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Surya gita

O venerable teacher! This act of creating this world, which is a duty of mine, is unalterable and lasts for half of my lifetime.


This I have understood properly from your lotus mouth. Due to the power of your grace, no doubt related to this arises in my mind.

Upon your being pleased with me in this fashion and because of the absence of the fear of rebirth, I am confident about my duty.

O Lord! There still remains something to be heard with respect to karma. Only after knowing that shall I know all.

Before the birth of the world, jivas, Ishwar and the rest, there existed only the spotless, homogeneous, actionless and non-dual Brahm.

Creation of jivas and Ishwar is attributed to it by those well versed in the Vedas. How is the creation of the world attributed to the one who is
actionless?

In this world, those engaged in activities are seen to be possessing senses and are not devoid of senses. But in the shaastraas, Brahm is
proclaimed to be beyond the senses.

The primeval doer being subject to origin and dissolution, his being described as the supreme power as well as the one without beginning, is
not fit.


If Brahm is engaged in activities, because of whatever reason, it would be attached to the world .

Therefore, O ocean of mercy! O the best of teachers! Tell me clearly about the primeval doer, as well as about merits and sins.

Being thus inquired, Lord Dakshinamurty, being satisfied with the various questions, spoke the following words.


O Brahma! O the best of enquirers! This question of yours is a good one. Listen to its answer from me with an attentive mind.

Before creation, only the actionless, homogenous, devoid of all senses, supreme Brahm existed. There is not doubt about this.


Even then, because of his being endowed with the power of consciousness, two powers of his, Maayaa and Avidyaa, which were like his
reflection, came into existence.

The non-dual Brahm, which was reflected in maayaa and avidya, it attained two forms - jiva and Ishwar.


The Brahm assumed various activities - doer of merits and sins, creator of the world, possessed with senses etc. and especially of the one
who bears the fruits of his actions.

The subtle sporting of the supreme Self which took place using its own power, which was consequent in it's self-binding, that is called the
primeval activity.

O Brahma! By this the homogeneity of Brahm is not affected. And the binding of the Brahm in the world also does not take place.



The jiva is a worldly being who considers the world as a reality and performs meritorious and sinful deeds. But Ishwar is a worldly being who
knows the world to be an illusion and is involved in activities like creation, maintainance and destruction.

The supreme Brahm is not a worldly being, he is the cause of both jiva and Ishwar. He is beyond both of them, he is formless and cannot be
conceived by speech, mind and sense organs.

Those intellectual men who abandon the jiva and Ishwar who are involved in activities, and are dedicated to the Brahm, which is actionless
and reach it through samaadhi (continued in the next verse)

(continued) whether those great men be videhamuktaas or jivanmuktaas, they shall rise above both action and inaction and obtain the

supreme formless Brahm.




Those who are bound in the world by action, they get liberated through inaction. Those who are above bondage and liberation, they are
neither in a state of activity nor in the state of inactivity.

Jiva is bound by karma and his liberation is by karma. Therefore, karma is both worth abandoning as well as worth adopting.

Upon abandoning karma, the Self automatically goes towards jivahood. Upon adopting karma, the state of Brahmhood is soon realized.



The karma which is related to ignorance is impure and they results in sorrow for men. The karma which is related to knowledge is pure and is
said to be for happiness.

If, using the sharp razor of the karma related with knowledge, a man should cut apart the net of karma related to ignorance, then he is
liberated. There is not doubt about this.

O Vidhi! Karma is the reason for all actions. To establish this conclusively I shall speak the Surya Gita to you.


Earlier, Aruna inquired the sun god Aditya, who is the witness of actions, who is endowed with countless rays, who possesses seven horses
and who has the knowledge of all the dharmas.


O Lord! By what are the living beings being deluded in this universe? By what shall these beings get liberated from this world? Tell me, O
teacher!

Thus asked, the omniscient Surya, radiant with the splendor of countless rays, said this to his disciple Aruna, who was his charioteer.



O Aruna! Today you have become my most beloved since you are respectfully inquiring about the reason behind the delusion of this world.

All living beings are deluded alone in the world, day and night. But alas! by no one is the reason behind this pondered upon.

Being curious about it, you are worthy of respect by intelligent men. O Aruna! Listen. I shall tell you the reason behind the delusion of the
world.

The karma, which can be meritorious and sinful, which has been accumulated by all beings, is called the originator of the beginningless
sorrow and happiness.

(The karma which is) duly sanctioned and prohibited by all shastras, the karma which is generated from desires etc, know that to be the
cause of this world.


(During cosmic dissolution) when there are no beings like animals etc, when there is no sanctioning and prohibition of karma, even then the
world does not get eliminated, since it follows its previous karma.

Alas! Those who have been humans in the past, because of performing sinful deeds in the world, they obtain lowly births like dog, donkeys,
camels etc.


Upon the exhaustion of their sinful karma through worldly enjoyments, they again obtain human birth and then again birth as dogs etc.


O the best amongst the intelligent! In this way, through repeated births and deaths they wander in the world, just like a log of wood on the
waves of the sea.



Those whose sinful acts have exhausted and who have obtained human birth, why do they again obtain births as dogs etc?


The meritorious deeds cannot be said to be the cause of lowly births; moreover meritorious men does not perform sinful acts again.


Those whose mind has been purified by merits due to non-attachment to sinful deeds, for them, through knowledge, yoga and other means,
liberation from the world is certain (continued in the next verse)



If their repeated falling into low and high births, for whatever reason, is as per rules (continued in the next verse)


then the shastras which show the path to liberation become useless. Therefore, rebirth for a sinlessman is not appropriate.


Being spoken thus, the all-knowing lord, the ocean of compassion, Ravi, who is skilled in shattering doubts, spoke respectfully to Aruna.


Upon the exhaustion of the sinful deeds of a jiva by bhoga, those who perform sinful acts again, they attain lowly births.


Those sins, which are the seeds of lowly births, approach again those men who have performed meritorious deeds earlier, because of desire.



Moreover, meritorious deeds of men which are performed with desire (or attachment), their fruits must be borne; hence, they cannot become
the cause of purification of the mind in anyway.


So then how can knowledge and yoga be possible for those who possess impure minds? And those who are devoid of knowledge and yoga,
how can they get liberated from the world.


With derise being the cause, whether one is in lowly or high births, the usefulness of the shastras is because of their propagation of
desireless-action.

When, through bearing happiness and sorrow, one attains the state of indifference towards them, when one obtains the state of
desirelessness and a proper knowledge of the Self (continued in the next verse)


from then onwards, after many births, through efforts of shravana etc (listening, thinking and meditating) one is endowed with knowledge
and yoga, liberation and abidance in the Self.


The Supreme Self, which is the supervisor of karma, the one witness of all karma, who is far away from all karma, how can a man engaged in
karma be successful in obtaining it?

The jivas who are thrown into the world for bearing their previous merits and sins, in them the Supreme Self itself incarnates.

But the fruits of all actions is borne by the doer jivas, and not by the Supreme Self, which is the witness, which is unchanging and uninvolved.

Some men, seeing flaw in Vedanta, doubt thus - "The jivas being non-distinct from the Supreme Self, where is there a possibility of bhoga for
a jiva?"

Only in the paramarthik state that the oneness of jiva and Self can be spoken about. In the vyavahara state, there is nothing inappropriate (in
the statement that the jiva bears the fruit and not the Self ).


When one ascends to the paramarthik state or becomes a jivan-mukta, only then one can ascribe the bhoga to jiva and witnesshood to the
Self. It is only in this state that one can properly see that the fruits are being borne by the jiva and not the Self.

Which intelligent man can speak about non-distinction between jiva and Self to the ignorant people, who are firmly established only in the
vyavaharik state?

Some people think that even though an enlightened man can be seen to be active, but his actions do not bear fruit since they are just like
actions performed in a dream.

This is inappropriate since in a dream, the one performing a sin is not independent to act. In the waking state (of the enlightened man) his
freedom to act is present.


Just like the waking state for animals is only the cause of bhoga (an animal does not do any karma while awake; he only bears the fruit of his
previous actions throughout his lifetime), similarly the state of dream of men is only the cause of bhoga.


But the waking state for children is not like that; neither of the young men nor of old men; where can it be for the self-realized ones?


The action whose fruits ought to be borne in the future, can be performed only in the waking state; but the fruits of actions can be borne
either in waking state or in the state of dream.

Those who attribute bhoga to karma and karma to bhoga, without knowing the difference between karma and bhoga, they say whatever they
want.




For those dull-witted men, performing sin and proclaiming themselves to be knowledgeable, how can I say that they have accomplished their
purpose, which is born out of dissolution of all kinds of attributions?

Those who consider forbidden activities as worth doing and reject activities worth doing, they are dull-witted and are in the grip of false
identifications, those knowledgeable men act out of their own whim.

Those who follow advaitic doctrine by only performing the physical duties of their varna (and not by self-realization), they are dull-witten and
fallen from both action and inaction.


Alas! Performing all kinds of activities, they say that they have experienced the Self, which is possible only by abandoning all kinds of outer
activities.



The experience of the Self, which is achieved by great men by meditating on non-difference, those sinful men consider it to be achievable only
by mental reflection.

Being deluded by the doctrine of Advaita, they wrongly ignore the practice of nididhyaas, which is characterized by meditation of the nondifference of the Self.

Those who, depending on reflection on the meanings of the great-statements (of the upanishads), consider their purpose achieved, they are
indeed deluded.

When the first level of knowledge is achieved, then kaamya-karma is abandoned; when the second right knowledge is obtained then naimittickarma can be neglected.


When the third level of knowledge, that is full knowledge is obtained then nitya-karma can be neglected; when the fourth level, that is
experience of non-duality is achieved, then the person goes beyond the level of all the four ashrams.



By knowledge acquired from nitya karma, naimittitik karma etc one obtains liberation step by step; by proper knowledge that becomes
jivanmukti because of constant unity with the Self.

By complete knowledge eternal liberation called, videhamukti, is said to be obtained just like desireless action is obtained by a jivanmukta.


This being the case, the state of desireless-action is realized by the accumulation of merits of knowledge and action. It may be realized either
at once or step by step, but by any other method it cannot be obtained even in thousands of lives.


Until videhamukti is not realized by a jiva, he should accumulate merits of knowledge, worship and actions.

Thereafter, after knowing the Supreme-Self, the intelligent one should dedicate himself to continuous meditation and performance of duties of
his ashrama for his own good.



Knowledge and worship depend on action; action and worship depend on knowledge; action and knowledge depend on the other one, that is
worship. The association of the three is said to be the cause of liberation.




Discarding even one of knowledge and worship in ones actions, liberation is not attained by anyone. Therefore, a wise man should heedfully
take recourse to all the three said means, until his body falls down.

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Wednesday, February 4, 2009

Surya Gita Chapter 2



I shall now tell about the five grades of karma. Know each of them to be superior to the previous one, just like the successive steps of a
ladder.

Tantriki is called the first; Pauraniki is considered superior to it; Smaarta is the third and Shrautaa is proclaimed to be the fourth by the wise
men.


O great Aruna! Upanishadic is agreed upon by the great intellectuals to be the fifth; superior to which there is nothing to be said or known.

The one who performs the duties mentioned in the tantras on his own will, without relying on the authority, that is the tantras, he is
considered to be the first kind of doer.

Abandoning those duties prescribed in the tantra, the one who performs the duties related to the tantra prescribed in the Puranas, he is the
second kind of doer.

Abandoning even those, the one who always performs the duties related to the Vedas prescribed in the smritis, he is called the doer of the
third kind.

And who, having abandoned even those, performs only the vedic duties, which are related to dharma, artha and kaama, he is called the doer
in the fourth position.

And who, having abandoned even the vedic duties, always performs the upanishadic duties with faith, he strives for liberation and is the doer
of the fifth kind.




All those duties of the vedas etc. which are stainless and are not opposed to the duties of the upanishads, let them be accepted by the ones
striving for liberation.


Or else doubting thus "How there be duties prescribed in the Upanishads which have only Brahm as their subject?", one can still, as allowed
by rule, desire to live without doing anything.

Doing the duties prescribed in the Ishavasya and other upanishads until death, one shall attain liberation or else should become an excellent
knower of the Brahm.

Even the ascetics who have abandoned household duties, by performing the duties suitable to their ashrama, may obtain supreme liberation.

The abandonment of work, children and wealth, along with fulfillment of desire as one aim, which is required of an ascetic, does not obstruct
his liberation .

Upon becoming an ascetic, the duties which are pure and oriented towards welfare, that is liberation, have been assigned to a renunciate by
Brahma.

Those who have given up activities to fulfill their desires, whether they be ascetics or other men, they obtain liberation, whether it be
instantaneously or step by step. There is no doubt about this.

By the virtue of knowledge, worship and actions, the one who has ascended to the fifth grade of karma and is free from sorrow, delusion etc,
he always shines.

Neither can worship be possible without knowledge and neither can knowledge be possible worship. Because of same reason, karma is also
said to be the cause of each of these two (that is worship and knowledge).

Or else, as long as there is no knowledge, so long there can be no worship. And as long as there is no worship, there can be no knowledge in
any way.


As long as there is no knowledge, so long action is also not considered worthwhile. And as long as there is no action, until then knowledge is
also not approved by the good.

As long as there is no worship, until then action is also not praised. And as long as there is no action, so long worship is not considered
saatvik (pure).

Knowledge, worship and action, mutually depending on one another, yield supreme liberation and not otherwise. This is what has been said to
you.



Whosoever, being asked an evil teacher, abandons whichever amongst these three means, he cannot obtain the supreme nectar.

There are various kinds of knowledges, various forms of worship and various kinds of actions which (men) know of which are known in the
upanishads and other texts.

There should be a proper relationship between the three along any taught path (to liberation). The fourfold factors (four factors determine
success in any endeavour - 1. Adhikari 2. Vishaya 3. Sambandha 4.Prayojana) should be correctly known by skilled people.

If the three, knowledge, worship and action, are brought together so that there is no opposition between the four factors, then that heroic
man obtains supreme contentment immediately.



No one who strives for liberation without proper knowledge of the fourfold factors, can obtain liberation because of opposition between the
practitioner and other factors.

If ever one who qualifies for worldly enjoyments, desires the fruit of liberation then how can there be consistency between the fourfold
factors?

According to the nature of one's qualification, sambandha is determined. According to the nature of sambandha, the vishaya or the object of
study is determined.



The fruit, according to wise men, is said to be according to the object of study. In knowledge, worship and action, the fourfold factors should
be correctly known.



If a man ignorant of the actions prescribed for all the four ashramas, and out of doubt simply imitates the previous men;

Or if a knowledgeable man became doubtful about the (actions prescribed in the) shastras and performs actions as he deems fit or follows his
ignorant father's views and not the views of wise men;


If the actions of a man dwelling in his Self are approved (for imitation) by the wise men, then even a knowledgeable man would reject his
(ashrama's prescribed duties and follow the enlightened man). This is contrary and unapproved of.

Following previous men is approved of only with respect to actions. In knowledge and worship, because of them being non-exterior, the other
view is enjoined (that is one should not follow the previously enlightened men with respect to knowledge and actions).

One maybe or may not be qualified with respect to the knowledge of the earlier men. By this there does not follow even a little harm.

But if a man performs action contrary to the actions of earlier men then he is, without doubt, a fool and has to bear harm quickly as a result.


Upon not performing the naimittic and kaamya duties, no one has to bear any harm as a result, either in this world or in the other.


But upon non-performance of one's nitya duties, because of their being obligatory, one falls from one's ashram and has to surely bear harm
here as well as in the world-after.

Thus, actionlessness along with absence of the knowledge of Self, does not become the cause of harm but non-performance of nitya duties
does become a cause of harm since nitya-duties result in harm if not performed.


The commonly heard opinion that upon becoming actionless, one has to face harm because of non-performance, such an opinion is incorrect
since the fruits of previous karma (nitya karma) do not exclude the fruits of other karma (naimittik and kaamya).

Hence, just like non-performance is not appropriate for one who does not do his nitya duties, similarly performance of prohibited actions is
held like actionlessness.

One who has been prescribed actionlessness (that is a doer of the fifth stage), who is otherwise an atheist (in the sense of not having to bear
the fruits of his actions), by extending the definition of self-realization in this context, he is said to be like a theist (that is he will have to face
the fruits of his actions, whether it be not performing nitya duties or performing prohibited actions).

A different kind of an opinion is held with respect to the sins, accrued either from past actions or by not performing the nitya duties, in terms
of their generation of sorrow.

If actions are performed out of ignorance or not performed knowingly, then one ought to do penance or else obtain a low birth in the next life.



If one not belonging to any of the four ashrams, knowingly abandons one's nitya duties, without performing penance then he shall go to the
terrible Raurava hell.

But if a jivanmukta does not perform some of his nitya duties then by the non-performance of any of those duties, he does not have to suffer
any harm as a result because he has obtained perfection in his ashrama.

The performance of actions which annul one's penance or actions which are prohibited, do not affect him, the jivanmukta, even if he is not
performing penance.




In the Vedas, actions are declared to be twofold, pure and impure. Amongst these, by impure actions, a man suffers bondage and by pure
action he gets liberation.

Impure actions are again twofold, meritorious and sinful. There is no obstruction between these two because they are not opposed to one
another.

By the fruition of which two, all beings have to endure worldly happiness and sorrow. One ought not come under their grip by abiding by the
pure actions.

The duties which are said to be pure and nitya, they are performed for the purpose of realizing the eternal, pure and ever free Self.


By pure actions, the sense become pure. When the senses become pure, the mind automatically becomes pure.


When mind becomes pure, the pure jiva attains oneness with the Brahm and enjoys supreme and undivided bliss.

Pure action is twofold, external and internal. Nitya external pure actions are like bath etc while meditation etc. are nitya internal pure actions.

Hence by pure actions, impure actions ought to be destroyed. No effort should be made for actions other than the pure ones.



Those dedicated to the performance of pure actions, whether they be ascetics or other men, they get liberated all by themselves here itself,
because of the (blessings of?) supreme deathless one.


One who has ascended to the fifth level of doers, he always performs pure actions. Hence an intelligent man should always perform the duties
of the fifth level.



Even if the senses have become pure because of abandoning impure actions and performing pure actions, an intelligent man should never
trust them.


They shall automatically indulge in impure actions because of the earlier vaasaanas. One should pull them away from the impure vaasaanas
and indulge them in the pure actions.

Even after obtaining peace of mind and senses through pure actions, the mean intellect still remains impure.

In the one with a peaceful mind, because of being in a sound state, some happiness does arise. But by being satisfied by that itself, a man
falls down to lower levels one by one.


Satisfaction upon attaining little happiness is the single cause of great misfortune. Hence, without dwelling in satisfaction, one should
constantly perform the pure duties.


Just like a man indulges in the pleasures of the senses again and again, without experiencing any satisfaction, similarly one who always
indulges in the pure actions, he is the intelligent one.



A man should enhance one's purity by pure actions; then one becomes pure and goes towards the pure (Self). Similarly, if a man enhances
one's impurity by impure actions, he becomes impure and moves towards impurity.



When the senses, mind and praanaa become steady and stable, as they are in the state of sleep, then the one who is beyond the pure and
impure, secures supreme satisfaction.


Until one's senses become peaceful, until one's mind is not dissolved, until one's praanaas are not peaceful, until then one should perform

pure actions.


Because the external and internal purifying actions are mutually beneficial, hence, intelligent men, as long as alive, should not reject any one
of them.

The swan who has pure and healthy wings, he goes above in the sky. A hawk, with impure wings, even if he goes in the sky, falls down.

Even a swan with torn wings is unable to ascend above. Hence, both kinds of purity, internal as well as external, are known to be the main
means of liberation.

Even though some opine that the external and internal purity are not equivalent because internal purity does away with the need of external
purity;

Even then, because dissolution of mind happens at the same time as dissolution of body, by this the external purity achieved through one's
pure external actions, is equivalent to internal purity.

The internal pure actions is said to be of two types, one called samprajnaata samaadhi and the other named asamprajnaata samaadhi.

A jivanmukta has performed his mental actions earlier but a videha mukta has performed (only) actions other than mental ones. (That is by
performing non-metal or physical actions, one can obtain only videha mukti. To attain jivanmukti, one has to perform mental-actions like
samaadhi. Physical actions cannot lead to jivanmukti.)

Because practice of samadhi is a mental activity, but calling it 'karma' is not inappropriate. Since it's objective is the same as that of physical
actions, hence the fruits of mental actions are not destroyed (but rather reinforce the fruits of physical actions).


Just like internal purity of men expects external purity, similarly, as per rule, external purity expects internal purity.

Who has an developed an attitude of indifference even towards pure actions, his being wrongly disposed in life should be concluded by a wise
man.

Who has an opposition between his knowledge and actions, his being wrongly disposed in life should be concluded by a wise man.


Who, having rejected Vedic duties, depends on tantrik duties, his being wrongly disposed in life should be concluded by a wise man.

Who considers internal actions as sluggish, his being wrongly disposed in life should be concluded by a wise man.

Who is dedicated to impure actions and always condemns pure actions, his being wrongly disposed in life should be concluded by a wise man.

Who sees pure actions as dull just like a man with diseased eyes sees the sun as dull, his being wrongly disposed in life should be concluded
by a wise man.


The one who resents the one who is born in a pure race, who is highly intelligent, who is shining by the virtue of his internal and external
purity, who knows the secrets of upanishads, he is only confounded and nothing else.


The one who commends the one who is born in an impure race, who is highly foolish, whose splendor born out of the two pure actions is
destroyed, who knows the meanings of the impure tantras only, who is a low grade man, he is only confounded and nothing else.

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Monday, February 2, 2009

Surya Gita Chapter 3


Now I shall speak about Shiva, my inner-controller, who is the witness of all actions, who is taintless, mighty and the lord.

The three-eyed one, the blue-throated one, the one accompanied by Amba, the conqueror of death, Hara, by meditating on whom, one
obtains liberation from the world, I bow down to that great lord.


The one who is said to be the one giver of the fruits of all actions, that is verily Mrida (compassionate), Ishana (the ruler), the omniscient one
and the most powerful.


By whose mere remembrance all calamities are driven away and prosperity is obtained in this world, he is the inner-controller, (he is) Shiva,
(he is) Hara.

The one by whom this entire world of moving and non-moving beings is created, in whom it is stationed and in whom it is destroyed, that is
verily the one Maheshvara.

To whom all the gods bow down to fulfill their desires, who is sovereign everywhere, he is the inner-controller, the Maheshvara.

Who has Uma as half of his body, who is called Shambhu (kind), is three-eyed, carries the moon on his head, bears the Ganges on his head,
he is the inner-controller, the ocean of compassion.

Whose supremacy is proclaimed in the shrutis, smritis and puranas; by merely remembering whose supremacy liberation is obtained, he is
the inner-controller, the primeval one.

By merely chanting whose name man is worshiped by gods, who is called the lord of all gods, he is the inner-controller, the best of the
teachers.

By drinking whose nectar all the munis become satisfied and do not yearn for the great worldly pleasures, he is the inner-controller, the
protector of the world.

Aruna said

O merciful teacher! O Bhaskara! O fortunate one! O the knower of the all tattvas! In the shrutis, smritis and puranas, the inner-controller is
heard of differently.

The Brahm, which is famed as truth-knowledge-infinity, which is indivisible, devoid of the gunas, actionless, peaceful, the only one,
omnipresent and supreme.

That (Brahm) is heard to be the inner-controller of all because it is present inside everyone. Even in the gayatri mantra, he is said to be
worthy of your, the sun's, worship.


His, of the one without a body, being the inner-controller is suitable, because of being devoid of beginning, middle and end and because of
being omnipresent like space.

O Bhaskara! O Lord! Shiva's being the inner-controller, who has a physical body, who is constituted of the gunas, along with Amba (his
consort), is not suitable since he is not omnipresent.

By some adherers of Vishishta-Advaita, who believe in the supremacy of one saguna god, Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva are said to be the innercontrollers.


Those brahmanas, dedicated to the worship of gayatri, worship all three of them by considering the qualities like omniscience etc. to be
present equally in all three.

Some say that Brahma, the lord of (the goddess of) speech, is the inner-controller and not the other two Vishnu and Shiva, because of the
supremacy of karma (over knowledge and worship).

But some say that Vishnu, the lord of Ramaa, is the inner-controller and not the other two Brahma and Shiva, because of the supremacy of
worship (over karma and knowledge).

And some say that Shiva, the lord of Uma, is the inner-controller and not the other two Brahma and Vishnu, because of the supremacy of
knowledge (over karma and worship).


According to your diction, karma is supreme amongst knowledge, worship and karma. By this the supremacy of Brahma is established.


This stand of yours (of the supremacy of Shiva) is not consistent ( with the conclusion of Brahma being expected to superior by your diction).
Hence, O Lord! Make me, who is in a state of indecision, doubtless.

Surya said


O intelligent one! You have asked rightly. Listen carefully, I shall tell you the definite conclusion which is derived from the shrutis, smritis and
other shastras.

The inner-controller is said to be of two kinds, saguna and nirguna. The first one is only of the moving beings and the other one is of both
moving and non-moving beings.


I am a moving being, my inner-controllers who are to be known in the gayatri mantra are both saguna and nirguna gods.

By all the nirguna is to be known through the means of saguna. Hence I said Shiva himself to be my inner-controller to you.

Just like Brahm, the supreme Self, is known to be the cause; just like Shiva, along with Ambaa, is known to be an effect by the
knowledgeable;



Similarly, Shiva is the cause and Vishnu is the effect; and similarly know Vishnu as the cause and Brahma to be the effect.

Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva and Brahm are causes in the higher and higher order. This is known by the knowledgeable men and not by others who
are covered by maaya.

Whether it be the Vishishta-Advaities or others who regard one saguna entity to be the supreme, because of not knowing the bodiless
(nirguna Brahm), they are surely in the grip of maaya.



How can qualities like omniscience etc be equally present in all three (Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva) when the mutual aversion between the
three gunas is equally accepted by all.

Because of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva being each dominated by each of the three gunas, know there to be a steady aversion existing between
them. Brahma is said to be dominated by rajas, Vishnu is said to be dominated by tamas.



Rudra is said to be dominated by sattva. The color of their bodies (or idols) is also in accordance with that. Due to their being experienced as
consciousness, similarity is said to be between them.

Because of being non-distinct from the supreme Brahm, they are all identical. Even then, since the word Shiva stands for the supreme Brahm
(continued in the next verse)

(continued from the previous verse) there is none similar to Sadashiva, who is the witness, changeless, consciousness alone, great, eternal,
the only one.

The supremacy of Shiva, the one having moon on his head, the one having a blue throat, the one bearing the trident, the one accompanied
by Ambaa, is self-evident. How can it be (merely) propounded by me?


The way in which Brahma, the four-headed one, created me in the beginning, in the same way Hari, Narayana created Brahma.

O Aruna! Ever since Mahavishnu became my grandfather, since then my name Suryanarayana became well-known.


But by this, (that is by Narayana or Vishnu being my progenitor and my being named after him), the status of Shiva, the lord of all, is not
belittled by my inner-self since he is my great-grandfather and is proven to be supreme.

Or else, through the power of yoga, Shiva becomes the one known as Narayana (Vishnu). A similar attitude can be adopted towards me by
the worshipers. This is view is also correct.


Abandon the thinking that Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva are associated with karma, worship and knowledge respectively and listen to my words.

O Aruna! All three (Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva) are equally associated with all three (karma, worship and knowledge). The self-born four-faced
Brahma is famed in kaamya duties.

Vishnu, the lotus-eyed one, is famed in naimmitic duties. The three-eyed Shiva is famed in nitya duties.

In idol-worship, Brahma is primary, in the worship of incarnations is primary while in the worship of non-incarnation, the blue-throated Hara is
considered special.


In knowledge born through hearing, Brahma is special, in knowledge born through contemplation Vishnu is special and in knowledge born
through meditation, Shiva is special.


O Aruna! Such being the case, whose supremacy is now established? O intelligent one! You yourself decide after proper deliberation.

Earlier some intelligent brahmana, a foremost devotee of Shiva, devoted to chanting the name of Shiva, roamed the earth totally free from
desires.

He was always involved in performing the duties of his ashrama; he had sacred-ash and rudraksha beads as ornaments; he knew the real
meaning of all shastras and was devoid of anger, lust etc.

He was endowed in the six virtues of sense-control etc; he was held in regard by all devotees of Shiva; remembering the opulence of Shiva
mentioned in the shrutis, smritis and puranas (continued in the next verse)

(remembering) the greatness of Shiva, the lord of all, having Amba as his consort, the one with three-eyes, the ocean of mercy, he said this
on his own.


Humans on earth are superior to animals etc; Indra and other gods are superior to them; Brahma and Vishnu are superior to them; then
Shankara, who is the three eyed one. No one is proclaimed to be superior or even equal to Shankara in the shrutis. Now we shall certainly not
rely on any of Vishnu or other gods but on Shankara only.



Ganesha resides in the mooladhara, above that Brahma, then Vishnu and then this (Shiva) resides in the fourth (chakra) which is also called
Rudrasthana, the place of Rudra. The shruti also says calls the fourth chakra as the peaceful one. After this comes the Tripurahara (Shiva as
the destroyer of the three cities), next is Sadashiva, the primeval one. He is revels in his Self and is the lord of dance (sabhesha) who
performs fierce dance (tandava) in the Sahasraar chakra.


The shakti (maybe kundalini?) also belongs to Rudra. Hence, Hari is a Shaakta. (This is because the seven chakras and the kundalini shakti
resides in all beings, including Vishnu. Since they belong to Shiva, so everyone becomes a Shaivaite or equivalently a Shaakta.) Similarly
Brahma should be considered as a Shaakta. Other sages like Sanaka etc who are considered to be Vaishnavas, should also be considered as
Shaaktas. Such being the case, the whole, of which everything is a part, is not Vishnu. I always bow down to Shiva, who is the whole, of
which everything else is a part.


I do not see anyone here other than Shambhu or Soma, in the supreme sky. By whose light, as per the shrutis, the entire universe is shining
with a consciousness. Desirous to see whose head and feet, Brahma and Vishnu, failed despite all their might and were exhausted in the end.
Whom else can I bow down to except you, the supreme Shiva?




Whom, the destroyer of fear of all men, even Vishnu does not see and adorned with rudraksha and bhasma, sits in front of the linga in Kashi
(to worship him); the Soma who is heard to be the one progenitor of Vishnu in Jabali and Brihadaranyak (upanishads), the one who is in
claimed to be the liberator from this samsaara in the upanishads, may that (Shiva) protect me who is bearing the fear of birth and death!




Earlier, in the upanishad named Sharabha, when Pippalada asked (Brahma) that who was superior amongst Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, then
in the beginning Brahma said that the great Shiva was superior and after saying this extolled Shiva by verses like "Salutations to that Rudra"
and proclaimed Shiva to be the one to be meditated upon. I worship that destroyer of the three cities and the lord of Uma.



Rudra is the meditator, Hari or Ramesha is the process of meditations, Shiva is the object of meditation. The Atharvashikha (upanishad), full
of nectar, ends by saying that the object of meditation is the one supreme Shiva, who is of the nature of consciousness. Consciousness can be
ascribed only to the meditator (and hence Shiva) and not to the thoughts of the mind itself, which is the natural state of Vishnu. (From this
the supremacy of Shiva over Vishnu follows.)



The one Rudra, Mahesha, Shiva and Mahadeva who is heard to be omnipresent in the Atharvashira upanishad and in the Atharvashirsha
upanishad, inside whom all gods starting from Vishnu, are situated, who is of the form of unexcellable consciousness, except him who can be
omnipresent?


In the Narasimha upanishad, while describing the pranava (the syllable OM), Prajapati, after saying Brahma to be in the naval region, Hari to
be in the heart, Rudra to be between the eyebrows, in the end said to the group of devas that the Aatma (the Self) should be known as Shiva,
who is the fourth (part of the pranava), who is serene and who is without a second. Hence he the lord worthy of worship.



O Lord! Which man can obtain kaivalya (liberation) here in this world of sat and asat, by abandoning you, Shiva, the only one existing. You
verily are the soul of Vishnu and Brahma. You, Shiva, are the only one, you are the ancient one. Hence I always worship only you, the witness
of the world and the absolute.




In such a greatness of Shiva, which is concluded in all the shrutis, in whom can doubt arise and (since there is no one in whom such a doubt
can arise) who can get rid of doubt?

Hence, O Aruna! O intelligent one! Worhsip the three-eyed supreme lord, who is my prime inner-controller for attaining supreme liberation.

Thus ends the third chapter of Surya Gita
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Friday, January 30, 2009

Surya Gita Chapter 4



Surya said


O the one observing virtuous vows! Now I shall tell you about the playful acts, in the form of creation, sustenance and destruction of this
universe, of him who is my inner-controller and teacher.


The one who created this universe in the beginning by the process of panchikarana, he is the Ishwar (the lord), the great illusionist, the
omniscient and the most powerful.


He, the supreme controller, made the jivas, who had been brought under the influence of his maayaa, enter into the four kinds of bodies
(those born out of eggs, out of sweat, out of womb and out of seeds). Later on he himself entered into those bodies.


Know this playful act of Shiva to be possible because of his authority (as the creator etc) which, in turn, is because of his own prarabdha
karma.


Because he, the primeval doer in the universe, the most excellent one, who had attained jivahood earlier, became Ishwar through the
accumulation of knowledge, worship and action.

The one who was authorized as the Ishwar in the previous kalpa, after of the exhaustion of his prarabdha karma, gave up his maayaa
attained the supreme state.


Now, in the beginning of this kalpa, just as in the previous kalpa, another jiva acting as the supreme authority, having created the universe
using that maayaa, maintains and destroys it.


Because of the three kinds of karma (creation, sustenance and destruction) being carried out by the same rule, Ishwar attains the status of a
doer.

Since Ishwar is understood to be similar to a jivanmukta, hence it follows that he is certainly driven by his prarabdha karma.

Shiva has the status of the knower of the Brahm but not of Brahm itself. This is because he is seen to be using maayaa to perform activities
like creation etc.

The doership for the creation of beings etc. is attributable to Brahm also, but even then it is never heard that its previous actions are
determining it's present state.

This is because of absence of deeds in previous lives and because of his being omnipresent (that is being present in past, present as well as
future) . Prarabdha karma is possible only for the one who has a stock of previous life's karma.

If one says that it is by the power of maayaa that Ishwar is caught in activities like creation etc. and hence his being called vashyamaayii
(ruling over others using maayaa) is useless, then it is not so.


When Ishwar's prescribed duties are over then his kaivalya (ultimate liberation) is not obstructed. Hence his being famed as vashyamaayii
(ruling over others using maayaa) is meaningful.

While sustaining the universe, Ishwar's grip over maayaa is likened to the one who has a desire for wealth and not likened to the one who
already possesses wealth, because his actions are always under someone else's control.

For that Ishwar, the ruler over maayaa, the activity of creation is like the waking state of mind, sustenance is like the state of dream and
destruction is like the state of deep sleep.

Some people think that because of possessing the three states of mind, because of possessing the three kinds of karma and because of
possessing the three kinds of bodies, Ishwar is also a jiva.

This is not correct. Even though he was a jiva earlier, but now, because he knows the Brahm and is endowed with qualities like omniscience
etc., so he is distinct from a jiva.

Because of Ishwar's being similar to a jivanmukta, he does not have three kinds of karma (that is the ones which produce sorrow, the ones
which produce happiness and the ones which produce both happiness and sorrow). He lives carrying out his prescribed duties, being bound
only by his prarabdha karma.


When his prescribed duties are over, he will unify with the Brahm. In this established conclusion of Vedanta, how can there be any confusion?

Brahm is the only non-doer, this is heard from the shrutis and smritis. Ishwar's doership, which is heard from the same texts, is a figurative

O the best one! Even though Shiva is a doer, he still has the power to liberate others because he is free from sanchita and aagaami karmas
and is omniscient.

The different between the Ishwar and Brahm as being a doer and a non-doer etc is well known. Who can refute this out of pride?


If one proclaims the sovereign non-doership of the Ishwara too, then that dualist shall never attain liberation from the world.

Since the one which is signified by the term 'that' (in the famous vedantic phrase "That you are") is considered worthy of being rejected,
hence it is not appropriate to ascribe permanence or non-doership to it.

Without identifying with the physcial body, one cannot perform any worldly activity. Hence, Ishwara, in the state of meditation, resides in a
physical body.

From an absolute viewpoint, even Ishwara does not have identification with the body. His being the creator etc is spoken of from the
praatibhaasic viewpoint.

Validity of the identification with the body (that is from the praatibhaasik viewpoint) never co-exists with either before the absence of body or
upon the absence of body during the time of dissolution.

During the destruction of the universe, Ishwara is without any activity, as if in sleep. His identification (with the body) rests in the causal
state, just like a tree rests in a seed, and manifests again when creation begins.

At the end of a thousand chaturyugas of the creator when everything is made to burn hot, the creator, who had entered into the state of
sleep, enters into the causal state, like the jiva does in every cosmic destruction.

Similarly a yuga of Vishnu is a hundred times the yuga of a Brahma and a yuga of Shiva is a hundred times the yugas of Vishnu.


Those Ishwars (Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva) being bound by time, therefore being similar to a jiva, how can I state them to be free from the
bondage of body, karma etc?



Just like three jivas, after securing three individual bodies, attained to karmahood in the paaramaarthik world (continued in the next verse)


(continued) similarly three Ishwaras, considering the entire world as their threefold body, attained to karmahood in the praatibhaasik world.

Because of being reflected in maayaa, which is dominant in pure sattva, he is called Ishwara. How can he be absolute?

One who is not absolute, how can learned men ascribe permanence to it. If he is impermanent, how can he attain to nishkaamaa karma?

Ishwara, the universal creator, is falsely superimposed upon the Brahm by deluded men. The non-deluded yogis who know the Self, remove
that superimposition.

Those blinded by the darkness of ignorance, they falsely conceive Ishwar in the pure Brahm, the Self, in the same way as a man standing in
darkness falsely conceives a thief in a statue.


From the viewpoint of immediate liberation (kaivalya), there is no truth in the existence of Ishwar. Hence, the falseness of the notion of
Ishwar's existence is further strengthened


When it is also proved that in the very end, Ishwar is impermanent, the jiva listening (to this doctrine) can gain faith in the non-dual Brahm
(as opposed to having faith in the Ishwar).


Based on the qualifications of the listener, three kinds of philosophies and beliefs have been advocated. Amongst these three, one becomes a
listener of the first grade by listening to the falseness of Ishwar's existence.

By listening to these philosophies, the jiva undergoes transformation and sequentially attains higher and higher states and in the end attains
liberation, just like an insect is finally converted into the Bhring bee.

When the jiva attains liberation via (the stage of) Ishwarhood, then only step by step liberation is possible. Therefore for immediate liberation,
the jiva has to attain Brahmhood (that is realize the Self).


Whether (of krama mukti) turiya be the fifth stage or Ishwar be the sixth state, Brahm is beyond it. What doubt can be there in this regard?


"Brahm is stationed in Ishwar and Ishwar is stationed in Brahm, hence both of them are identical", one should not argue like this.


Ishwar is said to be stationed in Brahm, never is Brahm said to be stationed in Ishwar because the omnipresent supreme Self (or equivalently
the Brahm) can never be contained in a finite entity (Ishwar).

For whom, according to shruti (Katha upanishad is referred to here), both the brahmans and kshatriyas are like food, for whom death itself it
like a side-dish, he (the Purusha) is himself said to be stationed in which Brahm.



The Brahm being such (that it is the basis for Purusha itself), who can know the unchangeable, indivisible, attributeless, baseless (but being
the base of everything else), the supreme and immense Brahm?

The supreme Purusha, who is a part of the Brahm, is said to be greater than Ishwar. So then what more can be said about the Brahm?


Ishwar is the cause of the world and Brahm is the cause of the jivas. This being the case, how can there be a unity between Ishwar and
Brahm from the worldly perspective?


Even in the activities of Ishwar, virtue and sin are valid, as well as happiness and sorrow. (If you think that) hence he is like a jiva, then hear
this.


Ishwar is involved in virtuous and sinful deeds for the welfare of the world. Even then sorrow and happiness are not applicable to him because
he knows the Self.


Vishnu performed sins like killing a foetus etc. but he did not accrue any sin from them since he has attained the paramarthik state.

Since those sins were performed for the welfare of the world, hence they should not be proclaimed as contemptible. Hence, because of this
reason, Ishwar is totally unlike a jiva.


Either one should (by subscribing to the pratibhasik viewpoint) accept Shiva to be the creator of the Vedas or else one should (subscribing to
the paramarthik viewpoint) stick to the non-authority of Shiva (and accept the authority of the Brahm).

If one accepts Shiva to be the creator of the shastras, then the shastras are no longer the words of the Brahm, who is the cause of the
creator. And hence if one thinks that they are useless, then this is not the case. This is a defect in thinking.

In the activities of the jiva, Shiva is the cause. In the creation of the shastras, Shiva is the doer.


By this, shastras being having origin in the nirguna Brahm, is not violated. Because, the shastras, which have originated from the nirguna, are
only seen to have originated from a saguna individual.


The saguna Ishwar being the originator of the shastras is a merely figurative. Or else, the vedas and the upanishads are contained in both
(saguna Shiva and nirguna Brahm) in the seed-form.

But by this the doership of Shiva and Brahm does not become equivalent. The distinction between the doer and cause of the doer is quite
clear.

(One could argue like this) One whose doership is established, his being bound to bear the fruits of his deeds is also established. So what
doubt there can be in the obligation of Ishwar and Brahm to bear the fruits of their actions?

(If one thinks so then the reply would be that) Ishwara is comparable to a doer who acts to obtain wealth, but Brahm is like a doer who acts,
even though he already possesses the wealth.

Ishwar is dependent but the nirguna Brahm is sovereign. Because of one being the substratum and other being the superimposition, there is a
cause and effect relationship between the two.



If one thinks that, if Brahm is a doer then how can it be said to be free from the gunas, then this would be a faulty thinking since Brahm is
not bound by maayaa and gunas.

If Brahm is stated to be a saguna entity with additional attributes like invisibility etc. knowledge etc. and bliss etc. then it is only desirable to
do so.

Just like jivas and Ishwar are considered to be the doers of the world, similarly the supreme Brahm is considered to be the doer of the actions
of jivas and Ishwar.


There is no doer other than the Brahm since he is devoid of any previous karma. If the Brahm, who is without beginning and end, is
considered to be a non-doer then it would lead to a fallacy.

If the non-doership of the Brahm is accepted in all three times, past, present and future, then there can be no creation of the jiva and Ishwar
and hence there can be no creation of the world either.

A created entity which can be seen expects to have a creator. Hence, Brahm being the primeval creator, his doership is apt.

If, in this way, Brahm is established as a doer then what should be said about the knowers of Brahm (that is the self-realized men)? Because
now (saying that) a person who has become one with the Brahm is not a doer, is invalidated



The way Brahm has been concluded (to be a doer) similarly a one who has attained unity with the Brahm is also a doer, such should be the
conclusion. It shall also be consistent with the above statement.


Non-doership and timelessness, despite being in past, present and future, is possible for which object other than the formless conscious
Brahm.


Here, the one who has transcended time, should not be considered to be implied, since there is no object to be known, knowledge and
knower (in the transcended state).

But Brahm, Ishwar and jiva which are said to be doers, they are doers by the virtue of knowledge, maayaa and ignorance respectively.


Because of the superiority of Brahm amongst these three kinds of doers, the non-doership ascribed to it in the shrutis and smritis is apt.


In this way those who know about the superiority of the doers, they do not disregard the actions mentioned in the shrutis and smritis.


Worship is superior to knowledge and karma is superior to worship. The one who knows this from the upanishads, he is the best of men.

Thus ends the fourth chapter of Surya Gita
Surya said

O Aruna! I shall now tell you the characteristics of the one who is the best of doers. After knowing this, there shall remain nothing more to be
known by you.

The one for whom even his own body is not felt, and neither are any of the senses, he is called the best of the doers.

The one all whose Pranas have become still, whose mind up to the Avyakta have been stilled and who is still himself, he is called the best of
the doers.

The one who, like spirits, madmen and goblins, acts and yet not acts, the one whose attitude is like a Python, he is called the best of the
doers.


The one who does not have any sense of "I" or "This" anywhere, the one who is devoid of all pairs of opposites, he is called the best of the
doers.

"I was bound earlier, I am liberated now"- the one who does not have this kind of a belief, the one who is eternally free, he is called the best
of the doers.


The one who is known as a Videhamukta, the best amongst the knowers of the Brahm, who is formless and whose chitta and prana have been
destroyed, he is called the best of the doers.

The one, all whose actions springing from the three kinds of vasanas have been completely stilled, he is called the best of the doers.

The one who has cleansed all his impure actions by pure actions and as attained the state of working merely for the sake of Brahm, he is
called the best of the doers.

The one who is the best of the enlightened, who has attained the seventh stage of knowledge, the one who is unique amongst the worshipers,
he is called the best of the doers.

The one who, whether he is tormented by others or he is worshiped by others, remains unaffected, the one for whom there is no worldly pain
and pleasure, he is called the best of the doers.

The one who is worthy of being worshiped by all human beings, all gods and asuras, the one who is worthy of being worshiped by even
Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, he is called the best of the doers.

O intelligent Aruna! Do not doubt thus - "One who has abandoned all actions and is established in his Self, how can he be the best of the
doers?"

The ultimate fruit of actions is settlement in the Self itself. Hence, with his actions having fructified, he is certainly the best of the doers.

That which is known by knowledge or obtained by worship, that steadiness is attained by him through action and hence his doership is valid.


If you doubt thus - "A videhamukta, who is called so because of the absence of body-consciousness even while being confined to this body,
how can he be a doer?", then listen.

Upon losing awareness of the body, but by still being situated in the karmic body, from the other perspective, he is still confined to a body and
his doership is valid.

Do not doubt even a little that by being confined to the (karmic) body, he is incomplete (that is, he has not become one with the Universal
Self). For if a pitcher immersed in a pool, the water (inside and outside) is seen as a whole.


Being free from prarabdha karma, having enjoyed all worldly enjoyments, he is a doer still confined to the physical body, which is the result of
karma and the means of worldly enjoyment.

Even though the means of worldly enjoyment, the body, continues to exist, but the worldly enjoyment is not experienced due to the absence
of body-consciousness, which is equivalent to absence of body itself.

Just like a desireless man, a bull amongst men, upon performing the Jyotishtoma ritual to lighten the aahitagni (and thereby attain heaven),
does not attain heaven (but attains liberation instead) (similarly a person who does not have body-consciousness may be doing work but he is
not bound to experience its worldly fruits but is liberated instead).


The one who has brought about the unification of wakefulness, dream and sleep state with the Self (by attaining the fourth, the turiya state),
the on who has become immortal, the one who because of these unifications is free from all the sandhya rituals, he is always bowed down to.

He is worthy of being always worshiped by all the (worldly) doers as well as non-doers. He is called the best of the doers as well as the best of
the non-doers.

The yogi who has reached the state where everything appears the same, who rejoices in his own self, what does he gain or lose through the
offering of thousands of salutations or by their non-offering.

Abandoning the identification with the body and other modifications of nature (intellect, ego etc.) including the sense of ownership over them,
and having identified himself with the permanent, he shines as the Universal Self itself.


Sinful actions are said about those who are deluded by the objects of the senses. Situated far away from them always and performing good
deeds, he is called a 'Videha'.

The one who is beyond all pairs of opposites, who is devoid of all triads (the knower, the known and the knowledge), who is devoid of all
states (waking, sleep and dream), he is called a 'Videha'.

The one in whom all worldly as well as vedic activities have extinguished, who does not perform karma even of the size of an atom, he is
called a 'Videha'.

The one whose senses are never perturbed and are motionless like a woman drawn on a wall, he is called a 'Videha'.


The one who always sees the Self as real, non-dual, absolute, devoid of the three gunas and immortal, how can noisy thoughts arise in him?


The one who does not see everything other than the Self as unreal, as dual, as constituted of the three gunas, how can the always blissful
Self be experienced by him?

The one who is devoid of beginning, middle and end, who is of the form of the blissful conscious Self, whose intellect is steady, who is a yogi
reveling in the Self, what obstruction can he face from his body ?

The one who has abandoned actions by actions, who is situated in the Brahm through the Brahm, who has attained eternal peace through his
actions, he shines.

The one for whom there is no sharpness or dullness of the intellect, who has gone beyond the intellect, that enlightened one shines even
more.

The one whose mind is dissolved in the chitta just like salt dissolves in water, through constant devotion to the Self, he has become one
without a second.

With the mind, one experiences enormous suffering; for the one without a mind, where is that (suffering)? Only the one with a mind indulges
in pain-generating endeavors.

The suffering of a jivanmukta is said to be created by the prarabdha karma. How can it be said for a videha, who is devoid of the three kinds
of karma?

If one believes that this duty ought to be performed and this duty ought not to be performed, then he has not attained videhamukti.

If one believes that samadhi has to be attained or is not to be attained, then he has not attained videhamukti.


If one believes that I was bound earlier but now am free from bondage, then he has not attained videhamukti.

If one believes that I was free earlier, but in the middle got caught in an illusion of being bound, then he has not attained videhamukti.

If one believes that this universe, being imaginary like the son of a barren woman, arose in me, then he has not attained videhamukti.

Or if one believes that the darkness of ignorance, existing until knowledge was attained, was destroyed by the light of the Self, then he as not
attained videhamukti.


If one believes that even in my dreams I do not have any I-sense in my body or senses, then he has not attained videhamukti.

Videhahood is said for the one who is formless and whose mind is destroyed. How can it be said for the one who thinks that there is
something other than the Self?


Mind is destroyed completely by renouncing mental activities. Then what remains for him is the Amanska state, the state without mind.


The ignorant men who mentally consider themselves to be videhamuktas and proclaim the attainment of desireless-action, what satisfaction
(of the Self can they experience)?

They rejoice just by hearing the vedantic statements, without any experience of the Self. What is the use of just licking the sugar-coated
leaves of the Tada tree?

The pundits who have read various shastras without actually experiencing the Self are like a widow who is adorned with excellent ornaments
but whose head is shaven.

The ones who are invested with the sacred-thread (signifying their brahminhood) but perform all actions without experiencing the Self, they
are much like a goldsmith or an ironsmith (that is of a lower caste).

The brahmins who recite the Vedas without experiencing the Self, they are much like croaking frogs emitting painful noises, scattered around
in a rainy night.

Those who have a firm identification with their body and carry their bodies without experiencing the Self, they are like the robbers who
mistook the dead body of Shakalya for wealth.

Those who, sitting in a posture, practice meditation without experiencing the Self, they are like stags standing on the river bank intent upon
letting go of fishes.

Those who always forcefully control their breath without experiencing the Self, they are like an ironsmith who excessively melts the outer
surface of the metal by hot air (while the inside is still hard).

The one who carries a yoga staff and wears saintly robes without the experience of the Self, he is like a man of sickly disposition, wearing a
torn piece of cloth on his shoulders, and carrying a broken staff and utensil.

Whatever actions men perform in the world without experiencing the Self, all that is completely futile like farming in a desert.

Actions performed for the sake of experiencing the Self, even if they are of a low-grade, are actually excellent and honored by the wise, since
they are like dogs who keep the thief away.

A man performing various actions other than those which lead to the experience of the Self, is wandering around and wasting his efforts.


There are many rites mentioned in the Vedas, Smritis and Puranas for fulfilling worldly desires. The one who is attached to them should be
abandoned just like a materialistic man is abandoned by the learned.

The one who is absorbed in fulfilling material desires holds his identity in high esteem just like a man born blind holds his expertise in
adjudging gems in high esteem.

If a man desirous of the knowledge of the Self, serves a teacher whose senses are not in control, then it is just like extracting negligible
quantity of soma juice from a young stem for the purpose of drinking.

But the one who serves a good teacher whose senses are always in control, who is equanimous, desireless and always absorbed in the bliss of
the Self, he proceeds towards liberation.


The one who, having abandoned all actions for fulfilling worldly desires, with a desire for liberation, has obtained a teacher who is endowed
with peace and other virtues, he is liberated.

Having heard this from Surya, Aruna, satisfied, with a sense of accomplishment and a steady mind, full of humility, spoke thus to Surya.

Aruna said

O teacher! Having heard about the greatness of desireless-action from you, which is supremely valuable, I am, no doubt, blessed.

I have heard about desire and desirelessness, I have also heard about the characteristics of a Videha; now there remains nothing more to be
known.

But still, O teacher, tell me my full and final duty directly, since you are omniscient and know about the ripening of my chitta (that is you know
about my karma which is responsible for making me act in this world).

Having been inquired thus, Surya spoke this to this Aruna, his charioteer, who was sitting in front of him with folded hands and bowed head.

Surya said


Aruna! Now, after experiencing the Brahm directly, you have fulfilled your purpose. But still, until your body falls down, meditate on the
Brahm with full faith.

O great one! Perform your action, which is fit according to your duty. Even in dream let there be no negligence regarding the aforesaid
meditation on the Brahm and the performance of duty.

The one who hears this blessed and sin destroying conversation of ours, even once, would have attained all that needs to be attained. There
is not doubt about this.

Sri Gurumurti said




O Lotus born one! Thus did intelligent Aruna heard the discourse on working the sake of the Brahm, from the mouth of Surya, fulfilled his
purpose and became worthy of being worshiped by all the worlds. You also quickly become like him.


O Dhata! Be endowed with firmness with respect to the stainless practice of Yoga; let your mind be completely absorbed in the non-dual Self;
for quietening the suffering born out of your prarabdha karma, always practise samadhi in solitude; and do your prescribed duty.

Thus ends the fifth chapter of Surya Gita, spoken in the Karma-Kanda of Tattvasaaraayana.