will result in a channel with vastly improved habitat for
aquatic life and potential improvements to flashiness and water quality. For example, flashiness
could improve to the extent that additional floodplain storage is created and water quality could
improve if the new channel is less conducive to excessive algal growth. Note that hazardous
materials assessments should be considered during planning and design of channel renovation
and rehabilitation projects; some concrete channels overlay contaminated soils
Limit number of culverts, bridges, drop structures, and channelized stream segments and
incorporate design measures to allow for passage of aquatic life
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update medium priority)
The significant number of culverts, bridges, drop structures, and channelized stream segments
located along the Kinnickinnic River and its tributaries severely limit the amount of suitable
habitat. Efforts to limit such structures will be critical to attracting and retaining desired fish and
macroinvertebrate communities.
Remove abandoned bridges and culverts or reduce culvert length
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update medium priority)
Abandoned bridges and extended culverts also limit the amount of suitable habitat within the
watershed and serve as barriers to aquatic life. Efforts to remove the bridges and reduce the
culvert lengths are needed to attract and retain desired fish and macroinvertebrate communities.
Restore, enhance, and rehabilitate stream channels to provide improved water quality and
quantity of available fisheries habitat
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update medium priority)
Habitat management efforts should focus on maintaining and restoring the riparian functions that
are often lost when streams are channelized or riparian areas are otherwise encroached upon.
High quality channel habitats with intact riparian zones and natural channel morphology may
improve water quality by assimilating excess nutrients directly into plant biomass (e.g., trees and
macrophytes), by sequestering nutrients into invertebrate and vertebrate biomass, by deflecting
nutrients into the immediate riparian zone during overland (flood) flow events, and by reducing
sunlight through shading.

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Monitor fish and macroinvertebrate populations


(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update medium priority)
Enhanced monitoring of fish and macroinvertebrate populations will be essential to track the
progress of the management measures included in the WRP. Biological monitoring provides
direct information on one of the ultimate goals of the WRP (improved biology) and also can
provide important insight into other aspects of general watershed health (e.g., habitat and water
quality conditions).
Continue and support of programs to reduce the spread of exotic invasive species, including
public education programs
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update medium priority)
Invasive species are alien species whose introduction causes economic or environmental harm or
harm to public health. Invasive species can affect aquatic ecosystems directly or by affecting the
land in ways that harm aquatic ecosystems. Common sources of aquatic invasive species include
introduction of ballast water, aquaculture escapes, and accidental and/or intentional
introductions, among others. Public education programs are therefore one important way to
attempt to control the spread of invasive species.
Continue maintenance of Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District conveyance system
modeling tools
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update medium priority)
Continued maintenance of the MMSD conveyance system modeling tools is an important
activity because the tools allow for decision makers to evaluate the potential benefits of a variety
of conveyance system improvements.
Continue maintenance of watershed-wide riverine water quality models (Loading Simulation
Program in C++)
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update medium priority)
Continued maintenance of the watershed-wide riverine water quality models is an important
activity because the tools allow for decision makers to evaluate the potential benefits of a variety
of management measures, including many of those included in this WRP.
Develop according to approved land use plans
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update, included but not prioritized)
The land use plans are linked to watershed modeling; therefore, development according to the
approved plans should be sought. Adherence to the plans will increase the chances for success at
achieving the water quality goals.
6.2.3 Management Strategies Recommended for Implementation in the Regional Water
Quality Management Plan Update, but Not Yet Implemented
This section describes the management strategies recommended for implementation in the
RWQMPU but not yet initiated within the Kinnickinnic River watershed.

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Bacterial ID Program
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update high priority)
As shown in Chapter 4, unknown sources are considered to contribute approximately 60% of the
fecal coliform load to the Kinnickinnic River watershed. These sources may be caused by illicit
connections to the storm sewer system, leaking sewers, or other unidentified sources. A bacterial
identification program could therefore be very effective at reducing loads it if is successful in
better pinpointing the specific nature and location of these sources so that they can be removed.
Implement chloride reduction programs
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update high priority)
Water quality monitoring data set forth in SEWRPC Technical Report No. 39 indicated that
chloride concentrations in the Kinnickinnic River have been increasing. Mean chloride
concentration at all of the stations except the station at South 1st Street were between 34% and
50% higher during the period 1998-2001 than they were during the period 1975-1986. At the
South 1st Street station, mean chloride concentrations during the period 1998-2001 were similar
to mean chloride concentrations during the period 1975-1986. A recent study conducted by the
U.S. Geological Survey and the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, included as Appendix
5A, showed very high chloride concentrations in area streams, including Wilson Park Creek.
It is therefore recommended that the municipalities and counties in the study area continue to
evaluate their practices regarding the application of chlorides for ice and snow control and strive
to obtain optimal application rates to ensure public safety without applying more chlorides than
necessary for that purpose. Municipalities should also consider alternatives to current ice and
snow control programs and implement educational programs that provide information about
alternative ice and snow control measures in public and private parking lots, optimal application
rates in such areas, alternative water softening media, and the use of more-efficient water
softeners that are regenerated based upon the amount of water used and the quality of the water.
Limited information is available regarding the effectiveness of road salt reduction programs to
reduce chloride loads to streams. However, a TMDL implementation plan prepared for the
Shingle Creek watershed in Minnesota concluded that a 71% reduction could be achieved by
implementing a plan based on the following five principles:1
Use appropriate snow plow techniques
Select, store, and apply materials appropriately
Encourage communication between applicators
Foster stewardship through improved applicator awareness
Communicate with the public
Both in the RWQMPU and this WRP, efforts were undertaken to develop a mass balance
model to reflect the impacts of reduced chloride use on watershed water quality. In both
instances, the data available (both salt use and water quality data) were inadequate to develop
any meaningful results.
1

Wenck Associates, Shingle Creek Chloride TMDL Implementation Plan, prepared for the Shingle Creek Water
Management Commission (February 2007)

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Restore wetlands, woodlands, and grasslands adjacent to the stream channels and establish
riparian buffers
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update high priority)
The expected load reductions from converting croplands to wetlands were modeled during the
development of the 2020 FP, the RWQMPU, and the Kinnickinnic River WRP. Load reductions
of 13% for TP, 20% for TSS, 18% for fecal coliform, and 16% for BOD were predicted
assuming conversion of 15% of the cropland. The results are not directly relevant to the
Kinnickinnic River watershed because of the lack of cropland, but comparable results could be
expected from the conversion of residential and certain impervious land uses.
Implement programs to discourage unacceptably high numbers of waterfowl from
congregating near water features
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update high priority)
Waterfowl control measures are various methods that can be used to reduce the waterfowl
population around waterways. The measures include chemical repellent; planting buffer strips of
tall grasses, plants, or shrubs; and erecting a barrier, possibly a stone wall, hedge, or plastic
fencing along the shoreline. However, the use of chemicals and unnatural physical barriers would be
less desirable than planting buffer strips of natural tall grasses, plants, or shrubs.

Waterfowl droppings are believed to be a major contributor to coliform in waterways, although


their loads have not been quantified for the Kinnickinnic River watershed and therefore it is not
possible to quantify the potential load reductions from this management measure.
Implement collection programs for expired and unused household pharmaceuticals and
personal care products
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update high priority)
A program to collect household pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) within the
watershed should be initiated to allow communities to safely dispose of PPCPs, thus protecting
the environment and reducing threats to public health. Establish partnerships with health care
facilities, senior citizen care facilities and pharmacies to identify opportunities and implement programs
to reduce PPCP waste.

Disconnect residential roof drains from sanitary and combined sewers and infiltrate roof
runoff, including rain barrels and rain gardens
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update medium priority)
Efforts are already underway to promote the use of rain barrels and rain gardens within the
Kinnickinnic River watershed. For example, a rain garden including 10,000 plants was
dedicated in July 2009 at Holler Park and residents and investors will be taught how to create
ponds in their backyards and in their local parks.
The expected load reductions from residential roof drain disconnections were modeled during the
development of the 2020 FP, the RWQMPU and the Kinnickinnic River WRP using the
following assumptions:
Rain barrels and downspout disconnection were applied to 15% of the residences. The
modelers assumed that downspouts serve approximately 50% of the impervious area on
residential lots, so the effective application rate to residential impervious area was 7.5%.
Rain barrels will presumably be used for horticultural irrigation and the overflow from
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rain barrels is also supposed to be routed to pervious areas. Therefore, the water routed
through rain barrels was modeled as a lateral surface input on pervious land areas.
Rain gardens/bioretention cells and downspout disconnection were assumed to apply to a
different 15% of new and existing residences. As with rain barrels, it was assumed that
50% of the impervious area on the lots is routed to these structures, for an effective
application rate of 7.5%. The rain gardens were simulated as an infiltration BMP.
Load reductions of fecal coliform, TSS and TP are expected because stormwater plays a
prominent role in transporting these pollutants to the Kinnickinnic River. Also, actions that
reduce TSS loads often result in coincident reductions in TP loads because some forms of
phosphorus compounds are frequently attached to TSS. Ultimately, actions that reduce or slow
stormwater runoff typically result in reduced fecal coliform, TP and TSS loads. The results of
this analysis indicated that fecal coliform loads could be reduced by approximately 10%, with
TSS and TP loads reduced by 1.5 and 1%, respectively. In addition, the rain gardens and rain
barrels were predicted to decrease flashiness by approximately 2% (based on an analysis done on
Underwood Creek).
Conduct assessments and evaluations on the significance for public health and aquatic and
terrestrial wildlife of the presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in surface
waters
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update medium priority)
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products are used by individuals for personal health or
cosmetic reasons or used by agribusiness to enhance growth or health of livestock. The PPCPs
comprise a diverse collection of thousands of chemical substances, including prescription and
over-the-counter therapeutic drugs, veterinary drugs, fragrances, and cosmetics. Studies have
shown that pharmaceuticals are present in our nation's waterbodies and some research suggests
that certain drugs may cause ecological harm. This WRP recommends that an evaluation be
conducted regarding the potential significance of this issue within the Kinnickinnic River
watershed.
Establish long-term fisheries and macroinvertebrate monitoring stations
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update medium priority)
Long-term fisheries and macroinvertebrate monitoring stations should be established to allow
decision makers to track progress in the health and diversity of the aquatic community.
Establish long-term aquatic habitat monitoring stations
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update medium priority)
Long-term habitat monitoring stations should be established to allow decision makers to track
progress in improving aquatic habitat.
Monitor exotic and invasive species
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update medium priority)
Monitoring of exotic and invasive species should be conducted to determine if the management
measures to control their growth are having the desired impact.

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Follow recommendations of the regional water supply plan regarding maintenance of


groundwater recharge areas
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update medium priority)
Following the recommendations of the regional water supply plan regarding maintenance of
groundwater will help ensure that recharge areas will benefit the watershed by improving the
likelihood that a clean and sufficient supply of groundwater is available.
Consider more intensive fisheries management measures where warranted
(Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update medium priority)
More intensive fisheries manipulation may be needed to restore the fishery in the Kinnickinnic
River and should be considered as one element of this WRP.
6.3

Prioritization of Management Measures

Effective implementation of this WRP requires the prioritization of the identified management
measures so that limited resources are directed toward those efforts that are most likely to be
effective. Measures must also be prioritized so that lessons learned from certain measures can be
used to inform efforts scheduled to take place at a later date. Notes have been added to Section
6.2 to show the prioritization of the actions based upon the RWQMPU. This prioritization must
be evaluated and either confirmed or revised by the SWWT and WAT.
This process of prioritization is documented in Chapter 7. Input on prioritization was received
through comments from the review of Chapters 4, 5 and 6 by the stakeholders for the WRP
(SWWT, WAT, SEWRPC and MMSD).
6.4
Water Quality Improvements Estimated with the Regional Water Quality
Management Plan Update
Implementation of the management measures identified in this WRP should result in improved
conditions within the Kinnickinnic River watershed. Although many of these improvements
cannot be easily quantified, the water quality models have been used to evaluate the potential
significance of several of them, all of which are called for under the RWQMPU. These include
meeting NR 151 standards beyond those achieved under the Baseline Year 2000 condition, the
Point Source Plan, and additional measures called for under the RWQMPU. These measures
will contribute to some reduction in phosphorus loads due to various fertilizer management
efforts. However, the model results will probably underestimate the TP load reduction because
they did not account for the statewide fertilizer ban. These improvements are presented in the
following sections by assessment point and are based on the scoring guidelines summarized in
Table 6-3. The table presents data from the Baseline 2000, Baseline 2020 (year 2020 planned
growth no management measures), and Plan 2020 (full implementation of the RWQMPU)
conditions. Additional information about each metric is provided in the following sections:
Flashiness
The assessments were based upon interpolations of box-and-whisker charts provided in Baker et
al. Consistent with the index, the range of flashiness values is partitioned into quartiles and the
highest flashiness values corresponding to poor conditions. The assessments are based off of
quartile assignments.

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DO-Minimum (May-Oct)
The percentage compliance is the percent of hours per summer season during the 10-year
modeling period that the 5.0 mg/L minimum target is met. The colors are assigned based upon
the percent compliance color scheme.
DO-Maximum (May-Oct)
The percentage compliance is the percent of hours per summer season during the 10-year
modeling period that the 15.0 mg/L maximum target is met. The colors are assigned based upon
the percent compliance color scheme.
Fecal Coliform (annual)
The percentage compliance is the percent of hours during the 10-year modeling period that the
400 count/ 100 ml [not-to-exceed] target is met during the entire year. The colors are assigned
based upon the percent compliance color scheme.
Fecal Coliform (May-Sep)
The percentage compliance is the percent of hours per recreation season (May through
September) during the 10-year modeling period that the 400 count/ 100 ml [not-to-exceed] target
is met. The colors are assigned based upon the percent compliance color scheme.
TP
The percentage compliance is the percent of hours during the 10-year modeling period that the
0.1 mg/L target is met. The colors are assigned based upon the percent compliance color
scheme.
TSS
The percentage compliance is the percent of years that the mean annual concentration met the
17.2 mg/L [reference concentration] target. The mean annual concentration is calculated as the
annual average of the 365 or 366 daily average concentrations. The colors are assigned based
upon the percent compliance color scheme.

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TABLE 6-3

SCORING OF WATER QUALITY CONDITIONS IN THE KINNICKINNIC RIVER


DO, FC, TP, & TSS
Score Color
Code

Flashiness

Percentage Compliance
Description

Minimum

Maximum

Quartile

Minimum

Maximum

Very Good

95

100

Lowest

0.45

Good

85

94

Lower Middle

0.46

0.55

Moderate

75

84

Upper Middle

0.56

0.75

Poor

74

Highest

0.76

KK WATER QUALITY SCORES


Assessment
Point

Modeled
Condition

Flashiness

DO-Min
(May-Oct)

DO-Max
(May-Oct)

Fecal
Coliform
(annual)

Fecal
Coliform
(May-Sep)

TP

TSS

KK-1

Baseline 2000
Baseline 2020
Plan 2020

1.01
1.01
1.00

40%
40%
40%

100%
100%
100%

80%
75%
82%

90%
86%
92%

88%
89%
89%

100%
100%
100%

KK-2

Baseline 2000
Baseline 2020
Plan 2020

0.84
0.84
0.82

83%
83%
84%

99%
99%
99%

82%
75%
84%

91%
87%
92%

85%
86%
86%

100%
100%
100%

KK-3

Baseline 2000
Baseline 2020
Plan 2020

0.93
0.93
0.92

93%
93%
94%

99%
99%
99%

73%
73%
74%

85%
85%
84%

85%
86%
87%

100%
100%
100%

KK-4

Baseline 2000
Baseline 2020
Plan 2020

0.56
0.60
0.58

99%
99%
100%

100%
100%
99%

52%
52%
58%

67%
68%
75%

81%
82%
83%

10%
30%
70%

KK-5

Baseline 2000
Baseline 2020
Plan 2020

1.00
1.01
1.00

85%
86%
86%

88%
88%
90%

72%
72%
73%

86%
86%
85%

77%
78%
78%

100%
100%
100%

KK-6

Baseline 2000
Baseline 2020
Plan 2020

1.01
1.03
1.02

41%
41%
43%

99%
99%
99%

72%
72%
73%

87%
87%
85%

85%
86%
87%

100%
100%
100%

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Assessment
Point

Modeled
Condition

Flashiness

DO-Min
(May-Oct)

DO-Max
(May-Oct)

Fecal
Coliform
(annual)

Fecal
Coliform
(May-Sep)

TP

TSS

KK-7

Baseline 2000
Baseline 2020
Plan 2020

0.96
0.97
0.96

42%
42%
43%

99%
99%
99%

75%
75%
75%

87%
87%
85%

88%
88%
89%

100%
100%
100%

KK-8

Baseline 2000
Baseline 2020
Plan 2020

0.81
0.83
0.82

99%
99%
100%

99%
99%
99%

56%
57%
63%

73%
73%
79%

77%
78%
79%

100%
100%
100%

KK-9

Baseline 2000
Baseline 2020
Plan 2020

0.84
0.84
0.84

100%
100%
100%

99%
99%
99%

60%
60%
65%

75%
76%
80%

24%
24%
25%

100%
100%
100%

KK-10

Baseline 2000
Baseline 2020
Plan 2020

0.87
0.87
0.86

100%
100%
100%

99%
99%
99%

56%
58%
65%

69%
72%
78%

27%
27%
28%

100%
100%
100%

6.5

Allocations

Allocation of pollutant reductions required to meet applicable water quality standards in the
Kinnickinnic River watershed should be deferred at this time for the following reasons:
1) For fecal coliform, allocations would have to be made using a measure (fecal coliform)
that is an imperfect indicator of threats to public health and that is likely to be changed in
favor of a better indicator (discussed in Section 7.2.1 of the WRP). The allocations would
have to assume a high level of reduction of any illicit human fecal coliform sources
because these are not permitted discharges. Because there could be multiple sources of
such discharges that would be attributable to multiple entities, it would be very difficult
to equitably allocate loads. Further, any allocations based upon fecal coliform are likely
to only be temporary given the probability that the fecal coliform water quality criterion
will be phased out in the future in favor of better measurements that address the risks of
human bacteria and pathogens.
2) Regarding phosphorus, allocations of allowable loads could result in the need to treat
cooling water discharges or require that communities reduce the amount of phosphorus
used in drinking water systems for metal exposure control. Both actions would require
significant cost, based on current technology. In addition, the recently enacted ban on
phosphate containing fertilizers may produce enough reductions that most, if not all, of
the assessment point reaches in the Kinnickinnic River watershed will meet the pending
phosphorus water quality standard, assumed to be 0.1 mg/l. The impact from the ban on
phosphorus in fertilizers needs to be analyzed further.

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3) The remaining water quality parameters (TSS, TN, chlorides, etc.) either do not have
water quality standards or already meet water quality guidelines. Specifically:
a. The median TSS for the entire Kinnickinnic River watershed already meets the
U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Reference Concentration of 17.2 mg/l. To
address localized, high concentrations of TSS, local sediment issues should also be
monitored and analyzed.

b. Compliance with the water quality standard for DO (which is affected by several
pollutants including nitrogen, BOD and sediment as well as other factors such as
the concrete channels, which promote algal growth) is met for the most part in the
entire watershed.
c. Chlorides may prove to be the largest water quality issue that needs further action
for habitat improvement, but the data base for chlorides is not sufficient to assess
the overall impact of chlorides on water quality.
Therefore, it is recommended that the allocation issue be considered at some future date when
and if a TMDL is conducted on the Kinnickinnic River or as a part of a watershed permitting
effort. The implementation of NR 151 (non-Ag only) may offer some opportunities to develop an
allocation program based upon the various municipal permit and regulatory requirements.

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CHAPTER 7: ADDITIONAL MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES AND


IDENTIFICATION OF PRIORITY ACTIONS
7.1

Additional Management Strategies

The recommended management strategies from the Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning
Commissions (SEWRPC) Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update (RWQMPU) were
used as the basis for the recommendations of this Watershed Restoration Plan (WRP). Chapter 6
presents the RWQMPUs management strategies and estimates the pollutant load reductions
from the major components of the RWQMPU. During the development of this WRP, the project
team and the Southeastern Wisconsin Watersheds Trust, Inc. (SWWT) committees enhanced or
expanded some of the RWQMPUs management strategies, changed the priority for some of the
strategies, and developed some new management strategies. These additional or modified
management strategies are presented in the following section. As Chapter 6 identified each
management measures assigned priority from Tables 93-99 within the RWQMPU, the following
section also identifies the priority, determined during the development of this WRP, for each
additional management strategy. The additional strategies are partitioned into three subsections:
committed programs, strategies that are in various stages of implementation, and strategies that
are not yet implemented.
7.1.1 Committed Programs
Transportation controls
(high priority)
The Wis. Admin. Code Transportation (Trans) 401 rule requires BMPs to be employed to
avoid or minimize soil, sediment and pollutant movement, or to manage runoff, onto or off a
project site or selected site, including the avoidance or minimization of discharges to offsite
areas, public sewer inlets and waters of the state. The rule requires new transportation facilities
to reduce the TSS loads by 80% and requires highway reconstruction and non-highway
redevelopment to reduce TSS loads by 40%. It also requires the peak discharge to be maintained
to that of the predevelopment, 2-year 24-hour design event.
There are also several transportation projects underway within the Kinnickinnic River watershed.
For example, the South 6th Street bridge is to be replaced and the concrete channel from the
bridge downstream to I-94 is to be reconstructed to stabilize the channel side slopes. The
Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) is also considering lowering and
reconstructing the channel between I-894 and Bolivar Avenue and extending the I-894 enclosure
of the Villa Mann Creek Tributary. The MMSD is also considering plans for replacement and
partial removal of the culvert enclosure along the tributary to Villa Mann Creek east of 27th
Street. Each of these projects has the potential to improve the habitat within the watershed. NR
151 also contains performance standards for major transportation facilities that cause or may
cause polluted runoff. The standards apply to a wide range of facilities, including roadways,
airports and railroads.

7-1

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Kinnickinnic River

Phosphorus fertilizer ban


(medium priority)
The state of Wisconsin enacted a ban on the sale of phosphorus-containing fertilizers that will
take effect on April 1, 2010. It is expected that this ban will result in reduced phosphorus loads
to the Kinnickinnic River watershed due to the reduced application of fertilizers containing
phosphorus. Because the bill to ban phosphorus fertilizer had not been finalized at the time the
water quality model was prepared, the expected load reductions from the ban were not modeled
during the development of this plan; however, phosphorus loads from residential grass are
estimated to decrease by approximately 20% based on studies in communities that have
implemented similar bans.1 The state of Wisconsin ban will likely result in a similar reduction.
Phosphorus water quality standard
(medium priority)
It was not possible to quantify the expected load reductions resulting from a statewide
phosphorus water quality standard as the process was ongoing during the development of this
WRP. However, yearly average phosphorus concentrations at many of the assessment points in
the Kinnickinnic River watershed are already less than 0.1 mg/L and the statewide ban on
phosphorus fertilizers is expected to result in additional decreases (see previous discussion on the
phosphorus fertilizer ban).
Delisting of Beneficial Use Impairments within the Area of Concern
(high priority)
The Milwaukee Estuary Area of Concern (AOC) includes the Kinnickinnic River downstream of
Chase Avenue (STH 38). Of the 14 beneficial uses, 11 are impaired within the Milwaukee
Estuary AOC (referred to as beneficial use impairments [BUI]) including the following:
Restrictions on fish and wildlife consumption
Eutrophication or undesirable algae
Degradation of fish and wildlife populations
Beach closings
Fish tumors or other deformities
Degradation of aesthetics
Bird or animal deformities or reproduction problems
Degradation of benthos
Degradation of phytoplankton and zooplankton populations
Restriction on dredging activities
Loss of fish and wildlife habitat
The Milwaukee River Basin Partnership, WDNR, and other stakeholders have implemented
projects to address the BUIs within the Milwaukee Estuary AOC. However, more work is needed
1

Lehman, J.T., D. W. Bell, and K. E. McDonald, Reduced river phosphorus following implementation of a lawn
fertilizer ordinance, Lake and Reservoir Management (in press)

7-2

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

to achieve delisting, including additional studies and the development of a comprehensive


delisting strategy that is based on public input.
The RWQMPUs strategies and the WRPs Priority and Foundation Actions are consistent with
the overall goal of delisting BUIs within the AOC. This WRP distills the RWQMPUs strategies
into specific sets of actions that are designed to target public health, habitat, and phosphorus
loading within the Kinnickinnic River. Implementation of this WRP will directly contribute to
delisting the BUIs presented below.
Table 7-4 presents the WRPs Priority Actions that will specifically target the following BUIs by
reducing point and nonpoint source loading of nutrients and sediment. Note: the following
descriptions were obtained from the WDNRs Delisting Targets for the Milwaukee Estuary Area
of Concern.2
Eutrophication or undesirable algae This BUI is caused by excessive nutrient loading
and low dissolved oxygen concentrations which enrich aquatic environments and support
excessive algal growth.
Degradation of aesthetics This BUI is caused by unnatural physical properties that
interfere with designated uses of the waterway, such as litter.
Degradation of benthos This BUI can be caused by excessive sediment loading.
Degradation of phytoplankton and zooplankton populations This BUI can be
caused by a number of factors including excessive nutrient loading from point and
nonpoint sources and sedimentation.
Table 7-1 presents the WRPs Priority Actions that will reduce the beach closing BUI within the
Milwaukee Estuary AOC.
Beach closings This BUI is caused by point and nonpoint pollution that leads to
elevated E. coli concentrations.
The WRPs Priority Actions that are geared toward land-based habitat and instream-based
habitat will directly target the fish and wildlife-related BUIs below. The Priority Actions are
listed on Tables 7-2 and 7-3.
Loss of fish and wildlife habitat This BUI results from wetland loss, flashiness,
channel obstructions and concrete lining.
Degradation of fish and wildlife populations This BUI is caused by multiple factors
including the loss of fish and wildlife habitat and the presence of invasive species.
Implementation of the RWQMPU will address toxic substances and work toward delisting the
three remaining BUIs within the Milwaukee Estuary AOC: fish tumors or other deformities,
restriction on dredging activities, and bird or animal deformities or reproduction problems.
7.1.2 Additional Management Strategies in Various Stages of Implementation
Green Milwaukee
(high priority)

WDNR, Delisting Targets for the Milwaukee Estuary Area of Concern, March 2008

7-3

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

The city of Milwaukee is promoting building green, which can have a positive impact on water
quality within the Kinnickinnic River watershed. For example, a green roof installed on the city
owned building at 809 North Broadway will prevent about 10,500 gallons of water from going
into the sewer system. The Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) is developing a
Green Infrastructure Plan to enhance and further their focus on sustainability and the use of
green infrastructure to store, convey, and use rainwater in more natural ways. Other
municipalities are also promoting green development, such as encouraging more low impact
development (LID) and greater use of green infrastructure. The use of LID and green
infrastructure on new or re-developments can result in significant reductions in runoff and
pollutant loadings compared to traditional construction.
Total Maximum Daily Load or Environmental Accountability Project
(discussed in Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update but not recommended)
(medium priority)
A total maximum daily load (TMDL) is an analysis that shows how much pollution a waterbody
can receive and still meet water quality standards. An Environmental Accountability Project
(EAP) is an alternative to a TMDL that provides recommendations for significantly reducing the
pollutant loading that is contributing to an impairment of a waterbody. Because both of these
efforts would result in additional study of the Kinnickinnic River watershed, it is not possible to
quantify the expected load reductions or other benefits at this time from these potential studies.
The MMSD submitted a Great Lakes Restoration Initiative grant application to conduct a 3rd
Party TMDL in the Kinnickinnic River watershed in 2010. At the time this WRP was written,
the grants had not been awarded.
Kinnickinnic River Watershed Sediment Transport Study
(medium priority)
As this WRP is being written, the MMSD is conducting a sediment transport study to provide a
supplementary planning tool for appropriate flood management, stabilization, and rehabilitation
activities within the Kinnickinnic River watershed. The project scope consists of survey field
work, computer modeling, and field geomorphology assessment of the Kinnickinnic River and
tributaries within the Districts jurisdiction. Potential benefits to be realized from this project
include reduced streambank erosion (resulting in lower sediment loads) and improved habitat
conditions. The study is scheduled to be completed in 2010.
Wilson Park Creek flood protection project
(low priority)
The MMSD is conducting a flood protection project within the Wilson Park Creek subwatershed
to protect residences and businesses in the city of Milwaukee from flooding up to the 1%
probability flood event. The scope consists of performing the planning phase necessary to
identify flooding areas within the Districts jurisdiction. It will include input by a stakeholder
group and construction cost estimating during the alternative analysis phase of the project.
Construction costs will be further refined during the preliminary engineering phase to occur at a
later date. Approximately 120 structures have initially been identified in the floodplain.
Potential benefits to be realized from this project include reduced flashiness and better habitat
conditions.

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Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

7.1.3 Additional Management Strategies Recommended for Implementation, But Not Yet
Implemented
Improve aesthetics
(high priority)
Stakeholders have identified improved aesthetics as one of their most important goals for the
watershed. Actions that would improve aesthetics and promote stewardship of the watershed
include restoring areas for recreational use, improved public access, implementing green
infrastructure and removing concrete-lined channels. Efforts to beautify the stream corridor will
therefore need to be a critical aspect of implementing this WRP.
7.2

Identification of Priority Actions

The identification of Priority Actions builds upon the analyses of the SEWRPC's RWQMPU and
the MMSDs 2020 Facilities Plan (2020 FP), both of which identified numerous management
measures that would result in meeting watershed goals.
The SWWT Science Committee determined three areas of highest concern, called focus areas.
These include bacteria/public health, habitat and aesthetics, and nutrients/phosphorus (see
Chapters 3 and 5). The technical team then identified a list of Priority Actions for each of the
three focus areas, based on the high priority recommendations identified in the RWQMPU.
Based on input from the Watershed Action Team (WAT), Policy Committee, and the Science
Committee, the technical team compiled the list of actions into a priority actions matrix as a
reference document. The matrix includes four tables: one for public health/bacteria (Table 7-1),
two for habitat one for land-based measures (Table 7-2), one for in-stream based measures
(Table 7-3), and one for nutrients/phosphorus (Table 7-4).
The tables suggest actions that should be implemented over the next five years to continue
improving water quality and habitat in the Kinnickinnic River watershed and are meant to be
used as a guide for future actions by the SWWT and its committees; they are not meant to
exclude any recommendations from the RWQMPU. Additional actions identified in the
RWQMPU can be found in Chapters 5 and 6 of this WRP and in Chapter X of SEWRPCs
RWQMPU Planning Report No. 50.
The information in Tables 7-1 through 7-4 may change over time and as other projects are
implemented. The information should be verified during the preparation of more detailed work
plans as the next steps of implementation are completed. All of the recommendations in the
RWQMPU contribute to improving water quality and habitat within the Kinnickinnic River
watershed and achieving the overall goals of the RWQMPU. Although some recommendations
are not included in the Priority Actions tables, this does not mean they should not be carried
forward or implemented as opportunities arise. The high Priority Actions are merely identified
to guide the implementation process based on the knowledge and data available as of March
2010.
Figure 7-1 summarizes the process to determine actions needed and briefly describes the
components of the tables. The components of the tables are explained in more detail in the
following text.

7-5

FIGURE 7-1

PRIORITY ACTIONS DEVELOPMENT


AND PRESENTATION
Kinnickinnic River watershed
.

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

1) Issues Problems in the watershed. The purpose of this WRP is to address water
quality and habitat issues within the Kinnickinnic River watershed. The following three
issues are addressed by the Priority Actions:
a. Reduce the risk of getting sick if you swim in or otherwise contact the water (too
many bacteria and pathogens in the water)
b. Reduce the impact of development on habitat and aesthetics, including the
following:
i.

Address human-induced runoff from the land surface to the stream system
(reduced buffer widths, pollution, and increased erosion)

ii. Address stream flashiness (rapid increase and decrease in flows; impacts to
runoff peak rate and volume)
iii. Address the impacts of human influences on in-stream fishery habitat,
water quality and aesthetics (obstructions to fish and aquatic life passage,
including concrete-lined channels and low-gradient dams; pollution;
vegetation; and trash)
c. Reduce the nutrient impacts on the watershed and discharge of nutrients,
specifically phosphorus, from the watershed to Lake Michigan (excessive algae
and Cladophora growth)
Issues can be linked to physical factors, chemical factors, or both. Often, there are
multiple factors that contribute to an issue. Physical factors that contribute to issues
include dams, flow velocity (the speed at which water flows in a stream), and concretelined channels. These changes have important implications for stream ecology. For
example, changes to flow velocity and sediment transport can directly disrupt the channel
bottom conditions that organisms depend on to find food and shelter (benthic substrate)
and disrupts their overall life cycle. Chemical factors include high concentrations of
bacteria that can indicate the presence of organisms that make people sick or high
concentrations of chlorides that are lethal to fish.
2) Goals A specific long-term result intended to be achieved that will help move
towards improved regional water quality. Achieving goals will solve or work towards
solving issues within the watershed. Goals can be quantitative or qualitative or both.
Most quantitative goals also have a corresponding qualitative goal. An example of a
quantitative goal is to reduce the total fecal coliform bacteria load to the Kinnickinnic
River watershed by 52%. An example of a corresponding qualitative goal is to increase
water-based recreational opportunities by reducing the risk of people getting sick when
they recreate in the river.
The baseline goals for this plan were defined in the RWQMPU and confirmed as the
baseline goals, or starting point, for this WRP by the SWWT Executive Steering Council.
The baseline goals related to water quality improvements were established by the
RWQMPU in an attempt to meet the applicable fishable/swimmable water quality use
objectives and the associated water quality standards or guidelines . The baseline habitat
improvement goals for the WRP were also based on the RWQMPU and were
subsequently expanded by SEWRPCs Memorandum Report No. 194 (Appendix 4A).
7-7

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

As the WRP is implemented, the goals can be adapted and modified at any time by the
SWWT to adjust for new water quality standards or new information.
3) Targets Short-term goals or steps required to reach the long-term goals. In order
to break down the long-term goals into more manageable pieces, targets were established.
Establishing targets helps determine the specific steps needed to achieve a goal and
facilitates the development of measures to track progress. The targets were developed
from the management measures selected from above or from Chapter 6. An example of a
target is to expand riparian buffer widths to a minimum of 75 feet.
4) Actions Activities or projects needed to achieve the targets and address, or start
addressing, the issues. Actions can include data gathering, research, or actually
removing a concrete-lined channel. The actions included in Tables 7-1 through 7-4 were
identified as those that can make the most positive impact on habitat and water quality
(focusing on fecal coliform bacteria and phosphorus reduction) in the Kinnickinnic River
watershed. They are not the only actions that can or should be taken. Implementing
these actions should move water quality and habitat improvement towards meeting the
targets and achieving the goals. An action, or a group of actions, was developed for each
of the management measures that were selected to more clearly define activities needed
to implement the management measures.
5) Measures A way to monitor progress of an action or set of actions towards
achieving a specific target. Measures can be used to determine if the actions are being
implemented and whether or not they are improving water quality or habitat. Examples
of measures include: increased number of days that one can recreate in a stream, miles of
buffers established, length of concrete channel removed, fish population diversity, and
concentrations of pollutants. The progress for some actions, such as the length of
concrete removed, can be determined as soon as they are implemented. However, it may
take several years or even decades to be able to measure progress towards achieving
certain water quality or habitat improvements.
6) Evaluate Results Determine what was accomplished by the actions, make
adjustments, and continue process. An evaluation of the measures will show if the
actions should be continued, used elsewhere, modified, or discontinued.
7) Primary Land Use the Action Addresses Appropriate area(s) where the actions
would be applied. Some actions are land use-specific and are best suited to be applied to
certain land uses, such as pet litter management in residential and parkland areas. This
column provides guidance on where the actions would be most effective at improving
water quality. A bullet in the column indicates the primary land use type(s) that the
action addresses. Most of the actions that address habitat improvement can be applied
regardless of the land use type. Therefore, this column was not included in Tables 7-2
and 7-3.
8) Responsible and/or Participating Organization Organization(s) that will lead the
action and/or participate in the implementation of the activity. One organization will
need to lead each activity to establish an ultimate decision maker and determine who will
be accountable for implementing the action. When appropriate, other organizations can
be identified as team members to help develop and implement the activity. The

7-8

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

organizations listed are proposed to lead or participate in the implementation of the


action. The lead organization should be determined by a process established by the
SWWT.
9) Relative Cost Approximation of an actions cost. The relative cost is provided to
give the reader a sense of how expensive an action might be to implement throughout the
watershed. There are many variables that impact the cost of an activity, including the
level of implementation or the size of the project, whether land needs to be purchased, the
location and condition of the land, and many other factors. Therefore, the information
provided in the tables should be used as a guide only. For purposes of the tables, the
following categories are defined as a total watershed cost for the action:
Low = cost less than or equal to $500,000
Medium = more than $500,000 but less than $2,000,000
High = cost greater than or equal to $2,000,000
10) Geographic Concentration of Action and Relative Priority Location and
prioritization of where actions should be implemented. For each assessment point
area or location within the watershed, a priority for each action was assigned based on
information available to the technical team and SEWRPC, and engineering judgment.
The priority for each action is presented by assessment point area on Tables 7-1 through
7-4. The information included model results, such as pollutant load per acre and
percentage of unknown fecal bacteria attributed to the assessment point area, land use,
whether there was an associated project underway, or where the action fit within the
tiered approach developed by the Habitat Subcommittee that focuses on reconnecting
waterways to Lake Michigan (described in Appendix 4A of Chapter 4). The data used
for the priority assignments are provided in the footnotes of the tables. These priorities
are provided as a guide and can be modified by the WAT as the implementation process
moves forward and as new information is gathered and analyzed.
11) Potential Contribution toward Achieving Watershed Target and Goal How much
progress towards achieving the target or goal can be attributed to the action. Each
action identified has the potential to contribute towards improved water quality and/or
habitat in the watershed. Some actions have the potential to make a bigger impact than
others. Some actions directly impact water quality, such as reducing bacterial sources.
Others have an indirect impact, such as expanding a water quality monitoring program.
During the development of the 2020 FP and the RWQMPU, some of the actions that
directly impact water quality were assigned specific pollutant load reductions and some
were not. There are several reasons why some actions were not assigned specific
reductions. One reason is the impact from the action is highly variable depending on the
site where it is applied. Another reason is the action relates to monitoring or data
collection, which will be used to fill data gaps and assist with decision making, and
therefore indirectly impacts water quality or habitat improvement. This information is
provided as a guide and can be modified by the WAT as the implementation process
moves forward and as new information is gathered and analyzed.

7-9

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

What will achieving the identified goals accomplish? Achieving the goals will
significantly reduce the quantity (load) and concentrations of pollutants in the streams
and improve habitat in the watershed. However, all water quality standards as they exist
in 2009 are not anticipated to be met under all circumstances even if all
recommendations from the RWQMPU are implemented and the goals are met. It is
important to point out that the actions identified in Tables 7-1 through 7-4 are only a
subset of the RWQMPU recommendations. Information regarding anticipated water
quality improvements based on full implementation of the RWQMPU is provided in
Chapters 4 and 6 and discussed briefly below.
Fecal Coliform
Implementation of all actions identified in the RWQMPU recommended plan will result
in significant improvement in fecal coliform concentrations in general even though
anticipated water quality conditions for about half assessment point areas fall short of
meeting water quality standards. However, this reduction and the focus on removing
human sources of bacteria would reduce the risk of getting sick from contacting the
water. For the Kinnickinnic River watershed, the anticipated overall load reduction is
52%. This will increase compliance with the geometric mean standard during the
swimming season (May September) by 21 days in the lower reach of the mainstem.
This reduction will allow progress towards any future bacterial standard that may use a
different measure than fecal coliform bacteria.
Habitat
Achieving the habitat goals of meeting the fishable and swimmable standards will
improve water quality and hydrology to the point where the watershed can sustain a
natural fishery and support a full range of recreational uses such as fishing, kayaking,
bird watching, and any other recreational activity that would be enhanced by improved
water quality and aquatic / riparian habitat. Although progress can be made, intense
urbanization coupled with relatively low flows and extensive channel modification will
make the achievement of fishable and swimmable goals extremely difficult in most areas
of the Kinnickinnic River watershed. However, greater progress can likely be made
toward the fishable and swimmable goals in the downstream portion of the watershed
because of its association with the estuary and the Great Lakes system. In terms of
fishable goals, research indicates that close proximity and a connection to the estuary and
Lake Michigan will tend to support a more diverse fish assemblage. See Appendix 4A for
more information on the interactions among fish passage, fish diversity and the Great
Lakes system. The types of fish and aquatic life that will be present depend on many
factors that will be influenced by the decisions made throughout the implementation of
this WRP. The Kinnickinnic River watershed assessment point areas are identified in
Figure 7-2. Appendix 7A includes a discussion of planning considerations for improved
habitat and biodiversity.
Phosphorus
Implementing the actions to address phosphorus will result in a significant reduction in
nutrient loading within the watershed. This will directly reduce the occurrence of algae
and the loading of nutrients to the Milwaukee Estuary and Lake Michigan. The

7-10

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

impending water quality standard scheduled to take effect in 2010 is anticipated to be met
on a yearly average in about half of the assessment point areas following implementation
of these activities. An additional action that should be researched and evaluated is
finding an alternative to adding phosphorus compounds to drinking water. The actions
noted are anticipated to bring most of the assessment point areas into compliance with the
impending standard of 0.075 mg/L on a yearly average basis.
7.2.1 Priority Actions to Address Public Health/Bacteria (Table 7-1)
The presence of fecal coliform bacteria is an indicator of potential pathogens that can make
people sick. High levels of fecal coliforms (and the pathogens they may indicate) are a threat to
the health of anyone who comes in contact with the water. The biggest risk to public health
occurs when human fecal coliforms are present. Higher concentrations of fecal coliforms are
normally found in streams during and after storms. Sources include the following:
Unknown sanitary sewer cross-connections to storm sewers (unknown because the exact
reasons are unknown for the wide-spread and in some cases, very high levels of bacteria
found in storm sewers), combined sewer overflows (CSOs), sanitary sewer overflows
(SSOs), and failing septic systems
Runoff impacted with droppings from pets, seagulls, geese and other wildlife
The WRP modeled fecal coliform bacteria as an indicator of waterborne bacteria and related
public health risks. Fecal coliform was used because it is consistent with Wisconsins standard
for in-stream conditions (see Wis. Admin. Code Natural Resources [NR] 102 Water Quality
Standards for Wisconsin Surface Waters). Also, most of the available bacteria/public health data
collected from waterways within the Kinnickinnic River watershed are based on fecal coliform
bacteria. One of the major drawbacks of relying on fecal coliform as an indicator of human
sewage is that fecal coliform bacteria are found in most warm-blooded animals.3 The presence
of fecal coliform bacteria itself neither provides any information on the source of the bacteria nor
the origin of the bacteria; the presence of fecal coliform bacteria does not specifically indicate
human sewage. One of this WRPs Foundation Targets is to identify unknown sources of
bacteria as well as to disconnect these sources. Considering the limitations identified above, this
WRP acknowledges that that future indicators of waterborne bacteria and the related public
health risk will likely be based upon more effective measures of human risk and not based on
fecal coliform bacteria.
It is important to note that while the indicator organism will likely change, this WRPs focus on
identifying and disconnecting illicit connections is still relevant. Illicit connections cause human
sewage contamination and present a direct risk to human health. An effective indicator organism
should be directly linked to illicit connections and not indicate the presence of waste from other
sources like waterfowl and pet litter. Human-specific strains of Bacteroides, with a specific
human genetic marker, have enabled researchers to differentiate between human and non-human
sources of sewage.4 Researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (UWM), in
collaboration with MMSD and the Milwaukee Riverkeepers, have used the Bacteroides genetic
3

Bower, P.A., Scopel, C.O., Jensen, E.T., Depas, M.M. & McLellan, S.L. 2005. Detection of genetic markers of
fecal indicator bacteria in Lake Michigan and determination of their relationship to Escherichia coli densities using
standard microbiological methods. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71(12): 8305-8313
4
Ibid

7-11

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

marker to investigate sewage in stormwater outfalls. In some cases, specialized dye testing was
used to confirm the results; Bacteroides has shown promise as an effective and specific indicator
of human sewage. This WRP supports additional research to further refine Bacteroides use as an
indicator of human sewage contamination and the use of the latest technologies to detect human
sources. The WRP also supports an expanded monitoring program for Bacteroides throughout
the watershed to ensure a baseline is established and future evaluations can occur.

7-12

FIGURE 7-2
HABITAT ASSESSMENT POINT AREAS
WITHIN THE KINNICKINNIC RIVER
WATERSHED
KK WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

Table 7-1 presents the identified actions and associated information to address public
health/bacteria. Implementing these actions will result in significant improvement in fecal
coliform concentrations, thereby reducing the risk of getting sick when contacting the water
during recreational activities. However, water quality standards as of 2009 are not anticipated to
be met in about half of the assessment point areas - even if all of the activities recommended in
the RWQMPU were implemented and the RWQMPU goals were met. The actions identified in
Table 7-1 are only a subset of the RWQMPU recommendations. Therefore, implementing only
the actions in Table 7-1 will likely not reach the goals. In order to reach the water quality
standards as of 2009 in all areas of the watershed every day of the year, the amount of fecal
coliform entering the streams would need to be reduced by over 90%.

7-14

Table 7-1: Priority Actions to Address Public Health/Bacteria


Kinnickinnic River Watershed
Focus Area: Public Health/Bacteria
Implementation Period: 2010 to 2015
Issue: Risk of getting sick if you swim in or otherwise contact the water
Goal: Greater water-based recreational opportunities
SEWRPC Regional Plan Goal: Pollutant load reduction of fecal coliform bacteria for entire watershed by year 2020 = 52%
What Will Meeting this Goal Accomplish?: Significant reduction in total fecal coliform; reduced risk of getting sick; minimal improvement to meeting 2009 water quality standards

KK-2

KK-3

KK-4

KK-5

KK-6

KK-7

KK-8

KK-9

KK-10

South 43rd St.


Ditch

Kinnickinnic RiverUpper

Wilson Park CreekUpper

Holmes Avenue
Creek

Willa Mann Creek

Cherokee Park
Creek

Wilson Park CreekLower

Kinnickinnic RiverMiddle

Kinnickinnic RiverMiddle

Municipalities and NGOs with


assistance from UWM GLWI
and MMSD

Low

BR

BR

BR

DR

ARU

BR

CR

BR

CR

BR

1b. Sample outfalls to


determine which have human
bacteria discharges (wet and
dry weather samples)

1b. % of outfalls sampled

Municipalities and NGOs with


assistance from UWM GLWI
and MMSD

Medium

BR

BR

BR

DR

ARU

BR

CR

BR

CR

BR

Low

BR

BR

BR

DR

AR

BR

CR

BR

CR

BR

Low

BR

BR

BR

DR

AR

BR

CR

BR

CR

BR

BR

BR

BR

DR

AR

BR

CR

BR

CR

BR

Responsible and/or
Participating Organization

Relative Cost
(for implementation of the
action in the entire
watershed; unit costs shown
if available)

1c. Determine ownership/owner


of outfalls that have dry weather
flows and/or human bacteria

1c. % of owners identified

Municipalities and NGOs with


assistance from UWM GLWI
and MMSD

1d. Initiate discussion w/ owner


of outfall to begin determining
corrective actions

1d. % of owners with


whom discussions have
been initiated

Municipalities and NGOs with


assistance from UWM GLWI
and MMSD

Municipalities and NGOs with


assistance from UWM GLWI
and MMSD

SWWT

Kinnickinnic RiverG
KK-11
Lower

KK-1
Lyons Park Creek

Manufacturing & Industrial

Institutional & Governmental

Transportation

Commercial

1a. Number of stream


miles surveyed

Measures

Outdoor Recreation,
Wetlands, Woodlands, and
Open Space

High Density Residential

1. Identify unknown
sources of bacteria, and
correct/remove/ disconnect
unknown sources of
bacteria (was high priority
in the SEWRPC Regional
Plan)

Geographic Concentration of Action and Relative Priority

1a. Conduct dry weather


surveys to identify outfalls that
have dry weather flows

Actions

Agriculture

Watershed Targets to be
Achieved by 2015

Low Density Residential

Primary Land Use the Action Addresses

Potential Contribution
Toward Achieving Watershed
Target & Goal

8% reduction in total watershed


loads by 2015; 16% reduction in
total watershed loads by 2020

High

2. Increase recreational
use of watershed (was not
an action ranked in the
SEWRPC Regional Plan)

3. Reduce bacteria sources


from land-based activities
(actions were ranked
medium to high in the
SEWRPC Regional Plan)

1e. Implement projects to


correct/remove/disconnect
unknown sources of bacteria

1e. % of sources
corrected

2a. Identify recreational and


body contact areas

2a. Stream miles of


watershed surveyed

2b. Identify other areas suitable


for recreation or body contact
2c. Prioritize areas to restore
for recreational use identified in
Action 2b based on success of
Action 1e.
3a. Identify where public
ownership of land can serve as
a starting point to increase
riparian buffers

2b. Stream miles suitable


for recreation/body
contact
2c. Stream miles
restored for public
access, recreational use
or body contact

Low

(priorities can be set after survey data is obtained)


Fill data gaps - use results to
revise priorities on geographic
concentration of Target 1 as data
is developed

SWWT

Low

SWWT

Low

Milwaukee County,
Municipalities, NGOs and
SWWT

Low
(Riparian Buffer
$940/acre (Cap.)
$210/acre (O&M))

(priorities can be set after survey data is obtained)

Site-specific

Milwaukee County,
Municipalities, NGOs and
SWWT

Low

(priorities can be set after survey data is obtained)

2% reduction in total watershed


loads

Milwaukee County,
Municipalities, NGOs and
SWWT

Low
(Discourage Waterfowl
$189/acre (O&M))

(priorities can be set after survey data is obtained)

Site-specific

3a. Number of stream


miles with 75 feet-wide
buffers or greater

3b. Manage pet litter

3b. Number of
municipalities with
strengthened pet litter
programs

3c. Implement programs to


discourage unacceptably high
numbers of waterfowl from
congregating near water
features - identify areas and
take action to discourage
waterfowl feeding

3c. Number of areas


documented, and
successful
implementation of
programs to eliminate
feeding or other food
sources for waterfowl

3d. Implement projects and


programs to comply with MS4
permits and NR 151 TSS and
runoff reduction requirements
(reduced TSS expected to
result in coincidental bacteria
reduction)
3e. Initiate municipal, county
and SWWT education
programs to educate public on
sources of bacteria and actions
they can implement to reduce
loads to streams

(Programs to detect and


eliminate illicit connections
$2000)

3d. Required reports and


estimates of TSS
reductions that will have
some benefit for bacteria

3e. Number of
documented, successful
education programs
implemented

WDNR and Municipalities

High
(Parking Lot Sweeping
$3,400/acre (O&M)
Street Sweeping
$2,500/curb mile (Cap.)
$60/curb mile (O&M))

Milwaukee County,
Municipalities, NGOs and
SWWT

Low

(priorities can be set after survey data is obtained)

TBD

13% reduction in total watershed


loads by 2020

Not measurable

4. Continue overall water


quality monitoring to
assess progress towards
targets and goals (was high
priority in the SEWRPC
Regional Plan)

4b. Continue involvement of


USGS in MMSD Corridor Study

4c. Coordinate WDNR


sampling and monitoring
programs with MMSD and
USGS and integrate NGO
sampling efforts (such as the
efforts detailed in Target 1)

5. Continue to achieve the


5 year LOP and continued
compliance with SSO and
CSO regulations; strive to
reduce overflow frequency
and volume (SSO was high
priority in the SEWRPC
Regional Plan and CSO
was medium priority)

5a. Continue adaptive


implementation of overflow
control program

6. Improved water quality in


the Kinnickinnic River
Estuary (was medium
priority in the SEWRPC
Regional Plan)

6a. Renovate KK River Flushing


Station to enable the facility to
continue to function

7. Development of better
human health risk
assessment to address
pathogens in stormwater
(was high priority in the
SEWRPC Regional Plan)

7a. Research development of


better indicator test than fecal
coliform to assess risks of
disease and determination of
human sources (was high
priority in the SEWRPC
Regional Plan)

4b. Maintain existing


funding level for
continued USGS
involvement
4c. Overall data collection
program is integrated
through the USGS
corridor study or other
means. SWWT serves
as a vehicle to coordinate
and prioritize data
collection efforts.

5a. Annual volume and


frequency of CSO and
SSO

KK-10
Kinnickinnic RiverMiddle

Kinnickinnic RiverG
KK-11
Lower

KK-9

Kinnickinnic RiverMiddle

Low

KK-8

USGS

Wilson Park CreekLower

KK-5
Holmes Avenue
Creek
A

KK-7

KK-4
Wilson Park CreekUpper

Low

Cherokee Park
Creek

KK-3
Kinnickinnic RiverUpper

MMSD, WDNR, USGS, NGOs

KK-6

KK-2
South 43rd St.
Ditch

Responsible and/or
Participating Organization

Relative Cost
(for implementation of the
action in the entire
watershed; unit costs shown
if available)

Willa Mann Creek

KK-1

Lyons Park Creek

Geographic Concentration of Action and Relative Priority

Manufacturing & Industrial

Transportation

4a. Continue existing


level of water quality
samples and parameters
tested for if justified after
annual review

Outdoor Recreation,
Wetlands, Woodlands, and
Open Space

4a. Continue MMSD water


quality monitoring program and
expand it to include biotic
sampling

Institutional & Governmental

Measures

Commercial

Actions

High Density Residential

Low Density Residential

Watershed Targets to be
Achieved by 2015

Agriculture

Primary Land Use the Action Addresses

Not Applicable

Fill data gaps

MMSD, SEWRPC, WDNR,


USGS and NGOs

Low

WDNR, MMSD, and


Municipalities

High

AR

Not Applicable

MMSD

Medium

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

UWM GLWI, Marquette


University, MMSD,
Municipalities and NGOs

Medium

Potential Contribution
Toward Achieving Watershed
Target & Goal

18% reduction in total watershed


loads by 2020

6a. Fecal coliform water


quality data
6b. Progress toward
achieving existing water
quality standards
7a. Progress on the
GLWI work on
bacteriodes and other
test parameters and
development of human
health water quality
standards by WDNR and
USEPA

Footnotes:
A. The ultimate measure is whether bacteria loads to the streams are being reduced.
B. Land use types are discussed in Chapter 4 of this WRP. Additional details on land use types can be found in Chapters 1 and 2 of SEWRPC's Technical Report No. 39.
C. Organizations listed are understood to lead or participate with the implementation of the action. For greater detail, see the SWWT membership list in Appendix 5B and SEWRPC's Planning
Report No. 50, Tables 93-99, in Appendix 5C.
D. Cost data are provided for guidance only and are based on costs developed for SEWRPC's Regional Planning Report No. 50, Appendix R. Cap. = Capital/construction cost; O&M = Operations and Maintenance
E. Relative prioriity for Target 1 is based on the percentage of unknown sources estimated by the water quality model developed under the RWQMPU and verified with updated data for the WRP.
F. Target 1: Approximately 60% of the urban nonpoint source fecal coliform loads from the subwatersheds were determined to be from unknown sources. Considering the potential challenges

Reduces concentration only

Fill data gaps

LEGEND
A = Highest Priority
B = Next Highest Priority
C = Moderate Priority
D = Lowest Priority
R = Required by Law
U = Underway
Foundation Action

associated with this work, the Regional Plan recommended 33% of these unknown sources be eliminated by 2020. Reducing 33% of these sources would reduce the total fecal coliform
load by 16%. If half of this load is reduced by 2015, approximately 8% of the load would be reduced.Target 5: Goal from MMSD's 2020 Facilities Plan is 5-year LOP for SSO's
G. This assessment point area is associated with the Kinnickinnic River within the estuary. While not included within the pollutant loading and water quality analysis for the WRP, this area is incorporated in the habitat assessment conducted for the Kinnickinnic River watershed
The activities listed are suggestions to be implemented between 2010 and 2015 to move the watershed towards improved water quality and habitat.
Additional actions recommended by this WRP are presented in Chapters 5 and 6 and a complete list is included in Chapter 8. A complete list of actions
recommended by the RWQMPU is presented in Chapter X of Planning Report No. 50. Additional habitat recommendations are included in SEWRPC's MR-194 in Appendix 4A.

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

7.2.2 Priority Actions to Address Land-based Habitat (Table 7-2)


During the development of this WRP, the Science Committee formed a Habitat Subcommittee to
address habitat issues. The SEWRPC staff, with input and assistance from others on the Habitat
Subcommittee, developed Table 7-2, which identifies Priority Actions to address land-based
habitat issues resulting from human influences on runoff from the land surface. The targets
identified to address the issues are related to riparian corridors, hydrology, water quality and
quantity, and improved monitoring within the 10 assessment point areas within the Kinnickinnic
River watershed.5 See Appendix 4A of Chapter 4 for additional information.

SEWRPC Memorandum Report No. 194, Stream Habitat Conditionsand Biological Assessment of the
Kinnickinnic and Menomonee River Watersheds: 2000-2009, January 2010.

7-17

Table 7-2: Priority Actions to Address Land-based Measures


Kinnickinnic River Watershed
Focus Area: Habitat- Land Based Measures
Implementation Period: 2010 to 2015
Issue: Mitigating the human influences on runoff from the land surface to the stream system.
Goal: Habitat improvement through reduction of land based detrimental influences on the watershed.
SEWRPC Regional Plan Goal: Achievement of the fishable and swimmable standards.
What Will Meeting this Goal Accomplish?: Improvement of water quality and hydrology to sustain a natural fishery and support a full range of recreational uses.

Habitat Dimension

Hydrology

Watershed Targets

Actions

Measures

Responsible and/or
Participating Organization

1a. Implement stormwater


management practices at the
subwatershed level

1a. Reduced flashiness is the


definitive measure. Others include
number of acres with reduced
impervious area; volume of runoff
reduced; improved flashiness index;
improved public safety from reduced
flow velocities. The number of
actions that work towards restoring
natural hydrology and reduce
MMSD, WDNR, Municipalities,
impervious area can be measured to
Milwaukee County, WisDOT and
indicate progress and include: area
Private Development Owners
of permeable paving materials
installed, area of low-impact
development, activiites that reduce
impervious areas; rain barrels, green
roofs, rain gardens, and other
stormwater management practices
installed. Downspout disconnections
(especially important in the
Kinnickinnic's urban setting).

1b. Implement stormwater


management practices at the
neighborhood level

1b.Reduced flashiness is the


definitive measure. Others include
number of acres with reduced
impervious area; volume of runoff
reduced; improved flashiness index;
improved public safety from reduced
flow velocities. The number of
actions that work towards restoring
natural hydrology and reduce
impervious area can be measured to
indicate progress and include:
number of rain gardens or rain
barrels installed, downspouts
disconnected, green roofs and other
stormwater management practices
installed.

1c. Maintain stormwater management


practices at all levels

1c. Reduced flashiness is the


definitive measure. Others include
number of acres with reduced
impervious area; volume of runoff
MMSD, WDNR, Municipalities,
reduced; improved flashiness index;
Milwaukee County, WisDOT and
improved public safety from reduced
Private Development Owners
flow velocities. The number of
stormwater management practices
inspected and maintained can be
measured to indicate progress.

1d. Restore floodplain connectivity


with the stream system

1d. Miles of stream connected with


the floodplain

1. Moderate flow regimes to


decrease flashiness

MMSD, WDNR, Municipalities,


Milwaukee County

MMSD, WDNR, NGOs,


Municipalities, Milwaukee
County

Relative Cost
(for implementation of the
action in the entire watershed;
unit costs shown if available)

High
(Wet Detention
$0.37/cu ft (Cap.)
$0.02/cu ft (O&M)
Stormwater Treatment
$32,500/acre (Cap.)
$3,200/acre (O&M))

AR

Medium
Rain Garden
$1000 (Cap.) / $50 (O&M)
Rain Barrel
$50 (Cap.) / $3 (O&M)
Downspout Disconnect
$50 (Cap.)

Low - Medium

AR

Medium-High

KK-11

KK-10
(includes KK-9)
Kinnickinnic River-Middle

Kinnickinnic River-Lower

KK-3
Kinnickinnic River-Upper

KK-7
Cherokee Park Creek

KK-2

KK-6
Villa Mann Creek

South 43st Ditch

KK-5
Holmes Avenue Creek

KK-1

KK-8
Wilson Park Creek-Lower

Mainstem Reaches & Subwatersheds

Lyons Park Creek

KK-4
Wilson Park Creek-Upper

Tributary Reaches & Subwatersheds

KK-10
(includes KK-9)
Kinnickinnic River-Middle

Kinnickinnic River-Lower

Habitat Dimension

Watershed Targets

2. Reduce water quality


and quantity impacts using
green infrastructure

Actions

2a. Implement green infrastructure to


re-establish more natural hydrology,
reduce runoff and improve water
quality (continue and expand current
efforts; e.g. Green Milwaukee and
MMSD's green infrastructure plan)

3a. Evaluate existing road salt


reduction programs

Water Quality
and Quantity
3. Reduce water quality
impacts from nonpoint
runoff (focus on chlorides)

Water Quality
and Quantity

3b. Implement new pilot road salt


reduction programs

Measures

2a. Number of acres with reduced


impervious area; volume of runoff
reduced; improved flashiness index;
improved public safety from reduced
flow velocities; improved water
quality all year long
3a. Obtain water quality and
biological data on stream reaches
that have had the benefit of reduced
salt usage
3b. Locate stream reaches that have
high salt concentrations and target
them for pilot programs; ultimate
measure is reduced chloride in
streams

Responsible and/or
Participating Organization

Relative Cost
(for implementation of the
action in the entire watershed;
unit costs shown if available)

WDNR, MMSD, and


Municipalities

High
(Infiltration (Residential)
$22,000/acre (Cap.)
$1,100/acre (O&M)
Infiltration (Industrial)
$110,000/acre (Cap.)
$5,300/acre (O&M))

WDNR, MMSD, and


Municipalities including
Milwaukee County

Medium

WDNR, MMSD, Municipalities


including Milwaukee County,
and WisDOT

High
(Road Salt Reduction
$35/lane mile (Cap.)
$105/lane mile (O&M))

WDNR, MMSD, Municipalities


including Milwaukee County,
WisDOT, Private Development
Owners, Contractors

Low

3c. Implement road salt reduction


program education

3c. Educate private development


owners, contractors, operators,
municipalities and the public on use
of salt on driveways, parking lots and
other areas; ultimate measure is
reduced chloride in streams

4. Reduce water quality


and quantity impacts from
stormwater outfalls,
nonpoint runoff and sewer
overflows

4a. Provide adequate conveyence and


storage volume through traditional
(detention and infiltration basins) and
innovative techniques (bio-infiltration,
green infrastructure, etc.) (continue
and expand current efforts)

4a. Number of acres with reduced


impervious area; reduced peak flows;
improved flashiness index; improved
public safety from reduced flow
velocities, improved water quality all
year long, and annual control of
sewer overflows

WDNR, MMSD, and


Municipalities

High
(Infiltration (Residential)
$22,000/acre (Cap.)
$1,100/acre (O&M)
Infiltration (Industrial)
$110,000/acre (Cap.)
$5,300/acre (O&M))

5. Reduce localized erosion


at stormwater outfall pipes
and other nonpoint runoff
locations

5a. Implement measures to reduce


localized erosion and physically modify
the most-active outfalls (i.e. those with
the greatest effect on instream
physical conditions)

5a. Number of flow deflectors


installed, pipes cut back from stream
bank, linear feet of bank stabilized, or
amount of land purchased to provide
bio-infiltration

WDNR, MMSD, and


Municipalities

Medium-high

6a. Use of public lands or purchase of


lands (see Maps 6 and 14 in
SEWRPC Memorandum Report No.
194 in Appendix 4A of the WRP)
through donation, grants, fee simple
purchase, or acqusition of
conservation easement.

6a. Stream miles of buffer width 75


feet or greater

Municipalities, SWWT, NGOs


WDNR, and MMSD

Low
(Riparian Corridors
$944/acre (Cap.)
$210/acre (O&M))

6b. Tons of historic fill and/or trash


removed

Municipalities, SWWT, NGOs


Universities, WDNR, and MMSD

Medium

6b. Area of exotic invasive species


removed

Municipalities, SWWT, NGOs


Universities, WDNR, and MMSD

Low

6b. Area of native wetland or upland


reconstructed; number of native
species restored; diversity of native
hardwoods or shrubs

Municipalities, SWWT, NGOs


Universities, WDNR, and MMSD

Low- Medium
($4000/acre (Cap.)
$773/acre (O&M))

Municipalities, SWWT,
SEWRPC, WDNR, NGOs
Universities, and MMSD

Low

Municipalities, SWWT, NGOs


WDNR, and MMSD

Low
(Riparian Corridors
$944/acre (Cap.)
$210/acre (O&M))

7b. Implement management activities


to promote restoration.

7b. Number of stream channel


crossings and/or impediments to flow
Municipalities, SWWT, NGOs
removed and/or retrofitted to restore
continuity of riparian buffers (e.g.,
Universities, WDNR, and MMSD
miles of non-essential roads adjacent
to streams removed)

Medium

7c. Implement management activities


to promote recreation.

7c. Miles of recreational trails created


for public access; number of
Municipalities, SWWT, NGOs
locations providing public access to
Universities, WDNR, and MMSD
streams; miles of stream suitable for
recreational use or body contact

Medium

6. Expand riparian buffer


width to a minimum of 75
feet

6b. Implement management activities


to promote restoration.

6c. Conduct additional surveys to


determine riparian buffer widths not
yet inventoried.
7a. Use of public lands or purchase of
lands (see Maps 6 and 14 in
SEWRPC Memorandum Report No.
194 in Appendix 4A of the WRP)
through donation, grants, fee simple
purchase, or acqusition of
conservation easement.

Riparian
Corridors

7. Expand riparian buffer


continuity

6c. Stream miles inventoried and


area of potential buffer identified

7a. Stream miles of continuous buffer


widths of 75 feet or greater

KK-11

KK-3
Kinnickinnic River-Upper

KK-7
Cherokee Park Creek

KK-2

KK-6
Villa Mann Creek

South 43st Ditch

KK-5
Holmes Avenue Creek

KK-1

KK-8
Wilson Park Creek-Lower

Mainstem Reaches & Subwatersheds

Lyons Park Creek

KK-4
Wilson Park Creek-Upper

Tributary Reaches & Subwatersheds

Riparian
Corridors
(con't)

Monitoring
and
Information

KK-6

KK-7

KK-1

KK-2

KK-3

KK-10
(includes KK-9)

Villa Mann Creek

Cherokee Park Creek

Lyons Park Creek

South 43st Ditch

Kinnickinnic River-Upper

Kinnickinnic River-Middle

Watershed Targets

8. Protect high quality


areas or environmentally
sensitive lands

9. Continue and expand


monitoring and
informational programming

Actions

Measures

Responsible and/or
Participating Organization

8a. Conduct additional surveys to


determine riparian buffer widths not
yet inventoried.

8a. Stream miles inventoried and


area of potential buffer identified

Municipalities, SWWT,
SEWRPC, WDNR, NGOs
Universities, and MMSD

Low

8b. Purchase of lands to expand


buffers within the SEWRPCdelineated Primary and Secondary
Environmental Corridors, especially
along the mainstem and tributary
stream courses

8b. Stream miles or area of land


protected

Municipalities, SWWT, NGOs


WDNR, and MMSD

High

8c. Discourage any additional


development within the floodplain
(e.g., consistent and effective
application of wetland permits and
regulations)

8c. Continued enforcement of local


zoning ordinances and, where
applicable, ordinance revisions to
require mitigative compensation for
filling in the floodplain

Municipalities, County

Low

9a. Continue maintenance of existing


physical, chemical, and biological
monitoring stations and develop new
monitoring sites (including wildlife
monitoring) in cooperation with citizen
and other monitoring programs and
share the knowledge with stakeholders

9a. Number of stations established;


Universities, MMSD, WDNR,
increases in the biological database;
and data analysis and interpretation USGS, Municipalities and NGOs
efforts continued or increased

Low-Medium

9b. Develop wildlife habitat restoration


plan

Universities, MMSD, WDNR,


9b. Plan developed to restore wildlife
SEWRPC, USGS, Municipalities
habitat
and NGOs

Medium

A (priority for specific assessment points to be determined by habitat restoration plan)

9c. Implement storm drain stenciling


and programs to educate public how
to dispose of wastes properly

9c. Number of storm drains stenciled,


Universities, MMSD, WDNR,
number of informational programs
USGS, Municipalities and NGOs
developed or workshops held

Low

9d. Awareness programming for nonnative invasive species

9d. Number of informational


programs developed or workshops
held

Low

Universities, MMSD, WDNR,


USGS, Municipalities and NGOs

Footnotes:
A. The ultimate measure is whether habitat is improving.
B. Organizations listed are understood to lead or participate with the implementation of the action. For greater detail, see the SWWT membership list in Appendix 5B and SEWRPC's Planning
Report No. 50, Tables 93-99, in Appendix 5C.
C. Cost data based on costs developed for SEWRPC's Regional Planning Report No. 50, Appendix R. Cap. = Capital/construction cost; O&M = Operations and Maintenance
D. This assessment point area is associated with the Kinnickinnic River within the estuary. While not included within the pollutant loading and water quality analysis for the WRP, this area is incorporated in the habitat assessment conducted for the Kinnickinnic River watershed
The activities listed are suggestions to be implemented between 2010 and 2015 to move the watershed towards improved water quality and habitat.
Additional actions recommended by this WRP are presented in Chapters 5 and 6 and a complete list is included in Chapter 8. A complete list of actions
recommended by the RWQMPU is presented in Chapter X of Planning Report No. 50. Additional habitat recommendations are included in SEWRPC's MR-194 in Appendix 4A.

LEGEND
A = Highest Priority
B = Next Highest Priority
R = Required by Law
Foundation Action

KK-5
Holmes Avenue Creek

Habitat Dimension

KK-11

KK-8
Wilson Park Creek-Lower

Relative Cost
(for implementation of the
action in the entire watershed;
unit costs shown if available)

Kinnickinnic River-Lower

KK-4

Mainstem Reaches & Subwatersheds

Wilson Park Creek-Upper

Tributary Reaches & Subwatersheds

Watershed Restoration Plan

7.2.3

Kinnickinnic River

Priority Actions to Address In-stream-based Habitat (Table 7-3)

The Habitat Subcommittee also developed Table 7-3, which identifies Priority Actions to address
in-stream-based habitat issues resulting from human influences on in-stream fishery habitat and
water quality. The targets identified to address the issues are related to aquatic organism
passage, aquatic habitat, aquatic organisms, and improved monitoring, recreation, and
aesthetics.6 See Appendix 4A of Chapter 4 for additional information.

Ibid.

7-21

Table 7-3: Priority Actions to Address Instream-based Measures


Kinnickinnic River Watershed
Focus Area: Habitat- Instream Based Measures
Implementation Period: 2010 to 2015
Issue: Mitigating the human influences on instream fishery habitat and water quality.
Goal: Habitat improvement through reduction of instream based detrimental influences throughout the stream system.
SEWRPC Regional Plan Goal: Achievement of the fishable and swimmable standards.
What Will Meeting this Goal Accomplish?: Improvement of water quality and habitat to sustain a natural fishery and support a full range of recreational uses.

KK-8

KK-5

KK-6

KK-7

KK-1

KK-2

KK-3

KK-10
(includes KK-9)

Wilson Park Creek-Lower

Holmes Avenue Creek

Villa Mann Creek

Cherokee Park Creek

Lyons Park Creek

South 43st Ditch

Kinnickinnic River-Upper

Kinnickinnic River-Middle

Kinnickinnic River-Lower

Habitat Dimension

Aquatic
Organism
Passage

Aquatic Habitat

Watershed Targets

1. Restore fish and aquatic


organism passage from
Lake Michigan to the
headwaters and tributaries
(i.e. Follow 3-Tiered
Prioritization Strategy as
outlined in Appendix 4A)

2. Restore fish and aquatic


organism habitat from
Lake Michigan to the
headwaters and tributaries
(i.e. Follow 3-Tiered
Prioritization Strategy as
outlined in Appendix 4A)

KK-11

KK-4

Wilson Park Creek-Upper

Tributary Reaches & Subwatersheds

Mainstem
Reaches &
Subwatersheds

Responsible and/or
Participating Organization

Relative Cost
(for implementation of the action
in the entire watershed; unit
costs shown if available)

1a. Stream miles of concrete


removed, number of native species
present (see Appendix 4A for
biological indicators)

Municipalities SWWT, NGOs


with WDNR and MMSD

High
($2,000 - $4,200/linear foot (Cap.))

1b. Develop plans for removal


of additional obstructions on the
mainstem or tributaries and
implement the plans

1b. S Number of structures (e.g.,


drop structures and bridges)
removed or retrofitted, number of
native species present (see
Appendix 4A for biological
indicators)

Municipalities SWWT, NGOs


with WDNR and MMSD

Medium-High

1c. Develop detailed


assesments to expand passage
restoration efforts beyond the
mainstem to the tributaries,
prioritze them, and implement
them

1c. Stream miles of concrete


removed, number of drop structures
eliminated, miles of enclosed
channel daylighted or retrofitted,
number of bridge crossings
retrofitted, and channel restored,
number of Tributary miles connected
to mainstem, number of native
species present (see Appendix 4A
for biological indicators)

Municipalities SWWT, NGOs


with WDNR and MMSD

Medium-High
(Dam Abandonment and
Restoration Plan
$25,000/dam (Cap.) for drop
structure removal)

2a. Stream miles of habitat protected

Municipalities SWWT, NGOs


with WDNR and MMSD

Low

2b. Stream miles of habitat created


or improved, number of native
species present (see Appendix 4A
for biological indicators)

Municipalities SWWT, NGOs


with WDNR and MMSD

Medium - High

2c. Number of miles connected and


functional as fish and aquatic
organism habitat, number of native
species present (see Appendix 4A
for biological indicators)

Municipalities SWWT, NGOs


with WDNR and MMSD

High

2d. Protect excessively eroding


streambanks or streambeds,
especially where structures
such as bridge abutments and
buildings are threatened

2d. Miles of streambanks and


streambeds stabilized; reduction in
flow velocity

Municipalities SWWT, NGOs


with WDNR and MMSD

Medium - High

2d. Maintain water quality


conditions conducive to a
successful and sustainable
fishery

2d. Thermal regime, oxygen


concentrations, turbidity, chlorides,
etc.

Municipalities SWWT, NGOs


with WDNR and MMSD

Medium

Actions

Measures

1a. Remove concrete within the


lower reaches of the mainstem

2a. Protect and expand existing


highest quality remaining fishery
and aquatic habitat (see
Appendix 4A) (includes
reducing flow velocities and
addressing localized sediment
issues)
2b. Provide instream habitat
treatments including pool and
riffle structure, substrates,
vegetation or Cuyahoga habitat
underwater baskets
2c. Restore connectivity with
floodplain and recreate a more
natural meandering stream (to
be undertaken simultaneously
with 2a) to provide for the life
history of fish and aquatic
organisms (rearing, feeding,
breeding, and refuge areas)

KK-8

KK-5

KK-6

KK-7

KK-1

KK-2

KK-3

KK-10
(includes KK-9)

Wilson Park Creek-Lower

Holmes Avenue Creek

Villa Mann Creek

Cherokee Park Creek

Lyons Park Creek

South 43st Ditch

Kinnickinnic River-Upper

Kinnickinnic River-Middle

Kinnickinnic River-Lower

Habitat Dimension

Aquatic
Organisms

Monitoring and
Information

Recreation

Aesthetics

Watershed Targets

3. Restore a sustainable
fishery and aquatic
community

4. Continue monitoring and


informational programming

5. Improve recreational
opportunities (also see MR194 in Appendix 4A)

6. Continue removal of
trash

Actions

Measures

Responsible and/or
Participating Organization

Relative Cost
(for implementation of the action
in the entire watershed; unit
costs shown if available)

KK-11

KK-4

Mainstem
Reaches &
Subwatersheds

Wilson Park Creek-Upper

Tributary Reaches & Subwatersheds

3a. Protect and expand


remaining or existing highest
quality aquatic communities
(fisheries, macroinvertebrates,
mussels) (see Appendix 4A)

3a. Number, type, and life stages of


native species observed (see
Appendix 4A for biological
indicators)

Municipalities SWWT, NGOs


with WDNR and MMSD

Low

3b. Reintroduce native species

3b. Number, type, and life stages of


native species observed (see
Appendix 4A for biological
indicators)

SWWT, NGOs with WDNR and


MMSD

Low

3c Develop and implement


plans for control and removal of
non-native and invasive species

3c. Area cleared or tons removed of


non-native and invasive species

Municipalities SWWT, NGOs


with WDNR and MMSD

Low-Medium

4a. Continue and expand


monitoring efforts and inventory
maintenance for fish passage,
habitat, aquatic organisms, and
water quality (especially metals
and polyaromatic hydrocarbons
(PAHs) )

4a. Number of stations established


and conditions documented and
shared with stakeholders

Municipalities SWWT, NGOs


Universities, USGS, SEWRPC,
WDNR and MMSD

Low-Medium

4b. Develop new monitoring


sites in cooperation with citizen
and other monitoring programs
and share the knowledge with
stakeholders

4b. Number of stations established


and numbers of informational
programs delivered

Municipalities SWWT, NGOs


Universities, USGS, SEWRPC,
WDNR and MMSD

Low

5a. Inventory an maintain


existing recreational
opportunities

5a. Number of facilities maintained,


public access sites

County, NGOs, municipalities,


WDNR, local stakeholders

Low

5b. Develop new and safe


recreation opportunities such as
linking water and land-based
trail systems

5b. Numbers of signs installed to


identify unsafe navigational hazards,
number of navigational hazards
removed or retrofitted, number of
County, NGOs, municipalities,
new public access sites or facilites
WDNR, local stakeholders
created, number of informational
signs installed; miles of trails
established

Low

5c. Maintain appropriate water


quality conditions and create
safe flow conditions conducive
to full contact recreation

5c. Number of safe recreation days,


number of areas identified as safe
for recreation, number of safe exits
constructed in confined channels

MMSD, WDNR, NGOs,


municipalities, local
stakeholders

Medium

6a. Identify source locations


and continue and expand trash
and debris collection and
disposal

6a. Source locations identified,


improvement of trash accumulation
points in the watershed, and tons of
debris identified, collected, and
disposed of

Municipalities SWWT, NGOs


with WDNR and MMSD

Low-Medium
(Skimmer Boat
$1,000,000 for new boat
$150,000 (O&M)); Individual NGO
clean up efforts $35,000/yr/NGO

Footnotes: it is important to note that these instream actions and measures will require permits from the WDNR, municipalities, and/or County.
A. The ultimate measure is whether habitat is improving.
B. Organizations listed are understood to lead or participate with the implementation of the action. For greater detail, see the SWWT membership list in Appendix 5B and SEWRPC's Planning
Report No. 50, Tables 93-99, in Appendix 5C.
C. Cost data based on costs developed for SEWRPC's Regional Planning Report No. 50, Appendix R. Cap. = Capital/construction cost; O&M = Operations and Maintenance, cost for
concrete removal is based on average of recent MMSD project costs.
D. Relative prioriity based on 3-tiered approach, described in Appendix 4A, which emphasizes the mainstem, then tributaries, then high quality areas.
The activities listed are suggestions to be implemented between 2010 and 2015 to move the watershed towards improved water quality and habitat.
Additional actions recommended by this WRP are presented in Chapters 5 and 6 and a complete list is included in Chapter 8. A complete list of actions
recommended by the RWQMPU is presented in Chapter X of Planning Report No. 50. Additional habitat recommendations are included in SEWRPC's MR-194 in Appendix 4A.

LEGEND
A = Highest Priority
B = Next Highest Priority
R = Required by Law
Foundation Action

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

7.2.4 Priority Actions to Address Nutrients/Phosphorus (Table 7-4)


Excess phosphorus can lead to an increase in weed growth, which results in aesthetic impacts
and can reduce dissolved oxygen concentrations at night, which is harmful to fish. When the
weeds die, they can produce noxious odors and also reduce the dissolved oxygen concentrations
in the water. Potential sources of phosphorus include the following:
Non-contact cooling water and any other discharge of treated drinking water (phosphorus
compounds) including, lawn watering, car washing and other outdoor activities that
utilize and discharge finished municipal water
Fertilizers
Sanitary sewer overflows
Eroding soil (phosphorus is naturally occurring nutrient that clings to soil particles)
Private onsite wastewater treatment systems
Manure spreading
Table 7-4 presents the identified actions and associated information to address nutrients/
phosphorus. As noted above in Section 7.1, implementing these actions will result in significant
reduction in nutrient pollution of the watershed and may bring most assessment point areas in
line with the impending water quality standard.

7-24

Table 7-4: Priority Actions to Address Nutrients/Phosphorus


Kinnickinnic River Watershed
Focus Area: Nutrients - Phosphorus
Implementation Period: 2010 to 2015
Issue: Nutrient impacts on the watershed and discharge of nutrients from the watershed to Lake Michigan
Goal: Reduction of nutrient loads and impacts on water quality such as algae and Cladophora
SEWRPC Regional Plan Goal: Pollutant load reduction of phosphorus of entire watershed by year 2020 = 20% or 2,600 pounds per year reduction
What Will Meeting this Goal Accomplish?: Significant reduction in nutrient pollution of the watershed including algae reduction and reduction of nutrient discharges
to the Milwaukee Estuary and Lake Michigan

1. Reduce phosphorus
loads from regulated
discharges (actions were
ranked low to high in the
SEWRPC Regional Plan)

KK-9
Kinnickinnic RiverMiddle

Kinnickinnic RiverF
KK-11
Lower

KK-8
Wilson Park CreekLower

Kinnickinnic RiverKK-10
Middle

KK-7
Cherokee Park
Creek

KK-5
Holmes Avenue
Creek

KK-6

KK-4
Wilson Park CreekUpper

Willa Mann Creek

KK-3
Kinnickinnic RiverUpper

WDNR, MMSD, and


Municipalities

High

RD

RB

RD

RD

RA

RB

RD

RC

RD

RC

11% reduction in total


watershed loads by 2020

Estimated 8% reduction
in total watershed loads
based on literature

WDNR and Municipalities

1c. Reduce phosphorus loads


with State ban of phosphorus in
commercial fertilizers

1c. Required reports and


estimates of phosphorus
reductions

WDNR and Municipalities

Low

Potential Contribution
Toward Achieving
Watershed Target &
Goal

6% reduction in total
watershed loads

AR

Not Applicable

UWM WQI, MMSD,


Municipalities, Industries,
Milwaukee 7, and NGOs

Medium

11% reduction in total


watershed loads (if
phosphorus from all
industrial point sources
eliminated) Alternative to
phosphorus compounds
would have regional,
national and global
impacts

3a. Number of stream


miles with 75 feet-wide
buffers or greater where
public ownership exists

Not Applicable

Milwaukee County,
Municipalities, NGOs, SWWT

Low
(Riparian Corridors
$944/acre (Cap.)
$210/acre (O&M))

8% reduction in total
watershed loads by 2020

4a. Continue existing


level of water quality
samples and parameters
tested for if justified after
annual review

Not Applicable

MMSD, WDNR, USGS, NGOs

Low

Not Applicable

USGS

Low

2a. Progress on public


and private research in
the Milwaukee area on
development of better
technology

3. Reduce phosphorus
sources from land-based
activities (buffers not
recommended in KK
watershed in the SEWRPC
Regional Plan)

3a. Identify where public


ownership of land can serve as
a starting point to increase
riparian buffers

4a. Continue MMSD water


quality monitoring program and
expand it to include biotic
sampling

5a. Renovate KK River


Flushing Station to enable the
facility to continue to function
and maintain dissolved oxygen
concentrations

KK-2

Responsible and/or
Participating Organization

4c. Coordinate WDNR


sampling and monitoring
programs with MMSD and
USGS and integrate NGO
sampling efforts (such as the
efforts detailed in Target 1)

Relative Cost
(for implementation of the
action in the entire
watershed; unit costs shown
if available)

1b. Required reports and


estimates of phosphorus
reductions associated
with TSS reduction

4b. Continue involvement of


USGS in MMSD Corridor Study

South 43rd St.


Ditch

KK-1

Lyons Park Creek

Manufacturing & Industrial

Transportation

Outdoor Recreation,
Wetlands, Woodlands, and
Open Space

Geographic Concentration of Action and Relative Priority

Medium-High
(Parking Lot Sweeping
$3,400/acre (O&M)
Street Sweeping
$2,500/curb mile (Cap.)
$60/curb mile (O&M)
(Stormwater Treatment
$32,500/acre (Cap.)
$3,200/acre (O&M)))

2a. Research development of


alternatives to phosphorus
compounds by public and
private researchers in area
universities and industries

5. Improved water quality


in the Kinnickinnic River
Estuary (was medium
priority in the SEWRPC
Regional Plan)

1b. Implement projects and


programs to comply with MS4
permits and NR 151 TSS and
runoff reduction requirements
(reduced TSS expected to
result in coincidental TP
reduction)

2. Reduce use of
phosphorus compounds
for control of lead and
copper in drinking water
systems

4. Continue overall water


quality monitoring to
assess progress towards
targets and goals (was
high priority in the
SEWRPC Regional Plan)

Institutional & Governmental

1a. Annual volume and


frequency of CSO and
SSO

Commercial

1a. Continue adaptive


implementation of CSO and
SSO overflow reduction
program

Measures

High Density Residential

Actions

Low Density Residential

Watershed Targets

Agriculture

Primary Land Use the Action Addresses

4b. Maintain existing


funding level for
continued USGS
involvement
4c. Overall data
collection program is
integrated through the
USGS corridor study or
other means. SWWT
serves as a vehicle to
coordinate and prioritize
data collection efforts.

Fill data gaps

Not Applicable

MMSD, WDNR, USGS, NGOs

Low

Not Applicable

MMSD

Medium

Not Applicable

5a. Phosphorus water


quality data
5b. Progress toward
achieving existing
phosphorus water quality
standards

Footnotes:
A. The ultimate measure is whether habitat is improving.
B. Land use types are discussed in Chapter 4 of the WRP. Additional details on land use types can be found in Chapters 1 and 2 of SEWRPC's Technical Report No. 39.
C. Organizations listed are understood to lead or participate with the implementation of the action. For greater detail, see the SWWT membership list in Appendix 5B and SEWRPC's Planning
Report No. 50, Tables 93-99, in Appendix 5C.

Reduces concentration
only

LEGEND
A = Highest Priority
B = Next Highest Priority
C = Moderate Priority
D = Lowest Priority
R = Required by Law
Foundation Action

D. Cost data are provided for guidance only and are based on costs developed for SEWRPC's Regional Planning Report No. 50, Appendix R. Cap. = Capital/construction cost; O&M = Operations and Maintenance
E. Relative prioriity for Actions 1b and 1c are based on the total nonpoint load per acre
F. This assessment point area is associated with the Kinnickinnic River within the estuary. While not included within the pollutant loading and water quality modeling, this area is incorporated
The activities listed are suggestions to be implemented between 2010 and 2015 to move the watershed towards improved water quality and habitat.
Additional actions recommended by this WRP are presented in Chapters 5 and 6 and a complete list is included in Chapter 8. A complete list of actions
recommended by the RWQMPU is presented in Chapter X of Planning Report No. 50. Additional habitat recommendations are included in SEWRPC's MR-194 in Appendix 4A.

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

7.2.5 Foundation Actions (Table 7-5)


Even after distilling the RWQMPU recommendations into the Priority Actions tables, the overall
consensus among the SWWT committees was that there were still too many actions. Therefore,
to provide further guidance on the next projects that should be implemented, the technical team
developed a Foundation Actions table (Table 7-5). The actions chosen for the Foundation
Actions table are considered to be the predecessor actions for all other recommended actions.
The idea is that these actions must be completed before the full benefits of other actions can be
realized and will be completed no matter what the final goals are for the watershed. For
example, the full benefits of in-stream habitat improvements in the upstream reaches of the
Kinnickinnic River watershed can never be fully realized until a better connection with Lake
Michigan is created and fish passage through the concrete-lined channel section is provided in
the lower reaches of the Kinnickinnic River.
As with the Priority Actions tables, the Foundation Actions table is meant to be used as a guide
for future actions and can be modified as new information is obtained and as projects are
implemented. Also, the table is not meant to exclude any recommendations from the RWQMPU.

7-26

Table 7-5: Foundation Actions

Kinnickinnic River Watershed

Watershed Targets to be Achieved by 2015

Actions

PUBLIC HEALTH/BACTERIA
1a. Conduct dry weather surveys to identify outfalls that have dry weather flows
1b. Sample outfalls to determine which have human bacteria discharges (wet and dry weather samples)
1. Identify unknown sources of bacteria, and correct/remove/disconnect unknown sources of bacteria
(was high priority in the SEWRPC Regional Plan)

1c. Determine ownership/owner of outfalls that have dry weather flows and/or human bacteria
1d. Initiate discussion with owner of outfall to begin determining corrective actions
1e. Implement projects to correct/remove/disconnect unknown sources of bacteria
2a. Identify recreational and body contact areas

2. Increase recreational use of watershed and public access (was not an action ranked in the SEWRPC
Regional Plan)

2b. Identify other areas suitable for recreation or body contact


2c. Prioritize areas to restore for recreational use identified in Action 2b based on success of Action 1e.
3a. Identify where public ownership of land can serve as a starting point to increase riparian buffers
3b. Manage pet litter

3. Reduce bacteria sources from land-based activities (actions were ranked medium to high in the
SEWRPC Regional Plan)

3c. Implement programs to discourage unacceptably high numbers of waterfowl from congregating near water features - identify areas and take action to discourage waterfowl
feeding
3d. Implement projects and programs to comply with MS4 permits and NR 151 TSS and runoff reduction requirements (reduced TSS expected to result in coincidental bacteria
reduction)
3e. Initiate municipal, county and SWWT education programs to educate public on sources of bacteria and actions they can implement to reduce loads to streams

HABITAT - LAND-BASED
1a. Implement stormwater management practices at the subwatershed level
1. Moderate flow regimes to decrease flashiness

1b. Implement stormwater management practices at the neighborhood level


1c. Maintain stormwater management practices at all levels
1d. Restore floodplain connectivity with the stream system

2. Reduce water quality and quantity impacts using green infrastructure

2a. Implement green infrastructure to re-establish more natural hydrology, reduce runoff and improve water quality (continue and expand current efforts; e.g. Green Milwaukee
and MMSD's green infrastructure plan)
3a. Evaluate existing road salt reduction programs

3. Reduce water quality impacts from nonpoint runoff (focus on chlorides)

3b. Implement new pilot road salt reduction programs


3c. Implement road salt reduction program education

HABITAT - INSTREAM-BASED
1a. Remove concrete within the lower reaches of the mainstem
1. Restore fish and aquatic organism passage from Lake Michigan to the headwaters and tributaries (i.e.
Follow 3-Tiered Prioritization Strategy as outlined in Appendix 4A)

1b. Develop plans for removal of additional obstructions on the mainstem or tributaries and implement the plans
1c. Develop detailed assessments to expand passage restoration efforts beyond the mainstem to the tributaries, prioritize them, and implement them

PHOSPHORUS
1a. Continue adaptive implementation of CSO and SSO overflow reduction program
1. Reduce phosphorus loads from regulated discharges (actions were ranked low to high in the
SEWRPC Regional Plan)

1b. Implement projects and programs to comply with MS4 permits and NR 151 TSS and runoff reduction requirements (reduced TSS expected to result in coincidental TP
reduction)
1c. Reduce phosphorus loads with State ban of phosphorus in commercial fertilizers

2. Reduce use of phosphorus compounds for control of lead and copper in drinking water systems

2a. Research development of alternatives to phosphorus compounds by public and private researchers in area universities and industries

This list is intended to highlight predecessor actions that need to be completed to realize the full potential of actions
listed in Tables 7-1 thru 7-4 and the actions recommended by the RWQMPU.
The activities listed are suggestions to be implemented between 2010 and 2015 to move the watershed towards improved water quality and habitat.
Additional actions recommended by this WRP are presented in Chapters 5 and 6 and a complete list is included in Chapter 8. A complete list of actions
recommended by the RWQMPU is presented in Chapter X of Planning Report No. 50. Additional habitat recommendations are included in SEWRPC's MR-194 in Appendix 4A.

Watershed Restoration Plan

7.3

Kinnickinnic River

Comments Received on Priority Actions Tables

Watershed Action Team meetings and Science Committee meetings were held in fall 2009 to
discuss ongoing development of the WRP for the Kinnickinnic River watershed. Comments
were solicited from participants at the meeting and through the postal service, e-mail, and eforum in regards to the draft Priority Actions tables, which were called the draft Summary
Matrix tables at the time. The following sections are intended to outline the comments that were
submitted during the development of the Priority Actions tables (indicated in italics) and discuss
how the comments were addressed or why they were not addressed in the tables.
1) Metals and PAHs
Metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are not specifically addressed in the plans and
these two parameters are important impairments for fish and wildlife.
While metals and PAHs are not identified for special attention in the WRP, they are expected to
be reduced through implementation of the Wis. Admin. Code NR 151 Runoff Management
requirements. In addition, it is expected that metals and PAHs will be reduced as a result of
other actions identified in the Priority Actions tables that reduce stormwater runoff. Because
metals and PAHs have not been a specific focus area, nor on the parameter list based on the
Science and Policy Committees, and Executive Steering Council discussions, they have not been
modeled during this study. Some modeled parameters can be an indicator (such as turbidity) or
surrogate (such as total suspended solids [TSS]) of these pollutants, but additional data on these
pollutants have not been collected as part of this study. Specific reductions of these pollutants
can be measured and investigated in future studies.
Note that hazardous materials assessments should be considered during planning and
design of channel renovation and rehabilitation projects; some concrete channels overlay
contaminated soils.
It was suggested that the matrix include a monitoring recommendation to specifically address
TSS or PAHs/heavy metals. By collecting the relevant data, future plans will have the data
needed to address these important pollutants as well. This will facilitate future iterations of the
plan to address this better data. Another commenter asked whether polychlorinated biphenyls
(PCBs) should also be considered and whether additional monitoring should be added to the
recommendations.
Awareness and education efforts related to automobile practices and use of transportationrelated chemicals such as antifreeze, motor oil, and fuel could be included and would also
benefit from future monitoring data.
These comments were addressed by adding metals and PAHs specifically in the monitoring and
information section of Table 7-3. There are also recommendations in the RWQMPU to maintain
and expand monitoring programs. As the implementation process moves forward, additional
data gaps will be identified and specific monitoring projects can be conducted to gather the
appropriate data.
2) Buffers
There are multiple benefits of buffers and other actions/facilities. Perhaps these are actions that
should be focused on first. These projects may be the most likely projects to receive funding.

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Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

The use of buffers is recommended in many of the recommended actions. The inclusion of
habitat improvements related to land based activities is included in the Foundation Actions table
(Table 7-5) and buffers are an element of this action.
3) Activity Champions
The SWWT could select one organization to champion each activity and verify if all other
participating organizations were identified in the matrix. There was a desire to have the tables
clearly indicate who will do what and how individuals and organizations can help.
Another suggestion was to organize the Summary Matrix tables by implementation group
(business/industry, households, etc.). Large institutional stakeholders are responsible for most
of the actions on the tables, and it leaves off actions for smaller or individual stakeholders.
The Responsible and/or Participating Organization column was included in the tables to
indicate which organizations might lead and/or participate in the activities. It will be the
responsibility of SWWT to determine which SWWT organizations should be involved and what
the roles and responsibilities for SWWT should be for each action. Also, the process of
implementing new actions is discussed in Chapter 8. This process includes the designation of a
lead organization for any new action.
4) Table Organization
The Summary Matrix (Priority Actions table) and the Foundation Actions table, in particular,
could end up causing actions that are not listed to be overlooked and this is not beneficial. It
was agreed that the plan will have to label the summaries with disclaimers warning that specific
actions are part of an overall plan.
The text and the Foundation Action table were revised to address the concern that WRP readers
might only focus on actions listed in the Foundation Actions table. The concern was addressed
by clarifying these foundation actions are simply predecessor actions that are required to
realize the full benefit of other actions intended to improve water quality or habitat within the
watershed. Note also that the actions included in the Priority Actions tables are suggestions to be
implemented between 2010 and 2015. These actions are a distillation of the recommended
actions presented in the RWQMPU, found in Chapter X of Planning Report No. 50 and
discussed in Chapters 5 and 6 of this WRP.
One suggestion was that the foundation elements be highlighted within the four focus area tables
rather than called out separately in an additional table.
The Foundation Actions were highlighted in the Priority Actions tables.
The importance of the Foundation Actions table (Table 7-5) to serve as a roadmap for the next
five years was highlighted, and it was suggested to refine the table now.
There was also a suggestion to combine or connect the cost and benefit columns to serve as an
additional measure.
This task was determined to be appropriate for the next level of planning and was not done as
part of the WRP.
Another suggestion was to reorganize the tables in the matrix to detail conditions and possible
actions for specific sections of each of the 10 major tributaries or sections (assessment point

7-29

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

areas) of the Kinnickinnic River. This would be an additional table for each sub-watershed that
identifies conditions and possible actions for specific sections of each of the 10 major sections of
the Kinnickinnic River and the feasibility of each action. Actions might include the reduction or
elimination of adverse impacts or possible improvements to the existing condition. Simplified
headings such as these could be used:
Whats there
o

Current condition of the watershed and water quality

Specific areas/conditions/issues of concern (e.g., fecal coliform)

Factors/uses/condition (parking lots, factories, concrete channels, etc) affecting


areas/issues of concern

Why do we care
What can be done
o

Possible actions to reduce or eliminate adverse impact (remove barrier, implement


best management practices)

Actions to improve existing condition (widen buffer, create recreation access)

Feasibility of action (cost, politics, efficacy)


This information can then be combined with other Kinnickinnic tributary tables to show
connection to other sub-watershed actions, cost effective coordination, implementation,
maintenance, and monitoring.
The consensus of the SWWT committees was to leave the tables organized the way they are.
This allows the reader to view multiple assessment point areas at one time. Much of the
information discussed above is included in the WRP chapters. Additional information is
contained in the RWQMPU. Some of the more detailed information mentioned above will be
gathered in the next phase of implementation when more detailed work plans are developed to
conduct specific projects. The more detailed data gathering is beyond the scope of the WRP.
Another suggestion indicated that it would be helpful to use photos, words, and images to shape
the vision and illustrate the goals to relate these efforts to how they will impact people's day-today lives. Additionally, a narrative, photos, and art would help to paint a vision for people of
what the stream might look like when targets/goals accomplished and would help get buy in.
The plan contains maps that depict streams within various contexts, including underground and
channelized streams and those that flow within naturalized channels. Maps that indicate the
locations of point sources, excessive erosion, as well as other conditions are also included. Most
of the maps are provided in Chapter 4 and Appendix 4A.
5) Early Actions
The SWWT should identify and prioritize projects in the watershed that will be able to provide a
quick success. Implementing these projects first will maintain and build the momentum of the
Kinnickinnic River WAT.
These actions can be determined from Tables 7-1 through 7-5 from Chapter 7, or the overall
action lists in Chapter 8.
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Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

6) Phosphorus
The SWWT Policy Committee should look into alternatives to adding phosphorus compounds to
drinking water. It was suggested the plan include other treatment and water re-use alternatives
instead of chemical solutions for dealing with a reduction in the use of phosphorus compounds
for the control of lead and copper in drinking water systems.
This is a Foundation Action. It is important to note that the programs and processes that are
utilized by water utilities are in response to regulatory requirements and successfully address a
significant public health issue.
7) Prioritization Process
Priority is a complex concept involving both an assessment of conditions and values related to
those conditions.
The initial versions of Tables 7-1 through 7-4 (Priority Actions tables) describe the greatest need
in terms of the technical analysis and current conditions and were revised based on input from
the WAT. These initial priority designations can guide the WAT and SWWT as they move
forward with implementation. The SWWT committees or chairs have the ability to add the value
component and adjust the prioritization accordingly. For example, intervention may be more
feasible in some places because of varying factors, opportunities, and synergies creating a
context for increasing or decreasing the level of priority for each item. Priorities may be revised
over time by the WAT.
Another suggestion indicated that it would be beneficial to generate a list that optimizes
available resources, leverages additional resources, and includes an analysis of visibility of
potential projects. Additionally, the prioritization of projects as opportunities arise should also
be considered.
This action should be discussed by the WAT in the next phase of implementation as discussed in
Chapter 8.
Comments also suggested a wider index for prioritization than just A or B. This could increase
clarity of priorities (such as using A, B, C, and D) that could differ across the watershed. One
comment suggested changing the word priority that appears in Column 7.
The prioritization was expanded in Table 7-1 and 7-4 to include A through D. The prioritization
in Tables 7-2 and 7-3 remains limited to A and B due to the relatively high prioritization
attributed to habitat-based actions. After discussion with the Science Committee, the consensus
was to keep the word priority in the Geographic Concentration of Action and Relative Priority
column as it indicates a preference for where actions should be implemented first. The
prioritization can be revised in the future by the WAT.
8) Other Comments by Focus Area
Comments included changes to watershed targets including the refinement of associated actions,
measures, and prioritization. Specific comments are summarized below for each focus area and
are described based on their position in the matrix (action, measure, and priority).
1) Public Health/Bacteria
Action

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Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

The current measures (bacteria) are not the best measure because it doesnt
highlight the importance of human waste. Clearly, identifying where human
waste is entering our waterways is a high priority.
Text added in Section 7.2.1 that discusses the issues with using fecal coliform
bacteria as an indicator organism and provides recommendations for future
actions regarding the identification of unknown sources.
The 52% goal is doing everything in the regional plan; it is possible doing
everything on the table still may not get to that number to reach the SEWRPC
goal.
This statement is correct.
Measure
Non-governmental organizations are already doing some of these initiatives. In
KK-5, the non-governmental organizations have already found seven outfalls that
need to be further investigated between 6th and 27th streets.
No response required.
Priority
There are sections where it makes sense for the WAT to work on prioritizing. For
example, locations where people are using the resource.
Correct. No response required.
Knowing how many persons are affected in each sub-watershed may help to
prioritize areas in the target for increased recreational use.
This can probably be determined with available information, but it was not done
as part of this WRP. It is recommended that this analysis be completed as part of
the implementation phase if deemed necessary.
2) Habitat
Action
One comment indicated that habitat is an area where best management practices
could cumulatively have an impact.
Correct. No response required.
Salt levels are important and inadvertently missed on the tables. Add salt
(chlorides) to habitat land based measures and to the Foundation Actions table.
Road salt (chloride) reduction has been added to the Chapter 7 Tables.
KK-11 closest to the estuary is the location in the watershed with the most chance
for high quality aquatic life with instream enhancements. Until the concrete
comes out upstream, it doesnt make sense to spend money on fish passage.
Concrete removal is a key component for improving fish passage.

7-32

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

KK-4 should be changed so it will be monitored for water quality. It is the airport
location, so for instream habitat it is not a priority, but still should be monitored
for water quality (edit Table 3 of the matrix).
Added.
It is difficult in the spreadsheet on habitat to prioritize certain actions in certain
areas.
Agree. The priorities may need to be modified in the implementation phase.
Some instream work should happen in the lower Kinnickinnic (estuary Area of
Concern), but otherwise passage and other in-steam work should not be too much
of a focus in the Kinnickinnic River watershed until a significant amount of
concrete removal occurs. The MMSDs Underwood Creek projects
accomplishments are instructive here.
Concrete removal is a Foundation Action and is a key component for improving
fish passage.
Measure
Rain barrels, green roofs, and rain gardens could be added to the table. It may
not be realistic to show land purchases as a measure in urbanized areas. The
Kinnickinnic Summary Matrix table ought to bump up in importance
disconnecting downspouts, rain barrels, rain gardens, etc. above buying land to
expand riparian buffers.
Reducing flashiness, by implementing green infrastructure and other stormwater
management practices such as the ones mentioned, is a Foundation Action.
Although listed as a high priority, it is acknowledged that purchasing buffers
along the KK will be challenging due to the degree of development.
9) Other Miscellaneous Comments
Monitoring -- The focus on monitoring needs could vary by assessment area,
depending on water quality, habitat conditions, and land use.
Agree. This should be considered when developing the monitoring plans during
the implementation phase.
The WAT needs to think about how to leverage efforts.
Agree. This action should be discussed by the WAT in the next phase of
implementation.
The blue lines on the map need to be confirmed.
The maps are based off of data from SEWRPC and are not easily updated.
Revisions to the maps can be made, if necessary, as part of an appropriate action
during implementation.

7-33

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

10) Goals
Another comment suggested that there be a measure of success on the overall goal to show how
well actions are accomplishing a goal. Another comment indicated that the region has a wellestablished framework for measuring water quality, including the MMSD H2OInfo tool, which is
considered valuable.
Monitoring is a recommended action included in the WRP. Data should be reviewed and
analyzed, as discussed in Chapter 8, to monitor progress. The MMSDs H20Info tool will be a
valuable monitoring tool.
Implementation plans should include a monitoring component.
Monitoring is a recommended action included in the WRP.
11) Funding
Obtaining future funding and investment would be facilitated by developing a specific plan. The
use of mapping to identify problem areas would also improve chances for future funding.
The appendices in Chapter 4 contain numerous maps. Additional map files can be obtained
through SEWRPC and MMSD.

7-34

APPENDIX 7A

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

Chapter 8: Implementation Strategy


8.1

Introduction

The overall implementation strategy of the Watershed Restoration Plan (WRP) is presented in
this chapter. The implementation strategy incorporates an "adaptive management" approach,
which is a systematic management approach that allows decisions to be modified and improved
over time based on results from previous decisions and/or new information. This approach can
be summarized by the phrase: Plan-Do-Check-Act. The terms in this phrase, for the purposes of
this WRP, are summarized below:
Plan Identify actions to improve water quality and habitat in the Kinnickinnic River watershed.
Do Implement the identified actions.
Check Monitor the incremental progress of the implemented actions toward achieving water
quality and habitat improvements.
Act Evaluate the results, consider new information, and then modify the plan as necessary.
Actions that have been successful should be continued. Actions that did not produce the desired
outcome should be modified or eliminated. This starts the adaptive management process over
again.
This strategy, along with previous chapters in this WRP, can be used by the Southeastern
Wisconsin Watersheds Trust, Inc. (SWWT) to further develop an implementation plan for the
watershed. The specific portions of the WRP that will be the most useful for this purpose
include: Chapter 4, Appendix 4A, Chapter 6, Chapter 7 (especially Tables 7-1 through 7-5), and
the information provided in this chapter. The Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning
Commissions (SEWRPC) Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update (RWQMPU) is
also a tremendous resource that can be used to help develop the plan.
As part of the Plan component under the Plan-Do-Check-Act approach, a phased approach for
implementation is recommended. As noted in Chapter 2, the recommended phasing strategy for
implementation of this WRP is as follows:
Phase 1- Completed and Committed Actions/Projects: The first phase in
implementing this WRP includes identifying relevant actions or projects that have been
recently completed and a recommendation to implement already committed projects and
programs. This phase represents recent progress and will continue approximately
through the year 2015.
This Phase is documented in Tables 8-1 and 8-2:
1) Completed actions are shown in Table 8-1. These are actions/projects that have
been completed subsequent to the completion of the SEWRPC's RWQMPU at the
end of 2007.
2) Actions that are underway are shown in Table 8-2. These are actions/projects that
are in the process of being completed at the time this report was being finalized
(March 2010)

8-1

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

Phase 2 Implement Identified Foundation Actions and Other Identified High


Priority Actions: The second phase of adaptive implementation of this WRP includes
the implementation of the foundation actions and the other high priority actions
identified in this WRP. This phase represents progress in the years 2010 to about 2015.
This phase is documented in Tables 8-3 and 8-4:
1) Actions that are being initiated are shown in Table 8-3. These are actions/projects
that are being initiated at the time this report was being finalized (March 2010).
2) Actions that are being considered by the Southeastern Wisconsin Watersheds
Trust, Inc. (SWWT) and other agencies and those that are recommended in this
WRP are shown in Table 8-4.
Phase 3 Full Implementation of the RWQMPU: The third phase of adaptive
implementation of this WRP consists of full implementation of the RWQMPU
recommendations. Depending on the monitoring results of the first two phases, these
actions could include more widespread implementation of the same or modified actions
or they could include most of the remaining elements contained in the RWQMPU
(medium- and low-priority actions) and the additional actions identified through the
development of the WRP. These actions are discussed in Chapters 5, 6 and 7 of this
WRP. An emphasis would be placed on the controls that are determined to be most
successful (technically, socially, and financially) during Phases 1 and 2. The
development of the initiatives noted in Phase 2 will facilitate this effort. This phase
would represent progress in the years 2016 to about 2020.
It is anticipate that Phase 3 would result in meeting the water quality and habitat
improvement goals presented in the RWQMPU and discussed in Chapter 3 of this WRP.
Phase 3 is not presented further in this chapter because the details of this phase will
depend upon the results of Phase 1 and 2.
Phase 4 - Enhanced Level of Controls: The fourth phase of adaptive implementation
of this WRP consists of an enhanced level of controls to further improve water quality or
habitat beyond the goals established by the RWQMPU. Depending on the monitoring
results of the first three phases, these actions could include more widespread
implementation of the same or modified actions. An emphasis would be placed on the
controls that are determined to be most successful (technically, socially, and financially)
during Phases 1, 2 and 3. The development of the initiatives noted in Phase 2 will
facilitate this effort. This phase could overlap with Phase 3 and could represent progress
in the years 2016 to 2020 or beyond.
Phase 4 is not yet developed nor presented in this chapter because this phase will depend
upon the results of Phases 1, 2, and 3.
Phase 5 Fully Meet Water Quality Standards: The final phase of implementation
would be the adoption of all controls necessary to fully meet achievable water quality
standards, whether those are the existing standards, site-specific standards, or future
changes in water quality standards. This phase would likely occur after 2020.

8-2

Watershed Restoration Plan

8.2

Kinnickinnic River

Phase 1 and Phase 2 Actions

The actions identified under Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the implementation strategy are provided in
the tables below. For each table, the Focus Area that each action is intended to address is
provided. As discussed in Chapters 3 and 5, the Focus Areas were developed with the SWWT
committees in order to focus the WRP on three main parameters. The parameters include public
health/bacteria, habitat (designated as either land-based or instream-based) and aesthetics, and
nutrients/phosphorus. The participants that have either worked on the action, are currently
working on the action, or are understood to work on the action in the future are also listed. The
listed participants are not intended to limit other organizations from participating and may not be
a complete list. However, they are provided to give an indication of who is or might be working
on or participating with the implementation of the action. When the participants would likely
involve additional organizations that are members of SWWT, SWWT is listed. The list of
SWWT member organizations as of March 2010 is provided in Appendix 5B. Also listed in the
tables are the results of completed actions, the status of ongoing actions, and/or the intended
purpose of the action. If the action was identified as a Foundation Action or Priority Action in
Chapter 7, it is noted on the table below the action.
These tables will change over time as actions are completed and the planning process continues.
The intent is for the SWWT to update these tables regularly and modify them as necessary to
help track progress and results. As the adaptive management process moves forward, the actions
for Phases 3, 4 and 5 will be determined and can be added to these tables.
8.2.1 Completed or Committed Actions
Table 8-1 lists recently completed actions on the Kinnickinnic River watershed, the Focus Area
the action is intended to address, and the known results of the action. The meanings of the
acronyms used are noted at the end of the table.
TABLE 8-1
RECENTLY COMPLETED ACTIONS
Action
1. Remove Kinnickinnic
River Sediment

Focus Area
Habitat InstreamBased

Participants
WDNR, USEPA

Results
Removal of
approximately 170,000
cubic yards of sediment
contaminated with PCBs
and PAHs from Becher
Street downstream to
Kinnickinnic Avenue

Notes:
PAHs = Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
PCBs = Polychlorinated biphenals
USEPA = U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
WDNR = Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources

Table 8-2 lists actions that have been initiated on the Kinnickinnic River watershed. Initiation is
defined as the steps necessary to implement an action, as defined in Table 8-5, have started. The
source of the information is footnoted at the end of the table along with the meaning of the
acronyms used.

8-3

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

TABLE 8-2
UNDERWAY (ACTION IS FUNDED AND UNDERWAY)
Action

Focus Area

Participants

Purpose

Status

1. Develop and
Implement
Watershed
1
Restoration Plans

All Focus Areas

Led by the
SWWT and
including all
organizations that
are members of
SWWT

Use non-governmental
organization (NGO) expertise,
capacity and constituent base
to ensure that non-traditional
(people who normally do not
engage in these efforts) and
traditional participants are
engaged in the watershed
restoration planning process
and that innovative, cost
effective approaches are
taken to improve water
resources

Steps 1-9 of
Table 8-5
are
underway

2. Initiate legal and


Policy
Implementation of
the Watershed
Restoration Plans

All Focus Areas

Led by the SWWT


and including
Midwest
Environmental
Advocates,
Sixteenth Street
Community
Health Center,
Clean Wisconsin

a. Identify and advance


effective and innovative
policies and legal tools that
will result in watershed
restoration

Steps 1-4 of
Table 8-5
are
underway

b. Engage key stakeholders


through the SWWT Policy
Committee in the watershed
restoration planning process
and choose legal/policy
approaches best suited to
bringing about the improved
water quality and water
resources goals of the SWWT

Steps 1-5 of
Table 8-5
are
underway

a. Raise the awareness of


SWWT in the greater
Milwaukee watersheds and
encourage involvement with
issues concerning water
quality and coordinated
watershed restoration

Steps 1-9 of
Table 8-5
are
underway

b. Recruit and involve a broad


constituency for watershed
restoration efforts

Steps 1-9 of
Table 8-5
are
underway

3. Develop an
Outreach and
Communications
1
Strategy
(Foundation
Action)

All Focus Areas

1000 Friends of
Wisconsin, Clean
Wisconsin,
Milwaukee
Riverkeeper,
Midwest
Environmental
Advocates

Continued

8-4

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River
TABLE 8-2

UNDERWAY (ACTION IS FUNDED AND UNDERWAY)


Action

Focus Area

Participants

Purpose

Status

c. Communicate the progress


and successes of SWWT
initiatives

Steps 1-3 of
Table 8-5
are
underway

d. Demonstrate the strength


of non-traditional partnerships
and collaborations in meeting
state stormwater regulations
and advancing watershed
restoration efforts

Steps 1-3 of
Table 8-5
are
underway

4. Expand SWWT
Administration and
Committee
1
Support

All Focus Areas

SWWT ESC

Create an integrated structure


that supports watershed
restoration across municipal
and organization boundaries

Steps 1-5 of
Table 8-5
are
underway

5. Implement
projects to comply
with
nonagricultural
(urban) NR 151
requirements
(Foundation
Action)

Public Health/Bacteria,
Phosphorus

WDNR and
Municipalities

Compile required reports and


estimates of TSS reductions
(will also have some benefit
for bacteria and phosphorus
reduction)

Steps 1-5 of
Table 8-5
are
underway

6. Complete
Kinnickinnic River
Flood
Management,
South Chase
Avenue to South
2
27th Street

Habitat Land and


Instream-Based

MMSD

a. Reduce the risk of flooding


to structures located within
the Kinnickinnic River
watershed

Steps 1-4 of
Table 8-5
are
underway

b. Rehabilitate 12,000 linear


feet of concrete channel and
replace concrete channel
liner with a bioengineered
channel and widen the
channel where feasible

Steps 1-4 of
Table 8-5
are
underway

(Foundation
Action)

th

c. Replace the South 6


Street Bridge to increase
channel conveyance

Steps 1-4 of
Table 8-5
are
underway

d. Improve fish passage,


channel aesthetics, and
riparian area

Steps 1-4 of
Table 8-5
are
underway
Continued...

8-5

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River
TABLE 8-2

UNDERWAY (ACTION IS FUNDED AND UNDERWAY)


Action

7. Complete KK
River Sediment
Transport Study

Focus Area

Participants

Status

e. Evaluate alternatives to
rehabilitate the channel with a
bioengineered channel where
feasible

Steps 1-3 of
Table 8-5
are
underway

Habitat InstreamBased

MMSD

Provide a planning document


for appropriate flood
management, streambank
stabilization, and
rehabilitation activities within
the Kinnickinnic River
Watershed. Critical need to
reduce channel erosion from
rd
th
43 to 60 Streets.

Steps 1-3 of
Table 8-5
are
underway

Habitat Land-Based

MMSD

Reduce the flood risk to


structures in the Wilson Park
Creek subwatershed

Steps 1-3 of
Table 8-5
are
underway

Habitat Land-Based

MMSD

Reduce the flood risk to


structures in the Villa Mann
Creek subwatershed

Steps 1-3 of
Table 8-5
are
underway

Habitat Land-Based

American Rivers,
MMSD

Promote natural stormwater


management practices to
reduce flooding, improve
water quality and save money
and energy

Steps 1-4 of
Table 8-5
are
underway

Public Health/Bacteria

MMSD,
SEWRPC,
WDNR, GLRI

Develop a better assessment


of human health risk to
address pathogens in
stormwater

Steps 1-3 of
Table 8-5
are
underway

(Priority Action)

8. Complete
Wilson Park Creek
Flood
Management Plan

Purpose

(Foundation
Action)
9. Complete Villa
Mann Creek Flood
3
Management
(Foundation
Action)
10. Evaluate and
implement Best
Management
Practices in
Holmes Avenue
Creek
(Foundation
Action)
11. Research
development of
better indicator test
than fecal coliform
to assess risks of
disease and
determination of
human sources
(Priority Action)

Continued...

8-6

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River
TABLE 8-2

UNDERWAY (ACTION IS FUNDED AND UNDERWAY)


Action
12. Implement
traditional and
innovative
techniques to 1)
ensure adequate
conveyance and
storage volume
and 2) reduce
erosion at outfalls

Focus Area

Participants

Purpose

Status

Habitat Land-Based
and Phosphorus

MMSD, WDNR,
Municipalities

Reduce water quality and


quantity impacts from
stormwater outfalls, nonpoint
runoff and sewer overflows

Steps 1-3 of
Table 8-5
are
underway

Habitat Land-Based
and Instream-Based
and Phosphorus

MMSD, WDNR,
Municipalities

Continue and expand


informational programming

All steps in
Table 8-5
are
underway

14. Implement
MMSDs
H2OCapture tool

All Focus Areas

MMSD

Track implementation of
green infrastructure within the
watershed with an interactive,
web-based mapping tool

Table 8-5
action plan
steps need
to be
initiated

15. Continue
adaptive
implementation of
overflow control
program (point
source control)

Public Health/Bacteria
and Phosphorus

WDNR, MMSD,
and Municipalities

Reduce annual volume and


frequency of CSO and SSO

All steps in
Table 8-5
are
underway

Phosphorus

WDNR,
Municipalities,
businesses and
citizens

Reduce phosphorus loads to


the watershed

Steps 1-5 of
Table 8-5
are
underway

(Priority Action)
13. Continue
outreach and
storm drain
stenciling, waste
disposal, and
awareness of
invasive species
(Priority Action)

(Foundation
Action)
16. Support
reduction of
phosphorus loads
due to the state
ban of phosphorus
in commercial
fertilizers
(Foundation
Action)

Continued...

8-7

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River
TABLE 8-2

UNDERWAY (ACTION IS FUNDED AND UNDERWAY)


Action
17. Conduct Water
Quality Monitoring
1

(Priority Action)

Focus Area
Public Health/Bacteria
and Phosphorus

Participants
MMSD,
SEWRPC,
WDNR, USGS,
Milwaukee
Riverkeeper,
River Alliance of
Wisconsin

Purpose
a. Improve quality and
quantity of data collected to
improve decision making
b. Ensure a sound, scientific
basis for the development,
refinement and
implementation of the WRPs

Status
All Steps in
Table 8-5
are
underway

c. Measure the effectiveness


of implementation efforts
d. Engage the community,
including non-traditional
(people who normally do not
engage in these efforts)
community members, in
evaluating improvements in
water quality, aesthetics, and
habitat

Continued...

8-8

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River
TABLE 8-2

UNDERWAY (ACTION IS FUNDED AND UNDERWAY)


Action
18. Conduct
Modeling and
1
Science Work

Focus Area
Public Health/Bacteria
and Phosphorus

(Priority Action)

Participants
MMSD,
SEWRPC, River
Alliance of
Wisconsin, Clean
Wisconsin,
Milwaukee
Riverkeeper

Purpose
a. Use scientifically sound
modeling results, field
collected data, and analysis
to inform WRPs (including:
continue maintenance of the
MMSD conveyance model,
the watershed-wide riverine
water quality model)
b. Measure the effects of
implementation activities
informed by scientifically
sound monitoring results, field
collected data, and analysis
c. Collaborate between nongovernmental organizations
(NGO), academics, consulting
and practicing science
experts, and interested
member of the public on
scientific dimensions of
SWWTs work
d. Identify and eliminate illicit
discharges to reduce the
bacterial pollution in target
watersheds to target levels
e. Build relationships and
generate the necessary
resources to eliminate illicit
discharges

Sources:
1
Joyce Fund Reports
2
MMSD GLRI proposals, November 2009
3
MMSD Requests for Proposals posted on website
MMSD = Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District
NR 151 = Wis. Admin. Code Natural Resources (NR) 151 Runoff Management
PPCPs = Pharmaceutical and personal care products
SWWT = Southeastern Wisconsin Watersheds Trust, Inc.
TRANS 401 = WisDOT CHAPTER TRANS 401: Construction Site Erosion Control
TSS = Total suspended solids

8-9

Status
All Steps in
Table 8-5
are
underway

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

Table 8-3 lists actions that have been initiated on the Kinnickinnic River watershed. Initiation is
defined as some initial steps have been completed to begin the action, but due to lack of funding
or other factors, steps to complete the action have not started as of the date of this report (March
2010). The source of the information is footnoted at the end of the table along with the meaning
of the acronyms used.
TABLE 8-3
INITIATED ACTIONS
Action
1. Develop Green
2,3
Infrastructure Plan

Focus Area

Participants

Purpose

Status

All Focus Areas

MMSD, SWWT,
American Rivers,
Municipalities,
WDNR and UWExtension

a. Study green
infrastructure and
development
recommendations for
the prioritized
implementation of
green infrastructure
projects

Table 8-5
action plan
steps need
to be initiated

(Foundation Action)

b. Quantify the
reduction in
stormwater runoff and
enhanced water
quality in the
receiving waters
c. Continue Green
Milwaukee program
2. Develop engineering
techniques to find and fix
2,3
illicit connections
(Foundation Action)
3. Develop Total
2
Maximum Daily Loads

Public
Health/Bacteria
and
Phosphorus

SEWRPC,
SWWT, MMSD,
Municipalities

Reduce bacteria in
the watershed
coming from illicit
connections

All Table 8-5


action plan
steps
underway

Public Health,
Phosphorus,
Habitat
InstreamBased

SWWT, MMSD

a. Set the maximum


amount of pollutants
a watershed can
receive while still
meeting water quality
standards

Table 8-5
action plan
steps need
to be initiated

b. Identify steps
needed to reach the
load allocations and
waste load
allocations

8-10

Continued

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River
TABLE 8-3
INITIATED ACTIONS

Action

Focus Area

Participants

4. Renovate the KK River Public Health,


2
Flushing Station
Habitat
Instream(Priority Action)
Based

SEWRPC,
SWWT, MMSD

Determine the need


and economic
justification to
renovate the
Kinnickinnic River
Flushing Station in
order to improve
dissolved oxygen
levels

Table 8-5
action plan
steps need
to be initiated

5. Implement Real Time


2
Monitoring

USGS, MMSD,
SWWT

a. Install 4 to 6 real
time continuous water
quality monitoring
sites

All Table 8-5


action plan
steps
underway

b. Improve the quality


and quantity of data
collected to improve
decision making

All Table 8-5


action plan
steps
underway

(Priority Action)

Public Health,
Phosphorus,
Habitat
InstreamBased
Public Health,
Phosphorus,
Habitat
InstreamBased

6. Utilize surveys and


management activities to
identify and restore both
the riparian buffer width
and length (including
public lands) and
inventory
environmentally
sensitive lands,
discourage additional
development

Purpose

Status

Habitat LandBased

SWWT

Expand buffer width


and continuity

All Table 8-5


action plan
steps
underway

Habitat
InstreamBased

SWWT

Continue and expand


monitoring and
informational
programming

All Table 8-5


action plan
steps
underway

Public Health
and Habitat
InstreamBased

Milwaukee
Riverkeeper

General water quality


sampling as well as
location of unknown
bacteria sources

All Table 8-5


action plan
steps
underway

(Priority Action)
7. Expand and continue
inventory maintenance
for fish passage, habitat
and aquatic biota
(Priority Action)
8. Implement Citizen
Monitoring Program
(includes illicit
connection detection)

Continued...

(Foundation Action)

8-11

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River
TABLE 8-3
INITIATED ACTIONS

Action
9. Implement
Stormwater Trees
program

Focus Area

Participants

Purpose

Habitat Land
Based

SWWT, MCSC,
City of
Milwaukee, River
Revitalization
foundation

Plant stormwater
trees to help control
stormwater runoff

Status
All Table 8-5
action plan
steps
underway

Sources:
1

Joyce Fund Reports


MMSD GLRI proposals, November, 2009
3
SWWT WRP Action Team Summary, November, 2009
2

KK = Kinnickinnic
MCSC = Milwaukee County Service Corps
MMSD = Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District
SEWRPC = Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission
SWWT = Southeastern Wisconsin Watersheds Trust, Inc.
USGS = U.S. Geological Survey
WDNR = Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources

Table 8-4 lists future actions that are recommended in this plan. These are actions that have not
been initiated on the Kinnickinnic River watershed as of the date of this report (March 2010).
More information for these actions, such as effectiveness and implementation or pollutant
reduction targets and goals, is provided in Chapters 5, 6, and 7 in this WRP. The source of the
information is footnoted at the end of the table along with the meaning of the acronyms used.
TABLE 8-4
FUTURE ACTIONS RECOMMENDED IN THE WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN FOR THE
KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
Action

Focus Area

Participants

Purpose

1. Obtain LEED training


and certification for public
1
agency staff

Habitat Land-Based

Municipalities,
Milwaukee County,
WisDOT,

Educate public agency


staff on general
environmental issues

2. Restore Wilson Park


1
Lagoon

Habitat Land-Based

SWWT, Milwaukee
County

Improve water quality


for recreational use of
the lagoon

Habitat Land-Based

Municipalities,
Milwaukee County,
WisDOT, MMSD

Increase public
knowledge regarding
stormwater and its
relationship to surface
water quality

(Priority Action)
3. Conduct stormwater
public education and
1
outreach consortium
(Foundation Action)

Continued...

8-12

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River
TABLE 8-4

FUTURE ACTIONS RECOMMENDED IN THE WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN FOR THE


KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
Action

Participants

Purpose

Habitat Land-Based

Milwaukee County,
WisDOT, private
contractors,
Municipalities

Educate public works


and snow plowing
contractors on the
issues associated with
chlorides and water
quality

5. Conduct
stormwater/water issues
survey of watershed
1
residents

All Focus Areas

1000 Friends

Gather public input on


issues of importance

6. Conduct Great Lakes


Educational Programs on
1
Lakeshore State Park

All Focus Areas

1000 Friends,
Lakeshore State
Park, WDNR,
UWM, GLWI,
Discovery World,
Neighborhood
House

General public
outreach/education

7. Participate in Gathering
1
Waters Festival

All Focus Areas

Lakeshore State
Park, US Forest
Service Dept. of
Agriculture, Keep
Greater Milwaukee
Beautiful,
Milwaukee
Moms.com,
Columbia St.
Marys, Historic
Third Ward, REI,
Veolia Water, Rip
Tide, Milwaukee
Summerfest,
USEPA, MMSD
and WDNR

General public
outreach/education

8a. Develop a Riparian


Corridor Management
Guide

Habitat Land-Based

SEWRPC, Chicago
Metropolitan
Agency for
Planning,
Northwestern
Indiana Regional
Planning
Commission, and
the Southwest
Michigan Regional
Planning
Commission,
SWWT

a. Develop a
comprehensive
riparian corridor
management guide
that would address
information gaps
relative to
effectiveness and
design features of
riparian buffers in rural
and urban settings

4. Implement chloride
reduction education and
1
certification program

Focus Area

(Foundation Action)

8b. Implement pilot


demonstration projects for
the Southern Lake
Michigan shoreline and
1
inflowing rivers
(Priority Actions)

Continued...

8-13

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River
TABLE 8-4

FUTURE ACTIONS RECOMMENDED IN THE WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN FOR THE


KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
Action

Focus Area

Participants

Purpose
b. Provide guidelines
for optimally
addressing multiple
buffer-establishment
objectives
c. Relate the
establishment of
buffers to
improvements in
ecological health,
habitat, water quality
and aesthetics
d. Examine legal
issues related to
developing buffers

9a. Conduct dry weather


surveys to identify outfalls
that have dry weather
flows

Public Health/Bacteria

9b.Sample outfalls to
determine which have
human bacteria
discharges (wet and dry
weather samples)

Municipalities
SWWT with
assistance from
UWM GLWI and
MMSD

Identify unknown
sources of bacteria,
and correct/remove/
disconnect them

9c.Determine
ownership/owner of
outfalls that have dry
weather flows and/or
human bacteria
9d.Initiate discussion with
owner of outfall to begin
determining corrective
actions
9e.Implement projects to
correct/remove/disconnect
unknown sources of
2
bacteria
Continued...

(Foundation Actions)

8-14

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River
TABLE 8-4

FUTURE ACTIONS RECOMMENDED IN THE WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN FOR THE


KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
Action
10a. Identify recreational
and body contact areas

Focus Area

Participants

Purpose

Public Health/Bacteria

SWWT

Increase recreational
use of watershed

Habitat Land-Based

Milwaukee County,
Municipalities,
WDNR, DATCP,
USDA, SWWT, and
Land Trusts

Reduce bacteria
sources from landbased activities

Public Health/Bacteria

Milwaukee County,
Municipalities, and
SWWT

Increase the number


of municipalities with
strengthened pet litter
programs

Public Health/Bacteria

Milwaukee County,
Municipalities, and
SWWT

Increase number of
areas documented,
and successful
implementation of
programs to eliminate
feeding or other food
sources for waterfowl

Habitat Land-Based

MMSD, SEWRPC,
WDNR, and others
such as land trusts

Increase number of
acres purchased or
preserved

10b. identify other areas


with suitable water quality
and safe flow conditions
for recreation or body
contact
10c.Prioritize areas to
restore for recreational
use identified above
based on success of
removing unknown
2
sources of bacteria.
(Foundation Actions)
11. Identify where public
ownership of land can
serve as a starting point to
2
increase riparian buffers.
(Foundation Action)
12. Manage pet litter by
improving existing
municipal and other
programs and establishing
new programs
(Foundation Action)
13. Implement programs
to discourage
unacceptably high
numbers of waterfowl
from congregating near
water features - identify
areas and take action to
discourage waterfowl
feeding
(Foundation Action)
14. Survey, inventory,
maintain and preserve
Environmentally
Significant Lands

Continued...

(Priority Action)

8-15

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River
TABLE 8-4

FUTURE ACTIONS RECOMMENDED IN THE WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN FOR THE


KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
Action
15. Reduce flashiness of
streams by restoring
floodplain connectivity
with the stream system
and implementing and
maintaining stormwater
2
management practices

Focus Area

Participants

Purpose

Habitat Land-Based

MMSD, WDNR,
Municipalities,
Milwaukee County

Moderate flow regimes


to decrease
flashiness, or quick
changes in flow

Habitat Land-Based

WDNR, MMSD,
Municipalities,
Milwaukee County

Reduce chloride
concentration in
streams

Habitat Land-Based

Municipalities,
Milwaukee County,
and State with
support from
SWWT and MMSD

Allow developers to
use LID to simulate
natural hydrology and
reduce runoff from
development

(Foundation Actions)
16a. Evaluate existing
road salt reduction
programs
16b. Implement new pilot
road salt reduction
programs
16c. Implement road salt
reduction program
2
education
(Foundation Actions)
17. Promote the
application of and
eliminate barriers to
implementation of LID on
new developments in the
watershed

8-16

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River
TABLE 8-4

FUTURE ACTIONS RECOMMENDED IN THE WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN FOR THE


KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
Action
18a. Remove concretelined channels and other
obstructions to fish and
aquatic life passage

Focus Area

Participants

Purpose

Habitat Instream-Based

Municipalities
SWWT, WDNR and
MMSD

Restore fish and


aquatic organism
passage from Lake
Michigan to the
headwaters and
tributaries (i.e. Follow
3-Tiered Prioritization
Strategy as outlined in
Appendix 4A)

Phosphorus

WDNR,
Municipalities and
MMSD

Reduce phosphorus
loads from regulated
discharges

(Foundation Action)
18b. Restore connectivity
with floodplain and
recreate a more natural
meandering stream to
restore stream hydrology
dynamics
Foundation Action)
18c. Expand passage
restoration efforts beyond
the mainstem to the
tributaries and develop
and implement plans to
remove additional
2
obstructions
(Foundation Action)
18d. Provide habitat,
maintain water quality to
support fisheries, and
protect excessively
eroding banks
(Priority Action)
19. Implement projects
and programs to comply
with MS4 permits
(Foundation Action)

Continued...

8-17

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River
TABLE 8-4

FUTURE ACTIONS RECOMMENDED IN THE WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN FOR THE


KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
Action
20a. Continue MMSD
water quality monitoring
program and expand it to
include biotic sampling

Focus Area

Participants

Purpose

All Focus Areas

MMSD, WDNR,
SWWT, USGS

Continue existing level


of water quality
sampling and funding
and integrate data
collection efforts
among organizations

21. Identify source


locations and continue
and expand trash and
debris collection and
disposal
(Priority Action)

Habitat and aesthetics

WDNR, MMSD and


Municipalities

Continue removal of
trash and improve
aesthetics

22. Research
development of
alternatives to phosphorus
compounds by public and
private researchers in
area universities and
industries

Phosphorus

MMSD and
Municipalities

Reduce use of
phosphorus
compounds used for
control of lead and
copper in drinking
water systems

Habitat Instream-Based
and Land-Based

SWWT

Develop a more
specific roadmap to
restore habitat in the
watershed

Habitat Instream-Based

SWWT

Restore a sustainable
fishery and aquatic
community

20b.Continue involvement
of USGS in MMSD
Corridor Study
20c.Coordinate WDNR
sampling and monitoring
programs with MMSD and
USGS and integrate NGO
sampling efforts
(Priority Actions)

(Foundation Action)
23. Develop a wildlife
habitat restoration plan
(Priority Action)

24. Protect and expand


highest quality aquatic
communities, reintroduce
natives species, and
remove non-natives
(Priority Action)

Continued...

8-18

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River
TABLE 8-4

FUTURE ACTIONS RECOMMENDED IN THE WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN FOR THE


KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
Action

Focus Area

Participants

Purpose

25. Enhance WRP


implementation planning
1
capacity

All Focus Areas

Clean Wisconsin,
Milwaukee
th
Riverkeeper, 16
St CHC, MMSD,
SEWRPC,
municipalities,
technical
consultants, SWWT

Build team that can


develop adaptive
implementation plan

26.Reduce flashiness of
streams by restoring
floodplain connectivity
with the stream system
and implementing and
maintaining stormwater
2
management practices

Habitat Land-Based

MMSD, WDNR,
Municipalities,
Milwaukee County

Moderate flow regimes


to decrease
flashiness, or quick
changes in flow

(Foundation Action)
Sources:
1

SWWT WRP Action Team Summary, November, 2009


Watershed Restoration Plan Chapter 7 Tables
3
Organizations listed are understood to participate with implementing the action
2

CSO = Combined sewer overflow


GLWI = Great Lakes WATER Institute
LEED = Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
LID = Low impact development
MMSD = Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District
MS4 = Municipal separate storm sewer systems
NGOs = Non-governmental organizations
NR 151 = Wis. Admin. Code Natural Resources (NR) 151
Runoff Management

RWQMPU = Regional Water Quality Management Plan


Update
SEWRPC = Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning
Commission
SSO = Sanitary sewer overflow
SWWT = Southeastern Wisconsin Watersheds Trust, Inc.
UWM = University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
WDNR = Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources

8-19

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

8.2.2 Watershed Restoration Plan Action Plan for Actions Underway or Initiated
Table 8-5 lists action plan steps to be taken for those actions already underway or initiated as
detailed in Tables 8-2 and 8-3. The table is meant as a roadmap for SWWT action, as the leader
and coordinator for the Kinnickinnic River watershed restoration.
The SWWT term used in the table refers to the entire SWWT organization including the
Executive Steering Council (ESC), the Science Committee, the Kinnickinnic River watershed
Action Team (WAT), and the Policy Committee. The SWWT ESC will have to determine which
parts of the organization will participate in specific projects; the ESC will also perform the
overall collaboration function.
TABLE 8-5
ACTION PLAN STEPS FOR ACTIONS UNDERWAY (TABLE 8-2) OR INITIATED (TABLE 8-3)

Step

Responsibility
1

Comments

1. Ask lead organization to report


progress

SWWT

WRPs will identify actions underway

2. Designate member to monitor


the action

SWWT

One individual should be designated to


monitor an action and report on it

3. Offer assistance and input on


the action

SWWT

Start involvement in the various actions to


keep SWWT connected

4. Offer review comments on


interim work products

SWWT

Continue connection to actions

5. Assess how the action can


synergize with other watershed
actions (build upon actions
underway)

SWWT

Key activity need to build regional


actions in a way that maximizes synergy
of all actions avoid disjointed actions

6. Determine if the action needs


supportive action from others

SWWT

What can SWWT do to assist in the


implementation of the action by enlisting
others to assist in implementation?

7. If supporting action is
warranted start the new
actions process

SWWT

Build on actions that are already started

8. If supporting action not


warranted - develop supportive
resolutions

SWWT

In keeping with the non advocacy role


support the basic science of the action if
warranted

9. Participate in the interim and


final work product reviews

SWWT

Participate in the process and make


SWWTs voice heard

10. Participate in the development


of the next steps

SWWT

Main function of the SWWT coordinate


and collaborate so regional progress
continues
Continued...

8-20

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

Step

Responsibility

11. Participate in determining


impacts of the particular
project on other actions
underway or potential new
actions

Comments

SWWT

Main function of the SWWT coordinate


and collaborate so regional progress
continues

1 SWWT is defined as the whole organization, led by the ESC


ESC = Executive Steering Council
SWWT = Southeastern Wisconsin Watersheds Trust, Inc.
WRP = Watershed restoration plan

8.2.3 New Actions How to Begin the Process (Implementation Measures)


Table 8-6 lists action steps for new recommended actions/projects in Tables 8-3 and 8-4. The
table is meant as a roadmap for SWWT action, as they lead and coordinate the Kinnickinnic
River watershed restoration.
The term SWWT used in this table refers as noted to the entire SWWT organization, including
the Executive Steering Council (ESC), the Science Committee, the Kinnickinnic River
Watershed Action Team (WAT), and the Policy Committee. The ESC will have to determine
which parts of the organization will participate in specific projects; the ESC will also perform the
overall collaboration function.
TABLE 8-6
ACTION PLAN STEPS FOR NEW ACTIONS (TABLES 8-3 AND 8-4)
Step

Responsibility

Timeframes

Comments

1. Prioritize Foundation
Actions

WAT/SWWT

Month 1-3

WRPs will be a good start


but may not complete the
prioritization

2. Identify lead
organization

SWWT

Month 4-5

One organization has to


lead

3. Identify collaborating
organizations

SWWT

Same as above

Many can collaborate

4. Assemble
information for the
action (WRPs and
other available
information and
data)

Lead organization
and collaborating
organizations

Month 6-7

WRPs are the start but all


data needs to be
assembled utilizing the
SWWT membership

5. Determine if any
funding is available

SWWT and Lead


Organization

Concurrent with
activities 2-4

All sources need to be


looked at budgets,
grants, foundations, etc.

6. If none available
develop funding
strategy

SWWT and Lead


Organization

Concurrent with
activity 5

Most difficult action


SWWT (ESC) must lead
this
Continued...

8-21

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River
TABLE 8-6

ACTION PLAN STEPS FOR NEW ACTIONS (TABLES 8-3 AND 8-4)
Step

Responsibility

Timeframes

Comments

7. Develop package to
apply for funds

Lead and
collaborating
organizations

Month 8-10
(considering
schedule
requirements for
funding requests)

Package will vary


depending upon funding
source

8. Develop
implementation
schedule assuming
funds are obtained

Lead organization

Concurrent with
activity 7

Schedule will have to be


prepared as a part of the
funding request

9. Implement the action


with the funds
obtained

Lead and
collaborating
organizations

Based upon when


funds are obtained

Lead organization assign


responsibilities

10. Monitor the progress


of the action

Lead and
collaborating
organizations

Based upon
detailed action
schedule

Monitor and report


periodically to the WAT,
Science Committee and
SWWT ESC

11. Assess the results of


the action

Lead and
collaborating
organizations

Based upon
detailed action
schedule

Develop data for posting


on SWWT website

12. Determine outcomes


of the action

Lead and
collaborating
organizations

Based upon
detailed action
schedule

Write a report on the


results

13. Develop next action


(and restart the
process)

SWWT and Lead


Organization

Based upon
detailed action
schedule

Did the action result in


achieving the measureable
interim target?

14. Participate in the


determining the
impacts of the
particular project on
other actions
underway or
potential new actions
(Synergy)

SWWT and Lead


Organization

Based upon
detailed action
schedule

Main function of the SWWT


coordinate and
collaborate so regional
progress continues

ESC = Executive Steering Council


SWWT = Southeastern Wisconsin Watersheds Trust, Inc.
WAT = Watershed Action Team
WRP = Watershed restoration plan

8-22

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

8.2.4 Implementation Schedule and Process


A simplified process chart for Table 8-6 actions is presented as Figure 8-1. This chart depicts
how the various implementation actions are meant to fit together as an ongoing process. This
WRP and this process should form the basis for development of an adaptive strategic action plan
for the Kinnickinnic River watershed.
The SWWT committees can use the information provided in this WRP to further develop an
implementation plan for the watershed. In addition to this chapter, other portions of the WRP
that will be the most useful include the following:
Chapter 4 Provides detailed information for each assessment point area, including land use,
pollutant loading, and water quality.
Appendix 4A (SEWRPCs Memorandum Report No. 194: Stream Habitat Conditions and
Biological Assessment of the Kinnickinnic and Menomonee River Watersheds: 2000-2009)
Contains detailed habitat information and recommendations to improve habitat.
Chapter 6 Provides anticipated load reductions and other benefits expected from the
recommended management measures used in the RWQMPU.
Chapter 7 Presents additional management measures and identifies the priority actions for
implementation. Tables 7-1 through 7-5 in Chapter 7 provided detailed information for the
proposed actions.
In addition, SEWRPCs RWQMPU, which was the basis for this plan, should be used as a
resource when developing the plan. Many other plans and projects have been completed by
SEWRPC, MMSD, WDNR, NGOs and others that can be used as resources as well.
The key element for an action plan for new actions and projects is the designation of the lead
organization. Once this has been done and the collaborating organizations have been identified,
the next step in the action plan will be to develop the new action/project.
The key element of any new project is obtaining funds for implementation of the project. Once
funding is obtained, the implementation schedule can then be further developed.
8.3

Potential Funding Sources

Financial assistance for potential WRP projects may be available from government agencies and
private organizations. Various programs may award money to individual landowners, nonprofit
organizations, educational institutions, and local and state governments. Summaries of the types
of available funds from each source are presented below; more detailed information is available
in Chapter XI and Appendices U and V of A Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update
for the Greater Milwaukee Watersheds (SEWRPC, 2007). Appendices U and V of the
RWQMPU are provided in this report as Appendix 8A.
8.3.1 Local Governments
County and municipal governments are permitted to borrow and issue bonds according to
Chapter 67 of the Wisconsin Statutes. Additionally, counties and cities have the power to assess
special taxes for park and parkway acquisitions and improvements. County and municipal
governments may apply for many of the state, federal, and private grants and cost-share
programs.

8-23

FIGURE 8-1

WRP ACTION PLAN FOR NEW


ACTIONS / PROJECTS
Kinnickinnic River watershed
.

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

8.3.2 State Governments


The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) and Wisconsin Department of
Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection (WDATCP) maintain a number of financial
assistance programs. The WDNR tends to provide funds to maintain existing natural forestlands;
to purchase lands for urban stream preservation or restoration; to remove small dams; to design
and implement urban nonpoint source best management practices; to establish easements; to
protect and enhance stream, lake, and wetland habitat; to control and manage invasive species;
and to establish riparian corridors. Additional cost-sharing programs are available from WDNR
to provide assistance with project planning, for educational programs, and for public
involvement programs. The WDATCP provides funding for county water resources
management planning. The WDNR provides funding for flood-proofing and flood mitigation to
incorporated local governments and their sewerage districts.
Many federal grant and cost-share programs are administered through WDNR. For example,
WDNR administers the Land and Water Conservation Fund, which is funded by the U.S.
Department of the Interior, for planning and acquiring lands for public use (e.g., open space,
natural areas, and recreation). Additionally, some federal agencies provide grants directly to the
states for use as the states see fit. For example, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(USEPA) provides money to Wisconsins Clean Water Fund via the Clean Water State
Revolving Fund.
8.3.3 Federal Government
Many of the federal agencies in the U.S. Departments of Agriculture and the Interior and various
other federal agencies have funding programs, including cost-sharing, grants, and loans. Such
programs may provide financial assistance to either individual landowners or state and sub-state
governments. In some cases, funding is provided to support easements or for the acquisition of
private land to local governments for parks and reserves.
Through the Farm Service Agency and Natural Resource Conservation Service, the U.S.
Department of Agriculture funds various programs to restore or enhance wildlife habitat, to
reclaim wetlands on agricultural lands, for farming conservation management, and to provide for
flood protection or prevention. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) provides funding for
several programs for wildlife and fish habitat restoration and improvement. The U.S.
Department of Transportations Transportation Enhancement Program can provide funds to
mitigate the effects of the transportation network upon natural streams and wetlands.
The USEPA provides funding for numerous programs including: wildlife habitat restoration;
state water pollution control, monitoring, and enforcement activities; and for local and state
governments to develop watershed partnerships. The USEPA also funds environmental and
human health education projects. Projects that implement instream water quality management
and habitat improvements may be eligible for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) grant
programs. The USACE funds can be used to enhance or mitigate instream channel stability and
habitat conditions, including the removal of concrete channel linings, and to restore and enhance
nearshore and estuarine habitat.

8-25

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

8.3.4 Detailed Data on Federal Funding Source


Table 8-7 shows a detailed summary of a typical federal funding source Nonpoint Source
Implementation Grants (319 Program). This is an example of the detailed requirements for
federal grants and is typical of common federal requirements.
TABLE 8-7
FUNDING PROGRAM NAME: NONPOINT SOURCE IMPLEMENTATION GRANTS (319
PROGRAM)
Item

Requirement

Application Deadline

Varies by state. Consult the lead nonpoint source agency in


WI (WDNR) (for contact information click on the link listed
under "Secondary Internet").

When Funds are Available

Varies by state.

Average annual number of


applicants

55 states and territories receive grants. Number of tribal


grants awarded highly variable. Applications from recipients
to states vary highly by state.

Typical percentage of
applicants funded

Percentage of applicants who receive money is highly


variable by state and within state from year to year.

Is a matched amount
required?

Case-dependant.

Match Amount

States required to provide 40% non-federal match for whole


grant. Recipients within state typically required to provide
40% match for each project, but this may be negotiable with
a given state.

Funding Level FY 2007

$194 million

Funding Level FY 2008

$200.9 million

Funding Level FY 2009

$200.9 million

Typical lowest amount


awarded

Check with the WDNR regarding administration of 319


Grants.

Typical highest amount


awarded

Check with the WDNR regarding administration of 319


Grants.

Typical median amount


awarded

Check with the WDNR regarding administration of 319


Grants.

Other details on funding

N/A

Primary Address

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency


Office of Wetlands, Oceans and Watersheds
Nonpoint Source Control Branch (4503T)
Ariel Rios Bldg., 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW,
Washington, DC 20460

Primary Telephone

(202) 566-1155

Primary Internet

www.cfda.gov (search on program 66.460)

Secondary Internet

www.epa.gov/owow/nps/contacts.html

Legislative Authority

Clean Water Act, section 319(h)


Continued...

8-26

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River
TABLE 8-7

FUNDING PROGRAM NAME: NONPOINT SOURCE IMPLEMENTATION GRANTS (319


PROGRAM)
Item

Requirement

Associated Keywords

Agriculture, Best Management Practices, Coastal Waters,


Drinking Water, Outreach/Education, Fisheries, Forests,
Land Acquisition, Monitoring, Nonpoint Source Control,
Partnerships, Planning, Point Source Control, Pollution
Prevention, Research, Restoration, Floodplains/Riparian
Zones, Source Water Protection, Stormwater Management,
Watershed Management, Wetlands, Wildlife

Eligible Organizations

Business, Community/Watershed Group, Nonprofit Groups,


Educational Institution, Private Landowner, Conservation
District, Local Government, State/Territorial Agency, Tribal
Agency, Federal Agency

Eligibility Constraints

The immediate grantees are designated state and territorial


NPS agencies. The ultimate recipients of funds are typically
state and local governments, Indian tribes, universities, and
nonprofit organizations, which submit grant applications to
the designated state or territorial agency for funds in
accordance with state and Federal requirements.

FY = Fiscal year
WDNR = Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
WI = Wisconsin

8.3.5 Private
The National Fish and Wildlife Foundation and other sources help fund a number of programs
that are administered in cooperation with federal agencies (e.g., USEPA, FWS). For example,
the Partnership for Wildlife program is operated by the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation
and administered by the FWS. The Kenosha/Racine Land Trust, Milwaukee Area Land
Conservancy, Ozaukee-Washington Land Trust, and Waukesha Land conservancy acquire lands
or easements for environmentally-valuable lands via purchases, donations, and grants. Eastman
Kodak maintains a small grant program to assess and enhance greenways.
8.3.6 Funding Summary
Appendix U of the SEWRPC Regional Report (SEWRPC Planning Report No. 50), which is
provided as Appendix 8A to this plan, contains a detailed summary of potential funding
programs to implement plan recommendations.
8.4

Watershed Policy Issues

Policy issues need to be considered as projects are considered for implementation. Consideration
of these policy issues may influence the implementation schedule and process. Issues should be
prioritized and examined by the SWWT Policy Committee and should include the following as
an initial list:
Total maximum daily load development (TMDL): This consideration should include the
timing of any TMDLs, agency leadership of the TMDLs, and the exact format of the
TMDLs in terms of which pollutants and which portions of the watershed are included in
8-27

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

the TMDL. An additional potential issue is the regulatory relationship between Wis.
Admin. Code Natural Resources (NR) 151 Runoff Management and TMDLs, as noted in
Chapter 2 of this report.
Consideration of watershed permits: The issues to be addressed regarding this topic are
summarized in the white paper found in Appendix 8B.
Water quality trading: The issues to be addressed regarding this topic are summarized in
Appendix 8B.
NR 151 implementation: The regulatory and financial issues regarding the
implementation of this regulation may change the assumed impact of this regulation on
water quality and the implementation of this WRP.
Alternatives to adding phosphorus compounds to drinking water: There are policy issues
that should be addressed as this major source of phosphorus to the watershed is not
currently the focus of any scientific study or regulatory program.
Alternative indicator to replace fecal coliform bacteria: The policy implications of
building a local consensus for and support of new methods to assess water borne disease
risk need to be addressed.
o

State of Wisconsin 303(d) list: The policy implications of the existing listing and
delisting criteria and process for the development of the Wisconsin 303(d) list
need to be addressed.

Evaluate a potential utility to help pay for implementation of the watershed restoration
plan.
8.5

Post-Implementation Monitoring

8.5.1 Use of Adaptive Management


Conclusions and recommendations contained in this WRP are based on the best information and
data that are currently available. Nonetheless, it is acknowledged that uncertainties or data gaps
exist with regard to existing conditions, impacts of the proposed actions, some of the proposed
water quality targets, and various other issues.
Other unknowns are present as well, such as the ability of the proposed restoration measures to
fully attain the estimated pollutant reductions. The proposed adaptive management approach
will allow the watershed interests to move forward with water quality improvement activities at
the same time that additional data gathering occurs. These data will then be used to confirm or
adjust some of the plans technical assumptions, to fill remaining data limitations, and to
evaluate the effectiveness of restoration measures on an individual and collective basis. This is
part of the "Check" component under the Plan-Do-Check-Act approach.
8.5.2 Measuring Success
Focused monitoring efforts will be required to fulfill three primary objectives:
Obtain additional data to address information gaps and uncertainty in the current analysis
(data gaps monitoring and assessment). Many of the tasks detailed in Table 8-3 and 8-4
deal with information gaps, but some will remain or will be determined in the future.

8-28

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

Ensure that identified management actions are undertaken (implementation monitoring).


This measurement activity is focused on Table 8-2 actions and all Table 8-3 and 8-4
actions as they progress to implementation.
Ensure that management actions are having the desired effect (effectiveness monitoring).
This measurement activity deals with the actual watershed conditions regarding water
quality and habitat, and the assessment of improvement, stability or degradation.
Proposed basic elements of a monitoring strategy to meet these three objectives are described
below. During the implementation phase, the monitoring and analysis plan will need to be
updated and refined as outlined in Section 8.5.5).
8.5.3 Data Gaps
Collection of data to fill current data gaps is the highest priority because these data are needed to
move forward with specific restoration strategies. For example, work on illicit connections
should be prioritized based upon existing or potential recreational opportunities in the
Kinnickinnic River watershed, but no baseline data are available to do the prioritization.
Similarly, no chloride reduction targets are presented due to limited historical and recent water
quality data and an incomplete understanding of the relationship of chloride use to water quality
conditions. A lack of data also resulted in an incomplete understanding of the water quality
issues with metals. These data gaps and others identified during the development of the WRP
include the following:
Location of existing or potential recreational areas in the watershed
Chloride data linking road salt usage (and perhaps other sources) to water quality impacts
Water quality data regarding metals an polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
Wildlife data, aquatic and non-aquatic species
Wildlife habitat restoration plan
Location and causes of unknown sources of fecal coliform bacteria entering streams
Local BMP monitoring data
Compilation of existing maps and data that would assist in the implementation of the
WRP
Citizen monitoring data, that has undergone the appropriate quality assurance process,
should be added to the comprehensive database
A full list of data gaps should be developed by the SWWT as implementation continues.
Additional monitoring or studies are therefore needed to address these data gaps. Some of this
information will be obtained as a result of implementing the actions listed in Tables 8-2 to 8-4.
For example, as noted in Table 8-2, the MMSD is developing a web-based tool called
H2OCapture that is expected to allow individuals, residents, and community groups to track their
stormwater management and green infrastructure efforts on maps with an easy to use, friendly,
web interface (Draft MMSD Sustainability Document, November 2009). Although it will not
contain all of the information needed to fill the gap, it is anticipated that this tool will help with
the data gap regarding the compilation of maps that will assist in the implementation of the
WRP.
8-29

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

The SWWT and the other participants noted in the tables should take the lead in performing
these actions assuming adequate budgets and resources are available.
8.5.4 Implementation Monitoring
The purpose of implementation monitoring is to document whether or not actions and projects
were completed as planned and designed. Objectives of an implementation monitoring program
include the following:
Measuring, documenting, and reporting the watershed-wide extent of recommended
actions and other watershed restoration measures. Suggested measures for this
monitoring activity are outlined for the various actions in the Chapter 7 tables.
Evaluating the general effectiveness of the various actions as applied operationally in the
field. This monitoring activity should concentrate on the water quality and habitat
information both historical and newly developed.
Determining the need and direction of watershed education and outreach programs.
Implementation monitoring must consists of monitoring these three major action areas. The
monitoring must be done by the lead organization. This type of information will provide the
Kinnickinnic River WAT with data on the progress of the various actions. The WAT should
help guide the overall implementation monitoring as it varies by each type of action.
8.5.5 Effectiveness Monitoring
A formal review of the Kinnickinnic River WRP should occur in 2015 and should use the water
quality data and habitat data available at that time for each pollutant (and/or the measures that
best represent interpretations of the water quality and habitat conditions existing at that time) to
assess overall progress toward meeting water quality restoration goals.
This effort will include a combination of water quality and biological monitoring and habitat
assessment aimed at determining the effectiveness of restoration activities. This assessment can
be made based on data collected by the SWWT and all of its partners. A much more thorough
and meaningful assessment will be possible if additional data are collected during the intervening
years. Due to many resource constraints, these additional data would need to be collected by
watershed stakeholders with input from the SWWT and the WAT.
Data trends that should be tracked (at a minimum) include the following:
Fecal coliform and other bacterial indicator water quality data
Fish and aquatic life conditions
Phosphorus water quality data
8.6

Progress Evaluation and Refinement

This WRP provides the basis for and the documentation of over 60 actions that are underway
(Table 8-2), that have been initiated (Table 8-3), or that are planned (Table 8-4) for the
Kinnickinnic River watershed. This is an unprecedented level of activity to improve water
quality and habitat in the Kinnickinnic River watershed and will require a significant level of
evaluation.
8-30

Watershed Restoration Plan

Kinnickinnic River

The first element in the evaluation process, which corresponds to the "Check" component of the
Plan-Do-Check-Act approach is an annual reevaluation of the status of the actions. There should
be periodic comprehensive reviews of the status of all the actions that are to be completed during
the timeframe of 2010 to 2015. These reviews could be made an integral part of annual SWWT
meetings or scheduled at a separate meeting. The annual reevaluation should start with all the
actions in Tables 8-2, 8-3 and 8-4; after the evaluation, the tables should be updated to reflect the
current status of the actions.
The second element in the evaluation process should be the annual evaluation of the results of
the various actions. The measures that should be used are noted in the tables in Chapter 7 and
provide understandable measures upon which to base progress. This also corresponds to the
"Check" component.
The third element of the evaluation process is more complex. It involves reviewing the water
quality data and habitat data with the purpose of determining if the watershed is improving, has
stabilized, or is continuing to deteriorate. This process will require the Science Committee of the
SWWT to assess all new data from the period 2009 to 2015 and determine to the best extent
possible the improving/stable/deteriorating status of the watershed in terms of the three focus
areas: public health, habitat and aesthetics, and phosphorus. This element corresponds to the
"Check" component as well, but it is the beginning of the "Act" component.
The last element of the evaluation process deals with potential revision or refinement of the
action plan. This is a complex process that may require an update to this WRP. The key
decision in this element involves should the actions be changed if progress is not being
made? and/or should the actions be changed due to new information that indicates different
actions should be pursued? This element corresponds to the "Act" component of the Plan-DoCheck-Act approach.
The third and fourth elements of the evaluation and refinement process will require an update to
this WRP in 2015 if a majority of the actions are completed and the results are known.

8-31

APPENDIX 8A

Appendix U

POTENTIAL FUNDING PROGRAMS TO


IMPLEMENT PLAN RECOMMENDATIONS
Table U-1
FUNDING PROGRAM DESCRIPTIONSa
Administrator of
Grant Program

Name of Funding
Program

Eligibility

Types of Projects and


Funding Eligibility Criteria

Assistance
Provided

Application
Deadline

Riparian Buffers, Prairie and Wetland Restoration, and Instream Measures


U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers (USCOE)

USCOE

Water Resources
Development and
Flood Control Acts

Local governments

Flood Hazard
Mitigation and
Riverine Ecosystem
Restoration
Program

Local governments

1.
2.

1.

2.

3.

4.
U.S. Department of
Agriculture (USDA),
Natural Resources
Conservation Service
(NRCS)

Emergency Watershed Protection


Program

Individual landowners
provided they have a
local sponsor such as
a local unit of
government

1.

2.

3.

4.

USDA NRCS

Emergency
Conservation
Program

Individual landowners

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Water resources
planning assistance
Emergency streambank
and shoreline protection

50 percent for studies


and 65 percent for
project implementation of Federal costshare assistance;
35 to 50 percent
local match is
required

None

Flood hazard mitigation


to include relocation of
threatened structures
Riverine ecosystem
restoration such as
conservation or
restoration of natural
floodwater storage areas
Planning activities to
determine responses to
future flood situations
Project areas must be in
a floodplain

50 percent for studies


and 65 percent for
project implementation of Federal costshare assistance;
35 to 50 percent
local match is
required

Undetermined

Sale of agricultural
floodprone lands to
NRCS for floodplain
easements
Land must have a
history of repeated
flooding (at least twice in
the past 10 years)
Landowner retains most
of the rights as before
the sale
NRCS has authority to
restore the floodplain
function and value

The USDA pays the


landowner one of
three options: a
geographic rate, a
value based on the
assessment of the
land in agricultural
production, or an
offer made by the
landowner; 75
percent Federal
cost-share assistance; 25 percent
local match is
requiredb

Variable

Regrading and shaping


farmland
Restoring conservation
structures
Redistribution of eroded
soil
Debris removal
Projects must be in
response to a natural
disaster

Up to 64 percent
Federal cost-share
assistance; the
remaining percentage is the
landowners
responsibility

After a designated State or


Presidential
disaster
declaration

1411

Table U-1 (continued)


Administrator of
Grant Program

Name of Funding
Program

Eligibility

Types of Projects and


Funding Eligibility Criteria

Assistance
Provided

Application
Deadline

Riparian Buffers, Prairie and Wetland Restoration, and Instream Measures (continued)
U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Farm
Services Agency
(FSA)

Conservation Reserve
Program

Individual landowners in
a 10- or 15-year
contract

1.
2.
3.
4.

Riparian buffers
Trees
Windbreaks
Grassed waterways

50 percent Federal
cost-share assistance; 50 percent
local match from
individual; an
annual rental
payment for the
length of the
contract is also
provided

Annually or
ongoingc

USDA FSA

Conservation Reserve
Enhancement
Program

Individual landowners in
a 10- or 15-year
contract

1.
2.
3.
4.

Filter strips
Riparian buffers
Grassed waterways
Permanent grasses
(only in specially
designated grassland
project areas)
Wetland development
and restoration

50 percent Federal
cost-share assistance; one-time
signing incentive
payment (up to
$150 per acre);
practice incentive
payment (about 40
percent of cost of
establishing practice); annual rental
payment; State of
Wisconsin lump
sum payment;
Wisconsin practice
incentive payment
(about 20 percent of
cost of establishing
practice)

Ongoing

Acquisition and removal


of structures
Flood proofing and
elevation of structures
Riparian restoration
projects
Acquisition of vacant
land or purchase of
easements
Construction of stormwater and groundwater
facilities related to
flood control and
riparian restoration
projects
Flood mapping

70 percent State costshare assistance;


30 percent local
match

July 15

Problem identification
Species and habitat
conservation
Public enjoyment of fish
and wildlife
Species monitoring
Identification of
significant habitats

$768,000 available
nationallyd

September 1

5.

Wisconsin Department of
Natural Resources
(WDNR)

Municipal Flood
Control Grants
Chapter NR 199
of the Wisconsin
Administrative Code

Cities, villages, towns,


metropolitan sewerage districts

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

6.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service (FWS)

Wildlife Conservation
and Appreciation
Program

State fish and wildlife


agencies, private
organizations and
local communities
must work through
their State agency

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

FWS

Partners for Fish and


Wildlife Habitat
Restoration
Program

Private landowners for a


10-year contract

1.

Restoration of degraded
wetlands, native
grasslands, stream and
riparian corridors, and
other habitat areas

Full cost-share and


technical assistance; individual
projects cannot
exceed $25,000

Continuous

FWSe

Partnership for
Wildlife

Nonprofit organizations,
State and local
agencies, and
individuals

1.

Preservation of
nongame fish and
wildlife species
Management of
nongame fish and
wildlife species
Habitat restoration
projects

$768,000 available
nationallyd
Must be matched
equally from outside
sources

September 1

2.

3.

1412

Table U-1 (continued)


Administrator of
Grant Program

Name of Funding
Program

Eligibility

Types of Projects and


Funding Eligibility Criteria

Assistance
Provided

Application
Deadline

Riparian Buffers, Prairie and Wetland Restoration, and Instream Measures (continued)
FWS

North American
Wetlands Conservation Fund

State and public


agencies

1.

2.
3.

Property acquisition for


the protection of
wetlands that migratory
birds, fish and wildlife
are dependant on
Wetland restoration and
protection projects
Habitat restoration
projects

50 percent Federal
cost-share assistance; 50 percent
local match is
required

Variable

FWS

Great Lakes Fish and


Wildlife Restoration
Act Grant Program

States, tribal government, other interested


entities

1.

Cooperative conservation, restoration, and


management of fish and
wildlife resources and
their habitat

Cost-share up to
75 percent of
project cost

February 28

USDA NRCS

Wildlife Habitat
Incentives Program

Individual landowners
for a 10-year contract

1.

Instream structures
for fish
Prairie restoration
Wetland scrapes
Wildlife travel lanes

Cost-share of up to 75
percent of
installation

Continuous

2.
3.
4.
USDA NRCS

Wetland Reserve
Program

Individual landowners
for a 10-year agreement, or a 30-year or
permanent easement

1.

Wetland restoration of
lands in current agricultural production

75 to 100 percent
cost-share
depending on
option chosen and
technical assistance. Also between
75 to 100 percent of
the cost of the land
assessment taken
out of production in
a one time payment
for the 30-year and
permanent easement options only

Continuous

USDA

Watershed Protection
and Flood Prevention Program

State and local


governments

1.

Fish and wildlife habitat


enhancement projects
Wetland restoration
Projects are intended to
be larger scale

Technical assistance
and cost-sharing
are provided; up to
100 percent Federal
cost-share assistance for flood
control prevention;
typical project range
is $3.5 to $5.0
million in Federal
financial assistance

Ongoing

USCOE

Aquatic Ecosystem
Restoration
Program

State and local


governments

1.

Restoration of degraded
aquatic ecosystems to a
more natural condition

65 percent Federal
cost-share assistance; local match of
35 percent is
required; maximum
Federal share is
$5,000,000 per
project; 100 percent
of maintenance,
replacement, and
rehabilitation costs
must be provided
locally with nonFederal funds

None

U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency
(USEPA)f

Five-Star Restoration
Program

Public or private
organizations that
engage in communitybased restoration
projects

1.

Wetland restoration
projects
Riparian restoration
projects
Projects must be part of
a larger watershed and
be community based
Projects must also have
at least five contributing
partners

$500,000 available
nationallyd; project
award ranges
between $5,000
and $20,000 at the
local level; average
award is around
$10,000; technical
assistance is also
provided

March 2

2.
3.

2.
3.

4.

1413

Table U-1 (continued)


Administrator of
Grant Program

Name of Funding
Program

Eligibility

Types of Projects and


Funding Eligibility Criteria

Assistance
Provided

Application
Deadline

Riparian Buffers, Prairie and Wetland Restoration, and Instream Measures (continued)
U.S. Department of
Transportation
(USDOT)

Transportation
Enhancement
Program

State and local units of


government

1.
2.

3.
WDNRg

Stewardship
Incentives Program

Individual landowners

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Wetland preservation
and restoration
Stormwater treatment
systems to address
runoff from roads and
highways
Natural habitat
restoration

80 percent Federal
cost-share assistance; 20 percent
local match is
required

Ongoing

Riparian buffers
Reforestation
Forest improvement
Tree planting
Forest management
plan development
Wildlife and fisheries
habitat improvement to
include travel corridors,
nest boxes and platforms, instream habitat
enhancements

65 percent Federal
cost-share assistance; 35 percent
cost-share from
individual; $5,000
maximum per
projecth

Ongoing

WDNR

State Wildlife Grants


Program

Nonprofit organizations,
State and local
agencies, and
individuals

Project must address an


ecological priority,
threat/issue, or
conservation action as
identified in Wisconsins
Wildlife Action Plan

Planning projects
require 25 percent
non-Federal
matching funds and
implementation
projects require
50 percent nonFederal matching
funds

March 13

WDNR

Small and Abandoned


Dam Removal
Grant Program

Counties, cities, villages,


towns, tribes, public
inland lake protection
and rehabilitation
districts, and private
dam owners

Eligible project costs include


labor, materials, and
equipment directly
related to planning the
actual removal, the dam
removal itself, and the
restoration of the
impoundment.

WDNR will fund


50 percent of
eligible project
costs, with a
maximum grant
award of $50,000

Ongoing

WDNR

County Conservation
Aids

County and tribal


governing bodies
participating in the
county fish and wildlife
programs

Improvement and
enhancement of fish and
wildlife resources and
habitat

Specific funding is
allocated to each
county with the
state paying a
maximum of
50 percent of the
eligible actual
project costs

July 1

WDNR

Urban Rivers Grant


Program

Local units of
government

Land acquisition to preserve


open areas in urban
environments adjacent
to streams and rivers

50 percent State costshare assistance;


50 percent local
match is required

May 1

WDNR

River Protection Grant


Program, Chapter
NR 195 of the
Wisconsin Administrative Code

Local units of
government and
nonprofit conservation
organizations

1.

75 percent State costshare assistance;


25 percent local
match is required

March 15 and
September 1

2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

1414

Activities designed to
develop partnerships
that protect river
ecosystems
Educational projects
Activities associated
with river management
plan development
Land acquisition
Ordinance development
Installation of practices
to control nonpoint
source pollution

Table U-1 (continued)


Administrator of
Grant Program

Name of Funding
Program

WDNR Utilizing U.S.


Department of Interior
Funding

Land and Water


Conservation Fund
Grants Program

Eligibility

Types of Projects and


Funding Eligibility Criteria

Assistance
Provided

Application
Deadline

Riparian Buffers, Prairie and Wetland Restoration, and Instream Measures (continued)
Local units of government and State
agencies, apply to the
WDNR

1.

2.

3.

State planning for the


acquisition of State and
local parks
Land acquisition for
open space, estuaries,
forests, and wildlife and
natural resource areas
Facilities to enhance
recreational
opportunities

$40 million available


nationallyd
50 percent costsharing of a project.
Federal funds
cannot exceed 50
percent of an
eligible project

May 1

WDNR

Stewardship Grant
Program, Urban
Green Space
Program

Local units of government , lake


protection and
rehabilitation districts,
and nonprofit
conservation
organizations

1.

Land acquisition for


greenway space in
urban areas, protection
of scenic or ecological
features, and wildlife
habitat improvement

50 percent State costsharing assistance;


50 percent local
match is required

Ongoing

Wisconsin Coastal
Management Program

Wisconsin Coastal
Management Grant
Program

State, local, tribal


governments, and
nonprofit
organizations

1.
2.

Coastal land acquisition


Wetland protection and
habitat restoration
Nonpoint source
pollution control

Total of $1.5 million


annually

November 2

Federal, State, and local


governments,
educational
institutions, and
nonprofit
organizations

1.

Habitat protection and


restoration on private
lands
Sustainable communities through
conservation
Conservation education

Average funding level


is between $25,000
and $75,000 per
project; projects
must have a match
of at least 50 percent from nonFederal funding
sources

Project preproposal:
June 1 and
October 15;
full project
proposal:
July 15 and
December 1

Restore, enhance, and


protect fish communities
and habitats, wetlands,
tributaries and their
watersheds, Great
Lakes shoreline and
upland habitat.
Address terrestrial and
aquatic invasive species
Promote individual
stewardship

Funding level is
between $35,000
and $100,000 per
project; projects
must have a match
of at least 50 percent from nonFederal funding
sources

Project
applications
November 15.
Announceme
nt of awards
April 15 of
following year

Ecological assessments
Mapping and surveying
Planning activities
Creative projects that
work to establish
greenways in
communities
Must have matching
funds from other
sources
Must show that the
project will be completed

Grants with a
maximum amount
of $2,500

March 1 to
June 1

50 to 70 percent State
cost-share assistance; 30 to 50
percent individual
cost-share is
required; in the
case of financial
hardship, up to 90
percent cost-share
assistance can be
obtained from the
State

December 31

National Fish and


Wildlife Foundation

Challenge Grant
Program

3.

2.

3.

National Fish and


Wildlife Foundation

Great Lakes
Watershed
Restoration
Program

State and local


governments, tribes,
and nonprofit
organizations

1.

2.
3.
Eastman Kodak

American Greenway
Grants

Land trusts, local units


of government, and
nonprofit
organizations

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

6.

Rural and Urban Nonpoint Source Pollution Abatement


Wisconsin Department of
Agriculture, Trade and
Consumer Protection
(DATCP)

Land and Water


Resource
Management
Program

Individual landowners

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Grassed waterways
Manure storage systems
Grade stabilization
structure
Nutrient and pest
management plans
Conservation tillage

1415

Table U-1 (continued)


Administrator of
Grant Program

Name of Funding
Program

Eligibility

Types of Projects and


Funding Eligibility Criteria

Assistance
Provided

Application
Deadline

Rural and Urban Nonpoint Source Pollution Abatement (continued)


DATCP

Farmland
Preservation
Program

Individual landowners
for a period of 10
years

1.

Best management
practices that will lower
the soil erosion rate to
the tolerable soil loss
rate or below

Tax incentives on an
annual basis

None

WDNR

Urban Nonpoint
Source Water
Pollution Abatement
and Storm Water
Management Grant
Program. Funding
is through Chapter
NR 155 of the
Wisconsin Administrative Code

Local units of
government

1.
2.

Planning
Educational and
information activities
Ordinance development
and enforcement
Training
Storm water detention
ponds
Streambank and
shoreline stabilization

70 percent State costshare assistance for


projects not involving construction,
requiring a 30 percent local match; 50
percent State costshare assistance for
projects involving
construction,
requiring a 50 percent local match

May 1

Targeted Runoff
Management Grant
Program, Chapter
120 of the Wisconsin Administrative
Code; in the future,
specific rural
nonpoint source
abatement
measures will be
funded under
Chapter NR 151 of
the Wisconsin
Administrative Code

Local units of
government

Complying with nonpoint


source performance
standards
Improving 303(d) waters
Protecting outstanding
water resources
Compliance with a
notice of discharge for
an animal feeding
operation
Addressing a water
quality concern of
national or statewide
importance, such as the
Upper Mississippi River
concerns

70 percent State costshare assistance;


30 percent local
match is required.
Rural projects
cannot exceed
$30,000 in funding
and urban projects
cannot exceed
$150,000

May 1

WDNR

Land Recycling Loan


(Brownfields)
Program

Local units of
government

Remedy environmental
contamination affecting
surface water or
groundwater

USDA NRCS

Environmental Quality
Incentives Program

Individual landowner in a
three-year contract

1.

WDNR

3.
4.
5.
6.

1.

2.
3.
4.

5.

2.

3.
4.

Low interest loan

Dec. 31

Animal waste
management practices
Soil erosion and
sediment control
practices
Nutrient management
Habitat improvement

75 to 90 percent
Federal cost-share
assistance

Annuallyi

USDA

Water Quality Special


Research Grants
Program

Land-Grant Institutions,
Hispanic-Serving
Institutions, State and
Private controlled
Institutions of higher
education

Projects funded shall


improve the quality of
surface water and
groundwater resources
through research,
education, and
extension activities

Awards up to
$600,000 a dollarfor-dollar match is
required

April 4

USEPA

U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency
Clean Water State
Revolving Fund

Low interest loans


offered to and
distributed by the
state to various
borrowers to fund
water quality
protection projects

1.

Currently the program


has more than $27
billion in assets

Ongoing

2.
3.
4.

5.

1416

Agricultural, rural, and


urban runoff control
Estuary improvement
projects
Estuary improvement
projects
Wet weather flow
control, including storm
water and sewer
overflows
Alternative treatment
technologies water
reuse and conservation
projects.

Table U-1 (continued)


Administrator of
Grant Program

Name of Funding
Program

Eligibility

Types of Projects and


Funding Eligibility Criteria

Assistance
Provided

Application
Deadline

Rural and Urban Nonpoint Source Pollution Abatement (continued)


USEPA

Water Pollution
Control Program
Grants

State and interstate


water pollution control
agencies

Water Quality Management


programs including
permitting, pollution
control activities,
surveillance, monitoring,
and enforcement, and
provision for training and
public information.

Formula Grants
$5,630,000
available
nationallyd

Ongoing

USEPAj

Watershed Assistance
Grants Program

Local units of government, nonprofit


conservation
organizations

Developing watershed and


river partnerships and
organizations

$365,000 available
nationallyd; locally
projects are funded
in the following
ranges: $4,000 and
under, and $4,000
and over with a cap
of $30,000

Variable

USEPA

Targeted Watershed
Grants Program

Watershed
organizations
nominated by state
governor or tribal
leader

Innovative watershed level


approaches for
combating threats and
impairments and a clear
set of performance
measures with identified
and measurable
environmental indicators

Range from $600,000


to $900,000 and a
25 percent nonFederal match is
required

May 1

USEPA

Pesticide Environmental Stewardship


Grants Program

Pesticide Environmental
Stewardship Program
(PESP) Partners and
Supports, any
organization, group, or
business committed to
reducing the
environmental risk
from pesticides is
eligible to join

1.

Implementation of
pollution control
measures
Plan development which
includes strategies to
reduce pesticide risk
Grant applicants must
be PESP partners or
members

$300,000 available
nationallyd; locally
grants are provided
up to a maximum of
$50,000

Ongoing

Coastal land acquisition


Wetland protection and
habitat restoration
Nonpoint source
pollution control

Total of $1.5 million


annually

November 2

80 percent Federal,
20 percent State;
interest rate varies
with State bond
issues

Ongoing

Wisconsin Coastal
Management Program

Wisconsin Coastal
Management Grant
Program

State, local, tribal


governments, and
nonprofit
organizations

2.

3.

1.
2.
3.

Point Source Pollution Abatement Recommendations


USEPA

U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency
Clean Water State
Revolving Fund

Funding for State of


Wisconsin Clean
Water Fund Program
which issues grants to
municipalities

1.
2.

3.

Sewerage and wastewater treatment facilities


Nonpoint source
pollution abatement
projects
Estuary protection
projects

USEPA

Direct Federal LineItem Grant

State and interstate


water pollution control
agencies

Wastewater construction
and planning projects

Formula Grants
yielding more than
$3 billion in direct
wastewater-related
grants since 1992

Ongoing

USDA

Water and Waste


Disposal Systems
for Rural
Communities

Local units of governments, nonprofit


organizations,
associations, and
districts

1.

$706 million in loans,


$528 million in
grants, and $75
million in guaranteed loans available
nationallyd

Determined by
State USDA
office

2.

3.

Installation, repair,
improvement or
expansion of a rural
water facility
Installation, repair,
improvement or
expansion of a rural
waste disposal facility
Collection and treatment
of sanitary waste,
stormwater and solid
wastes

1417

Table U-1 (continued)


Administrator of
Grant Program

Name of Funding
Program

Eligibility

Types of Projects and


Funding Eligibility Criteria

Assistance
Provided

Application
Deadline

Inland Lake and Lake Michigan Water Quality


USEPA

Beach Act Grants

State, local, tribal


governments

Develop and implement


beach water quality
monitoring and
notification programs at
Great Lakes beaches.
Develop and implement
programs to inform the
public about the risk of
exposure to diseasecausing microorganisms
in the waters at the state
beaches.

Formula Grants
Wisconsins 2007
allocation $225,960

Annual

FWS

Federal Clean Vessel


Act

State, local, tribal


governments, and
nonprofit
organizations

Education/information
materials, construction,
renovation, operation
and maintenance of
pump out and dump
stations, including
floating restrooms

Range from $30,000


(there is no specific
minimum) to
$1,000,000 and a
25 percent nonFederal match is
required

January 31

USCOE

Estuary Habitat
Restoration
Program

State, local, tribal


governments

Habitat restoration activities


including the reestablishment of
chemical, physical,
hydrologic, and
biological features and
components

Project costs should


not be less than
$100,000 or more
than $1,000,000.
The Federal share
will generally not
exceed 65 percent

Ongoing

WDNR

Aquatic Invasive
Species Control
Grants

Counties, local and tribal


government, public
inland lake protection
and rehabilitation
districts, and town
sanitary districts

1.

Education, prevention
and planning
Established infestation
control
Early detection and
rapid response

Awards up to
50 percent of the
cost of a project up
to a maximum grant
amount of $75,000

Local units of
governments, lake
districts, and nonprofit
conservation
organizations

1.

Gathering and analyzing


water quality information
Land use planning
within lake watersheds
Gathering and compiling
demographic information
pertinent to individual
lakes
Developing lake
management plans

Up to 75 percent State
cost-share assistance, not to
exceed $10,000; 25
percent local match
is required; lakes
are eligible for more
than one grant,
however, the total
amount of State
dollars cannot
exceed $100,000

February 1 and
August 1

Land acquisition
for easement
establishment
Wetland restoration
Lake restoration projects
Other projects involving
lake improvement

75 percent State costshare which cannot


exceed $200,000;
25 percent local
match is required

May 1

WDNR

Lake Planning Grant


Program, Chapter
NR 190 of the
Wisconsin Administrative Code

2.
3.

2.
3.

4.

February 1 and
August 1

Lake Protection Grant


Program, Chapter
NR 191 of the
Wisconsin Administrative Code

Local units of
government, lake
districts, and nonprofit
conservation
organizations

1.

WDNR

Lake Classification
Grant Programk

Counties

1.

Development of a
county lake classification
system

$50,000 per grant

May 1

Great Lakes Governors

Great Lakes
Protection Fund

Government agencies,
nonprofit
organizations,
businesses,
individuals

1.

Addressing biological
pollution
Ecosystem restoration
Market mechanisms for
environmental
improvement
Restoring natural flow
regimes

Variable

None

50 percent Federal,
50 percent
cooperator

Annual

WDNR

2.
3.
4.

2.
3.

4.

Water Quality Monitoring


USGS

1418

Stream Gaging
Cooperator
Program

State agencies,
sewerage system and
wastewater treatment
plant operators, and
other units of
government

1.

Installation, operation,
and maintenance of
stream gages

Table U-1 (continued)


Administrator of
Grant Program

Name of Funding
Program

Eligibility

Types of Projects and


Funding Eligibility Criteria

Assistance
Provided

Application
Deadline

Educational and Other Watershed Improvement Grants


USEPA

Environmental
Education Grants
Program

Local or State education


agencies, colleges,
and nonprofit
organizations, State
environmental
agencies, and
noncommercial
education broadcasting agencies

1.
2.

3.

4.
5.

Improving environmental
education teaching skills
Educating teachers,
students, or the public
about human health
problems
Building capacity for
environmental education
programs
Education communities
Educating the public
through print, broadcast,
or other media

$2 million available
nationallyd; locally,
grants are for
$5,000; $5000 to
$25,000; and up to
$100,000

Mid-November

NOTE: The Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance programs can be accessed at: http://12.46.245.173/cfda/cfda.html. Additional information on grants can be
accessed through the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency at: http://cfpub.epa.gov/fedfund/ and the University of Wisconsin-Madison Libraries Grants
Information Collection at: http://grants.library.wisc.edu.
aSome of the programs described in this table may not be available under all envisioned conditions for a variety of reasons, including local eligibility requirements
or lack of funds in Federal and/or State budgets at a given time.
bIn kind services are allowed as a part of the local cost-share assistance.
cTwo types of sign-up are available for CRP: continuous CRP, which has no timeline and is used for small sensitive tracts of land and regular CRP, which has an
annual sign up application period and is used for large tracts of land.
dAvailable on an annual basis.
eThe Fish and Wildlife Service receives support funding from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation and other private sources to help fund this program.
fMust apply through an intermediary organization which includes the National Association of Counties, the National Association of Service and Conservation
Corps, the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, and the Wildlife Habitat Council.
gThe Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources utilizes USDA Forest Service funding for the Stewardship Incentives Program.
hCost-sharable practices must be part of implementation of a Forest Stewardship Plan prepared by a forester.
iEQIP provides minimal funding in Southeastern Wisconsin.
jThe USEPA provides grant funding to the private nonprofit organization River Network to disburse funding. Applications must be made through River Network.
kThe Lake Classification Grant Program is a subgrant program of the Lake Protection Grant Program.
Source: Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission, Upper Des Plaines River Phase 2 Funding Project Interim Report, December 2000, and SEWRPC.

1419

Table U-2
POTENTIAL GRANT PROGRAMS TO IMPLEMENT SELECTED SPECIFIC PLAN RECOMMENDATIONS
Plan Recommendations

Grant Programs
Point Source Pollution Abatement

1.

Construction of Municipal Sewerage and Wastewater


Treatment Facilities

1.

Reduce Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution


A. Reduce Erosion from Cropland through Measures Such
as Conservation Tillage and Grassed Waterways

x
x
x
x

USEPA Clean Water State Revolving Fund


WDNR State of Wisconsin Clean Water Fund Program
Direct Federal Line-Item Grant
USDA Water and Waste Disposal Systems for Rural Communities

Rural and Urban Nonpoint Source Pollution Abatement


x
x
x
x
x

USDA NRCS Environmental Quality Incentives Program


USDA Emergency Conservation Program
USDA FSA Conservation Reserve Program
DATCP Land and Water Resource Management Program
WDNR Targeted Runoff Management Grant Program

B. Install Riparian Buffers/Filter Strips

x
x
x

USDA FSA Conservation Reserve Program


USDA FSA Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program
WDNR Targeted Runoff Management Grant Program

C. Practice More Effective Manure and Nutrient


Management

x
x
x

USDA NRCS Environmental Quality Incentives Program


DATCP Land and Water Resource Management Program
WDNR Targeted Runoff Management Grant Program

D. Install Diversions Around Barnyards

x
x
x

USDA FSA Conservation Reserve Program


USDA NRCS Environmental Quality Incentives Program
WDNR Targeted Runoff Management Grant Program

E. Restrict Livestock Access to Streams

WDNR Targeted Runoff Management Grant Program

F.

DATCP ATCP50 Cost-Share Funds

USDA Water and Waste Disposal Systems for Rural Communities Program

WDNR Urban Nonpoint Source and Stormwater Grants Program

WDNR/USFWS Federal Clean Vessel Act Grant Program

Manage Milking Center Wastewater

G. Expanded Oversight and Maintenance of Private Onsite


Sewage Disposal System
2.

Reduce Urban Nonpoint Source Pollution


A. Implement Nonagricultural Performance Standards of
Chapter NR 151 for Construction Sites, Existing and
New Development, and Redevelopment
B. Marina Waste Management Facilities

Riparian Buffers, Prairie and Wetland Restoration, and Instream Measures


1.

Encourage Riparian Buffer Establishment Along Stream and


River Corridors

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

USFWS Partners for Fish and Wildlife Habitat Restoration Program


USDA NRCS Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program
USDA FSA Conservation Reserve Program
USDA Emergency Watershed Protection Program
USEPA Five-Star Restoration Program
WDNR Stewardship Incentives Program
WDNR Urban Rivers Grant Program
WDNR Municipal Flood Control Grants Program
WDNR/U.S. Department of the Interior Land and Water Conservation
Fund Grants Program
National Fish and Wildlife Foundation Challenge Grant Program
Eastman Kodak American Greenway Grants Program
Great Lakes Governors Great Lakes Protection Fund

2.

Establish Buffers Along Lake Shorelines

WDNR Lake Protection Grant Program

3.

Wetland Restoration/Protection

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

USDA Emergency Watershed Protection Program


USFWS North American Wetlands Conservation Fund
USFWS Partners for Fish and Wildlife Habitat Restoration Program
USFWS Partnership for Wildlife
USDA NRCS Wetland Reserve Program
USDA Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Program
USDA Emergency Watershed Protection Program
USDA NRCS Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program
USDA-FSA Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program
USDA FSA Conservation Reserve Program
USEPA Five-Star Restoration Program
USDOT Transportation Enhancement Program
USCOE Flood Hazard Mitigation and Riverine Ecosystem Restoration Program
WDNR Lake Protection Grant Program
WDNR Stewardship Incentives Program
WDNR Municipal Flood Control Grants Program
WDNR River Protection Grant Program
Great Lakes Governors Great Lakes Protection Fund
Eastman Kodak American Greenway Grants Program

1420

Table U-2 (continued)


Plan Recommendations

Grant Programs

Riparian Buffers, Prairie and Wetland Restoration, and Instream Measures (continued)
4.

Prairie Restoration

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

USFWS Partners for Fish and Wildlife Habitat Restoration Program


USFWS Partnership for Wildlife
USDA-NRCS Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program
USDA Emergency Watershed Protection Program
USDA-FSA Conservation Reserve Program
USDA-FSA Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program
National Fish and Wildlife Foundation Challenge Grant
WDNR River Protection Grant Program
WDNR Stewardship Incentives Program
WDNR Municipal Flood Control Grants Program
Eastman Kodak American Greenway Grants Program

5.

Concrete Channel Renovation and Rehabilitation

x
x
x

USCOE Flood Hazard Mitigation and Riverine Ecosystem Restoration Program


WDNR River Protection Grant Program
Great Lakes Governors Great Lakes Protection Fund

6.

Dam Abandonment and Associated Stream Restoration

x
x

WDNR Small and Abandoned Dam Removal Grant Program


Great Lakes Governors Great Lakes Protection Fund

7.

Fisheries Protection and Enhancement

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

USFWS Great Lakes Fish and Wildlife Restoration Act Grant Program
USFWS Wildlife Conservation and Appreciation Program
USFWS Partners for Fish and Wildlife Habitat Restoration Program
USFWS Partnership for Wildlife
USDA NRCS Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program
USDA Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Program
USCOE Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration
WDNR State Wildlife Grants Program
WDNR County Conservation Aids
WDNR Stewardship Incentives Program
WDNR Stewardship Grant Program
Great Lakes Governors Great Lakes Protection Fund
National Fish and Wildlife Foundation Great Lakes Watershed Restoration Program
National Fish and Wildlife Foundation Challenge Grant Program

8.

Water Quality Monitoring

x
x

USEPA Beach Act Grants


USGS Cooperative Stream Gaging Program

1.

Preparation of Lake Management Plans

x
x
x
x

WDNR Lake Protection Grant Program


WDNR Lake Planning Grant Program
WDNR Lake Classification Grant Program
WDNR Aquatic Invasive Species Control Grants

2.

Control of Nonpoint Source Pollution

See Rural and Urban Nonpoint Source Pollution Abatement and Riparian Buffers,
Prairie and Wetland Restoration, and Instream Measures categories in this table for
applicable grant programs

3.

Lake Monitoring

USGS Cooperative Stream Gaging Program

4.

Informational Programming

See Education category in this table for applicable programs

1.

Provide Information to Agricultural Landowners through Short


Courses and Distribution of Educational Materials on the
Environmental and Economic Benefits of Nutrient
Management and Soil Erosion Control

WDNR River Protection Grant Program

2.

Work with and Provide Information to Agricultural Supply


Companies, Lawn Maintenance Companies, and Golf Course
Superintendents on the State Requirements and Principles of
Nutrient and Chemical Management

WDNR River Protection Grant Program

3.

Provide Information to Contractors and Developers on


Appropriate Best Management Practices for Stormwater
Management and Erosion Control

WDNR Urban Nonpoint Source and Stormwater Grants Program

4.

Provide Information to Riparian Property Owners and


Landscape Contractors on the Effectiveness of Riparian
Buffers and Design Options

WDNR River Protection Grant Program

5.

Promote and Help to Implement In-School Environmental


and Natural Resource Educational Programs

USEPA Environmental Education Grants Program

6.

Provide Information to Watershed Residents on Appropriate


Yard Care Management Practices

x
x

WDNR River Protection Grant Program


WDNR Urban Nonpoint Source and Stormwater Grants Program

Inland Lake Measures

Education

1421

Table U-2 (continued)


NOTES:

The Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance programs can be accessed at: http://12.46.245.173/cfda/cfda.html. Additional information on grants can
be accessed through the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency at: http://cfpub.epa.gov/fedfund/and the University of Wisconsin-Madison Libraries
Grants Information Collection at: http://grants.library.wisc.edu.
The following abbreviations were used in this table:
FSA
USFWS
NRCS
USCOE
USDA

Source: SEWRPC.

1422

Farm Services Agency


U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Natural Resources Conservation Service
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
U.S. Department of Agriculture

USDOT
USEPA
USGS
DATCP
WDNR

U.S. Department of Transportation


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. Geological Survey
Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources

Appendix V

PLAN IMPLEMENTATION
FUNDING CONTACT INFORMATIONa,b
Administrator of
Grant Program

Name of
Grant Program

Address

Phone Number

Internet Web Address

Riparian Buffers, Prairie and Wetland Restoration, and Instream Measures


U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
(USCOE)

Water Resources
Development and Flood
Control Acts

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers


Detroit District
477 Michigan Avenue
Detroit, MI 48226

(888) 694-8313

www.lre.usace.army.mil

USCOE

Flood Hazard Mitigation and


Riverine Ecosystem
Restoration Program

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers


Planning Division
20 Massachusetts Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20314

(202) 761-0115

www.usace.army.mil

U.S. Department of Agriculture


(USDA), Natural Resource
Conservation Service
(NRCS)

Emergency Watershed
Protection Program

U.S. Department of Agriculture


Natural Resources Conservation Service
6515 Watts Road, Suite 200
Madison, WI 53719

(608) 276-8732

www.nrcs.usda.gov

USDA NRCS

Emergency Conservation
Program

U.S. Department of Agriculture


Natural Resources Conservation Service
826 Main Street
Union Grove, WI 53182

(262) 878-1243

www.nrcs.usda.gov

USDA, Farm Services Agency


(FSA)

Conservation Reserve
Program

U.S. Department of Agriculture


Farm Services Agency
826 Main Street
Union Grove, WI 53182

(262) 878-1234

www.fsa.usda.gov

USDA FSA

Conservation Reserve
Enhancement Program

County Land Conservation Department


USDA Farm Service Agency
or
USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service

(262) 878-1234

www.fsa.usda.gov

Wisconsin Department of
Natural Resources (WDNR)

Municipal Flood Control


Grants Chapter NR 199
of the Wisconsin
Administrative Code

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources


101 S. Webster Street - CF/8
P.O. Box 7921
Madison, WI 53707-7921

(608) 267-7152

www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/caer/cfa/Ef/flood/gr
ants.html

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service


(FWS)

Wildlife Conservation and


Appreciation Program

Fish and Wildlife Service


Department of the Interior
Division of Federal Aid
4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Room 400
Arlington, VA 22203

(703) 358-1852

www.fws.gov

FWS

Partners for Fish and Wildlife


Habitat Restoration
Program

Fish and Wildlife Service


Department of the Interior
Division of Federal Aid
4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Room 400
Arlington, VA 22203

(703) 358-2201

www.fws.gov/cep/coastweb.html

FWS

Partnership for Wildlife

Fish and Wildlife Service


Department of the Interior
1849 C Street, NW
Washington, DC 20240

(703) 358-2156

www.fa.r9.fws.gov

FWS

North American Wetlands


Conservation Fund

Fish and Wildlife Service


Department of the Interior
Executive Director of North American
Waterfowl and Wetlands Office
4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Suite 110
Arlington, VA 22203

(703) 358-1784

www.northamerican.fws.gov/nawchp.html

1423

Appendix V (continued)
Administrator of
Grant Program

Name of
Grant Program

Address

Phone Number

Internet Web Address

Riparian Buffers, Prairie and Wetland Restoration, and Instream Measures (continued)
FWS

Great Lakes Fish and Wildlife


Restoration Act Grant
Program

Great Lakes Fish and Wildlife Restoration Act


U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Bishop Henry Whipple Federal Building
1 Federal Drive
Fort Snelling, MN 55111

(612) 713-5168

www.fws.gov/midwest/Fisheries/glfwragrants.html

NRCS

Wildlife Habitat Incentives


Program

U.S. Department of Agriculture


Natural Resources Conservation Service
826 Main Street
Union Grove, WI 53182

(262) 878-1234

www.nrcs.usda.gov

Wetland Reserve Program


USDA

Watershed Protection and


Flood Prevention Program

Headquarters: Department of Agriculture


Natural Resources Conservation Service
P.O. Box 2890
Washington, DC 20013

(202) 720-3534

www.ftw.nrcs.usda.gov/programs.html

USCOE

Aquatic Ecosystem
Restoration Program

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers


Detroit District
477 Michigan Avenue
Detroit, MI 48226

(888) 694-8313

www.lre.usace.army.mil

U.S. Environmental Protection


Agency (USEPA)

Five-Star Restoration Program

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency


Office of Wetlands, Oceans and Watershed (4502F)
Ariel Rios Building
1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20460

(202) 260-8076

www.epa.gov/owow/wetlands/restore/5star
www.nfwf.org

Program operated in cooperation with the National


Association of Counties, the National Fish and
Wildlife Foundation, the Wildlife Habitat Council,
and the Southern Company
U.S. Department of
Transportation (USDOT)

Transportation Enhancement
Program

U.S. Department of Transportation


400 Seventh Street, SW
Washington, DC 20590

(202) 366-4000

www.dot.gov

Wisconsin Coastal
Management Program

Wisconsin Coastal
Management Grant
Program

Wisconsin Coastal Management Program


P.O. Box 8944
Madison WI 53708-8944

(608) 267-7982

www.doa.state.wi.us

WDNR

Stewardship Incentives
Program

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources


9531 Rayne Road, Suite 4
Sturtevant, WI 53177

(262) 884-2390

www.dnr.state.wi.us

WDNR

State Wildlife Grants Program

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources


Bureau of Endangered Resources
101 S. Webster Street
P.O. Box 7921
Madison, WI 53707

(608) 264-6043

http://dnr.wi.gov/org/land/er/swg/

WDNR

Small and Abandoned Dam


Removal Grant Program

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources


Small and Abandoned Dam Removal Grant Program
c/o River Program Coordinator, FH/3
P.O. Box 7921
Madison, WI 53707-7921

(608) 266-9273

www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/caer/cfa/Grants/Da
mRemov.html

WDNR

County Conservation Aids

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources


2300 N. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Drive
Milwaukee, WI 53212

(414) 263-8610

www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/caer/cfa/Grants/coc
onserv.html

Urban Rivers Grant Program

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources


2300 N. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Drive
Milwaukee, WI 53212

(414) 263-8704

www.dnr.state.wi.us

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources


2300 N. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Drive
Milwaukee, WI 53212

(414) 263-8704

www.dnr.state.wi.us

U.S. Department of the Interior


National Park Service, Recreation Programs
1849 C Street NW
Washington, DC 20240

(202) 565-1200

www.ncrc.nps.gov/lwcf

(202) 857-0166

www.nfwf.org/guideliens.htm

WDNR

River Protection Grant


Program
WDNR Utilizing U.S. Department of Interior Funding

Land and Water Conservation


Fund Grants Program
Stewardship Grant Program,
Urban Green Space
Program

or

National Fish and Wildlife


Foundation

Challenge Grant Program

National Fish and Wildlife Foundation


1120 Connecticut Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20036

National Fish and Wildlife


Foundation

Great Lakes Watershed


Restoration Program

National Fish and Wildlife Foundation


Attention: Great Lakes Watershed Restoration
Grants Program
1 Federal Drive
Fort Snelling, MN 55111

Eastman Kodak

American Greenway Grants

American Greenways
The Conservation Fund
1800 N. Kent Street, Suite 1120,
Arlington, VA 22209

1424

--

(703) 525-6300

http://www.nfwf.org/AM/Template.cfm?Secti
on=Browse_All_Programs&CONTENTID=48
83&TEMPLATE=/CM/ContentDisplay.cfm

www.conservationfund.org

Appendix V (continued)
Administrator of
Grant Program

Name of
Grant Program

Address

Phone Number

Internet Web Address

Rural and Urban Nonpoint Source Pollution Abatement


Wisconsin Department of
Agriculture, Trade and
Consumer Protection
(DATCP)

Land and Water Resource


Management Program

WDNR

Urban Nonpoint Source Water


Pollution Abatement and
Storm Water Management
Grant Program

Farmland Preservation
Program

Targeted Runoff Management


Grant Program

Wisconsin Department of Agriculture,


Trade and Consumer Protection
Agricultural Resource Management
2811 Agriculture Drive
P.O. Box 8911
Madison, WI 53708

(608) 224-4500

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources


Bureau of Watershed Management
101 S. Webster Street
P.O. Box 7921
Madison, WI 53707-7921

(608) 266-2621

www.dnr.state.wi.us

www.datcp.state.wi.us

(608) 224-4633

WDNR

Land Recycling Loan


(Brownfields) Program

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources


Bureau of Community Financial Assistance
101 S. Webster Street
P.O. Box 7921
Madison, WI 53707-7921

(608) 266-0849

http://www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/caer/cfa/EL/S
ection/brownfield.html

NRCS

Environmental Quality
Incentives Program

U.S. Department of Agriculture


Natural Resources Conservation Service
826 Main Street
Union Grove, WI 53182

(262) 878-1234

www.nrcs.usda.gov

USDA

Water Quality Special


Research Grants Program

U.S. Department of Agriculture;


1400 Independence Avenue
Washington, DC 20250-2210

(202) 205-5952

www.csrees.usda.gov

USEPA

U.S. Environmental Protection


Agency Clean Water State
Revolving Fund

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency


Clean Water State Revolving Fund Branch
401 M Street
Washington, DC 20460

(202) 260-7359

http://www.epa.gov/owm

USEPA

Water Pollution Control


Program Grants

US Environmental Protection Agency


Office of Wastewater Management
Office of Wetlands, Oceans and Watersheds
1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W.
Washington, DC 20460

(202) 564-8831

http://www.epa.gov/owm

USEPA

Watershed Assistance Grants


Program

River Network
520 SW 6th Avenue, Suite 1130
Portland, OR 97204

(503) 241-3506

www.rivernetwork.org

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency


Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds
401 M Street, SW, 4501F
Washington, DC 20460

(202) 260-9194

www.epa.gov/owow/wag.html

or

USEPA

Targeted Watershed Grants


Program

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency


Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds
1301 Constitution Avenue
Washington, DC 20004

(312) 886-7742

www.epa.gov/twg/

USEPA

Pesticide Environmental
Stewardship Grants
Program

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency


Office of Prevention, Pesticides,
and Toxic Substances
Office of Pesticides
Ariel Rios Building
1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20460

(703) 308-7035

www.epa.gov/oppbppd1/PESP

USEPA

Direct Federal Line-Item Grant

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency


Region 5
77 W. Jackson Boulevard
Chicago, IL 60604

(312) 353-2000

www.epa.gov/ogd/

USDA

Water and Waste Disposal


Systems for Rural
Communities

U.S. Department of Agriculture


Rural Utilities Service
Water and Environmental Programs
Room 4050-S, Stop 1548
1400 Independence Avenue, SW
Washington, DC 20250

(202) 690-2670

www.usda.gov/rus//water/programs.htm

USEPA

Beach Act Grants

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency


Office of Water Resources Center
1200 Pennsylvania Avenue
Washington, DC 20460

(202) 566-1731

www.epa.gov/waterscience/beaches/grants/

FWS

Federal Clean Vessel Act

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service


Division of Federal Assistance
4401 N. Fairfax Drive
Arlington, VA 22203

(703) 358-2156

http://federalasst.fws.gov/cva/cva.html

Point Source Pollution Abatement Recommendations

Inland Lake and Lake Michigan Water Quality

1425

Appendix V (continued)
Administrator of
Grant Program

Name of
Grant Program

Address

Phone Number

Internet Web Address

Inland Lake and Lake Michigan Water Quality (continued)


USCOE

Estuary Habitat Restoration


Program

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers


441 G Street, NW
Washington, DC 20314

(202) 761-4750

www.usace.army.mil/cw/cecwp/estuary_act/

WDNR

Aquatic Invasive Species


Control Grants

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources


2300 N. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Drive
Milwaukee, WI 53212

(414) 263-8610

http://dnr.wi.gov/org/caer/cfa/Grants/Lakes/i
nvasivespecies.html

WDNR

Lake Planning Grant Program

UWEX-Lakes Partnership
UW-Stevens Point
1900 Franklin Street
Stevens Point, WI 54481

(715) 346-2116

www.uwsp.edu/cnr/uwexlakes/grants

(847) 425-8150

www.glpf.org

(703) 648-5301

http://water.usgs.gov/wid/html/SG.html

(202) 260-8619

www.epa.gov/enviroed/grants.html

Lake Protection Grant


Program
Lake Classification Grant
Program
Great Lakes Governors

Great Lakes Protection Fund

Great Lakes Protection Fund


1560 Sherman Avenue, Suite 880
Evanston, IL 60201

USGS

Stream Gaging Cooperator


Program

U.S. Geological Survey


Office of Surface Water
415 National Center
Reston, VA 20192

USEPA

Environmental Education
Grants Program

Water Quality Monitoring

Educational and Other Watershed Improvement Grants


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Environmental Education (1704)
Ariel Rios Building
1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20460

aThe Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance programs can be accessed at: http://12.46.245.173/cfda/cfda.html. Additional information on grants can be accessed through the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency at: http://cfpub.epa.gov/fedfund/ and through the University of Wisconsin-Madison Libraries Grants Information Collection at: http://grants.library.wisc.edu.
bSome of the programs described in this table may not be available under all envisioned conditions for a variety of reasons, including local eligibility requirements or lack of funds in Federal
and/or State budgets at a given time.
Source: SEWRPC.

1426

APPENDIX 8B

White Paper/Analysis for Watershed-Based


Permitting Primer

Prepared for:

Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District


January 20, 2010

Washington, DC
www.limno.com

This page is blank to facilitate double sided printing.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ...........................................................................................1
INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................................2
THE NAVIGATOR PROCESS.....................................................................................3
Navigator Element 1: Create Watershed and Source Data Inventories........................................... 3
Navigator Element 2:Apply a Watershed Permitting Analytical Approach ................................... 4
Table 1: Average Annual Loads of Total Phosphorus in the Menomonee
River Watershed ................................................................................................................... 5
Table 2: Average Annual Loads of Fecal Coliform Bacteria in the
Menomonee River Watershed .............................................................................................. 7
Table 3: Average Annual Loads of Total Suspended Solids in the
Menomonee River Watershed .............................................................................................. 7

NAVIGATOR ELEMENT 3: CONSTRUCT AN NPDES WATERSHED


FRAMEWORK............................................................................................................10
NPDES PERMIT DEVELOPMENT AND ISSUANCE ON A WATERSHED
BASIS ..........................................................................................................................11
Coordinated Individual Permits .................................................................................................... 11
Integrated Municipal NPDES Permit Coverage ........................................................................... 12
Multi-source Watershed-based Permit .......................................................................................... 12

WET-WEATHER INTEGRATION ............................................................................13


INDICATOR DEVELOPMENT FOR WATERSHED-BASED STORMWATER
MANAGEMENT .........................................................................................................14
PERMIT SYNCHRONIZATION ................................................................................14
STATE-APPROVED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT
AND IMPLEMENTATION ........................................................................................15
Figure 1- Implementation Option Scoring ........................................................................... 16

BUILDING THE PERMIT ..........................................................................................17


REFERENCES ............................................................................................................18

LimnoTech

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Executive Summary
The following White Paper/Analysis evaluates the applicability of a watershed-based permitting
approach for the entities within the Greater Milwaukee Watersheds and the most appropriate
option(s) under this approach. The findings of the analysis support the use of a permitting
approach that is based upon implementation of the Watershed Restoration Plan (WRP)
developed for the applicable watershed as well as the Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning
Commission (SEWRPC) Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update (RWQMPU, 208
Plan). Under this approach, the WRP and the RWQMPU would be limited to plans and processes
for protecting water quality standards and would be cited in each facilitys Permit Fact Sheet as
the basis for the control requirements established in the permit. The WRP and RWQMPU would
also be used to establish the monitoring and reporting requirements for the permit. The federal
regulations require permits to include limits that are as stringent as necessary to meet water
quality standards, and that the limits be consistent with approved 208 plans (see 40 CFR
122.44(d)(1) 1 & (d)(6)). The regulations also prohibit the issuance of a permit that is not
consistent with an approved 208 Plan (see 40 CFR 122.4(g). This may be accomplished through
development and issuance of individual coordinated permits as an appropriate approach for this
region or a multi-source integrated permit depending on decisions made by those involved in the
Greater Milwaukee Watersheds regarding pollutants of concern to be addressed and priorities for
applying resources.
By developing the permits in a coordinated fashion and using the WRP and RWQMPU as the
basis for the permit, the approach will allow the permittees to continue to work together on
restoration efforts and ensure that there is no conflict between regionally identified goals and
requirements established in the NPDES permits. A watershed-based approach will allow the
permittees to align permit requirements with the WRP and RWQMPU and allow the permit to
become a vehicle to support the WRP. Additionally, the linkage of plans required by CSO and
stormwater permits (such as the combined sewer system Long Term Control Plan or the
stormwater management plan) with the watershed plans and their associated goals can be
ensured through this process. If the permits are not developed on a watershed-basis and are not
aligned with the WRP there is the potential for resources being directed at permit requirements
and plans that are not part of the WRP and, consequently, there is potential for conflicting efforts
such as monitoring that is not coordinated or projects that are focused on different priorities.
As discussed in US EPAs Watershed-Based National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
(NPDES) Permitting Implementation Guidance (2003), although the permitting authority often
initiates this process, the process can also be based on the initiative of one or more stakeholders
who spearhead this approach. Due to concerns at the state level in Wisconsin regarding resources
to pursue a non-traditional approach to permitting, it is recommended that the
permittee/stakeholders develop the draft permit language as well as the fact sheet for submission
1

122.44(d)
(1) Achieve water quality standards established under section 303 of the CWA, including State narrative criteria for water
quality.
(6) Ensure consistency with the requirements of a Water Quality Management plan approved by EPA under section 208(b) of
CWA.
122.4
(g) For any discharge inconsistent with a plan or plan amendment approved under section 208(b) of CWA.

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to the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. A similar approach was used for permits in
Oregon and found to be very beneficial. Having the stakeholders directly involved in the permit
development is also beneficial as they best understand the system and the issues at the watershed
level.
The process outlined in the paper provides a system for the stakeholders and permittees
evaluating this approach in the Greater Milwaukee Watersheds (herein after referred to as the
Group) to more fully assess priorities and apply a permitting approach to better focus on
priorities. The approach discussed in this paper was structured according to the steps identified in
the Watershed-Based National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permitting
Technical Guidance (US EPA 2007). The Technical Guidance facilitates the use of a NPDES
Watershed Navigator (the Navigator), which includes three elements that are broken into a series
of questions that facilitate analysis of watershed data and determine how best to structure and
manage implementation of the NPDES program in a way that considers the entire watershed.
The Navigator is used to help a permittee work through a watershed permitting analytical
approach and construct an NPDES watershed framework in a watershed. In this paper, each of
the questions is evaluated from the perspective of the point sources (this includes wastewater
treatment plants and stormwater) within the Greater Milwaukee Watershed and
recommendations are made based on this evaluation.
Note that the recommendations that are included in this Paper are only preliminary suggestions.
The entities working through this process in the Greater Milwaukee Watersheds are indeed at an
advantage in having already collected and analyzed extensive data and initiating planning and
permitting at the watershed level. It is still important; however, to continue the current
process of stakeholder and public participation (through the Southeastern Wisconsin
Watersheds Trust, etc.) and to work through the process described in US EPAs 2007
Technical Guidance as a group to ensure all information and views are considered. This
process can indeed proceed more quickly than in a region starting from scratch, but
following this stepwise process can help ensure that appropriate decisions are made based
on the data available and a comprehensive evaluation of all the options is made.

Introduction
In 2002 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) issued a formal endorsement for
the watershed-based approach to planning in an effort to better address water resource issues.
Based on this endorsement, entities in the Greater Milwaukee Watershed have embraced this
approach and have been developing management and restoration plans on a watershed level. This
paper addresses the efforts to date, identifies decisions to be made, and discusses potential
options for the Greater Milwaukee Watersheds.
The approach outlined in this paper was structured according to the steps identified in the
Watershed-Based National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permitting
Technical Guidance (US EPA 2007). It was felt that use of this established approach would
clearly identify the thought process used to walk through the issues faced in the Greater
Milwaukee Watersheds and would help to facilitate discussion with US EPA and the state.
As discussed in the Technical Guidance, a number of factors are involved in selecting a
watershed for a watershed-based permitting approach as well as questions that need to be asked
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to determine the direction of such an approach. US EPAs Technical Guidance includes an


NPDES Watershed Navigator (the Navigator) to help a group work through a watershed
permitting analytical approach and construct an NPDES watershed framework in a watershed.
The Navigator consists of a series of questions that facilitate analysis of watershed data and
determine how best to structure and manage implementation of the NPDES program in a way
that considers the entire watershed.
Each element addressed by the Navigator is discussed below. These elements include:

Element 1: Create Watershed and Source Data Inventories this element focuses on
the types of data needed to conduct an analysis of a watershed-based permitting
approach. An extensive amount of data has been collected and analyzed on
watersheds in this region through efforts associated with the development of the
Watershed Restoration Plans as well as the Southeastern Wisconsin Regional
Planning Commissions (SEWRPC) Regional Water Quality Management Plan
(Planning Report No. 50 and Technical Report No. 39) and MMSDs 2020 Facilities
Plan (Section 201 Plan). Most, if not all, of the important data needed for this effort
has been collected as part of the development of these documents.

Element 2: Apply a Watershed Permitting Analytical Approach taking the data from
Element 1, this step looks at several ways the data can be analyzed to identify
implementation options. Much of this analysis for the Menomonee and Kinnickinnic
Rivers has been undertaken as part of the Watershed Restoration Planning process.

Element 3: Construct an NPDES Watershed Framework building off of Element 2,


this step discusses potential options in more detail and helps with priority setting.

Each element of the Navigator has a goal, specific activities to be undertaken, and a specific set
of results to help readers make decisions in the remaining elements. This paper will walk through
these elements one by one.
It is important to note that an initial decision on the scale of the watershed-based
permitting approach needs to be made upon moving forward with this effort. One approach
could be focusing on one specific watershed, such as the Menomonee River watershed, while
another approach could be more encompassing, such as including all of the Greater Milwaukee
watersheds in the effort. The flexibility of this approach; however, as well as the fact that a
significant amount of data have already been collected, will allow the Group to move forward at
one scale. If it is determined that this scale is inappropriate, the Group can step back through the
process fairly easily to readjust the scale.

The Navigator Process


The following section walks through each element of the US EPA approach discussed above and
addresses the key questions associated with each element, working through the answers where
possible in light of the specific situation in the Greater Milwaukee Watersheds.
Navigator Element 1: Create Watershed and Source Data Inventories
Focusing on a watershed of interest, this step includes collecting and sorting available data on
that watershed. Here the data will be evaluated in order to understand conditions in the watershed
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in relation to water quality standards and watershed goals. The Group is at an advantage at this
point because of the extensive data that have been collected as well as the fact that analysis of
these data has been, and continues to be at the watershed level. Focusing on the drivers behind
the desire to pursue this approach will help the Group focus on the most relevant types and
sources of data. It is likely that only minimal additional data will be needed for this effort so this
Paper will not go into great detail on this element. Questions to address are as follows:
Question #1: What types of data should be gathered?
Data to be gathered under this element includes watershed data as well as pollutant source data.
Watershed data includes information on the physical and natural features of the watershed as
well as watershed goals and conditions. Pollutant source data includes data on locations and
characteristics of both point and nonpoint sources.
Much of this data has already been collected, compiled, and analyzed (or is in the process of
being analyzed). These data will be used in Element 2, but some data could also be used in
association with the development of environmental indicators to measure performance (see
Indicator Development for Watershed-based Stormwater Management on page 13, below). As
will be discussed later, it may be possible to use flow as an indicator or surrogate for a number
of pollutants. The approach here would be to use watershed-based data to demonstrate that by
controlling flow there is a measurable reduction in pollutant loading. This would be similar to
processes used in TMDLs to address stormwater impacts. Once this linkage can be made, then
flow would be used as the control parameter in the permit. It is anticipated that this should fit
well with current activities in the watershed to address flow via use of low impact development
techniques, stormwater BMPs such as rain gardens and rain barrels, working with nongovernmental organizations, etc.
Question #2: How are gaps in the watershed and source data assessed?
Based on the issues of concern in the selected watershed, the Group will want to focus on the
most relevant types and sources of data applicable to the concern(s). Focusing on these specific
sources and evaluating issues such as the ease of data assess, the source of the data and the
format it is in, and the quality of the data will help identify data gaps or needs for new or
improved data.
Question #3: How is a data inventory organized?
As much of the data already collected on the watersheds in the Greater Milwaukee Watersheds
has been incorporated, or is being incorporated into, management or restoration plans, much of
this step has already been achieved. Because of the analysis of this data in these plans it is
assumed that information such as monitoring data referenced in these plans is also in a format
that makes it useful to search or query. Additional data compiled over time should also be
included in the summary of data on the watershed.
Navigator Element 2: Apply a Watershed Permitting Analytical Approach
The next step in this process is taking the data collected through the previous step and analyzing
it so the Group can conduct a targeted and iterative analysis of the data. This will allow the
Group to identify potential approaches to the situation in the Greater Milwaukee Watersheds.
Questions to address are discussed below. Options that may be available based on the answers to
each of these questions are included in the call-out boxes along the side of the page.

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Question #1: Are there common stressors or sources of pollutants of concern in the watershed?
This element includes not only identifying pollutants
of concern, but also identifying relationships among
OPTIONS BASED ON POTENTIAL
existing NPDES permit, nonpoint sources, and these
ANSWERS TO QUESTION#1
pollutants or stressors of concern that can be addressed
Several urban wet-weather sources
within a watershed framework. The analysis that has
identified
already been performed on water quality data in the

Wet-weather integration
Greater Milwaukee Watersheds has identified a

Indicator development for stormwater


number of parameters of concern including nutrients,
management
sediment, and bacteria
Few common pollutants across sources
For each of the watersheds and subwatersheds in the

Permit synchronization
Greater Milwaukee Watersheds, the SEWRPC
Common
stressors unknown because of
Regional Water Quality Management Plan Update
lack
of
data
(RWQMPU) evaluates the average annual loads of the

Monitoring consortium development


various pollutants of concern for point sources
Several
common sources and stressors
(industrial point sources, SSOs, CSOs) and nonpoint

Continue to Question #2 additional


sources (urban and rural stormwater runoff) (see Table
watershed-based approaches are
1 as an example). Although not evaluated on a permitpossible
by-permit level, each pollutant of concern is evaluated
in this manner. Similarly to US EPAs Technical Guidance this approach highlights
commonalities among sources and pollutants for further analysis. (It is important to note for
Table 1. Average Annual Loads of Total Phosphorus in the Menomonee River Watershed
Point Sources

Subwatershed
Butler Ditch ...........
Honey Creek ..........
Lilly Creek .............
Little Menomonee
Creek ...................
Little Menomonee
River ....................
Lower Menomonee
River ..................
North Branch
Menomonee River .
Nor-X-Way
Channel ..
Underwood Creek ..
Upper Menomonee
River ..................
West Branch
Menomonee River .
Willow Creek .........
Total
Percent of Total
Load

Nonpoint Sources

Industrial
Point
Sources
(pounds)

SSOs
(pounds)

CSOs
(pounds)

Subtotal
(pounds)

Urban
(pounds)

Rural
(pounds)

Subtotal
(pounds)

Total
(pounds)

0
200
0
0

10
10
0
0

0
0
0
0

10
210
0
0

1,490
3,900
1,200
80

50
20
90
350

1,540
3,920
1,290
430

1,550
4,130
1,290
430

360

<10

360

3,300

840

4,140

4,500

15,650

550

1,880

18,080

7,180

70

7,250

25,330

50

220

270

270

160

160

630

340

970

1,130

30
1,150

10
<10

0
0

40
1,150

6,350
4,170

270
1,150

6,620
5,320

6,660
6,470

370

240

610

610

320

430

750

750

17,550

580

1,880

20,010

29,040

4,070

33,110

53,120

33.0

1.1

3.5

37.6

54.7

7.7

62.4

100.0

(SEWRPC 2007 Technical Report No. 39)

comparison purposes that urban nonpoint sources identified in Table 1 include permitted
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municipal stormwater runoff, which is defined by US EPA as a point source).


Additionally, the Draft Watershed Restoration Plan for the Menomonee River cites issues such
as the fact that stormwater runoff is the largest source of fecal colifom and that eliminating CSOs
and SSOs would not result in water quality improvements. This type of information and data will
be helpful in establishing the levels of control and supporting the use of aggregate limits or
allocations done on a categorical rather than outfall-by-outfall basis. This is similar to the
process used in TMDLs to address diffuse sources that may be controlled via BMPs where the
assumption is that use of BMPs on a system-wide basis will reduce loadings.
Question #2: Are pollutants and stressors common to sources in the watershed best addressed at
a watershed level?
This question is important as it evaluates the
OPTIONS BASED ON POTENTIAL
pollutants of concern that were identified in
ANSWERS TO QUESTION#2
Question #1, above, and evaluates if they could be
addressed at a watershed scale. For a watershedCommon pollutants or stressors are not
based approach the pollutants of concern should
best addressed at the watershed level
have more than just localized effects, but can be

Permit synchronization
addressed at a watershed level.
Common pollutants and stressors lend
This question must be answered in two parts: (1) is
themselves to being addressed at a
the pollutant an issue watershed-wide where there is watershed level
potential for cumulative effects from multiple

Continue to Question #3 additional


sources and (2) is the form of the pollutant the same
watershed-based approaches are
possible
or can different forms be converted to the same
form for common measurement (e.g., phosphorus,
nitrogen, oxygen demand).
As opposed to individual point sources with localized effects that could be addressed through
individual permits, where the aggregate effect of the point sources lead to more far-field issues, a
watershed permitting approach can be helpful. This is already being addressed at the watershed
scale in the Menomonee River Watershed. As seen in Tables 1, 2, and 3, the bulk of the loading
of phosphorus, fecal coliform, and total suspended solids in this watershed come from a limited
number of sources, but predominantly come from urban stormwater. Coverage of the eight
communities under this type of permit allows evaluating these pollutants in a more
comprehensive manner.
Evaluating the connection between these discharges can help identify the pollutants of concern
upon which to optimally place focus through a watershed-based approach. Using a watershed
approach for these types of pollutants will also allow the Group to prioritize controls based on
type of source, loading, and location and apply resources where there will be the greatest
potential for positive impact.

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Table 2. Average Annual Loads of Fecal Coliform Bacteria in the Menomonee River Watershed
Point Sources

Subwatershed
Butler Ditch ...................
Honey Creek ...............
Lilly Creek ......................
Little Menomonee Creek .
Little Menomonee River .
Lower Menomonee River
North Branch
Menomonee River .....
Nor-X-Way Channel ......
Underwood Creek ........
Upper Menomonee River
West Branch Menomonee
River .....
Willow Creek .................

Nonpoint Sources

Industrial
Point
Sources
(trillions
of cells)

SSOs
(trillions
of cells)

CSOs
(trillions
of cells)

Subtotal
(trillions
of cells)

Urban
(trillions
of cells)

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

6.07
9.01
0.00
0.00
0.52
604.24
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1,727.39
0.00

6.07
9.01
0.00
0.00
0.52
2,331.63
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
16.33
4.65
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00

0.00

Rural
(trillions
of cells)

Subtotal
(trillions
of cells)

Total
(trillions
of cells)

223.75
2,342.61
199.31
65.43
2,097.81
4,067.91
9.30

0.46
0.14
1.25
84.91
105.28
0.28
7.82

224.21
2,342.75
200.56
150.34
2,203.09
4,068.19
17.12

230.28
2,351.76
200.56
150.34
2,203.61
6,399.82
17.12

0.00
16.33
4.65
0.00

256.06
3,454.09
1,274.47
62.41

48.78
1.67
79.98
16.80

304.84
3,455.76
1,354.45
79.21

304.84
3,472.09
1,359.10
79.21

0.00

0.00

58.69

45.74

104.43

104.43

Total

0.00

640.82

1,727.39

2,368.21

14,111.84

393.11

14,504.95

16,873.16

Percent of Total Load

0.0

3.8

10.2

14.0

83.7

2.3

86.0

100.0

(SEWRPC 2007 Technical Report No. 39)

Table 3. Average Annual Loads of Total Suspended Solids in the Menomonee River Watershed
Point Sources

Subwatershed
Butler Ditch ....................
Honey Creek ...................
Lilly Creek ..................
Little Menomonee Creek .
Little Menomonee River ..
Lower Menomonee River
North Branch
Menomonee River .......
Nor-X-Way Channel .......
Underwood Creek ...........
Upper Menomonee River
West Branch Menomonee
River .......
Willow Creek .................
Total
Percent of Total Load

Nonpoint Sources

Industrial
Point
Sources
(pounds)

SSOs
(pounds)

CSOs
(pounds)

Subtotal
(pounds)

Urban
(pounds)

0
800
0
0
2,530
51,660
0

320
470
0
0
30
31,670
0

0
0
0
0
0
182,960
0

320
1,270
0
0
2,560
266,290
0

689,190
1,874,860
666,000
58,630
1,976,270
4,001,330
27,660

280
90
3,380
0

0
860
240
0

0
0
0
0

280
950
3,620
0

Rural
(pounds)

Subtotal
(pounds)

Total
(pounds)

8,000
2,400
53,720
205,820
437,140
10,180
117,390

697,190
1,877,260
719,720
264,450
2,413,410
4,011,510
145,050

697,510
1,878,530
719,720
264,450
2,415,970
4,277,800
145,050

478,790
3,031,420
2,504,060
232,070

351,000
46,540
462,670
103,580

829,790
3,077,960
2,966,730
335,650

830,070
3,078,910
2,970,350
335,650

197,990

151,790

349,780

349,780

58,740

33,590

182,960

275,290

15,738,270

1,950,230

17,688,500

17,963,790

0.3

0.2

1.0

1.5

87.6

10.9

98.5

100.0

(SEWRPC 2007 Technical Report No. 39)

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Question #3: What are critical environmental conditions for the pollutants or stressors of
concern?
As defined in the Technical Guidance, critical
OPTIONS BASED ON POTENTIAL
environmental conditions are the environmental
ANSWERS TO QUESTION #3
conditions in the waterbody where controls designed
to protect those conditions will ensure attainment of
Critical environmental conditions
water quality standards and goals for all other
unknown because of insufficient data
conditions. These conditions could include a

Monitoring consortium development


combination of factors (e.g., stream flow,
Critical conditions are well defined, but
temperature) and might actually occur infrequently.
vary by pollutant
Depending on the pollutant or stressor of concern

Consider narrowing the scope of the


and the sources of those pollutants and stressors,
watershed analysis
critical conditions might occur during low stream

Continue to Question #4 additional


flow, runoff events, rainfall events, or hot and dry
watershed-based approaches possible
periods.
Critical conditions are well defined and
consistent for pollutants of concern

The US EPA Technical Guidance suggests

Wet-weather integration (if wet weather


reviewing the applicable water quality standards or
conditions are critical)
written water quality goals for the waterbody for

Indicator development for watershedbased stormwater management (if wetinformation about critical conditions. The SEWRPC
weather conditions are critical)
has already analyzed previous monitoring data for

Continue to Question #4 additional


the Milwaukee area watersheds which is
watershed-based approaches are
documented in the RWQMPU (Planning Report No.
possible
50 and Technical Report No. 39). The Report
developed water quality summary statistics for 106
water quality assessment points within the study area, evaluating compliance with water quality
standards/criteria.
The Technical Guidance also recommends examining the nature of the pollutants or stressors,
their impacts, and the potential sources to ensure an understanding of critical conditions. The
SEWRPC RWQMPU also evaluates wet and dry-weather loading to local waterbodies. For each
of the watersheds, daily average loads of six pollutantstotal phosphorus, total suspended
solids, fecal coliform bacteria, total nitrogen, biochemical oxygen demand, and copper, were
estimated for both wet-weather and dry-weather conditions for one or two sites based upon flow
and water quality data. For all watersheds, the loads detected during wet-weather periods were
considerably higher than the loads detected during dry-weather periods.
Identifying wet weather as the critical condition for each of the pollutants of concern in the
Greater Milwaukee Watersheds is helpful in identifying the level of complexity of the issues in
this region. Based on the data available there is a clear linkage between pollutants (bacteria,
phosphorus, and suspended solids) and urban stormwater. As outlined in the box above, there are
several options available, which will be discussed in more depth, below.
Question #4: In what quantities or to what degree do point and nonpoint sources contribute
pollutants or stressors in the watershed?

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This step requires that, after defining critical conditions in the watershed, available data be
analyzed to determine whether point and nonpoint source contributions of pollutants of concern
at critical conditions have been quantified through monitoring or have been modeled.
As discussed above, contributions of pollutants of
concern have been analyzed for both point and
nonpoint sources in the Milwaukee area watersheds.
This has included evaluating both monitoring data as
well as assessing instream water quality conditions
through modeling existing (year 2000), planned (year
2020), and recommended RWQMPU conditions.
As explained in the Technical Guidance,
understanding the relationship between point and
nonpoint sources is important to understanding if
point sources in the watershed contribute enough of
the pollutant load, relative to nonpoint sources, to
warrant a watershed-based approach. Although there
is significant information available to make this
determination, a rough estimate of relative
contributions is all that is necessary to make this
assessment. For example, because urban stormwater
is a significant source of pollutants for the parameters
of concern addressed above in Tables 1, 2 and 3, as
are industrial point sources for phosphorus, point
sources can be identified as significant contributors of
certain pollutants in the Menomonee River
watershed.
Question #5: How are point and nonpoint sources
related spatially and temporally?
As stated in the US EPA Technical Guidance,
consideration should be given to defining the spatial
and temporal relationships among contributing sources.
Understanding relationships among sources is
especially important for implementing a successful
trading program, if this approach is ultimately pursued
by the Group. For pollutants with watershed-wide or
regional effects, contributions at one point in a
watershed are not necessarily equivalent to
contributions at another point in the watershed in terms
of their overall impact on the watershed.
The Technical Guidance provides the example of a lake
that has experienced nuisance aquatic plant growth and
dissolved oxygen sags resulting from nutrient enriched
water. Total phosphorus has been identified as a
9

OPTIONS BASED ON POTENTIAL ANSWERS TO


QUESTION#4
Relative contributions unknown because of
insufficient data

Monitoring consortium development

Watershed management plan development

TMDL development and implementation


support

Statewide rotating basin planning


Pollutants predominantly contributed by
nonpoint sources

State-approved watershed management


plan development and implementation

Section 319 nonpoint source management


program and watershed planning
Point sources are significant contributors*

NPDES permit development on a


watershed basis

Water quality trading

Permit synchronization

Continue to Question #5 additional


watershed-based approaches are possible

OPTIONS
ON POTENTIAL
*Note that point
sourcesBASED
as defined
here by EPA include
permitted urban stormwater
sources.
ANSWERS TO QUESTION#5
Spatial and temporal relationships
unknown because of insufficient data

NPDES permit development on a


watershed basis

Monitoring consortium development

TMDL development and implementation


support

Statewide rotating basin planning

Permit synchronization
Spatial and temporal relationships well
defined

NPDES permit development on a


watershed basis

Water quality trading

Permit synchronization

Statewide rotating basin planning

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pollutant of concern. Nine sources of phosphorus have been shown to contribute loads to the
basin. These sources are along the river that feeds the lake. One of the sources, a publicly owned
treatment works (POTW), is a permitted point source upstream of the lake, but 20 miles
downstream of an irrigation return flow to the river. A farm, an agricultural nonpoint source, is
the only source discharging phosphorus to the irrigation return ditch. In addition, there is an
agriculture diversion that diverts 75 percent of the river flow between the farm and the POTW.
Total phosphorus discharges from the farm and the POTW would not have the same relative
impact on the downstream lake. First, the phosphorus is likely to be in different formssoluble
from the POTW and non-soluble from the farm. Second, the distance between the farm and the
POTW and the significant agricultural diversion between the two sources mean that even
phosphorus discharges from the two sources that are in the same form would not have equal
impact on the lake. The regulatory authority would need to quantify the relationship between the
effects of a pound of phosphorus discharged by the farm and a pound of phosphorus discharged
by the POTW to determine an approach for effectively managing water quality in the lake. It
might be helpful to use equations and models that have been developed to estimate the decay
rate, or attenuation, of water quality pollutants to account for spatial relationships in calculating
the relative contributions of various sources in a watershed.
Answering the question of how point and nonpoint sources are related in the Greater Milwaukee
Watersheds will, of course, depend on the scale chosen for the project. Urban stormwater
permittees (covered under the WPDES permitting program) cover a vast majority of the
watersheds. The location of other point sources, such as CSOs, SSOs, or industrial sources vary
by watershed. Additionally, there may be temporal variability with other sources, such as from
agricultural sources, or temperature impacts on pollutants during warmer summer months. Much
of the monitoring and modeling data already exists in the SEWRPC plans and will be utilized in
the upcoming watershed plans. Further discussion of the scale of this approach will be helpful at
this point. The approaches could include addressing only one watershed (i.e., the Menomonee or
the Kinnicknnic River watershed), assess all watersheds in the Greater Milwaukee area; or
consider all watersheds at the same time, but address them each separately, but include
coordination between the watersheds given they all ultimately impact Lake Michigan.
Navigator Element 3: Construct an NPDES Watershed Framework
There are a range of options possible for a watershed-based approach. Ultimately, the option that
is chosen for the region will be based on the condition of the selected watershed and specific
pollutants of concern and watershed goals identified by the Group. The Group may also choose
to pursue all or a subset of these approaches according to stakeholder priorities and the comfort
level of the permitting authority. The questions below walk through the range of possible
implementation options.
Navigator Element 3 - Question #1: What are the implementation options to consider in
constructing an NPDES watershed framework?
Although an NPDES watershed framework should focus primarily on programs and approaches
directly related to NPDES program implementation and activities, other water programs
influence NPDES implementation and local water quality and may also be included in this
approach. EPA has identified a number of implementation options to consider under an NPDES
watershed-based approach including:

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NPDES Permit Development and Issuance on a Watershed-basis


Water Quality Trading
Wet-Weather Integration
Indicator Development for Watershed-based Stormwater Management
TMDL Development and Implementation Support
Monitoring Consortium Development
Permit Synchronization
Statewide Rotating Basin Planning Approach
State-Approved Watershed Management Plan Development and Implementation
Section 319 Nonpoint Source Management Program and Watershed Planning
Source Water Protection Plan Development and Implementation.

As stated previously, the watershed-based approach is very flexible. Approaches that have been
used elsewhere can be modified to meet the local requirements, the local issues, and the comfort
level of the Group as well as the permitting authority. The Group might choose only one or two
of these approaches for inclusion into the approach for the Greater Milwaukee Watersheds, or
the Group could design a comprehensive framework that incorporates a suite of these
approaches. Below several approaches are identified and discussed further that may be of most
interest to stakeholders in the Milwaukee area and most applicable to the specific situation in the
region.
NPDES Permit Development and Issuance on a Watershed Basis
As the Group walks through each of the steps identified above the associated questions could
either be answered or possibly initial thoughts or ideas might be facilitated. Because of the
amount of work that has already been achieved collecting and analyzing data on the watersheds
in the region, conditions in the watershed are well understood. It is also known that there are
common stressors or pollutants of concern among sources in the watersheds and that certain
point sources most notably urban stormwater sources have a significant impact in the watersheds.
Given this scenario, developing and issuing NPDES permits on a watershed basis is an
appropriate approach for addressing point source loads of one or more pollutants. As stated
earlier, in cases where there are multiple sources contributing the same pollutants and those
pollutants have primarily far-field or additive effects, a watershed-based permit is appropriate.
The types of permits that might be considered for a watershed will vary depending on the
specific conditions and types of dischargers within a watershed (again, this would depend on the
scale of the project choose one specific watershed such as the Menomonee River watershed
or scale the project up to the encompass the Greater Milwaukee area). The permit types that are
available under this approach include coordinated individual permits, integrated municipal
permits, and multisource watershed-based permits. Each of these permit types is discussed in
greater detail below.

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Coordinated Individual Permits - This permitting approach is the closest to traditional NPDES
permitting in that each discharger receives an
individual permit. The difference is that water quality
Watershed characteristics leading to
based effluent limits (WQBELs) and other conditions
consideration of this option: common
of coordinated individual permits (such as
stressors or sources of pollutants of
concern; critical environmental conditions
monitoring) are developed using a holistic analysis of
are defined; point and nonpoint source
the watershed conditions rather than being established
contributions are understood, at least for
to ensure attainment of water quality standards on a
the pollutant(s) of concern; point sources
permit-by-permit basis. Often where permits are
contribute a notable portion of the pollutant
developed on a permit-by-permit basis assumptions
load or there are significant differences
are made regarding other sources that are not realistic
among the loadings contributed by various
such as zero contribution of pollutants or zero
point sources, or there are a number of
background loadings. Given the extensive monitoring
point sources with similar types of
and modeling of watersheds such as the Menomonee
discharges.
and Kinnickinnic, this holistic analysis is (or soon will
be) complete to serve as a basis for this approach.
With this approach, the individual permits are designed to meet watershed-specific goals (e.g.,
comprehensive watershed monitoring, nutrient reduction). The permitting authority may re-issue
permits to single dischargers or modify existing single discharger permits. To strengthen the
coordination among individual permits, expiration and reissuance or effective dates should also
be synchronized. By synchronizing permit issuance it ensures that the data used to make permit
decisions are consistent and the data collected will also be consistent across the permits and the
watershed.
Integrated Municipal NPDES Permit Coverage - This approach is most often applicable in cases
where all municipal discharges are under the ownership of a single entity. In cases where there is
single ownership the permitting authority may bundle a number of point source permit
requirements for a municipality (POTWs, combined sewer overflows [CSOs], biosolids,
pretreatment, and stormwater, including municipally owned industrial activities such as public
works and utility yards) into a single permit. In cases where the treatment plants, stormwater,
CSOs (if applicable), and other municipally controlled point source activities are all under single
ownership, the permitting authority could consider one permit that covers and integrates all
NPDES requirements. Ideally, these activities would take place within the boundaries of the
same watershed. This approach may reduce the administrative burden for both the permittee and
permitting authority (e.g., one application, one public notice and public hearing, one compliance
report) and allow the permitting authority to develop permit conditions (limitations and
monitoring requirements) that specifically address existing watershed goals and watershed
management plans. In the case of the Greater Milwaukee Watersheds, this may still be done
instead of a permit with a single owner, there would be multiple owners and they would be
considered co-permittees under a single permit with permit language clearly delineating
compliance liability (e.g., language in the Neuse River NPDES permit) (NCDENR 2004). The
permit conditions would be developed using the same process as for an integrated municipal
permit, but the issuance of the permit would be done differently to recognize the different
owners.
Multi-source Watershed-based Permit - This type of permitting approach is also a single permit
and would cover multiple sources included in the same watershed, watershed plan, or TMDL. It
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would allow several point sources in a watershed to apply for and obtain permit coverage under
the same permit. This type of permit might be appropriate in situations where a watershed plan,
such as one developed for the Menomonee River or Kinnicknick River watersheds, identifies the
need to address a specific pollutant(s). A watershed plan might include agreed-upon controls
necessary to achieve watershed goals. Stakeholders can then identify point sources that would be
logical to group under a single permit.
Some permitting authorities have chosen to issue a single watershed-based permit that
supplements or overlays the existing individual permits for the covered facilities. This approach
allows the permitting authority to focus effluent limitations, monitoring requirements, trading
provisions, and other special permit conditions that are developed on a watershed basis in a
single permit and clearly links the permitted facilities in a way that simply incorporating
watershed-based permit conditions into individual permits does not accomplish. The permit
would identify all point sources that have agreed to the controls and the individual specific
requirements for each point source. An example is a permit that includes control requirements
for nutrients issued to all POTWs in the watershed and requires specific nutrient reductions that
reflect agreed-upon goals and, possibly, trades. This same approach could be used for multiple
types of discharges such as POTWs, stormwater, CSOs, etc. to address the same pollutant such
as TSS or nutrients. This permit might be issued in addition to the existing individual permits
and, if so, would include limitations or controls to address only the watershed-specific common
pollutant or pollutants. Other pollutants would continue to be addressed through each facilitys
individual permit.
Wet-Weather Integration
Wet-weather integration is an approach to address wet-weather discharges in a holistic manner to
provide for greater efficiency, more comprehensive planning, less redundancy among permitting
requirements, and better water quality outcomes. It is focused on urban areas that include
permitted wastewater treatment facilities and sewer systems,
such as that in the Greater Milwaukee Watersheds.
Watershed characteristics leading
The major drivers of wet weather integration are all found in
the Greater Milwaukee Watersheds multiple programs driven
by wet weather events, shared common pollutants between the
program, and hydraulic connectivity of the systems. Wetweather integration can include not only WPDES programs,
but also other issues such as non-point source discharges,
which are also an issue in the region. As addressed in US
EPAs Technical Guidance, wet-weather integration includes:

to consideration of this option:


identified critical conditions occur
during wet weather; predominantly
urban or urbanizing watershed, or
watershed with multiple wet-weather
problems competing for the same
resources.

Unifying individual WPDES permits and programs, and consolidating and


streamlining their overlapping requirements

Coordinating with water quality standards programs and enforcement and compliance
programs across an urban area (municipal footprint)

Coordinating with the development and implementation of TMDLs

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Considering the water quality goals and objectives of existing watershed management
plans and the resources needed to address pollutant loads and setting priorities

Planning and developing solutions across all municipal wet-weather programs to


achieve the best environmental benefits at a reasonable or lower cost.

This approach could be tied together with an integrated wet-weather permit approach as is
discussed above (NPDES Permit Development and Issuance on a Watershed Basis).
A guiding principle for the integration of wet-weather programs is reducing the volume of water
entering sewer systems (sanitary, combined, and storm sewers) for example focusing on
infiltration reuse, and evapotransporation techniques rather than traditional stormwater controls.
Methods to reduce water volume through this approach are less focused on end of pipe treatment
and more on initiatives such as the reduction of inflow and infiltration, natural infiltration (low
impact development, LID), and water conservation. Entities, such as MMSD, are already
encouraging the use of LID, in recognition of the principles of wet-weather integration.
Indicator Development for Watershed-based Stormwater Management
Excessive stormwater runoff is often the cause for aquatic life impairment because of the
relationship among stormwater runoff volume, pollutant loadings, and habitat degradation. The
connections between these stressors are very complex, posing a unique challenge for effectively
managing stormwater and tracking progress toward water quality standards attainment. US EPA
and several states have begun using stormwater/hydrologic targets, or indicators, for use in
developing and implementing stormwater TMDLs. Indicators might include a percent reduction
in annual surface runoff volume or a percent reduction in peak runoff rates for a specific design
storm. Using stormwater/hydrologic indicators is based on the premise that the hydrologic
condition of a watershed where streams have aquatic life
Watershed characteristics
impairments related to stormwater is a surrogate for the pollutant
leading to consideration of
and non-pollutant stressors contributing to those impairments.

this option: multiple sources


of pollutant loads; critical
conditions identified and
occur during wet weather.

For aquatic life impairments, there often is not one specific


pollutant of concern; instead, the impairment may be caused by a
mix of pollutants and physical alterations to the stream system. In
Vermont, TMDLs use stormwater as it represents a combination of
stressors. The use of this surrogate has the primary benefit of addressing the physical impacts to
the stream channel caused by stormwater runoff such as sediment release from channel erosion
and scour from increased flows. These physical alterations to the stream are substantial
contributors to the aquatic life impairment. Also, reductions in stormwater runoff volume will
help restore diminished base flow (increased groundwater recharge), another aquatic life stressor.
As described in US EPAs Technical Guidance, calculating percent impervious cover or runoff
volume reduction as a single categorical stormwater loading promotes implementation using an
adaptive, watershed-based approach. Consequently, a watershed-based stormwater permit could
be an effective mechanism for implementing this phased program for attaining water quality
standards. The permit could require development and implementation of the phased BMP
program and periodic plan updates. The monitoring program required by the permit might
include stormwater effluent monitoring, where appropriate, but also could focus on cooperative
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ambient monitoring (e.g., a monitoring consortium) by the regulated community. The ambient
monitoring could include biological monitoring, with follow-up stressor identification analysis to
verify the appropriateness of selected BMPs.
Permit Synchronization
This implementation option focuses on coordinating expiration and reissuance of existing
NPDES permits within a specified watershed. As discussed in US EPAs Technical Guidance,
permit synchronization has several benefits including coordination of NPDES support activities
such as biological and water quality surveys, industrial pretreatment inspections, and compliance
inspections that provide up-to-date information at the time of permit issuance. An important
benefit of this approach is that watershed-based needs, such as monitoring requirements or
wasteload allocation (WLAs), are reflected equitably in all
permits even within the standard individual permit
Watershed characteristics
approach, because all permits in a watershed are being
leading to consideration of this
considered simultaneously. Permit synchronization is
option: some overlap in pollutants
discharged by sources within the
currently being done in a number of states and these states
watershed that present the
have found the process to be very beneficial (see North
opportunity to achieve efficiencies
Carolina Case Study; US EPA 2007).
by simultaneously analyzing
watershed data for the same
pollutant(s).

The feasibility of permit synchronization as an


implementation option might depend the types of permits
(e.g., general or individual) currently issued to dischargers
in the watershed, the current timing of permit reissuance in the watershed, and determining if it is
necessary to delay issuance of some permits to synchronize permit issuance on a watershed
basis. It also is important to determine if all stakeholders are in support of the synchronization
concept and the process to achieve synchronization.
In the Greater Milwaukee Watersheds, there are a number of permittees including MMSD
(whose discharge permit is currently up for renewal), municipal stormwater permittees (such as
those covered under the municipal stormwater watershed based permit in the Menomonee River
watershed, which expires in 2012), and numerous other individual permittees. These permits
separately will need to address the pollutants of concern. Given this fact there may be
opportunities to gain efficiency while also addressing watershed-based problems. In order to
address these watershed-wide problems it is necessary to look at the watershed in total and make
decisions on a watershed scale rather than outfall pipe by outfall pipe.
State-Approved Watershed Management Plan Development and Implementation
Watershed management planning, such as currently being done in the Greater Milwaukee
Watersheds, is an iterative process for documenting watershed
goals; known, suspected, and potential pollutant sources and
Watershed characteristics
loadings; potential management strategies; and evaluation
leading to consideration of this
option: multiple sources of
tools. Through the regions watershed-based management
pollutants or causes of
plans, stakeholders have and continue to formulate goals,
environmental degradation; point
identify any additional data needs, and evaluate potential
and nonpoint contributions
pollutant control strategies. The information in the watershed
understood; local interest in
plans can serve as the foundation for implementation options

protecting high quality watersheds.

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under the watershed framework (such as the Screening Alternatives identified in the RWQMPU).
Navigator Element 3 - Question #2: How should priorities for implementing the components of
an NPDES watershed framework be set?
There are a number of approaches available to stakeholders in the Greater Milwaukee
Watersheds within a WPDES watershed framework for the pollutants of concern that have been
identified. As discussed further in the Technical Guidance, a scoring system can be used to
prioritize initiatives upon which to place the most focus. This approach is one option for
attempting to provide a more objective approach for determining whether the overall process is
appropriate. There may be other ways for making the same determination.
The Technical Guidance outlines the first step in the suggested approach as determining whether
and how to group implementation options for priority setting. For the Greater Milwaukee
Watersheds two initial groupings were considered in an example prioritization (see Figure 1)
including (1) watershed analysis/pollutant source analysis and (2) permitting. As so much data
collection and analysis has already occurred for the Greater Milwaukee Watershed, watershed
analysis and pollutant source analysis were grouped to reduce redundancy. Had this level of
effort not already occurred in the region, a more intensive analysis would be required to
determine additional data needs, etc. These groupings represent the major activities that could be
undertaken in implementing an NPDES watershed approach that focuses on watershed-based
permitting as the primary implementation option. Grouping implementation options in this
manner allows assessment of the implementation options based on a clear methodology for
decision-making.
Once potential implementation options are listed and grouped, the Group should consider
establishing criteria for setting priorities and determining the manner in which the criteria will be
used to evaluate potential options or groups of options. Criteria could consider factors such as
environmental impact, availability of resources, and current planning priorities. It is at this point
in developing a watershed framework that the Group might need to look beyond technical
feasibility and environmental impact to include administrative criteria (e.g., availability of
funding) to set priorities among the possible implementation options.

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One screening level method for priority setting is to develop a scoring process for all potential
implementation options. For example, a scoring scale from one to three for a series of criteria
could be used to evaluate each implementation option on how it compares to each criterion. The
IMPLEMENTATION OPTION GROUPING
EXAMPLE
Watershed/Pollutant Source Analysis

Additional watershed data collection

Sufficient data collected for now 1 point

Monitoring consortium development

This could be an option 2 points

TMDL development support

No priority TMDLs currently 1 point

Indicator development and tracking for


watershed-based stormwater
management

Variety of pollutants linked to flow 3 points

Permitting

TMDL implementation support

Water quality trading

Wet-weather integration

Watershed-based multi-source permit

Permit synchronization

No priority TMDLs currently 1 point


Trading of interest to group 3 points
Of interest to the group 3 points
Coordinated integrated permit or multi-source
watershed based permit 3 points
Of interest to the group 3 points

Figure 1 Implementation option scoring

criteria can be weighted, with those most important to stakeholders receiving a higher weighting
factor than others. Implementation options with the highest weighted total scores would be
initially identified as potentially higher priority approaches. Such a procedure does not provide
mathematical precision in ranking potential implementation options. It simply helps stakeholders
get a general sense of which approach seems to best fit the Groups multiple and, sometimes,
competing priorities. The Group could use the results of such an analysis to further refine its
selection of the highest priority projects or approaches.

Building the Permit


Assuming that the point sources in the Greater Milwaukee Watershed decide to move forward
with some form of a watershed-based permit, there are specific conditions that must be
considered and included in any type of NPDES permit. Specifically:

Technology-based effluent limitations (TBEL)

Water quality-based effluent limitations (WQBEL)

Numeric effluent limits vs. BMPs as effluent limits

Monitoring and reporting requirements

The regulations require the permitting authority to issue permits requiring the permittee to meet
permit limits. The regulations further require the permitting authority to include effluent limits in
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the permit and that these limits be based on technology-based standards or water quality-based
standards if the limits derived from technology-based standards are not stringent enough to meet
water quality standards. The regulations require the NPDES permitting authority to develop
limits for all outfalls (40 CFR 122.45(a)) and include the applicable technology-based limits (40
CFR 122.44(a)); if the technology-based effluent limits are not stringent enough to meet the
applicable water quality standards then the permitting authority must include more stringent
limits (40 CFR 122.44(d)). In setting the limits, the permitting authority is expected to set
numeric limits whenever feasible. In cases where it is infeasible to set numeric effluent limits,
the permitting authority may establish BMPs that the permittee must meet (40 CFR 122.44(k)).
All permits must include monitoring and reporting requirements for any pollutants for which the
permitting authority has established limits in the permit. This is so the permittee may
demonstrate compliance.
The permitting regulations provide flexibility regarding the process for determining the
appropriate limitations. In cases where the limitations are set to meet water quality standards
(water quality-based effluent limitations), it is possible to set aggregate limits or limits that are
based on trading allocations. This provides flexibility to prioritize or focus pollutant control
efforts on specific areas. The distinction here is that there will be controls established for all
discharges, but the controls will not be uniform, rather they will be coordinated and to some
degree dependent on the control at other outfalls. This approach was used in the Neuse River
Compliance Association permit and approved by EPA Region 4. The permit considers the total
discharge of all the POTWs in the association that discharge to the Neuse River Watershed and
sets compliance based on the aggregate allocation. If compliance is not achieved for the
aggregate discharge limit, then individual allocations are considered.
Many of the discharges that need to be controlled are discharges due to wet weather events and
are best handled by BMPs. US EPA has issued many guidance manuals and policies regarding
wet weather impacts and how to address wet weather issues in permits. This BMP approach is
consistent with US EPA guidance for addressing non-continuous discharges. Specifically, the
2002 Wayland and Hanlon memo, Establishing Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)
Wasteload Allocations (WLAs) for Storm Water Sources and NPDES Permit Requirements
Based on Those WLAs and the 1996 memo from Robert Perciasepe, Interim Permitting
Approach for Water Quality-Based Effluent Limitations in Storm Water Permits explain that
BMPs are preferred when discharges are highly variable in frequency and duration and are not
easily characterized. The Perciasepe memo goes on to state, only in rare cases will it be
feasible or appropriate to establish numeric limits. Due to the nature of the stormwater
discharges variable frequency, duration and volume, and unpredictable as far as location
there is no clear way to arrive at a numeric effluent limit. Because it is infeasible to calculate a
numeric limit, BMPs are required in the permit as the effluent limitations (see 40 CFR
122.44(k)). This BMP approach is also consistent with 40 CFR 122.45(e)(1).
In order to include flexibility in the permit, the Fact Sheet will need to be written to clearly
explain how the permit is consistent with the regulations and also explain how the limitations
meet both technology and water quality-based requirements. The watershed restoration plans will
be very important for this part of the process. The watershed restoration plans will be used to
demonstrate where control is needed and how the control will ensure water quality standards are
being addressed.
18

January 20, 2010

White Paper/Analysis for Watershed-based Permitting Primer


PRIVILEGED & CONFIDENTIAL

References
North Carolina Department of Environmental and Natural Resources. 2004. Permit to Discharge
Wastewater Under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System The Neuse River
Compliance Association and Its Co-Permittee Members.
http://h2o.enr.state.nc.us/NPDES/documents/00001nrcapermit-pt1mod200401.pdf
Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission. 2007. A Regional Water Quality
Management Plan Update for the Greater Milwaukee Watersheds, Planning Report No. 50 and
Technical Report No. 39. http://www.sewrpc.org/waterqualityplan/chapters.asp.
Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission. 2009. A Regional Water Quality
Management Plan Update for the Greater Milwaukee Watersheds, Plan Summary.
http://www.sewrpc.org/publications/planningprogramreport/pr050_summary_water_quality_plan_greater_mke_watersheds.pdf.
Southeastern Wisconsin Watersheds Trust. 2009. Draft Watershed Restoration Plans for the
Menomonee and Kinnickinnic River watersheds.
http://www.swwtwater.org/home/documents.cfm.
US EPA. 2003. Watershed-Based National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
Permitting Implementation Guidance. EPA 833-B-03-004.
http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/watershedpermitting_finalguidance.pdf
US EPA. 2007. Watershed-Based National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
Permitting Technical Guidance. EPA 833-B-07-004.
http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/watershed_techguidance.pdf
US EPA. 2007. Watershed-Based Permitting Case Study Neuse River Watershed, North
Carolina. http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/wq_casestudy_factsht11.pdf

19

APPENDIX 8C

Sweetwater Trust
Water Quality Trading Subcommittee
Policy Recommendations (3-2-10 draft)
By Melissa Scanlan, Committee Chair
I.

Overview of Committee Work

The Sweetwater Trust Water Quality Trading Subcommittee invited speakers


representing the Wisconsin DNR, environmental groups, and municipal groups to teach
three seminars that provided an overview on water quality trading. 1 From these
presentations, we gained an understanding of the history of water quality trading in
Wisconsin, which is summarized below. We also learned about a variety of policy issues
that require analysis and sound decisions in order to create cost-effective trading
programs that will have measurable improvements in water quality. We have identified
those issues below, and where possible, provided a recommendation on policy direction.
II.

Wisconsins Experience with Water Quality Trading

In 1997, Wisconsins Legislature created Act 27, which allowed water quality trading
through a DNR-administered pilot project. 2 This state law needed to be consistent with
the Federal Clean Water Act in a variety of ways; the DNR determined the program
should include:

The trading area must be restricted to the watershed;


Nutrients (N and P) and sediment and other oxygen-related pollutants are
the preferred pollutants for trading;
Credits can only be generated for reductions greater than regulation or
TMDL baselines; 3

The state law set up a DNR pilot project that allows a WPDES permitee to discharge
pollutants above regulated levels if it reached an agreement with a point or non point
source to reduce pollution in another part of the watershed. The trade would need a
broker to facilitate and monitor the trade. The trade would also need to be limited to the
same pollutant or water quality standard, improve water quality, have a contract term
that did not exceed five years, and involve a watershed that is impaired and includes both
agricultural and municipal point and non point sources. 4
Three pilot study areas emerged in the Red Cedar River Watershed, the Fox and Wolf
River Basins, and the Upper and Lower Rock River Basins. From these pilot areas, only
one trade occurred between a single POTW and agricultural non-point source in the Red
1

Mary Anne Loundes presented for the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Jamie Saul presented
for Midwest Environmental Advocates, and Paul Kent presented for the Municipal Environmental Group.
2
S. 283.84, Wis. Stats.
3
Mary Anne Loundes, WDNR, powerpoint presentation, April 2009.
4
S. 283.84, Wis. Stats.

Cedar River. In this situation, the POTW paid a clearly-economical $1.84 for each
pound of phosphorus removed by No-Till planting and Conservation Tillage, two
methods that are easy to verify with drive-by monitoring by the local Land Conservation
Department. 5
Despite the lack of trades, the DNR and its study groups learned about the impediments
and drivers to water quality trading, and the DNR has developed the following findings:
1.
2.

3.
4.

5.

III.

Most wastewater treatment plants can more economically meet an effluent


limit of 1 mg/l phosphorus through plant upgrades than through trading.
For trading to be effective, a broker, such as the County Land Conservation
Department or the Department, should assume the administrative costs. The
broker will need a source of funds to function in this capacity.
Trading is more likely to be economical if the phosphorus load to be traded is
relatively small.
The effluent limit of 1 mg/l phosphorus is not an adequate driver to support
trading in most instances. A TMDL, performance standard or water quality
based limit is needed to elicit interest based primarily on cost considerations.
An agreed-upon set of tools is needed to quantify phosphorus reduction loads
from nonpoint sources. 6

Recommendations for Overall Goals of a Water Quality Trading Program

The Sweetwater Trust Water Quality Trading Subcommittee has discussed and reached a
consensus that the overall goals of any water quality trading program should include the
following three elements:
1. Effectiveness
Measurable water quality improvement with time Improvements should be
at least as great as with the status quo, and account for uncertainty as well
as secondary benefits
2. Transparency
Trading agreement containing essential information, such as credit ratios
and trade partners, is completed and made available for public comment
prior to DNR approval, either as part of the WPDES permit when the draft
permit is released for public comment or as part of a draft modified permit
Water quality data is collected and made publicly available
3. Enforceability
WPDES Permitees retain enforceable permits with binding effluent
limitations and other conditions that reflect the trade

http://dnr.wi.gov/runoff/pt/. The WDNR reports that this trade cost $58,000, and removed 31,500 pounds
of phosphorus.
6
http://dnr.wi.gov/runoff/pt/.

IV.

Faithfulness to the overall CWA structure is assured (compliance with


water quality standards still the goal; no backsliding on water quality
based effluent limits; no degradation of high-quality waters)

Water Quality Trading Policy Recommendations

In addition to incorporating the overall goals (above) into a trading program, the Water
Quality Trading Subcommittee recommends the following policies should be considered
in development of a water quality trading program in the watersheds of concern for the
Sweetwater Trust:
1. Trading Area - The trading area must be defined, and would be
restricted to the watershed or area with an approved TMDL. 7
Watershed should be defined by DNR rules to be an area that is
sufficiently large enough to supply trading partners, but sufficiently small
enough to ensure the trades are having a quantifiable water quality
impact.
2. Pollutants of Choice - Nutrients (N and P) and sediment and other
oxygen-related pollutants are the preferred pollutants for trading
because these pollutants have less localized toxic effects. 8
3. Same Pollutants Trades would generally only be allowed for the
same pollutants or water quality standards; an exception would be
where adequate scientific information exists to establish and correlate
impacts on water quality between different oxygen-related pollutants. 9
4. Written Agreements and Transparency Prior to the DNR approving
a trade, there must be a written agreement between the buyer and the
seller containing all essential terms that is made available for public
comment. The agreement should be attached to the WPDES permit
and referenced within.
5. Trade duration The goal should be to establish duration of trade
agreements and individual credits that reflect the best science and fit
the administrative structure. Current law, i.e., the Wisconsin pilot
program statute, sec. 283.84, Wis. Stats., limits the duration to 5
years, which follows the 5 year duration of a WPDES permit. The
trade duration could be extended for practices that require renewable
rental fees (i.e., stream buffers or other changes in land use) or
maintenance costs (i.e., repairing sediment basins) and where water
7

Water quality trading is intended to provide opportunities for efficiently achieving and maintaining water
quality standards within watersheds, as opposed to cleaning up one watershed at the expense of another. EPAs
2007 Water Quality Trading Toolkit for Permit Writers, pages 12-14.
EPAs 2007 Water Quality Trading Toolkit for Permit Writers, pages 10-11.
9
EPAs 2007 Water Quality Trading Toolkit for Permit Writers, page 11.
8

quality improvements have been made that would justify extending


the practice/credit.
6. Monitoring Water Quality An inherent risk of trading is that water
quality improvements will be overstated or never attained. There are
three levels of calculating nutrient reductions. Going from most
accurate and costly to least, these are: direct water quality
measurements, site specific calculations entered into acceptable
computer models, and pre-determined nutrient reductions for practices
regardless of site-specific characteristics.
Given the level of
monitoring that is already going on and the potential for expansion in
the Sweetwater watersheds of concern, we recommend a combination
of field monitoring and site specific calculations to determine credits
and measure success.
7. Enforcement and Permit Terms- Ensure that the WPDES Permit includes
clear terms holding Permitee liable for BMP-derived water quality
improvements; 10 Identify in permit document what is required for Permit
compliance given in clear metrics, such as quantity of pollutant intended to
be removed through BMPs, number of linear feet of buffer, etc. 11
8. Baseline for Credits - Credits can only be generated for reductions
greater than regulation or TMDL baselines. 12
a. Greater than regulation related to agriculture:
Credits for agricultural BMPs should only be given if those BMPs
are not already required by law; there is debate about what
specific pollutant is controlled by a given BMP, and the specific
facts of each situation would be considered in the trading process.
In Wisconsin, an agricultural BMP is not required by law if there
are no cost-share dollars available to the farmer. In the absence of
cost-share dollars, trading could be used to pay for
implementation of agricultural BMPs. The subcommittee agreed
10

EPAs January 13, 2003 Water Quality Trading Policy at page 8. Among the items the EPA says should
be in a credible trading program, are incorporating provisions for trading into NPDES permits and
expressing trades in clearly defined rates or mass per unit time as appropriate to be consistent with the
time periods that are used to determine compliance with NPDES permit limitations or other regulatory
requirements. Id. at pars. 1 & 2. Additionally, [m]echanisms for determining and ensuring compliance
are essential for all trades and trading programs. EPAs January 13, 2003 Water Quality Trading Policy at
page 10. In the event of default by another source generating credits, an NPDES permittee using those
credits is responsible for complying with the effluent limitations that would apply if the trade had not
occurred. Id.
11
EPAs January 13, 2003 Water Quality Trading Policy at pages 6-7.
12
EPAs January 13, 2003 Water Quality Trading Policy at page 5:
The term pollution reduction credits (credits), as used in this policy, means pollutant reductions
greater than those required by a regulatory requirement or established under a TMDL.

that this would be a favorable outcome. There was not agreement


as to whether farms wanting to participate need to undertake
certain practices in order to participate in trading, such as
completing a nutrient management plan.
b. Greater than TMDL baselines
For trading purposes, in a TMDL situation, it is understood that
the Waste Load Allocation (WLA) for the point source gets put
into the WPDES permit as the limit the point source needs to
meet. Then the point source would be allowed to: 1) trade with
other point sources that generated credits by making reductions
beyond the WLA or permit limit applicable to that source, or 2)
trade with non point sources that generate credits by undertaking
activities to reduce water pollution.
There was not agreement on where this baseline should be for
agriculture. The EPAs policy is that the baseline should be set at
the Load Allocation (LA) and that an agricultural source cannot
generate tradable credits until the source gets to the LA. 13 By
contrast, the Municipal Environmental Group and MMSD propose
that credits should be generated when an agricultural source
makes reductions below the existing impaired water quality
conditions.

V.

Issues that Require Further Discussion and Refinement

13

EPAs January 13, 2003 Water Quality Trading Policy at page 5; see also EPAs 2007 Water Quality
Trading Toolkit for Permit Writers, pages 132-133 of the PDF:
Nonpoint Source Baseline Derived from TMDL Load Allocations
An LA established under a TMDL defines the nonpoint source load reductions necessary to
achieve water quality standards. EPA would not support a trading program that allows nonpoint
sources to sell credits if the discharge is contributing to water quality impairment; therefore,
nonpoint sources should meet their portion of the LA before generating credits to sell on the
trading market.

See also, EPAs January 13, 2003 Water Quality Trading Policy at page 5:
The term pollution reduction credits (credits), as used in this policy, means pollutant reductions
greater than those required by a regulatory requirement or established under a TMDL.
For example, where a TMDL has been approved or established by EPA, the applicable point
source waste load allocation or nonpoint source load allocation would establish the baselines for
generating credits.

The Trading Subcommittee left several issues for future discussions and
recommendations, not because they were too controversial, but simply because we ran
out of time. These are outlined below:
1. Credit ratios how many pounds of pollutant reduction (credit) must be
purchased to offset 1 pound of pollutant reduction from on-site treatment? The
larger the trade ratio the faster the water quality improvements, however, the
ratio should not be set so high as to discourage trades that would improve water
quality. How should credit ratios be determined?
2. Credit Adjustment based on monitored results: Some subcommittee
members stated that ongoing water quality monitoring is a key element of an
effective restoration program and should be done throughout the restoration
period for the watershed so that pollutant reduction efforts, including credit
adjustment, could be refined as the process moves forward.
3. Monitoring: frequency of monitoring, where it is done, who does it, and who
pays for it.
3. Pollutant Dead Zones With trading there is a potential for localized,
permanent impairments due to (a) geographic factors (i.e., distance between
trading partners or trading beyond the watershed) or (b) pollutant factors (trades
that inappropriately allow for hypoxic or dead zones)
Possible solutions:
Identify where the WQ gains are to be realized (at the point source?
Further downstream?) and monitor the water quality between trading
partners
Specify which pollutants may be traded under what circumstances
Set a baseline for water quality that must be attained and dont allow a
trade to allow more pollution than that into the water. 14

14

NPDES permits must not incorporate trades that would cause impairment of a designated use (CWA
301(b)(1)(C); 40 CFR 122.44(d)(1)(vii)(A)). EPAs 2007 Water Quality Trading Toolkit for Permit Writers,
page 28.