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BAE SYSTEMS

AVRO 146-RJ

Flight Crew Operating Manual


Volume 1
Systems Descriptions
Book 1
Manual Reference Number FCOM : V:l-002

It is important to understand that the FCOM Volume 1 is a global book


and covers all technical data relevant to AVRO 146-RJ aircraft. it is the
users' responsibility to ensure that the appropriate technical data for a
particular aircraft/fleet is used .

BAE SYSTEMS 2009. All rights reserved


BAE SYSTEMS (Operations) Umited , Regional Aircraft
Prestwick International Airport, Prestwick, Ayrshire, KA9 2 RW, United Kingdom
i-v1-00-0000 2

Page Intentionally Blank

BAE SYSTEMS

AVRO 146-RJ

Flight Crew Operating Manual


Volume 1
Systems Descriptions
Book 2
Manual Reference Number FCOM : V:l-002

It is important to understand that the FCOM Volume 1 is a global book


and covers all technical data relevant to AVRO 146-RJ aircraft. It is the
users' responsibility to ensure that the appropriate technical data for a
particular aircraft/fleet is used .

BAE SYSTEMS 2009. All rights reserved


BAE SYSTEMS (Operations) Umited , Regional Aircraft
Prestwick International Airport, Prestwick, Ayrshire, KA9 2 RW, United Kingdom
i-v1-00-00004

Page Intentionally Blank

FCOM Variant Manual - Description

This FCOM variant manual is applicable to the following aircraft type/series, regulatory
authority and modification standard:
Manual Reference Number ............................ FCOM : V1 -002
Aircraft Type and Series ......... ... ..................... AVRO 146-RJ Series 70, 85 and 100
Regulatory Authority ..... ............. ..................... All

FCOM:V1002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01/09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

PREFACE
FCOM Variant Description

Chapter 0 - FT
Page2

Page Intentionally Blank

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

FCOM Structure
The FCOM is divided into four volumes:
FCOM Volume 1

Systems Desc ription

FCOM Volume 2

Performance

FCOM Volume 3

Aircraft Operating (further divided into five


parts)

Part 1

Procedures, Handling and limitations

Part 2

Normal Checklist

Part 3

Abnormal and Emergency Checklist

Part 4

Flight Deck Handbook

Part 5

Speed Card

FCOM Volume 4
4A
48

FCOM:V1-002

Differences (two books)


146 to RJ
RJ to 146

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

PREFACE
FCOM Structure

Chapter 0- FS
Page2

Page Intentionally Blank

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

FCOM Volume 1 Contents


The FCOM Volume 1 (Systems Description) provides information and data for an operator
to use, in conjunction with their own material, to create an operations manual as required
by the appropriate regulatory authority.
The FCOM Volume 1 contains twenty-one chapters. The content of each chapter is
summarised below.
Chapter 0 - PREFAC E
The Preface chapter contains elementary information such as the Frontispiece, the FCOM
Variant Manual Description, details of the FCOM Structure and an overview of the Manual
Contents.
Chapter 1 -GENERAL
Contains the Introduction, a list of FCOM Associated Books, the Record of Revisions,
details of Revision Highlights, Abbreviations, Definitions and List of Effective Pages.
Chapter 2 - AIRCRAFT GENERAL
This chapter provides a general overview of the different aircraft systems and
configurations. Topics included are:

The flight deck.

The engines and APU.

Electrical, hydraulic and pneumatic power.

Communication, navigation and flight guidance systems.

The fuel system.

Chapter 3 - AIR CONDITIONING


Describes how the air conditioning syst em pressurizes, ventilates and controls the
temperature of the flight deck and cabin. Topics included in this are:

The two air conditioning packs.

The flight deck control panels.

The air distribution system.

The semi-automatic and automatic pressurization systems.

Chapter 4 - AIR SUPPLY


Describes how the air supply system provides pressurized, heated air to the aircraft's
pneumatic services. The topics covered are:

The engine air supply.

The APU air supply.

The air supply services,

The air supply dueling.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Oct 31/13

PREFACE
Manual Contents

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

Chapter 0- MC
Page2

Chapter 5- APU
Provides a description of the function and configuration of the two types of APU fitted on
the aircraft. The topics included are:

The Garrett 150 APU.

The Sundstrand APU.

The APU generator.

The air, fuel and oil systemse

The APU power supply.

Chapter 6- COMMUNICATION
This chapter covers commu nication items fitted to the aircraft either as standard, or as an
option. These include:

VHF radios and optional HF radios.

Crew intercoms and the passenger address (PA) system.

The Central Audio Unit (CAU).

The Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT).

The Selective Calling system (SELCAL).

The Video Surveillance system.

The Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (AGARS).

Chapter 7- DOORS AND STAIRS


This chapter looks at the aircraft's doors and stairs, their operation and security systems.
Topics included are:

Passenger and service doors.

The lower doors.

The airstairs.

The flight deck door.

Chapter 8 - ELECTRICAL SYSTEM


This chapter provides an overview of the aircraft's electrical system. Topics include:

The busbars network.

The normal AC and normal DC supplies.

The standby generator.

The battery or batteries.

The standby inverter.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

PREFACE
Manual Contents

Chapter 0 - MC
Page3

Chapter 9- ENGINES
This chapter contains a description of the aircraft's Textron Lycoming LF 507-1 F engine
configuration. The topics included cover:

The instrument panels.

The FADEC system.

The thrust levers.

The central warning panel (CWP).

The fire protection system.

Chapter 10- EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS


This chapter contains information about the equipment and furnishings fitted in the flight
deck, the cabin and the cargo and freight compartments of the aircraft. Topics include:

The flight deck equipment layout.

The flight deck seating.

The cabin layout and toilets.

Cargo bay layouts.

Chapter 11- FLIGHT CONTROLS


This chapter provides a description and an overview of the primary and secondary flight
controls found on the aircraft. Topics include:

The primary flight controls: pitch, roll and yaw.

The secondary flight controls: flaps, lift spoilers and airbrakes.

The stall protection system.

The take-off configuration warning system.

Chapter 12- FLIGHT GUIDANCE


This chapter provides a description of the functions of the flight guidance system. These
functions include:

The autopilot (AP).

The flight director (FD).

The yaw damper (YD).

Flap Trim Compensation (FTC).

Thrust Modulation Control (TMC).

CAT 3 Approach.

Automatic landing.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

PREFACE
Manual Contents

Chapter 0- MC
Page4

Chapter 13- FUEL SYSTEM


This chapter provides an overview of the aircraft's fuel system. Topics included cover:

The fuel storage tanks.

The fuel pumps and feed valves.

The control panels and gauges.

Chapter 14 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


This chapter provides an overview of the hydraulic system on the aircraft. This is
comprised of two systems: yellow and green. Topics in this chapter include:

Reservoirs and accumulators.

Power generation.

The back-up system.

Services supplied.

Chapter 15 -ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION


This chapter provides a description of the ice and rain protection system found on the
aircraft. Topics in this chapter include:

Wing and tail ice protection.

Engine ice protection.

Windscreen protection.

The air data sensors.

Chapter 16 -INDICATING AND RECORDING


This chapter describes the aircraft's indicating and recording system. Topics included
cover:

The master warning system (MWS).

The flight deck clocks.

The cockpit voice recorder.

The flight data recorder.

The maintenance panel.

Chapter 17- LANDING GEAR


This chapter provides an overview of the landing gear and braking system found on the
aircraft. Topics included cover:

The flight deck controls.

Landing gear function description.

Brakes function description.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

PREFACE
Manual Contents

Chapter 0 - MC
Page 5

Chapter 18 - LIGHTS
This chapter describes the aircraft's lighting. Topics included in this chapter cover:

The flight deck lighting.

The cabin lighting.

The lighting in the lower bays.

The external lights.

Chapter 19- NAVIGATION


This chapter provides descriptions for all the navigation systems which can be found on the
aircraft. These topics include:

The attitude and heading systems.

The air data system.

The radio navigation aids.

The flight instruments.

The ATC transponder.

The traffic collision avoidance system (TCAS).

The weather radar.

The enhanced ground proximity warning system (EGPWS).

The navigation or flight management systems (NMS/FMS).

Chapter 20 - OXYGEN
This chapter describes the aircraft's oxygen systems. Topics included are:

Storage and charging.

Flight deck crew oxygen.

The cabin oxygen system.

Chapter 21- WATER AND WASTE


This chapter describes the water and waste system found on the aircraft. Topics include:

Potable water.

Waste water.

The toilets.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Sep 30/ 11

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

PREFACE
Manual Contents

Chapter 0- MC
Page6

Page Intentionally Blank

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

Topic 1 -Introduction

Foreword ................................. ....................... .............................................................. .


FCOM Overview............................................................................................................
FCOM Content ..............................................................................................................
Pagmat1on ......... .. .......... ... .......... ......... ....................... .. .................... ... ......... ......... ... .....
Manual Reference Number ...........................................................................................
Associated FCOM Volumes and Parts - Overview .. ... ..................... ............. ....... .........
Revision to the FCOM ... ... ................... .... ................... .. ........... ......... ... ......... .......... .. .....
FCOM Bulletins......................... ......................................................... ...........................
Warnings and Cautions ............. ............. ............................................ ............. ..............
FCOM Enquiries - Contact Details ................................................................................

1
2
4
6
7
8
8

9
10

Topic 2- Record of Revisions

Revision Procedure................... ..................... .................................... ............. ..............


Record of Revisions ......................................................................... .............................

Topic 3 - Revision Highlights

Overview ................................. ....................... .................................. ............................ .


Revision Highlights........................................................................................................

Topic 4- Abbreviations

Abbreviations - Listed Alphabetically ...... ......... ........... .............. ....... ... .. ....... .... ......... ....

Topic 5 - Definitions

General ..................................... ............. ........ ....................... ........... .. .......................... .

List Of Effective Pages

LOEP Applicability..................... ..................... .................................... ............. ..............


LOEP ....................................... ......................................................................................

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01/09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

GENERAL
Contents

Chapter 1 TOC
Page2

Page Intentionally Blank

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

Foreword
The BAE SYSTEMS BAe 146 and AVRO 146-RJ Flight Crew Operating Manual (FCOM)
complements the approved Aircraft Flight Manual BAE 5.1. The approved Aircraft Flight
Manual is the authoritative document.
FCOM Overview
The FCOM is intended to be used as the primary source of information on the flight deck.
The FCOM provides the flight crew with technical, performance and operational information
to enable the aircraft to be safely operated during normal and abnormal/emergency
conditions on the ground and in flight. The FCOM provides the best operating instructions
and advice currently available; it is not intended to provide basic aircraft piloting techniques
or information which is considered good airmanship.
The FCOM provides a framework for the operators to use, in conjunction with their own
material, to create an Operations Manual as required by the appropriate regulatory body.
The FCOM is also intended to be used by flight crews as a study guide and to supplement
other training material for initial and recurrent training.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

GENERAL
Introduction

Chapter 1 Topic 1
Page2

FCOM Content

The BAe 146 and AVRO-RJ FCOM has been created to produce the least number of
variant manuals. The content of each volume and part is 'global' where possible. The
content of each FCOM volume and part is summarized below:
FCOM Volume 1 (Systems Description) - there are two 'global' volumes:

BAe 146

AVRO 146-RJ

The volumes cover all aircraft series and modification standards for the type.
FCOM Volume 2 (Performance) - variant books are customised to reflect type, series,
regulatory authority and aircraft modification standard. Refer to FCOM Variant Manual Fleet Table for aircraft Constructor Number versus variant manual listing. The variant
performance books of FCOM (Performance, Flight Deck Handbook and Speed Card) are
associated by series, regulatory authority and aircraft modification standard. Refer to
FCOM Associated Books for associated book listing.
FCOM Volume 3 (Aircraft Operating):
Part 1 (Procedures, Handling and Limitations) -there are four 'global' volumes:

BAe 146, EASA

BAe 146, FAA

AVRO 146-RJ, EASA

AVRO 146-RJ, FAA

The volumes cover all aircraft series and modification standards for the type; differences in
regulatory requirements between EASA and FAA are also reflected. The books are
'global', covering all modification standards and limitation ranges. Information specific to
an individual aircraft is referenced out to, and detailed on, the aircraft Flight Deck Placard.
Part 2 (Normal Checklist) - the checklist is customised to an individual aircraft reflecting
series, regulatory authority and modification standard. The aircraft constructor number is
displayed on each card.
Part 3 (Abnormal and Emergency Checklist) - the checklist is customised to an individual
aircraft reflecting series, regulatory authority and modification standard. The aircraft
constructor number is displayed on each page.
Part 4 (Flight Deck Handbook) - variant books are customised to type, series, regulatory
authority and aircraft modification standard. Refer to FCOM Variant Manual- Fleet Table
for aircraft Constructor Number versus variant manual listing. The variant performance
books of FCOM (Performance, Flight Deck Handbook and Speed Card) are associated by
series, regulatory authority and aircraft modification standard. Refer to FCOM Associated
Books for associated book listing.
Part 5 (Speed Card) - variant booklets are customised to reflect type, series, regulatory
authority and aircraft modification standard. The associated variant booklet for an
individual aircraft is detailed in FCOM Volume 2 and FCOM Volume 3 Part 4 - FCOM
Associated Books.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

GENERAL
Introduction

Chapter 1 Topic 1
Page3

FCOM Volume 4A (146 to RJ Differences) - covers technical and operational differences


for flight crews converting from BAe 146 to AVRO 146-RJ aircraft.
FCOM Volume 48 (RJ to 146 Differences) - covers technical and operational differences
for flight crews converting from AVRO 146-RJ to BAe 146 aircraft.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

GENERAL
Introduction

Chapter 1 Topic 1
Page4

Pagination

The FCOM Volume 1 pagination is defined opposite in Figure 1.1. The first page of a new
Topic is identified by a header with a black background; subsequent headers of the same
topic have a white background.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

GENERAL
Introduction

Chapter 1 Topic 1
Page 5

Figure 1.1 - Pagination


AIRCRAFT TYPE
AND VOLUME

CHAPTER
TITLE

NUMBER

HEADER - + +
SlOE
HeADING

CHAPTER
TOPIC
TITLE

NUMBER

TOPIC

NUMBER

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MA UAL
REFERENCE

NUMBER

FCOM:V1-002

AIRCRAFT
TYPE

REGULATORY
AUTHORITY

REVISION DATE
IY1~1-0000 1

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

Chapter 1 Topic 1
Page6

GENERAL
Introduction

Manual Reference Number

All FCOM volumes and parts have an identifying Manual Reference Number. The Manual
Reference Number is identified in the Preface (wher-e applicable) and the page footer.
The Manual Reference Number is linked to either the FCOM Book Variant or an Aircraft
Constructors Number:
FCOM Book Variant

FCOM Volume 1 (Systems Description)


FCOM Volume 2 (Performance)

FCOM Volume 3 Part 1 (Procedures, Handling and Limitations)

FCOM Volume 3 Part 4 (Flight Deck Handbook)

FCOM Volume 3 Part 5 (Speed Card)

FCOM Volume 4 (Differences)

An example of a Manual Reference Number linked to an FCOM Book Variant is:

FCOM:V3PS-001

'\

FCOM volume and part


(where applicable)

Variant Reference Number

Aircraft Constructor Number

FCOM Volume 3 Part 2 (Normal Checklist)

FCOM Volume 3 Part 3 (Abnormal and Emergency Checklist)

An example of a Manual Reference Number linked to an Aircraft Constructor Number is:


FCOM:V3P3-EXXXX

/
FCOM volume and part

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Aircraft Constructors Number

Nov 01/09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

GENERAL
Introduction

Chapter 1 Topic 1
Page 7

Associated FCOM Volumes and Parts- Overview

The following FCOM volumes and parts contain performance data associated by series,
regulatory authority and aircraft modification standard:

FCOM Volume 2 ~ Performance

FCOM Volume 3 Part 4 - Flight Deck Handbook

FCOM Volume 3 Part 5 - Speed Card

The Variant Reference Number for the FCOM Volume 2 , FCOM Volume 3 Part 4 and
FCOM Volume 3 Part 5 will be the same for individual aircraft. The FCOM Volume 2 and
FCOM Volume 3 Part 4 Variant Reference Number may have an A or 8 suffix. The suffix
denotes modification standard differences.

Refer to FCOM Associated Books for a listing of associated FCOM Volume 2


(Performance), FCOM Volume 3 Part 4 (Flight Deck Handbook) and FCOM Volume 3 Part
5 (Speed Card) books.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

GENERAL

Introduction

Chapt er 1 Topic 1
Pages

Revision to the FCOM


There are two types of revision to the FCOM:
General Revision

Customised Revision

General Revisions are made periodically and are the normal method for updating the
FCOM where the information is applicable to all variants of the volume/part.
Customised Revisions are made as required to reflect changes to an individual variant
book or individual aircraft specific volume/part - for example, changes to an individual
aircraft Normal Checklist or Abnormal and Emergency Checklist resulting from a change to
aircraft modification standard.
The revision number has the following convention:

-X.Y

r----------'--./ "',.:....------------,
where X represents the
General Revision status

where Y represents the


Customised Revision status

Revision 2.4, for example, would indicate that General Revision status was 2, and the
Customised Revision status was 4.
FCOM manuals may be at a different revision standard due to revision history. Refer to the
individual FCOM volume/part Record of Revisions for revision status.
There are no Temporary Revisions within FCOM. Revisions are made by either General
Revision or customised Revision. This ensures that the information contained in the
FCOM is unambiguous, consistent and in-date.
There are no Revision Markings annotated on FCOM pages. Significant changes
introduced at a revision are detailed in the Revision Highlights.
FCOM Bulletins
FCOM Bulletins are located in the FCOM Volume 3 Part 1 (Procedures, Handling and
Limitations). There are two types of FCOM Bulletin:

Red (Alert Bulletin)

Blue (Routine Operational Information Bulletin)

A Red FCOM Bulletin (Alert Bulletin) contains information that must be brought to the
attention of flight crews immediately.
A Blue FCOM Bulletin (Routine Operational Information Bulletin) contains supplementary
operational background information which would not normally fall within the scope of
FCOM.

FCOM:V1 -002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

GENERAL
Introduction

Chapter 1 Topic 1
Page9

Warnings and Cautions

Warning or Caution boxes relating to the to the FCOM will be displayed in solid outline
centrally positioned on the page. Examples of both 'Warning' and 'Caution' boxes are
shown below with a description of their category of importance.
WARNING
An operating procedure, technique etc., that may result in personal
injury or loss of life if not followed.

CAUTION
An operating procedure, technique etc., that may result in damage to
equipment if not followed.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

GENERAL
Introduction

Chapter 1 Topic 1
Page 10

FCOM Enquiries - Contact Details


The address to which FCOM enquiries and feedback should be sent is:
FCOM enquiries,
BAE SYSTEMS (Operations Limited),
Prestwick International Airport,
Ayrshire,
KA92RW,
Scotland.
Tel: 44 (0)1292 675000
e-mail: RAPublications@baesystems.com

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

Revision Procedure
Revisions will be issued as replacement pages. The significant changes introduced by a
revision will be listed in the Revision Highlig hts.
Record the incorporation of each revision in the Record of Revisions.
Record of Revisions
This Record of Revisions is applicable only to this copy of the FCOM. Other FCOM
manuals may be at a different revision standard due to revision history. Refer to the
individual FCOM volume/part for revision status.
Revision Revision
No.
Date

Approval
Reference

Reason for Issue

1.0

Nov09

Initial Issue.

2.0

Sep 11

Chapter 3, Topic
Pressurization.

EASA.21J.047
8

Fully

Automatic

EASA.21J.047

EASA.21J.047
EASA.21J.047

Chapter 6, Topic 2- Flight Deck.


Chapter 11 , Topic 8 - Lift Spoilers.
Chapter 17, Topic 4 - Brakes.
2.1

Aug 12

Chapter 19, Topic 2.5 - Altitude and Airspeed.


Introduction of TCAS II Change 7.1 information
(EASA only).

3.0

Oct 13

Major Revision Incorporating:


Chapter 2, Topic 1 -Configuration
Chapter 14, Topic 5- Backup System.
Chapter 15, Topic 1 -Overview.
Chapter 17, Topic 4 - Brakes.

3.1

Jun 14

Introduction of passenger and service door


locks.

EASA.21J.047

4.0

Jan 15

Major Revision incorporating editorial change to


Chapter 11, Topic 6- Stall Protection

EASA.21J.047

For detailed changes relevant to this aircraft


copy, refer to Chapter 1, Topic 3 - Revision
Highlights.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Jan 14/15

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

GENERAL
Record of Revisions

Chapter 1 Topic 2
Page2

Page Intentionally Blank

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

Overview
Revision Highlights will be issued with every revision to this manual. They detail the
significant changes introduced by a revision.
Revision Highlights
These Revision Highlights pages were originally created for a paper-based delivery
method. As this has been superseded by an electronic delivery system, the retention of
pages is no longer an issue. The Revision Highlights will remain in the order of their issue
date. Revision Highlights pages are not accountable pages and therefore do not appear in
the LOEP. Only procedural and other significant changes are recorded here; minor
editorial corrections are not listed.
Revision Highlights, Revision 2.0, Sep 11
Title

Revision Content

Topic Page

Chapter 3 - AIR CONDITIONING


Fully Automatic
Figure 8-5 - System Control Schematic, revised
Pressurization ........... ........ to reflect that DC BUS 2 powers Primary channel
and EMERG DC powers Secondary channel.

Figure 8-6 - System Indication Schematic,


revised to reflect that DC BUS 2 powers Primary
channel and EMERG DC powers Secondary
Channel.

11

11

2.5

1-6

Chapter 6 - COMMUNICATION
Flight Deck ... ............. ........ Audio Selector Panel, revised. Spring loaded
switch information, added.
Chapter 11 - FLIGHT CONTROLS
Uft Spoilers ....................... FCOM
BULl ETIN
Routine
Operational
Information - Blue 3 "Manual Spoiler Fault
Annunciator - Illumination During landing Roll"
information, included.
Chapter 17- lANDING GEAR
Brakes ............................... Editorial corrections to Figure 4.3 - "Green
system pressure" text box corrected (previously
stated "Yellow system pressure").
Chapter 19 - NAVIGATION
Altitude and Airspeed ........ Editorial Change, title changed from "Attitude
and Airspeed" to "Altitude and Airspeed".

Revision Highlights, Revision 2.1, Aug 12


Title

Revision Content

Topic Page

Chapter 19- NAVIGATION


TCAS TAs and RAs .......... Adjust Vertical Speed I Level Off Corrective RA
information introduced.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

9.4

2, 3

Oct 31/13

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

GENERAL
Revision Highlights

Chapter 1 Topic 3
Page2

Revision Highlights, Revision 3.0, Oct 13


Title

Revision Content

Topic Page

Chapter 2 - AIRCRAFT GENERAL

Configuration ..................... Danger Zones and Entry Corridors illustration


incorporated to keep consistent with AMM.

10

Chapter 14 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Back-up System ................ Editorial correction, Chapter 14 Topic 5- omitted


in error from previous revision.

1-4

Chapter 15- ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION

Overview ........................... Engine Ice Protection Panel, revised. Engine


valve and intake valve information revised to
provide consistency with Chapter 15 Topic 3, Pg
1.

Chapter 17- LANDING GEAR

Brakes............................... FCOM Bulletin Alert 8 (RJ) "Brake Selection


Pushbutton, Caption Discrepancy" information
embodied. Editorial correction to Figure 4.5 Pushbutton Brake Selector.

Revision Highlights, Revision 3.1, Jun 14


Title

Revision Content

Topic Page

Chapter 7- DOORS AND STAIRS

Passenger and Service


Introduction of passenger and service door locks.
Doors ............................... .

31

Revision Highlights, Revision 4.0, Jan 15


Title

Revision Content

Topic Page

Chapter 11 - FLIGHT CONTROLS

Stall Protection .................. Revised to show that FGS inhibits stick push
during a decreasing performance windshear as
opposed to
an
increasing
performance
windshear.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Jan 14/ 15

13

Alphabetical Listing
Abbreviations A - 8

A
aal

above airfield level

AC

Alternating Current

ACARS

ARINC Communication and Reporting System

ADC

Air Data Computer

ADDU(s)

Air Data Display Unit

ADF

Automatic Direction Finder

ADI

Attitude Direction Indicator

AEA

Association of European Airlines

AFGS

Automatic Flight Guidance System

AFM

Aircraft Flight Manual

agl

above ground level

AIL

Aileron

ALT

Altitude

amps

amperes

AMS

Aeronautical Materials Specifications

amsl

Above mean sea level

AOA

Angle of Attack

AP

Autopilot

APP

Approach

APU

Auxiliary Power Unit

ARA

Atmospheric Research Aircraft

arte

above runway threshold elevation

ASI

Air Speed Indicator

ASD

Aircraft Situation Display

ASDA

Accelerate Stop Distance Available

ASDR

Accelerate Stop Distance Required

AfT

Autothrottle

ATA

Air Transportation Association

ATC

Air Traffic Control

ATT

Attitude

Aux

Auxiliary

8
BARO

Barometric Pressure

BATT

Battery

BFL

Balanced Field Length

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01/09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

GENERAL
Abbreviations

Chapt er 1 Topic 4
Page 2

Abbreviations 8- E
B (Cont)

BRK

Brake

BRNAV

Basic Area Navigation

BTl

Brake Temperature Indicator

c
CAA

Civil Aviation Authority

CAS

Calibrated Air Speed

CAT

Category

CAU

Cold Air Unit

CB

Circuit Breaker

CBR

California Bearing Ratio

COL

Configuration Deviation List

CDU

Control Display Unit

CG

Centre of Gravity

CHKD

Checked

CIS

Confederation of Independent States

CLB

Climb

CONFIG

Configuration

CONT

Continuous

CSI

Combined Speed Indicator

CTRL

Control

CVR

Cockpit Voice Recorder

CWP

Central Warning Panel

Dimension

DA

Decision Area

DBI

Distance Bearing Indicator

DC

Direct Current

DG

Directional Gyro

DGAC

Direccion General de Aviacion Civil (Spanish Airworthiness


Authority)

DISC

Disconnect

DISCH

Discharge

DME

Distance Measuring Equipment

DN

Down

DOA

Design Organisation Approval

East

FCOM:V1 -002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

GENERAL
Abbreviation s

Chapter 1 Topic 4
Page3

Abbreviations E - F

E (cont)
EADI

Electronic Attitude Direction Indicator

EAS

Equivalent Air Speed

EASA

European Aviation Safety Agency

ECAC

European Civil Aviation Conference

ECS

Environmental Control System

ECU

Engine Control Unit

EFIS

Electronic Flight Instrumentation System

EGPWS

Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System

EGT

Exhaust Gas Temperature

EHSI

Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator

ELEV

Elevator

EDA

Emergency Distance Available

EM ERG

Emergency

ENAC

Ente Nacionale Per L'Aviazione Civile (Italian Civil Aviation


Authority - replaces RAI)

ENG

Engine

EPNdB

Effective Perceived Noise decibel

ESDA

Emergency Stop Distance Available

ESS

Essential

ETA

Estimated Time of Arrival

EXT

External

F
FAA

Federal Aviation Administration

FADEC

Full Authority Digital Engine Control

FCOM

Flight Crew Operating Manual

FD

Flight Director

FDE

Fault Detection and Exclusion

FDH

Flight Deck Handbook

FGS

Flight Guidance System

FL

Flight Level

FLEX

Flexible

FMS

Flight Management System

FPI

Flat Panel Flight Instruments

FRH

Flap Retraction Height

ft

feet

fVmin

feet per minute

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01/09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

GENERAL
Abbreviations

Chapt er 1 Topic 4
Page 4

Abbreviations G - J
G

gravity

GA

Go Around

GEN

Generator

GMT

Greenwich Mean Time

GNS

Global Navigation System

GPS

Global Positioning System

GPU

Ground Power Unit

GPWS

Ground Proximity Warning System

GRN

Green

GRND

Ground

GS orGSL

Glideslope

HOG

Heading

HF

High Frequency

HMU

Hydromechanical Unit

HP

High Pressure

HSI

Horizontal Situation Indicator

HYD

Hydraulic(s)

I
lAS

Indicated Air Speed

lATA

International Air Transport Association

ICAO

International Civil Aviation Organisation

IDG

Integrated Drive Generator

IFR

Instrument Flight Rules

IGN

Ignition

ILS

Instrument Landing System

IMC

Instrument meteorological Conditions

IMN

Indicated Mach Number

in

inches

IND

Indicator

INHG

Inches of Mercury

INV

Inverter

IOAT

Indicated Outside Air Temperature

IRS

Inertial Reference System

ISA

International Standard Atmosphere

JAA

Joint Aviation Authorities


FCOM:V1 -002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

GENERAL
Abbreviations

Chapter 1 Topic 4
Page 5

Abbreviations J - M
J (cont)

JAR

Joint Aviation Requirements

JAR-OPS

Joint Aviation Requirement on Commercial Air Transportation


(UK)

K
kHz

Kilohertz

kg

kilograms

kg/hr

kilograms per hour

km

Kilometers

kt

knots

kVA

Kilo Volts/Amp

L
L

Left

lb

Pounds

lblhr

pounds per hour

lb/min

pounds per min

LBA

Lufthart Bundesamte (German Airworthiness Authority)

LOA

Landing Distance Available

LOR

Landing Distance Required

LED

Ught Emitting Diode

LNAV

Lateral Navigation

LO

Low

LOC

Localizer

LOEP

Ust of Effective Pages

LP

Low Pressure

LTS

Ughts

M
m

metres

Mach Number

MAC

Emergency AC

MAG

Magnetic

MACH

Mach Number

MAN

Manual

MAP

Missed Approach Point

max

maximum

Mb

Millibars

MCP

Mode Control Panel

MCT

Maximum Continuous Thrust


FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

GENERAL
Abbreviations

Chapter 1 Topic 4
Page6

Abbreviations M- 0

M (cont)
MDA

Minimum Descent Altitude

MDC

Emergency DC

MEA

Minimum En-route Altitude

min

minimum

MIND

Mach Number Indicated

mm

millimetres

MMo
MNPS

Maximum Operating Mach Number


Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications

mph

miles per hour

MAW

Maximum Ramp Weight

MSA

Minimum Safe Altitude

m/s

metres per second

MSTR

Master

MTOW

Maximum Take-off Weight

MWP

Master Warning Panel

MWS

Master Warning System

MZFW

Maximum Zero Fuel Weight

N
N

North

NM

National Aviation Authority

NAT

North Atlantic

NAY

Navigation

NO

Navigation Display

Ni Cad

Nickel Cadmium

NIPS

Not In Position Selected

nm

nautical miles

No.

Number

NOTAMS

Notice to Airmen

NRV

Non Return Valve

NTOFP

Net Take-off Flight Path

Nl

Fan Rotation Speed

NlGA

Fan Rotation Speed for GO-AROUND

N2

High Pressure Shaft Rotation Speed

0
OAT

Outside Air Temperature

OCH

Obstacle Clearance Height

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01/09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

GENERAL
Abbreviations

Chapter 1 Topic 4
Page 7

Abbreviations 0- R

0 (cont)
OVHT

Overheat

OVRD

Override

OXY

Oxygen

p
PA

Passenger Address

PAP I

Precision Approach Path Indicator

PAX

Passengers

PED

Primary Engine Display

PF

Pilot Flying

PFD

Primary Flight Display

PIT

Pitch

PNF

Pilot Not Flying

PRNAV

Precision Area Navigation

psi

pounds per square inch

PTR

Press To Reset

PTU

Power Transfer Unit

PWR

Power

QC

Quick Change

QFE

Atmospheric pressure at specified datum

QNH

Altimeter sub-scale setting to obtain elevation when on the


ground

QT

Quiet Trader

QTY

Quantity

R
R

Right

RA

Resolution Advisory

REDU

Reduced

REF

Reference

Rev

Revision

RLW

Regulated Landing Weight

RMI

Radio Magnetic Indicator

RNAV

Area Navigation

RPM

Revolutions Per Minute

RIT

Receive(r)/Transmit(ter)

RTO

Rejected Take-ott

RTOW

Regulated Take-off Weight

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

GENERAL
Abbreviations

Chapt er 1 Topic 4
Pages

Abbreviations R - T
R (cont)

RVSM

Reduced Vertical Separation Minima

RVR

Runway Visual Range

South

SAC

Essential AC

S.App

Steep Approach

sec

second(s)

SAT

Static Air temperature

soc

Essential DC

SIGMETS

Significant Meteorological Information

SMC

Standard Mean Chord

SOP(s)

Standard Operation Procedure(s)

SPLR

Spoiler

sq

square

SSR

Secondary Surveillance Radar

STAR

Standard Terminal Arrival Route

STBY

Standby

TA

Traffic Advisory

TAMB
TAS

Ambient Temperature
True Air Speed

TAT

Total Air Temperature

TCAS

Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System

TGL

Temporary Guidance Leaflet

TGT

Turbine Gas Temperature

TMS

Thrust Management System

TO

Take-off

TOO

Take-off Distance

TODA

Take-off Distance Availabl e

TODR

Take-off Distance Required

TOFL

Take-off Field Length

TOGA

Take-off Go-Around

TOR

Take-off Run

TORA

Take-off Run Available

TORR

Take-off Run Required

TOW

Take-off Weight

FCOM:V1 -002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

GENERAL
Abbreviation s

Chapter 1 Topic 4
Page9

Abbreviations T - V

T (cont)
TR

Transformer Rectifier

TREF

Reference value of temperature on the TMS to allow the TMS


to calculate the N, for take-off

TRP

Thrust Rating Panel

u
us

United States

Velocity

VAPP

Approach Speed

VER

En-Route Speed

VFE
VFR

Maximum Flap Extended Speed


Visual Flight Rules

VFTO

Final Take-off Speed

VGo
VHF

Minimum Take-off Speed for Runway Available.


Very High Frequency
Maximum Landing Gear Extended Speed

VLE
VLF

Very Low Frequency


Maximum Landing Gear Operating Speed

VLO
VMC

Visual Meteorological Conditions

VMCA

Minimum Control Speed in Air

VMCG

Minimum Control Speed on Ground

VMCL

Minimum Control Speed on Landing

VMO
VNAV

Maximum Operating Speed


Vertical Navigation

VOR

Very High Frequency Omni Directional Range

VR

Rotation Speed

VRA

Rough Air Airspeed

VREF

Landing Speed reference

Vs
VSI

Stall Speed
Vertical Speed Indicator

VsroP

Maximum stop speed from which the aircraft can be brought to


a standstill.

v,

Take-off Decision Speed

V1MIN

Minimum Take-off Decision Speed

v2

Take-off Safety Speed

VA

Manoeuvring Speed

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

GENERAL
Abbreviations

Chapter 1 Topic 4
Page 10

Abbreviations W- Z and Symbols

w
w

West

WAT

Weight-Altitude-Temperature

WED

Water Equivalent Depth

y
YEL

Yellow

YO

Ya.w Damper

z
ZFW

Zero Fuel Weight

Symbols
A

Change

t.p

Change in Air Pressure

Degrees

oc

Degrees Celsius

Degrees Fahrenheit

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01/09

General

Refer to individual chapters for definitions.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

GENERAL
Definitions

Chapter 1 Topic 5
Page2

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AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

LOEP Applicability
This List of Effective Pages (LOEP) shows all the pages which should be present in this
publication. This LOEP is only applicable to the FCOM Volume 1 to which the LOEP refers.
This LOEP will be re-issued with every revision.

LOEP
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LOEP
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Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ Series

2
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GENERAL
List of Effective Pages

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

LOEP
Page4

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2
3
4

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

Nov 0 1/09

2
2
2
2

Nov 01 /09

Nov 0 1/09
Nov 0 1/09
Nov 0 1/09

4
4

2
2

7
8

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

Nov 0 1/09
Nov 0 1/09

4
4

3
3

1
2

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

Nov 0 1/09
Nov 01/09

4
4

3
4

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

Nov 01/09
Nov 0 1/09

4
4

3
3
3
3

5
6

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

3
3

7
7
7

3
3

8
8

3
3
3
3

8
8
8
8

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
1
2
3
4
5
6

3
3

7
8
9
10

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

01/09
0 1/09
01/09
0 1/09

4
4

4
4

3
3

8
8
8
8

4
4

4
4

2
3
4

3
3
3

8
8
8

11
12
13

Nov 01/09
Nov 0 1/09
Nov 01/09

4
4
4

4
4
4

5
6
7

3
3

3
3
3

3
3
3
3

3
3
3

3
4
4
5
5
6

6
7

3
3
3

7
7
7

7
7
7

3
3

3
3

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

Jan 14/ 15

GENERAL
List of Effective Pages

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

Chapter

Topic

Page

4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

6
6
6
6
6
6
6

1
2
3

5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

TOC
TOC
TOC
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3

5
5
5
5
5
5

3
3
3
3
4
4

4
4

4
4
4
4
4
4
4

FCOM:V1-002

5
6
7

1
2
3
1
2
3
4

1
2
3
4

5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2

Date
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
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01 /09
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01 /09
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01 /09
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01 /09
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01 /09
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01 /09
01 /09
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01 /09
01 /09

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

LOEP
Page 5

Chapter

Topic

Page

5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
1

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

2
3
4
5
6
7
1

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

AVRO 146-RJ Series

4
4

5
5
5
5
5
5

6
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
9
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
11

Date

01/09
0 1/09
01/09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01/09
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01/09
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01 /09
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01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01/09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01/09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01/09
01/09
01 /09
01 /09

Jan 14/ 15

GENERAL
List of Effective Pages

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

LOEP
Page6

Chapter

Topic

Page

Date

Chapter

Topic

Page

Date

5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

11
11
11

18

19
20

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

6
6
6
6
6
6
6

21

Nov 01 /09

2
2
2

22
23
24

12

2
2
2

25
26
27

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

1
2

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

6
6
6

TOC
TOC
1

3
4
1

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

1
1

Nov 01/09

3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

TOC
TOC

2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

6
6

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

28
1
2

12
12

3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

01/09
01/09
01/09
01/09

6
6
6

5
6
6

6
1
2

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

6
6
6

6
6
6

3
4
5

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

6
6
6

11
11
11
12
12
12
12
12
12

1
1

6
6
6

2
2
2

6
6
6
6
6
6

2
2

6
6
6
6

2
2
2
2

6
6
6

2
2
2

2
2
2
2

FCOM:V 1-002

Nov 01/09
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

01/09
01/09
01/09
01/09

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Sep 30/ 11
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

AVRO 146-RJ Series

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

Jan 14/ 15

GENERAL
List of Effective Pages

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

Chapter

Topic

Page

Date

6
6
6

7
7
8
9

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

6
6

10.1
10.2
10.2

6
6
6

10.3
10.3
10.4

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

10.4
10.4

12
12

6
6
6

12
12
12

11
12
13

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

7
7
7

TOC
TOC
1

1
2
1

Jun 11/ 14
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

6
6
6

9
9

10.4
11
11
11
11
11
11
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12

FCOM:V1-002

Chapter

Topic

Page

7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7

1
2

2
2
2

3
4
5
6

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

6
7
1
2
3
4
1
1
2
3
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

LOEP
Page 7

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
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01 /09
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01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ Series

7
7
7
7
7
7
7

7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7

7
7
7
7
7
7

7
7
7
7
7
7
7

2
2
2

7
8

2
2
2

9
10
11

2
2
2

12
13
14

2
2

15
16

2
2
2

17
18
19

2
2
2

20
21
22

2
2

23
24

2
2
2

25
26
27

2
2

28
29

2
2
2
3

30
31

3
3
3
3

2
3
4
5

3
3
3

6
7
8

32
1

Date
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

01/09
01/09
01/09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01/09
01 /09
01/09
01 /09
01/09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01/09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01/09
01 /09
01 /09
11/ 14
11/ 14
11/ 14
11/ 14
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01/09
01/09
01 /09
01 /09

Jan 14/ 15

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

GENERAL
List of Effective Pages

LOEP
Pages

Chapter

Topic

Page

Date

Chapter

Topic

Page

Date

7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7

9
10
11

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

Nov 01/09

13
14
15
16

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

1
2

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

3
4
1
2
3
4
5
6
1

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

12

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4

4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

01/09
01/09
01/09
01/09

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

8
8
8

TOC

TOC
TOC
1
1

5
1
2

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

1
1
2

3
4
1

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

8
8
8

8
8
8

TOC
TOC

FCOM:V1-002

1
2
3

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
01/09
01/09
01/09
01/09

AVRO 146-RJ Series

2
3
3
3
3
3
3
4

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

4
4

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
1
2
3

8
8
8
8
8
8
8

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
6

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
8
8
8

Nov 01 /09
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

Jan 14/ 15

GENERAL
List of Effective Pages

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

Chapter

Topic

Page

8
8

9
9

4
1
2

8
8
8

9
10
10
10

4
1
2
3

8
8

10
10

4
5

8
8
8

10
10
10

6
7
8

8
8
8

10
10
11

9
10
1

8
8

11
11

2
3

8
8
8

11
12
12

4
1
2

8
8
8

12
12
12
12

12

6
7

8
8
8

12
12
12

8
9
10

8
8

13
13

1
2

8
8
8
8

13
13

3
4

14
15

1
1

8
8
8
8

16
16
17
17

1
2
1
2

8
8
8

18
18
18

1
2
3

FCOM:V1-002

4
5

Date

LOEP
Page9

Chapter

Topic

Page

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

18

18

18

4
5
6

01 /09

19

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

8
8

19
19

2
3

01 /09

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

9
9
9

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

9
9
9

01 /09
01 /09

9
9

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

9
9
9

01 /09

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

9
9
9

01 /09

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

9
9
9

01 /09
01 /09

9
9

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

9
9
9
9

TOC
TOC
TOC
TOC
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

01 /09
01 /09

9
9
9

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

9
9
9
9

1
1
1
2

25
26
27
1

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

9
9
9

2
2
2

2
3
4

AVRO 146-RJ Series

2
3

4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

Date
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

01/09
0 1/09
01/09

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

01 /09

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01/09

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01/09
01 /09
01/09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01/09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01/09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01/09

01/09
01 /09
01 /09

Jan 14/ 15

GENERAL
List of Effective Pages

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

LOEP
Page 10

Chapter

Topic

Page

Date

Chapter

Topic

Page

Date

9
9
9

2
2

10

9
9

10
10

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01 /09

Nov 01/09

10

Nov 01 /09

3
4
1

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

01/09
01/09
01/09
01/09

9
9
9
9

10
10
10
11

9
10
11
1

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

9
9

11
11

2
3

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

9
9
9
9
9

3
3
3
3
4
4

2
3
4

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

9
9

4
4

9
9
9

4
4

6
7

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

9
9
9

11
11
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AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


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GENERAL
List of Effective Pages

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

LOEP
Page 12

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GENERAL
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AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

LOEP
Page 13

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AVRO 146-RJ Series

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Jan 14/ 15

GENERAL
List of Effective Pages

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

LOEP
Page 14

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Topic

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Jan 14/ 15

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

GENERAL
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LOEP
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GENERAL
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AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

LOEP
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Nov 01/09
Nov 0 1/09
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AVRO 146-RJ Series

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7
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Nov
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Nov
Nov

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

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5

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

Jan 14/ 15

GENERAL
List of Effective Pages

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

LOEP
Page 17

Chapter

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Date

Chapter

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Date

16
16
16

TOC

16

TOC
1

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Nov 01 /09
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Nov 01 /09

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TOC
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Nov 01 /09

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TOC

Nov 01 /09

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2
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Nov 01 /09

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Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

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5
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Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

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Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01/09

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Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

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Nov 01 /09
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1
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01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
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17
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17
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Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

26
27
28
1

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

16
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16

7
7
8

5
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1

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

17
17
17

3
3

FCOM:V1-002

4
5
1
2

AVRO 146-RJ Series

2
2
2

3
3
3
3

3
4

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01/09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01/09

Nov 01/09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

Jan 14/ 15

GENERAL
List of Effective Pages

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

LOEP
Page 18

Chapter

Topic

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Date

Chapter

Topic

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Date

17
17
17

2
2

6
7

18
18
18

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

17

Nov 01/09

18

Nov 01 /09

17
17
17

3
3
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9
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11

2
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6
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3
3
3

12

01/09
01/09
01/09
01/09

18
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18

17

Nov
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Nov
Nov

18

13
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Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

18
18

2
2
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9
10
11

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

17
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3
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Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
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18

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12
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3
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Nov 01/09
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Nov 01/09

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Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

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1
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3

Nov 01/09
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Oct 31/13

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Nov 01 /09

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Nov 01/09

18

23

Nov 01 /09

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17

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5
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Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

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Nov 01 /09

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Nov 01/09

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27

Nov 01 /09

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Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

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11

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Nov 01 /09

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Nov 01/09

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Nov 01 /09
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Nov 01 /09
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Nov
Nov
Nov

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

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18

TOC

Nov 01/09

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18

18
18
18
18

TOC
TOC
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1

01/09
01/09
01/09
01/09

18
18
18
18

3
1
2

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

3
3
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7
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18
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3
4
1

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

18
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18

3
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3

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FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

Jan 14/ 15

GENERAL
List of Effective Pages

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

LOEP
Page 19

Chapter

Topic

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Date

Chapter

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Date

18
18
18

14

19

TOC

14

3
3

15
16

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

19
19

1
1

1
2

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
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18

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19

Nov 01 /09

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7

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Nov 01 /09

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Nov 01 /09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01 /09

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5
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4
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Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

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16
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18

5
5
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6
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Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

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1
2.1
2.1

18
1
2

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Nov 01/09
Nov 01 /09

18
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18
18

Nov 01 /09

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2.2

Nov 01 /09

5
5
5

10
11
12

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

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2.2
2.2
2.2

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4

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

18

13

Nov 01 /09

19

2.2

Nov 01 /09

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5

14
15

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2.2
2.2
2.2

6
7
8

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01/09

19
19

TOC
TOC

1
2

Nov 01 /09
Sep 30/ 11

19
19

2.2
2.3

9
1

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

19
19

TOC
TOC

3
4

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

19
19

TOC
TOC

5
6

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

19
19

2
3
4
5

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

19
19

2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3

19
19
19
19

TOC
TOC
TOC
TOC

7
8
9
10

Aug
Nov
Nov
Nov

15/ 12
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

19
19
19
19

2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3

6
7
8
9

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

19
19
19

TOC
TOC
TOC

11
12
13

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

19
19
19

2.3
2.4
2.4

10
1
2

Nov 01/09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

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Nov 01 /09
Nov 01/09
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Jan 14/ 15

GENERAL
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AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

LOEP
Page 20

Chapter

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Date

19
19
19

2.5
2.5
2.5

19
19
19

5 .1
5 .1
5 .1

2
3

Sep 30/ 11
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

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3

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

19

2.5

Nov 01/09

19

5 .1

Nov 01 /09

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2.5
2.5
2.6
2.6

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6

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

01/09
01/09
01/09
01/09

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5 .2
5 .2
5.2
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1
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4

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

19
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3.1
3 .1

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

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5 .2
5 .2

5
6

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

19
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19

3 .1
3 .1
3.1

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4
5

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

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5 .2
5 .2
5 .2

7
8
9

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

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3.1
3.1
3.1

6
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8

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

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19

5.2
5.2
5 .2

10
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12

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

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3 .2
3 .2

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

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5 .3
5 .3

1
2

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

19
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3.2
3.2
3.3

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1

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

19
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19

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5 .3
5 .3

3
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5

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

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3 .3

Nov 01/09

19

Nov 01 /09

19
19
19

3 .3
3.3
3.3

3
4
5

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

19
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6.1
6.1
6.1
6.1

2
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4

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

19

3.3

Nov 01/09

19

6.1

Nov 01 /09

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19

3 .4
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3.4

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

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19
19

6.1
6.1
6.1

6
8

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

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3.4
3.5

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

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19

6.1
6.1

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10

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

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19

2
3
4
5

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

19
19

6.1
6.1

11
12

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

19
19

3 .5
3 .5
3 .5
3 .5

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

19
19

6.1
6.1

13
14

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

19
19
19
19

3 .5
3 .5
3.5
4

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

01/09
01/09
01/09
01/09

19
19
19
19

6.1
6.1
6.1
6.1

15
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17
18

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

19
19
19

4
4
4

2
3
4

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

19
19
19

6.1
6.1
6.1

19
20
21

Nov 01 /09
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1

7
8

AVRO 146-RJ Series

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01 /09
01 /09
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01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

Jan 14/ 15

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AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

Chapter

Topic

Page

19
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6.1
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6 .2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2

22
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FCOM:V1-002

Date
Nov
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Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
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Nov
Nov
Nov
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Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
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Nov
Nov
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Nov
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Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
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Nov

LOEP
Page 21

Chapter

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19
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19
19
19
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19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
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19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19

6 .2
6 .2
6.3
6 .3
6 .3
6 .3
6 .3
6.3
6 .3
6 .3
6 .3
6.3
6 .3
6 .3
6.3
6 .3
6 .3
6 .3
6 .3
6 .3
6 .3
6 .3
6 .3
6 .3
6.3
6.3
6.3
6.3
6.3
6 .3
6 .3
6 .3
6 .3
6 .3
6 .3
6 .3
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
6 .4

33
34
1
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3
4
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6
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9
10
11
12
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15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
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28
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30
31
32
33
34
1
2
3
4
5
6

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
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01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
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01 /09
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01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
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01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Date
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
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Nov
Nov
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Nov
Nov
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Nov
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01 /09
01/09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01/09
01/09
01 /09
01 /09

Jan 14/ 15

GENERAL
List of Effective Pages

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

LOEP
Page 22

Chapter

Topic

Page

Date

Chapter

Topic

Page

Date

19
19
19

6.4

19

7 .3

6.4
6.4

8
9

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

19
19

7.3
7 .3

2
3

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

19

6.4

10

Nov 01/09

19

7 .3

Nov 01 /09

19
19
19
19

6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5

1
2
3
4

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

01/09
01/09
01/09
01/09

19
19
19

7 .3
7 .3
7 .3

5
6
7

19

7.3

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

19
19

6.5
6.5

5
6

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

19
19

7.4
7 .4

1
2

Nov 01 /09
Aug 15/12

19
19
19

6.6
6.6
6.6

1
2
3

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

19
19
19

7.4
7.4
7 .4

3
4
5

Aug 15/12
Aug 15/12
Aug 15/12

19
19
19

6.6
6.7
6.7

4
1
2

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

19
19
19

7.4
7.5
7 .5

6
1
2

Aug 15/12
Aug 15/12
Nov 01 /09

19
19

6.7
6.7

3
4

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

19
19

7 .5
7 .5

3
4

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

19
19
19

6.7
6.7
6.8

5
6
1

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

19
19
19

7 .5
7 .5
7 .6

5
6
1

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

19

6.8

Nov 01/09

19

7 .6

Nov 01 /09

19
19
19

6.8
6.8
6.8

3
4
5

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

19
19
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7 .7
7 .7
8.1

1
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Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

19

6.8

Nov 01/09

19

8.1

Nov 01 /09

19
19
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6.8
6.8
6.8

7
8
9

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

19
19
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8.1
8.1
8.1

3
4
5

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

19
19

6.8
7.1

10
1

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

19
19

8.1
8.1

6
7

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

19
19

7. 1
7.1

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

19
19

8.1
8.1

7.1
7.1

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

19
19

8.1
8.2

8
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Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

19
19

2
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4
5

19
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19
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7.1
7.1
7.1
7.2

6
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Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

01/09
01/09
01/09
01/09

19
19
19
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8.2
8.2
8.2
8.2

2
3
4
5

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

19
19
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7.2
7.2
7.2

2
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4

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

19
19
19

8.2
8.2
8.2

6
7
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Nov 01 /09
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FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

01 /09
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List of Effective Pages

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

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8.2
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8.2
8.2
8.2
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8.3
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12

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9.1
9.2

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9.2
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9.2

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9.2
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9.2
9.2
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9.2
9.2

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Chapter

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Nov
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Nov
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Nov
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01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

19
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9 .2
9 .2
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01 /09

19

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22

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

19
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01 /09

19

9 .3
9 .3
9 .3
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1
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01 /09

19
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9 .3
9 .3

5
6

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

19
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9 .3
9 .3
9 .3

8
9

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

19
19
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9 .3
9.3
9 .3

10
11
12

01 /09
01 /09

19
19

9 .3
9 .3

13
14

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

19
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9.3
9 .3
9 .3

15
16
17

01 /09

19

9 .3

18

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

19
19
19

9 .3
9 .3
9.3

19
20
21

01 /09

19

9 .3

22

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

19
19
19

9.4
9.4
9.4

1
2
3

01 /09
01 /09

19
19

9.4
9.4

4
5

01 /09
01 /09

19
19

6
7

01 /09
01 /09

19
19

9.4
9.4
9 .4
9.4

8
9

Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

19
19
19
19

9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4

10
11
12
13

01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

19
19
19

9.4
10.1
10.1

14
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AVRO 146-RJ Series

Date
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01/09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
01 /09
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Volume 1

GENERAL
List of Effective Pages

LOEP
Page 24

Chapter

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Date

Chapter

Topic

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Date

19

10.1

Nov 01/09

20

Nov 01 /09

19

Nov 01/09

20

Nov 01 /09

19

10.1
10.1

Nov 0 1/09

20

Nov 01 /09

19

10.1

Nov 0 1/09

20

Nov 01 /09

19

10.1

Nov 01/09

20

Nov 01 /09

19

Nov 01/09

20

Nov 01 /09

19

10.1
10.2

Nov 0 1/09

20

Nov 01 /09

19

10.2

Nov 0 1/09

20

Nov 01 /09

19

10.2

Nov 0 1/09

20

Nov 01 /09

19

10.2

Nov 01/09

20

Nov 01 /09

19

10.2

20

Nov 01 /09

10.2

Nov 0 1/09

20

Nov 01 /09

19

10.2

5
6
7

Nov 01/09

19

Nov 01/09

20

Nov 01 /09

19

10.2

Nov 01/09

20

Nov 01 /09

19

10.2

Nov 0 1/09

20

Nov 01 /09

19

10.2

10

Nov 0 1/09

20

Nov 01 /09

19

10.2

11

Nov 0 1/09

20

Nov 01 /09

19

10.2

12

Nov 0 1/09

20

10

Nov 01 /09

19

10.2

13

Nov 0 1/09

20

11

Nov 01 /09

19

10.2

14

Nov 0 1/09

20

12

Nov 01 /09

19

10.3

Nov 0 1/09

20

13

Nov 01 /09

19

10.3

Nov 0 1/09

20

14

Nov 01 /09

19
19

10.3
10.3

3
4

Nov 01/09
Nov 01/09

20
20

3
3

15
16

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

19

10.3

Nov 0 1/09

20

17

Nov 01 /09

19

10.3

Nov 0 1/09

20

18

Nov 01 /09

19

10.3

Nov 0 1/09

20

19

Nov 01 /09

19

10.3

Nov 0 1/09

20

20

Nov 01 /09

19

10.3

8
9

Nov 0 1/09

20

21

Nov 01 /09

19

10.3

10

Nov 0 1/09

20

22

Nov 01 /09

19

10.3

11

Nov 0 1/09

20

23

Nov 01 /09

19
19

10.3
10.3

12

Nov 0 1/09
Nov 0 1/09

20
20

3
4

24

13

Nov 01 /09
Nov 01 /09

19

10.3

14

Nov 01/09

20

Nov 01 /09

19

10.4

Nov 0 1/09

20

Nov 01 /09

19

10.4

Nov 01/09

20

Nov 01 /09

19

10.4

Nov 0 1/09

20

Nov 01 /09

20

Nov 01 /09

20

TOC

Nov 0 1/09

20

Nov 01 /09

20

TOC

Nov 01/09

20

Nov 01 /09

20

Nov 0 1/09

20

Nov 01/09

21

TOC

Nov 01 /09

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Jan 14/ 15

GENERAL
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AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

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Date
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Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
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Nov
Nov
Nov
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01 /09
01 /09
01 /09

Nov
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01 /09
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01 /09
01 /09

01 /09
01 /09
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AVRO 146-RJ Series

Jan 14/ 15

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Volume 1

GENERAL
List of Effective Pages

LOEP
Page 26

Page Intentionally Blank

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Jan 14/ 15

Topic 1 -Configuration

Role........... ................... ........... ................................. ..... ....... .........................................


Aerodynamic Configuration .......................................................................... .................
Aircraft Dimensions .......................................................................... .............................
Ground Manoeuvring and Flight Deck View............................... ...... .............................
Fuselage .... .......... ... ... ... ... ....... ... ......... ... .......... ......... ............. .......... ... ......... ............ .....

1
2
6
8
12

Topic 2 - Flight Deck

Flight Deck Areas ...................................... ....................................... ............................ .


Primary Flight Controls..................................................................... .............................
Systems Panels .. .. ............ .................. ............ ............. ............ ........ ... ........ .......... ... .....
Circuit Breaker Panel ......................................... ................... ........................................
Master Warning System ............ ........ .... ......... .... ................................ ............ ...............
Rocker Switches ....................... ............. ........ ... .................... ... .......... ........... ................
Rocker Switch Guards ...................... ........ .......................... ............. ..... ............. ...........
Annunciator Shapes....................................... .... .............................. .............................
Annunciator Switches....................................................................................................
Latched-in Faults............................................ .................................. .............................
NIPS Annunciators .................... ......................................................... ...........................
Audible Warnings ......................................................................................... .................

2
3
5
7
9
9
11
11

12
12
12

Topic 3 - Engines and APU

Engine Overview .............................................................................. .............................

Engine Fuel Control ... .......... ............. ........ ............. ............. ............. ..... ............. ...........
Engine Control with the FADEC and the FGC ................................................ ..............
Engine Indicators ............... ...... ....... .. .... ....... .. .... ................... ... ... ..... ........ ...... ...... .........
FADEC Switches and Annunciators...... ............. ............................... ............................
Thrust Levers ... ... ......... .... .......... ......... .............. ............ ........... ........ ... ......... ......... ... .....
Engines Panel ........................................... ............................................ ........................
Engine Fire Protection............................... ....................................... .............................
APU Overview..................................... ..........................................................................

13

APU Panel.....................................................................................................................

15

Power for the Aircraft Systems......................................................... ....................... ......

17

4
5
5
7
9
11

Topic 4- Electrical Power

Power Sources..............................................................................................................
Busbars ................................... ...................................... ....... .........................................
Normal Distribution......................................... .... ................... ........... .............................
Standby Generator.......................................................................... ............. .................
Standby Inve rter............................................................................................................
Electrical System Channels ............ ...... .... ... ...... ...... ................... ..... ............... ...... .. ......
Bus-tie Switches............................................................................................................

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Oct 31/13

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AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Vol ume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Contents

Chapter 2 TOC
Page2

Topic 4 - Electrical Power (continued)

Batteries .. .... ...... ...... ..... .... .. ..... .. . .. .. .... .. .. .. . ... .. . .... ..... ...... ...... ..... .... .. .. ... ... ... . ..... . .... ...... ..
Electrically Operated Valves .. .... .... ...... ..... ...... .... .. ... .. .... .. ..... .... .. ... .. . ..... . ..... ..... ...... ..... .
Motorised Valve s ............................ ............................................... ..... ...........................
Sole noid Operated Valves ................................................................ ............................
Flight Deck Panel .... ...... ... .. .... .. .. .. .. ..... . .. ... ... .. . .... ..... ....... ...... ..... ... ... . .... .. .... ..... . ..... ...... .

9
10
10
1o
11

Topic 5 - Hydraulic Power

Power Sources.................................................................................. ............................


Hydraulic Services ........ ... .... .. .... ..... ..... ..... ..... .. ... ..... .. ................ .... .. . .... .. .... ..... . ..... ...... .
Hydra ulic Panel................ .............................................................................................

1
3

Topic 6- Pneumatic Power

Power Sources.................................................................................. ............................


Aircraft Air Supply System................................................................ ............................
Aircraft Air Supply Services............ ...............................................................................
Division of the Air Supply Services . .. ... .... .. ................. ...... .. .... . .... . .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .... .. .. .. .. ..
Air Supply Panel............................. ................................................... .......... ..................

1
3

5
7
9

Topic 7- Air Conditioning

Function............................................................................................ ............................
Air Conditioning Pane l...... .............. ................................................... ............................
Pressurisation ... ...... ...... ... .. .... ... . .. .. ..... . .. .. . ... .. . .... ..... ....... ..... ...... ....... .... .. .... ..... . ..... ..... ..

1
2
4

Topic 8 - Landing Gear and Brakes

Landing Gear................................................................................................................
Brakes...........................................................................................................................

1
2

Topic 9 - Flight Controls

Ge neral.......................................... ..................... .............................. ......... ...................


Primary Flight Controls...................................................................... .......... ..................
Secondary Flight Controls ................................................................. ............................

1
1
3

Topic 10- Fuel System

Function ........................................................................................................................
Tanks.................................................................. .............................. ......... ...................
Pumps and Feed Valves................................................................... ............................

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

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1
1

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Contents

Chapter 2 TOC
Page3

Topic 10- Fuel System (continued)


Low Pressure Valves....................................................................................................
Fuel Quantity.................................................................................................................
Fuel Transfer....... ..................................................................................................... .....
Fuel Panel . ... ..... .. .... ... .. . ..... . ....... ... .... .. ........ . .. ..... .. .... ... ... .. ... . ..... ..... ...... ..... ...... ..... ... ... ..

1
1
3
5

Topic 11 -Ice and Rain Protection


Protected Items ... .... ... .. . ..... . ..... .. ... .... .. .. ... .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. ... .. ... ... . ..... ..... ...... ..... ...... ..... .... .. ..
Ice Detection ..... .. .... ... .. ...... . .......... ...... .. ..... .. .. .... ... .. .. ... .. ... ... . ..... ..... ...... ..... ...... ..... .... .. ..
Ice Protection Panels . ... ...... ..... ...... ... .. .. .... .. . .. .. .. .. ... .. ... ... .. .. .. ... .. . ..... ..... ...... ..... .... .. ... ... .

1
1
2

Topic 12- Oxygen


General ............... ......................................................... .......... .......................................
Flight Deck Crew Oxygen ..................................................... ........................................
Cabin Oxygen System .. ...... ...... ..... ... .. ........ . .. .... ... ..... .. ... .. .... ..... ...... ..... ...... .... .. ... .. .. .... .

1
1
2

Topic 13- Communication


Equipment .................................................................... .................................................
Overview Schematic............................................................. ........................................
CAU Channels . .. . .... ... ... ..... . ...... .... ...... .. ....... .. .... .. ..... ... ... .. .... ..... ...... ..... ...... ..... ...... .. ... ..
Audio Warnings .............................................................................................. ...............
Crew Call............................................................................... ........................................
ASPs and Crew Call Panels..........................................................................................
Static Dischargers ... .. .... ..... . ..... ...... ... .. ...... .. . .. .. .. .. .. ... ... ... .. ... . ..... ...... ..... ...... ..... .... .. .. ... ..
Video Surveillance ... .. ... ...... ....... .... ... .... ...... . .. .... ... . ...... ... . .. ... ..... ...... ..... ...... .... .. ... .. ... ... .

1
2
4
4
4
4
4
4

Topic 14 - Navigation
Flight Instruments......................................................... .................................................
EFIS .......... ................................................................... .......... ......... ........................... ...
Weather Radar..............................................................................................................
NMS and FMS...............................................................................................................
Inertial Reference System.............................................................................................
Radio Altimeter..............................................................................................................
Air Data.........................................................................................................................
Radio Navigation. ..........................................................................................................
Standby Attitude and He ading ... .... ... .... ...... . ...... ... ..... .. .... ..... ...... ..... ...... ...... ... .. ... ... .. ... .
Trans ponder and TCAS .................... ........................... ......... ............................... .... .....
EGPWS ..... ............................................................................. .......................................

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Nov 01/09

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AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Contents

Chapter 2 TOC
Page4

Topic 15- Flight Guidance System

Functions.......................................................................................................................
AP and FD Modes.........................................................................................................

1
2

Topic 16 - Lights

Flight Deck Lighting.......................................................................................................


Cabin Lighting .................................................................................... ......... ..................
Bay Lighting ...... ............... ... ... .... .... ...... .... . ..... .. ......... ...... ..... ...... ....... ...... ... ...... . ..... ..... ..
External Lights .. ....... ..... ... ... ... .... .... ...... .... . ..... . ..... ..... ...... ..... ...... ... .. .. .... .. .... ..... . ..... ..... ..

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

1
2
2
3

Role

The Avro RJ is short and medium haul airliner with the ability to operate in and out of
demanding airfields, Examples are shown in Figure 1.1. The aircraft can make steep
approaches at approach angles up to 6.
Figure 1.1 - Demanding Operations
Rough Short Sttilps In Remote Areas

In the Desert

1-'1102-4000 1

FCOM:V1002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01/09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Configuration

Chapter 2 Topic 1
Page2

Aerodynamic Configuration

The general arrangement is shown in Figure 1.2.


Four engines are suspended from a high wing by pylons. The engines relieve the bending
moment due to the wing lift. The high wing keeps the engines clear of the ground,
minimising the chance of the engines ingesting ground debris or sand. The advantages of
the position of the engines are shown in Figure 1.4.
Four engines yield exceptional short-field performance. The one engine inoperative ceiling
is also considerably higher than that of a twin. Four engines also give inherently larger
take-off handling safety margins. The aircraft may be ferried with one engine inoperative.
The wing section and chord are optimised for the regional jet role. The wing has a
moderate sweep angle of 15. There are no leading edge high lift devices. However, large
trailing edge flaps are fitted.
As the engines are suspended on pylons, the jet efflux is clear of the flaps. Thus each
wing has a trailing edge flap that does not have to be interrupted with jet efflux cut-outs.
The flaps are tabbed Fowler flaps; they increase the area of the wing and the camber of
the wing. The flaps occupy 78% of the span and 30% of the chord. The large flaps allow
low landing and take-off speeds. The flaps are shown in Figure 1.3.
The uninterrupted upper surface of the wing provides up to 4% more lift than a mid or low
wing configuration. The high wing allows the flaps to fit snugly to the fuselage; so the lift
efficiency of the flaps is improved.
The aircraft has aT-tail. The tailplane is thus out of the path of the airflow from the wing
and the engine exhaust. The tail is shown in Figure 1.6.
The fin is swept back resulting in the tailplane being further aft. Consequently it has a
greater moment therefore allowing the tailplane to be smaller than a low set tailplane thus
producing less drag.
The T-tail has an endplate effect on the fin and rudder improving their effectiveness.
There are no thrust reversers. However, excellent stopping performance is provided by lift
spoilers and powerful brakes with electronic adaptive anti-skid.
The lift spoilers are for ground use only. Airbrakes are available for use in the air and on
the ground. The airbrakes are a pair of petals at the back of the fuselage. They increase
drag but have negligible effects on lift and trim.
The airbrakes and lift spoilers are shown in Figure 1.5.
Manually operated elevators provide control in pitch. Manually operated ailerons and
hydraulically powered roll spoilers provide control in roll. A hydraulically powered rudder
provides yaw control.
Stall warning is provided by stick shakers. Identification of the stall is provided by a
pneumatically powered stick pusher.

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Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Configuration

Chapter 2 Topic 1
Page3

Figure 1.2 - Aircraft General Arrangement


Uninterrupted upper wing surface

T-tail

Moderate sweep of 15
Swept back fin

Flaps retracted beneath


the wing surfaoe

,/

Engines in pods and suspended from the wi ng by pylons

hi 02-<10002

Figure 1.3 - Raps


Fowler flap lncreues wing area

IV1-020000~

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Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Configuration

Chapter 2 Topic 1
Page 4

Figure 1.4 - Engi nes


Tallpl:ano well clear of jet efflux and wing airflow

!
Ult

Lift

l
Engine weight

lntall(es well above the ground

Jet efflux below the Raps

The weight of the engines relieves the bending moment due to lift
1-YI-02-(10004

Figure 1.5 - Airbrakes and Lift Spoilers

Uft spoilers

1l
Airbrakes
11 02-00005

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Configuration

Chapter 2 Topic 1
Page 5

Figure 1.6 The T -tail


Tallplano well cloar of jGt oHiux an.d wing airflow
Swept back fin

.,

Tailplane further aft than a low set tail


So the tailplane has a greater moment I han a low set tall plane
So the tailplane can be smaller than a low set tall plane
So the tallplane has less drag than a low set tall plane

Tailplane acts as an endplate for the fin and rudder

~ -, -02-00006

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Chapt er 2 Topic 1
Page6

Aircraft Dimensions
The aircraft comes in three sizes: RJ70, RJ85 and RJ100. The only dimension that
changes significantly is the aircraft length. The aircraft dimensions are shown in Figure 1.7
and Figure 1.8. Figure 1.7 shows the side view of all three aircraft. Figure 1.8 shows a
plan view and a front view of an RJ85 together with the changes for RJ70 and RJ100
aircraft.
Figure 1.7- Side Views
At Maximum Weight
The fTont door sill lheight on all RJs Is 1.88 m (6 ft 2 In)
The rear door sill h eight o n all RJs Is 1.98 m (6 ft 6 In)

.., ...

RJ 100

Front door sill height

RJ85

RJ70

&4-- - - - - - - 26.19 m (85ft 11 In) - - - - - - --+1


14-- - - - - - - - 28.60 m (93 flt 10 in) - - - - - - - ---+1
30.99 m (101 ft 8 In)
IVl-02-00066

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Volume 1

Chapter 2 Topic 1
Page 7

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Configuration
Figure 1.8 - Plan and Front Views

Helg ht for RJ70 and RJ 100


RJ 70: 8.61 m {28ft 31n)
RJ 100: 8.59 m (28ft 21n)

RJ 85: 8.59 m (28 ft 2 in)

26.34 m (86ft S in)

r .e 'Wingspan Is th e
same for all RJs
____,

'

I
I
I

I
I

'

'~

I
I

RJ 85: 28.60 m (93 ft 10 In)


Length forRJTO and RJ100
RJ70:
26.19 m (85fl111l)
RJ 100: 3099 m (101 It 8 in)
~

__

~ll1~2-0006'

.----F~
CO
_M
_:_
V_
1-002----.--A
-V
_R
_0 14
-6
--~
RJ_
S_
eries
--,-----------.-Nov
-01 /09--,

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Configuration

Chapt er 2 Topic 1
Page8

Ground Manoeuvring and Aight Deck View


The view from the flight deck is excellent; the wing tip and the outer engine can be seen
from the associated pilot's seat. The pilot's viewing angles are shown in Figure 1.9.
Hydraulically powered nosewheel steering is provided. The nosewheel can be steered
from 70 left to 70 right. The aircraft is extremely easy to manoeuvre on the ground.
The arc swept by the RJ70 wing tip exceeds that of 1he arc swept by the tail (18.03 m (59ft
2 in)). This is illustrated in Figure 1.9.
The arc swept by the tail of the RJ85 and the RJ1 00 exceeds that of the wing tips. The
RJ85 is illustrated in Figure 1.10. The radius of the arc swept by the tail of the RJ 100
(19.7 1 m (64 It 8 in)) is greater than that of the RJ85 (18.34 m (60 It 2 in)).
The minimum Pavement width for a 180 turn is shown in Figure 1.12.
Figure 1.9 - RJ 70 with 70 <> Left Steering

Pilot's lateral view from etralght ahead

f.i 35"

'
,.. PilOt's view includes the wingtip

44" up

')I
T

Wingtlp tractt
in left tum

49 up

J
18 03 m (59ft 2 In)

1e down

...._
Maximum steering angle 70"

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AVRO 146-RJ Series

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AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Configuration

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Volume 1

Chapter 2 Topic 1
Page9

Figure 1.10 - RJ 85 with 70 Left Steering


3.00 m (9ft 10 In) In an RJ100

Tallplane tip track


In Jefllurn

18.34 rn (60ft 2 1n)

Maximum steering angle 10


19.71 m (64ft 8 In) in an RJ100

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Chapt er 2 Topic 1
Page 10

Figure 1 .11 - Danger Zones and Entry Corridors


Dimension A
ft. in. metre
BAe 146-300 series/ Avro RJ1 00/115 14-2 4.76
BAe 146-200 series/ Avro RJ85
9-9 2.92
BAe 146-100 series/ Avro RJ70
6-2 1.87

AIRCRAFT

WARNING:
Checks or adjustments to inboard
engines should only be carried out
when outboard engines are at idle
power or shut down.

Entry corridor

DANGER AREA

"'

Front cowling door


leading edges

Rear cowling
door trailing
edges

200ft
(60.96m)

~v 1 -02-00 094

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Configuration

Chapter 2 Topic 1
Page 11

Figure 1-12 - Minimum Pavement Width for a 180 Tum

Mini mum Pmment Width lo R.J

20.1 m (66ft 0 in)

Minimum Pavement Width for RJ 70 and RJ 100

RJ 70:

19.1

m (62ft 91n)

RJ 100: 22.25 m (73ft 0 in)

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AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Configuration

Chapt er 2 Topic 1
Page 12

Fusel age
The fuselage is shown in Figure 1.13. The fuselage has a circular cross section. The flight
deck is separated from the passenger cabin by the front vestibule. A rear vestibule is
behind the passenger cabin. An entry aisle leads from the front vestibule to the flight
deck. The flight deck has a security door is in the entry aisle.
There are two cabin doors in each vestibule: one the left and one on the right. The doors
are shown in Figure 1.14. The left doors are the passenger doors; the right doors are the
service doors. The service doors are a little smaller than the passenger doors. This
configuration allows passenger boarding and replenishment activity to take place at the
same time. The four cabin doors also function as emergency exits. There are no other
passenger emergency exits. Each door has an emergency escape slide.
The passenger cabin seating can be up to six abreast. There is provision for toilets and
galleys in both the rear and the front vestibules.
There are six bays in the lower fuselage: two cargo bays, an avionics bay, a hydraulics
bay, an air conditioning bay and an APU bay. Each bay has an external door. The doors
are shown in Figure 1.15. An entrance hatch to the avionics bay is in the flight deck entry
aisle.
The flight deck, the cabin, the cargo bays, the avionics bay and the hydraulics bay are all
pressurised. The air conditioning bay and the APU bay are not pressurised.
A portable water tank is in the hydraulics bay. It supplies water to the toilets and galleys.
Figure 1.13 - Fuselage

Flight Deck

Front vestibule

Rear vestibule
Passenger

APU bay
Avionics bay

Hydraulics bay

Fo rward cargo b ay

FCOM:V1 -002

Air conditioning bay

Rear cargo bay

AVRO 146-RJ Series

l-v1~2.000t2

Oct 31 /13

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AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Configuration

Chapter 2 Topic 1
Page 13

Figure 1.14- Cabin Doors

There are foor cabin doors:


,.

Two full SIZed PilUenger doOrs on lhe lett.

,.

Two smaller serviCe doors on the right.

Rear left
passenger door

FOMiard right
service door

passenger door

i-vl -1-00013

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AVRO 146-RJ Series

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AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Configuration

Chapter 2 Topic 1
Page 14

Figure 1.15 - Lower Bay Doors

Rear cargo bay door

Avionics bay door

Air conditioning bay door


Hydraulic bay door

Forward cargo bay door


11 02-00014

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Configuration

Chapter 2 Topic 1
Page 15

Page Intentionally Blank

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Oct 31 / 13

Flight Deck Areas


The flight deck areas are shown in Figure 2.2.
There are three instrument panels: left, centre and right. The left and right panels are
principally for flight instruments. The centre panel contains the engine instruments, a
central warning panel (CWP) and a central status panel (CSP).
An overhead panel contains the system control panels and circuit breaker panels. The
system control panels contain switches, indicators and annunciators. A typical panel is
shown in Figure 2. 1.
A digital flight guidance system is fitted. The centre of the glareshield contains a mode
control panel (MCP) for the flight guidance system. The left and right portions of the
glareshield contain annunciators.
There are three consoles: left side console, centre console and right side console. The
centre console is subdivided into the forward centre console and the aft centre console.
The consoles contain navigation and communication control panels and display units. The
centre console also contains, the thrust levers, wheel brake selectors, the flight controls
trimmers, the flap selector and a combined airbrake and lift spoiler selector.
Figure 2.1 - Hydraulic Sy stem Panel
Indicators

Switch baulk

Three...position s.wit ch

Two-position switch
W102.()0011!

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AVRO 146-RJ Series

Oct 31 /13

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Right Deck

Chapter 2 Topic 2
Page 2

Figure 2.2 - Flight Deck Areas


Ci rcuit breaker panels

Overhaad
panel

System
panels

ight Instrument
pan of

Forward
console

Left side
~onsolt

Centro
console

~~ ~
Aft console

Centre Instrument panel

Right side

c-

~onsolt

I
..
1-Vt -02-40070

Primary Flight Controls

A floor mounted control column is provided for each pilot. The column provides control in
pitch. A control wheel is mounted on each column for control in roll.
A pair of rudder pedals is provided for each pilot. They move fore and aft to apply the
rudder in the natural sense.
The rudder pedals are hinged at the bottom. When the top of the pedal is deflected,
pressure is applied to the wheel braking system. The left pedal of each pair applies
pressure to the left wheel brakes; the right pedal of each pair applies pressure to the right
wheel brakes.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01/09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Flight Deck

Chapter 2 Topic 2
Page3

Systems Panels

The layout of the systems panels on the overhead panel is shown in Figure 2.3.
An avionics panel is at the top left of the overhead panel. It contains the master switches
for the flight guidance system and many of the other avionics.
Below the avionics panel is an area for the lift spoilers and anti-skid system. The brakes
have cooling fans; the area also includes a switch for the fans. Each engine has two
igniters. The area also includes a switch to select the required igniter for ground starting.
The hydraulic power control panel is below the anti-skid and lift spoilers panel. There are
two hydraulic systems: yellow and green.
The fuel system panel is below the hydraulic panel.
The electrical system panel is to the right of the fuel panel.
To the right of the electrical panel is an area for the APU and the engines. The engines
panel is divided into two parts. The top part is for engine starting and ignition; the bottom
part is for engine ice protection. Above the engines panel is the APU control panel. Above
the APU panel, there is an area for engine fire protection.
The airframe ice protection panel is to the right of the engines panel.
Air is taken from the engines and APU for the aircraft systems. The air supply panel is to
the right of the airframe ice protection panel.
The air from the engines and APU supplies two air conditioning packs. The air conditioning
control panel is immediately above the air supply panel.
The air from the packs leaves the aircraft via two outflow or discharge valves. A
pressurisation system controls the position of the valves. The pressurisation control panel
is to the left of the air conditioning panel.
A lights and notices control panel is above the air conditioning panel.
A ground test panel is to the left of the lights and notices panel. The panel contains system
test switches for use only on the ground.
Some aircraft have a cargo smoke system. These aircraft have a cargo smoke panel at
the top of the overhead panel.
A crew call system is used to attract the attention of a crewmember or the ground crew.
The system uses annunciators, lights, chimes and a horn. The flight deck annunciators
and switches are on the bottom left of the overhead panel on most aircraft. This area also
includes light switches. On some aircraft, the crew call annunciators and switches are on
the centre console.
The overhead panel lighting and overhead annunciator dimming controls are on the bottom
right of the overhead panel.
An extension below the overhead panel contains lighting and windscreen controls.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Right Deck

Chapter 2 Topic 2
Page 4

Figure 2.3 - Overhead Systems Panels


Centre console Rood light

Panel for optJonal cargo smoke system

Avionics
Lights
and
notices

Antlskid and
lift spoilers

Hydraulics

Pres.surlsatlon

Air supply

Airframe
ice protection

Engine
Ice protection

Ughts ,.;nose'"""'

Crow call and lights

Overhead annunciator control and lights


i vl -0200071

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AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Flight Deck

Chapter 2 Topic 2
Page 5

Circuit Breaker Panel


The overhead circuit breaker panel is broken down into system circuit breaker panels. The
layout of the ci rcuit breaker panels on the overhead panel is shown in Figure 2.4.
There are panels for:

The landing gear and brakes.

The electrical system.

Navigation equipment and flight instruments.

The c<>mmunications system.

APU and engine starting.

The fuel system.

The hydraulic system.

Controls and Flight Warnings.

Engine indication.

Fire.

Ice and rain protection.

Air and pressurisation.

Lights.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Right Deck

Chapter 2 Topic 2
Page6

Figure 2.4 - Circuit Breaker Panels


'TI

c:

ID

-0
::s

Cll

::
- ...z
co
~<

-c
~""

-Cll -

.. 0
c :I

3""
CD :I
~

il

Q.

0
0

3Cll

1-v1-0:2-000'f2

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Flight Deck

Chapter 2 Topic 2
Page 7

Master Warning System

The elements of the master warning system (MWS) are shown in Figure 2.5.
A central warning panel (CWP) is on the centre instrument panel. The panel contains:

Red warning captions.

Amber caution captions.

White fault captions.

A central status panel (CSP) is immediately below the CWP. The CSP contains white fault
captions, white status captions and green status captions.
The MWS is controlled from an MWS panel on the right instrument panel.
The MWS has attention getting lamps on the glare shield: two red and two amber lamps.
The red lamps fl ash to provide attention getting for a red warning on the MWP. The amber
lamps flash to provide attention getting for an amber caution on the MWP.
The MWS also provides attention getting audio warnings:

A single chime.

A triple chime.

A fire bell.

A take-off configuration intermittent horn.

All the amber annunciators on the overhead panel are part of the MWS. Whenever an
amber annunciator illuminates on the overhead panel:

The amber attention getting lamps flash.

A single chime sounds.

A "collector" caption illuminates on the CWP indicating which overhead panel


contains the amber annunciator that has illuminated.

There are also collector captions for engine indications on the centre instrument panel.
Collector captions have an arrow pointing to the overhead panel or to the engine
instruments.
A control panel for the overhead annunciators is on the bottom right corner of the overhead
panel.
The attention getting lights on the glareshield are also switches. Pressi ng any one of the
attention getters cancels the MWS attention getting with two exceptions:

The fire bell can only be cancelled by pressing a red attention getter.

The configuration warning horn cannot be cancelled by pressing the attention


getters.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Right Deck

Chapter 2 Topic 2
Pages

Figure 2.5 -The Elements of the Master Warning System

Loft Attention
Getting lamps

Right Al1ontion
Getting Lamps

0
All tho amber system
annunciators on tho
oVOfhoad panel

Tho Overhead
Ann uncia tor
Control Panol

Tho MWS Control Panel


MWS
DIM

{U>

CtJtl
HQRIII

f'\i ...,. ftSt

()

0-

I"\\U,.QN OC.

Au dio Warnings

,.

Wl.02.00073

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Flight Deck

Chapt er 2 Topic 2
Page9

Rocker Switches
Most of the switches on the systems panels are rocker switches. They are mainly two
position switches: for example, the ENG PUMP switches in Figure 2.1. .A few are three
position switches: for example, the AC PUMP switch in Figure 2.1.
Some of the rocker switches have baulks: for example, the DC PUMP switch in Figure 2.1.
The baulk prevents the switch being inadvertently moved to the baulked position. Only one
position of a rocker switch will have a baulk: either the top or the bottom position. The

centre position of a three position switch will not have a baulk.


A red baulk operating control is next to the baulked switch position. The baulk is removed
by sliding the control away from the switch. The baulk control is spring-loaded to the
baulked position. Removing the baulk is shown in Figure 2.6.
To select the baulked position, the baulk must be removed. If the switch is at the baulked
position, the switch can be moved away from the baulked position without operating the
baulk control.
Figure 2.6 - Removing a Rocker Switch Baulk

Baulk engaged

Release the baulk control

Slide the baulk control away from the switch


Hold the baulk control and select the switch
i-v1 -02-00024

Rocker Switch Guards


Two rocker switches have guards: an APU fire extinguisher switch and an ice detector
switch. The guards are spring loaded flaps. The fire extinguisher switch is shown Figure
2.7; the ice detector switch is shown in Figure 2.8 .
The fire extinguisher guard is a simple flap that normally covers almost the whole switch.
The guard prevents the inadvertent discharge of the extinguisher. The guard is hinged on
its right side. The guard must be raised to press the switch to the DISCH position.
The ice detector switch guard is a flap that normally covers the bottom part of the switch.
The guard prevents the switch being inadvertently moved to the OFF position. However,
the switch can be moved to the ON position without raising the guard. The guard is hinged
on the left side. The guard must be raised to select the OFF position.

FCOM:V1 -002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Right Deck

Chapter 2 Topic 2
Page 10

Figure 2.7 - APU Fire Extinguisher Switc h

Switc h

Switch

Guard up

i-v1-02-00025

Figure 2.8 - Ice Detector Switch


Guard hinge

Guard down

The guard must be raised to select OFF

Guard up

ON can be selected with the guard down


i-v1..()2~02e

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Flight Deck

Chapter 2 Topic 2
Page 11

Annunciator Shapes
Warning and status annunciators are on the overhead panel, the glareshield, the
instrument panel and the consoles.
Annunciators come in two different shapes: oblong and square. The two shapes are
shown in Figure 2.9.
The oblong annunciators are not used as switches. The square annunciators may be used
as switches.
Figure 2.9 - Annunciator Shapes
Oblong annunciator

Square annunciator

~
HI TEMP

Oblong annunciators
will not be switches

Square annunciators
1-v1-02-00027
may be switches

Annunciator Switches
There are two sorts of annunciator switch: momentary action switches and latched
switches.
A momentary action switch is spring-loaded to the out position. When the switch is
pressed in, the status of the appropriate system is changed. As soon as the switch is
released, the switch springs out. The annunciation on the switch indicates the status of the
system. The status of the system cannot be determined by looking at the switch position.
Latched switches remain in when they are pressed in and released. When pressed a
second time, the switch springs out. The annunciation on the switch indicates the status of
the system. The selected status can also be determined from the position of the switch.
Some of the annunciator switches have guards. The guards are clear plastic flaps. The
guard is hinged on one side. The flap is spring-loaded to the guarded position. The guard
must be raised to operate the switch.
A flap warning override switch is fitted to the right instrument panel. It is used when a
landing must be made at an abnormal flap setting. The switch contains an annunciator
with the legend FLAP WARN OVRD. The switch has a guard. The switch is shown in
Figure 2.1 0.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Right Deck

Chapter 2 Topic 2
Page 12

Figure 2.10 - Flap Warning Override Switch

Guard up
Guard hinge
Press the swit ch to select override

Lower the guard

Guard down
The annunciator can be seen through the guard
i-v1-02-00028

Latc hed-in Faults


We sometimes talk about a fault being latched-in.

If a fault is latched in, the system behaves as if the fault were still active when the fault
goes away. For example, some generator faults will be latched in and take the generator
off-line. The generator will remain off-line if the actual fault goes away. However, the
latched in fault may be reset by setting the generator switch to a reset position.
The latch:

Cleanly shuts down the system element associated with the failure.

Prevents nuisance recurrence of the associated warning.

NIPS Annunciators
Some valve fault annunciators work on the not in position selected principle. They are
known as NIPS annunciators.
The NIPS annunciator for a valve will illuminate if the valve is not in the position selected
on the associated switch. A valve will take a short time to move from one position to
another. While the valve is not in the selected position, its NIPS annunciator will
illuminate. So a valve's NIPS annunciator will illuminate for a short time when a new
position is selected. The input from a NIPS annunciator to the CWP and the MWS
attention getting is delayed by a few seconds to ensure that nuisance warnings are not
given while the valve moves from one position to another.
Audible Warnings
The aircraft has an audible warning system. The system generates the MWS audio
warnings and other system audio warnings. The system also takes speech inputs from the
avionics and transmits them to the speakers and headsets on the flight deck.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

Engine Overview
The aircraft is powered by four Textron Lycoming (Honeywell) LF 507-1 F engines. The
engines are numbered 1 to 4 from left to right.
The engine has a high bypass ratio; so the fan develops the bulk of the engine thrust. The
bypass ratio is 5.3 :1.
Each engine is enclosed by a pod and supported by a pylon attached to the wing. The pod
contains a bypass duct. The bypass duct directs fan bypass air through the pod. The
bypass air then passes around the engine jet pipe.
There are two spools: a low-pressure (LP) spool and a high-pressure (HP) spool. The
speed of the LP spool is designated N1 and the speed of the HP spool N2 . The
temperature of the gas at the outlet to the low-pressure turbine is designated EGT.
The HP spool drives an accessory gearbox. The gearbox provides drives for the engine
sub-systems. Additionally, each outboard engine gearbox drives an electrical generator
and each inboard engine gearbox drives a hydraulic pump.
Each engine has an electric starter motor. The starter motor turns the HP spool through
the accessory gearbox. The starter motor is used on the ground but not in the air.
Windmilling rpm is sufficient for in-flight starting.
HP compressor bleed air supplies the aircraft air supply system. HP compressor bleed air
also provides engine and intake ice protection.
The HP compressor has a bleed band to prevent engine surge. When the bleed band is
opened, air is bled from the HP compressor.
Igniters are provided for engine starting and flameout protection.
Engine starting, ignition and ice protection are controlled from an ENGINES panel on the
flight deck roof panel.
A fire detection system detects high temperatures ~rvithin the engine pod. Each pod has a
fire extinguishing system. Fire handles for each engine are at the top of the overhead
systems panel. The fire handle is used to:

For engines 1 and 4 it is used to cut off the supply of fuel to the engine pod, trip the
engine driven generator, close the engine bleed isolation valve and to discharge the
fire extinguishers.

For engines 2 and 3 it is used to cut off the supply of fuel to the engine pod, close
the engine hydraulic pump isolation valve, close the engine bleed isolation valve
and to discharge the fire extinguishers.

Two electronic displays containing indicators for engine vibration, N1, N2 , EGT and fuel flow
are on the flight deck centre instrument panel. Above these indicators, are four oil
indicators: one for each engine. Each oil indicator displays oil quantity, oil temperature and
oil pressure.

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AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Engines and APU

Chapter 2 Topic 3
Page 2

Figure 3.1 - Engine Section


LP compressor
Airflow splitter

Fan exit guide vanes

HP compressor
Axial

Centrifugal

Combustor

Bleed band
Accessory
gearbox drive
Fan

Reduction gearbox
tank

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AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Engines and APU

Chapt er 2 Topic 3
Page 3

Engine Fuel Control


Engine Control is shown schematically in Figure 3.2 . Mounted on each engine are a hydro
mechanical unit (HMU) and a full authority digital electronic control (FADEC) electronic
control unit (ECU).
A fuel pump, driven by the accessory gearbox, passes high pressure fuel to a metering
valve inside the HMU. From the metering valve the fuel passes to the combustors. The
metering valve controls the speed of the engine. The valve position can be controlled
electrically by the FADEC or hydro mechanically by the hydro mechanical control section of
the HMU.
The thrust levers are connected to the HMUs by cables and rods. The thrust lever position
drives the hydro mechanic control and a position sensor on the HMU. The position sensor
electrically sends the thrust lever position to the FADEC ECU.
The hydro mechanical control can be turned on and off by the FADEC. When the FADEC
is on and serviceable, the hydro mechanical control is turned off. When the FADEC fails or
is turned off, the hydro mechanical control is turned o n.
Normally, the FADEC is in control. If the FADEC fails , its engine will be under manual or
FADEC OFF control.
With the FADEC in control, the bleed band is controlled by the FADEC. In hydro
mechanical control, the bleed band is controlled hydro mechanically as a function of N2 .
Figure 3.2 - Engine Fuel Control
High pressure fuel

On the engine
One for each engine
Thrust
lever

Hydro Mechanical Unit


Hydro
Mechanical
Control

Metering
Valve
Metered fuel
to
combustors

Position
Sensor

Electrical off signal

Electrical valve control

I
Electrical .---<lllo~
position signal
.

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FADEC
ECU

On the engine
One for each engme
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AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Engines and APU

Chapter 2 Topic 3
Page 4

Engine Control with the FADEC and the FGC


The FGC has a thrust control function beside its AP and FD functions. If two FGCs are
fitted, the selected FGC provides thrust control. Engine control with the FGC available is
shown schematically in Figure 3.3. The FGC communicates with the TRP and each
engine's FADEC. The FGC trims the thrust lever command to the FADEC.
The FGC provides two levels of control: thrust modulation control and autothrottle.
In thrust modulation mode, the pilot sets the thrust levers in approximately the required
position and the FADEC trims the thrust lever signal to give the engine speed demanded
by the FGC.
With the autothrottle engaged, the FGC commands an autothrottle servo. The one servo
drives all four thrust levers via clutches: one for each engine. The auto throttle picks a lead
thrust lever and drives the thrust levers so that the lead engine is at the correct speed; the
FADEC trims the other engines to the lead engine to compensate for thrust lever stagger.
If a manual input is made to a thrust lever, its clutch automatically disengages. So it is
always possible to override the autothrottle.
Figure 3.3 - FGC Control

The one NT servo drives all four


thrust levers via clutches

Thrust
lever

One clutch for each thrust lever

Position
Sensor

Electrical
position signal

Thrust
Control

FADEC
ECU

Flight
Guidance
Computer

Electrical valve control


Metering
Valve

TRP

i-v1-02-00076

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Chapter 2 Topic 3
Page 5

Engine Indicators

The engine indicators are on the centre instrument panel. They are shown in Figure 3.4.
There are two electronic displays: the primary engine displays (PEDs). One PED is for
engines 1 and 2, the other is for engines 3 and 4. The PEDs contain indicators for:

Engine vibration .

N1 .
EGT.

N2 .
Fuel flow and fuel used .

Fuel quantity.

Each N1 indicator has a bug. The numerical value of a bug is written above its N1
indicator. Each bug has a knob at the bottom of its PED. The knob can be pulled out.
When the bug is in, the bug is automatically set to the N1 limit for the rating selected on the
TRP. When a knob is pulled out, the associated indicator's bug can be manually set.
Above the PEDs are four analogue oil indicators: one for each engine. Each oil indicator
has three indicators: one for oil quantity, one for oil pressure and one for oil temperature.
A VIBN TEST button is above the oil indicators. It is used to test the vibration indication
circuits.
A FUEL QTY button is above the oil indicators. When no generated power is available,
and the button is pressed, the fuel quantity system and the PED fuel indicators are
powered from the battery 1 busbar.
FADEC Switches and Annunciators

The FADEC switches and annunciators are above the PEDs and are shown in Figure 3.4.
There are blue and white FADEC trim arrows for each engine above the PEDs. The
arrows indicate that the FADEC is out of trim authority. If a blue arrow is illuminated, the
associated thrust lever must be moved forward for the FADEC to regain authority. If a
white arrow is illuminated, the associated thrust lever must be moved aft for the FADEC to
regain authority.
Each FADEC has a switch containing two annunciators: a white OFF annunciator and an
amber FAULT annunciator. The switches are above the PEDs.
Each FADEC defaults to on when the aircraft is powered up. Subsequent presses on a
FADEC's switch toggle the FADEC between on and off.
If a FADEC fails, its amber FAULT annunciator illuminates together with a FADEC
caption on the CWP. If the failed FADEC is switched off, the FAULT annunciator
extinguishes and the OFF annunciator illuminates.

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AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Engines and APU

Chapter 2 Topic 3
Page6

Figure 3.4- Engine Indicators and FADEC Annunciators


FADEC fault annunciator
FADEC trim arrows

FAOEC o ff annunciator
,uo_ Q!'t

Yll3'1 I Elf

wt-02-ooon

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AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Engines and APU

Chapter 2 Topic 3
Page 7

T hrust Levers

The thrust levers are on the centre console. They are shown in Figure 3.5.
Each thrust lever has:

Two stops: FUEL OFF and IDLE. At FUEL OFF, the high pressure fuel flow to the
combustors is cut off. IDLE is the position for starting, ground idle and flight idle.
The engine's FADEC in conjunction with the FGC control the idle speed.

A trigger at the back of the thrust lever. The trigger is spring-loaded to up.
Pressing a trigger down allows its thrust lever to move aft of the IDLE stop and
forward of the FUEL OFF stop.

A red light above its trigger. The red light illuminates if a fire is detected in the
engine's pod or an overheat condition is detected in the engine's pylon.

A FUEL ON detent. The detent is only used when the engine is started with its
FADEC off.

Each outboard thrust lever has an autothrottle disconnect button. A brief press on either
button disconnects the autothrottle. If either button is pressed and held for more than three
seconds, the TMC is also turned off. Control is then directly through the FADECs.
Each inboard thrust lever has a TOGA button. The TOGA button is used:

To activate the take-off thrust mode and to engage the autothrottle for take-off.

To select the FGS go-around mode. The TOGA buttons are inactive above 2 000 ft
radio altitude.

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Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Engines and APU

Chapter 2 Topic 3
Pages

Figure 3.5 - The Thrust Levers

Autothronle - - disconnect bunon


IDLE stop - - - FUEL ON detent ---4
FUEL OFF stop

--i~,.,..

TOGA buttons

Autothrottle disconnect button

Red lamps
wt -02-00078

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Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Engines and APU

Chapter 2 Topic 3
Page9

Engines Panel

The engines panel is shown in Figure 3.6. The panel is on the centre of the overhead
panel.
The START PWR switch selects the electrical source of power for engine starting on the
ground. The START SELECT switch is used to select the engine to be started for both
ground and flight starts.
The START MASTER is only used for ground starts and for engine motoring on the
ground. When the switch is at ON, power is supplied to a start busbar. The engine starter
motors are powered via the start busbar. The START PWR ON annunciator indicates that
the start busbar is powered.
Each engine has two igniters: an A igniter and a B igniter. Just one of the igniters or both
the igniters may be used for ground starting. The igniters are automatically turned on and
off in the ground start sequence. A GRND IGN switch, on the AVIONICS overhead panel,
is used to select the igniters to be used for a ground start. The switch does not affect a
flight start. Both igniters are always used for a flight start.
The ENG IGN A annunciator indicates that the A igniter for the selected engine is being
used for flight or ground starting. The ENG IGN B annunciator indicates that the B igniter
for the selected engine is being used for flight or ground starting.
The STARTER OPERATING annunciator indicates that voltage is sensed at the input to an
engine starter motor.
The ENGINE switch initiates a ground start sequence or ground motoring. The switch has
three positions: START, RUN and MOTOR. It is spring-loaded from START to RUN and
from MOTOR to RUN. A momentary selection to START, initiates a ground start. A
momentary selection to MOTOR, initiates a ground motoring cycle. The difference
between a motoring cycle and the start cycle is that the igniters are powered during the
start sequence but are not powered during motoring.
The FLT START switch is used for in-flight starting. When the switch is at ON, both the
igniters for the engine selected on the START SELECT switch are powered.
The igniters can also be used continuously. The CONT IGN A switch selects all the A
igniters on; the CONT IGN B switch selects all the B igniters on. The ENG IGN A and
ENG IGN B annunciators do not illuminate when continuous ignition is being used.
Each engine has an ENG ANT ICE switch at the bottom of the panel. Each switch controls
two valves: an intake valve and engine anti-ice valve. At ON, both the valves are open.
The intake valve takes hot air from the HP compressor to the intake; the engine anti-ice
valve takes hot air from the HP compressor to the engine itself.
Above each switch there are three annunciators: INTAKE HI PRESS, INTAKE LO PRESS
and ENG VLV NOT SHUT.
An INTAKE HI PRESS annunciator indicates that the pressure is higher than normal in the
associated intake. An INTAKE low pressure annunciator indicates that the pressure in the
associated intake is too low for adequate ice protection when the associated switch is ON.
An ENG VLV NOT SHUT annunciator, indicates that the associated engine anti-ice valve is
not shut.

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AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Engines and APU

Chapter 2 Topic 3
Page 10

Figure 3_6 - The Engines Panel

t-YI-02-00079

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AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Engines and APU

Chapter 2 Topic 3
Page 11

Engine Fire Protection

The engine fire protection panel is at the top of the overhead panel. The fire protection
panel is shown in Figure 3.7.
All aircraft have a fire detection loop A for each engine. An optional second loop is
available: loop B. If two loops are fitted for each engine, then four ENGINE FIRE DETECT
switches are fitted: one for each engine. Each switch selects the loop to be used for its
engine. There is a LOOP FAULT caption for each engine on the CWP. The caption
illuminates if the in-use loop fails. If two loops are fitted, then the other loop is selected.
Each engine has two fire extinguishers: extinguisher 1 and extinguisher 2. An engine's
extinguishers cannot be shared with another engine. Each extinguisher has an EXT USED
annunciator on the fire protection panel.
Each engine has a fire handle on the fire protection panel and a white FIRE HANDLE
caption on the CWP. Each fire handle is held in place by a detent. A strong pull is
required to pull the fire handle out of the detent; the handle then stops at a baulk. The
associated FIRE HANDLE caption illuminates when the handle is at the baulk. Rotating
the handle clockwise clears the baulk. The handle can then be pulled all the way out; the
handle straightens as it is pulled fully out. When the handle is fully out:

The low-pressure fuel supply to the associated engine is cut-off.

The air, and electrical or hydraulic supplies from the engine are turned off.

When the fire handle is fully out:

Rotating it go o anticlockwise discharges the associated extinguisher 1.

Rotating it go o clockwise discharges the associated extinguisher 2.

Warning of an engine fire is given by:

A fire bell.

An ENG FIRE caption for the associated engine on the CWP.

A red lamp on the associated fire handle.

A red lamp on the associated thrust lever.

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Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Engines and APU

Chapter 2 Topic 3
Page 12

Figure 3-1 - Engine Fire Protection Panel

,.--.,,-. ,.~
f I J!. t!l

H~~-.r) r

t;

'I!Y!

FUEL OFF
AIR OFF
GEN OFF

FUEL OFF
AIR OFF
HYOOFF

EXT....__..EXT
, ....----. 2

EXT....__.. EXT
1...----. 2

iY1.0200080

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AVRO 146-RJ Series

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Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Engines and APU

Chapter 2 Topic 3
Page 13

APU Overview

A Garrett 150 APU or a Sundstrand APU is fitted. The flight deck placard states which
APU is fitted.
The APU is a single shaft gas turbine engine. A single stage radial turbine drives a single
stage compressor and an accessory gearbox. The APU runs at constant speed: around
60,000 rpm. Figure 3.8 is an overview schematic.
The flight deck APU panel contains:

A START/STOP switch and a FIRE EXT switch.

All the APU annunciators.

An RPM indicator and an EGT indicator. The Garrett EGT indicators are labelled
TGT.

An APU OVSPD test button is on the flight deck GRND TEST panel. An APU STOP switch
is in the air conditioning bay; an APU EM ERG STOP switch is at the refuel station.
The APU is housed in a fireproof compartment at the rear of the aircraft, just aft of the air
conditioning bay.
A fire detection system detects high temperature in the fireproof compartment. A fire
extinguisher, in the air conditioning bay, can be discharged into the fireproof compartment.
A fire warning annunciator is on the APU panel; the warning is repeated on the CWP.
The APU provides power in two ways:

Shaft power to drive an AC generator. The generator supplies 115/200 V 3-phase


power at 400HZ to the aircraft main AC busbars.

Pneumatic power, in the form of compressed air, to the aircraft air supply system.

The generator is controlled by an APU GEN switch on the ELECTRIC panel.


The APU air is supplied via an APU air valve controlled by an APU AIR switch on the
AIR SUPPLY panel. Below the switch is an APU VLV NOT SHUT annunciator.
An APU NRV LEAK annunciator, on the APU panel, indicates that air from the main engine
air supply ducting is leaking into the APU air supply ducting.
A green APU PWR AVAILABLE annunciator indicates that the APU is ready to deliver
generated and pneumatic power (the ready to load signal).
In addition to the generator, the accessory gearbox drives:

An oil pump to pre-ssurise the accessory gearboxJs self contained oil system!

A fan to blow air through an oil cooler.

A fuel pump to supply fuel to the APU fuel system.

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Engines and APU

Chapter 2 Topic 3
Page 14

The APU has a DC starter motor which is used for both ground and in-flight starts. The
starter motor turns the turbine shaft through the accessory gearbox.
Many APU functions are electronically controlled: for example, starting and automatic shut
down. Electronic control of the APU is managed by an electronic control unit (ECU); the
equivalent in the Sundstrand APU is the electronic sequencing unit (ESU). The ECU and
ESU are located in the rear of the air conditioning bay.
Figure 3.8 - APU Overview Schematic

APU bay
fireproof compartment

Main ac
busbars

APU
Single shaft
gas turbine

.S!

g.

0
0

&;;

....

Fire
ext

EGT

Start & ruo

+_

RPM

_+

Pressure
switch

ELECTRONICS

Start
RPM TGT/EGT

APU OVSPO

START

run n -Open/shut

---u
STOP

APU fuel
vaJve

Aircraft Fuel
System

Valve not
in position
selected
1-vl.o:l-00036

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Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Engines and APU

Chapter 2 Topic 3
Page 15

APU Panel

The APU panel is shown in Figure 3.9; the panel is drawn with the Sundstrand standard of
annunciators, EGT indicator and RPM indicator.
The only difference between the annunciator configurations is that the Garrett APU has an
OIL LO PRESS annunciator rather than an AUTO SHUTDOWN annunciator.
The APU FIRE annunciator indicates that a fire has been detected in the APU bay;
automatic shutdown will take place on the ground but not in the air. A repeat of the fire
warning is given on the CWP.
The LOOP FAULT annunciator indicates that a fault has been detected in the APU fire
loop.
When the APU FIRE TEST button on the GRND TEST panel is pressed, the APU fire loop
is tested; a successful test is indicated by all the fire warnings being given and the
LOOP FAULT annunciator illuminating.
The APU EXT USED annunciator indicates that the fire extinguisher has been discharged
by the FIRE EXT switch circuit.
The FIRE EXT switch just discharges the fire extinguisher. The switch is guarded by a
flap.
The APU PWR AVAILABLE annunciator indicates that the APU is ready to take loads from
the generator and the air supply system.
The APU OIL LO PRESS annunciator indicates that the Garrett accessory gearbox oil
pressure is less than 31 psi.
The AUTO SHUTDOWN annunciator indicates that the Sundstrand APU has been
automatically shut down by its electronic controller.
The APU FUEL LO PRESS annunciator indicates that pressure is low at the input to the
APU fuel system.
The APU FUEL VALVE annunciator indicates that the valve is not in the demanded
position. The valve is demanded closed if the START/STOP switch is at STOP or an
emergency shutdown occurs. The valve is demanded open if the START/STOP switch is
at START and an emergency shutdown signal is not present.
The APU NRV leak annunciator indicates that engine air is leaking into the APU air supply
duct.
Setting the START/STOP switch to START, powers the electronic controller and initiates
the start sequence; the switch remains at START during running. Selecting STOP, stops
the APU and removes power from the electronic controller. On some Sundstrand APUs,
power remains on the electronic controller for 60 seconds after STOP is selected.
A baulk prevents inadvertent selection of START.

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AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Engines and APU

Chapter 2 Topic 3
Page 16

Figure 3.9 - APU Panel

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AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Engines and APU

Chapter 2 Topic 3
Page 17

Power for the Aircraft Systems

The power taken from the engines and APU to supply the aircraft systems is shown
schematically in Figure 3.1 0.
The outboard engines drive electrical generators. Engine 1 drives generator 1 (GEN 1)
and engine 4 drives generator 4 (GEN 4). The APU also drives a generator (APU GEN).
The inboard engines drive hydraulic pumps. Engine 2 drives
(ENG 2 PUMP). Engine 3 drives engine 3 pump (ENG 3 PUMP).

engine 2

pump

The engine driven generators and pumps are numbered according to the driving engine.
Each engine supplies hot pressurised air to the aircraft air supply system. The APU also
supplies hot pressurised air to the aircraft air supply system.
The electrical system has two channels: channel 1 and channel 2. GEN 1 normally
supplies the main AC busbar in channel 1: AC BUS 1. GEN 4 normally supplies the main
AC busbar in channel2: AC BUS 2. The APU GEN acts as an auxiliary power source for
the main AC busbars.

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AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Engines and APU

Chapter 2 Topic 3
Page 18

Figure 3.10 - Power for the Systems


Yellow Hydraulic System

Green Hydraulic System

Electrical system
channol1

1r..i'
r---0

Eledrical system
channel 2

ENG2
PUMP

ENG3
PUMP

II

lyuyl

-1.

GEN1

" ()----,
GEN4

~--------------------~ APUGEN ~--------------------~

Electrical power from the outboard engines and the APU ]

!P neumatic power from all four engines and the APU

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Powe-r Source-s
The electrical power sources contained within the aircraft are shown in Figure 4.2. The
external power sources are shown in Figure 4.1 .
The outboard engines drive electrical generators. Engine 1 drives generator 1 (GEN 1);
engine 4 drives generator 4 (GEN 4). The APU drives the APU generator (APU GEN). All
three generators are the same; they provide three-phase AC at 115/200 V and 400 Hz. An
external AC source (EXT AC) can be connected to the aircraft. The connection point is on
the right side of the aircraft's nose. EXT AC provides three phase AC at 115/200 V and
400 Hz. The three generators and EXT AC are the main sources of AC power.
A standby generator is in the hydraulic bay. The standby generator is driven by a hydraulic
motor. The hydraulic motor is powered by the green hydraulic system. The standby
generator provides AC and DC power. The AC output is three-phase at 115/200 V and
400 Hz. The DC output is 28 V. The standby generator is intended for use when all the
main AC power sources have failed.
A standby inverter is in the avionics bay. The inverter is DC powered and supplies single
phase AC . There are two outputs: 26 V and 115 V.
One or two batteries are in the avionics bay: BATT 1 and BATT 2. The batteries are lead
acid or nickel-cadmium.
A 28 V external DC source (EXT DC) can be connected to the aircraft. The connection
point is on the right side of the aircraft between the hydraulic bay door and the forward
cargo bay door. The EXT DC is only used for engine starting and APU starting. However,
either EXT AC or the APU GEN is normally used to start the engines.
Figure 4.1 - External Power Sources

0
External DC Connection
Only used for:
,. Engine starting
AND

Extemal AC Connection
3-phase AC

,. APU starting

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Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Electrical Power

Chapter 2 Topic 4
Page 2

Figure 4.2 - Aircraft Electrical Power Sources


Generator4
Driven by engine 4
3-phase AC

'

APU Generator
Driven by the APU
3-phase AC

Onoor two
batteries

Generator 1
Driven by engine 1
3-phase AC

Standby Inverter
Single phase AC

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AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Electrical Power

Chapter 2 Topic 4
Page3

Busbars

The aircraft services are supplied via a network of busbars. The busbars are shown in
Figure 4.3. Some busbars supply DC power, others supply AC power. There are eight
principal busbars:

Four main bus bars - AC BUS 1 & 2 and DC BUS 1 & 2.

Two essential busbars - ESS AC & ESS DC.

Two emergency busbars- EMERG AC and EMERG DC.

Each of the principal busbars has an OFF amber annunciator on the ELECTRICS panel.
A start busbar supplies power to the APU and engine electric starter motors. Whenever
the start busbar is powered, a START PWR ON white annunciator illuminates on the
ENGINES panel.
A ground service busbar allows domestic servicing and maintenance to be carried out with
all other busbars unpowered. The ground service busbar is a sub-busbar of AC BUS 2.
However the ground service busbar can be connected directly to the EXT AC supply
leaving the rest of the aircraft busbars unpowered. There is no indication of the status of
the ground service busbar on the flight deck.
A battery 1 bus bar is directly connected to BAn 1. A battery 2 busbar is directly
connected to BATT 2. The battery busbars do not have fail annunciators on the flight deck.

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AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Electrical Power

Chapter 2 Topic 4
Page 4

Figure 4_3 - Busbars

AC BUS 2
OFF

The essential AC busbar


The ground services busbar

GROUND SERVICES BUS

The emergency AC busbar


. - - - - - Two main DC busbars - - - - - - - ,
The emergency
DC busbar

The essential
DC busbar

The battery 1 bus bar


BATT1 BUS

BATT 'II

The battery 2 bus bar


BATT2 BUS

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AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Electrical Power

Chapter 2 Topic 4
Page 5

Normal Distribution

The normal electrical distribution is shown in Figure 4.4.


The two main AC busbars are supplied, via a bus-tie and transfer system, by one or two of
the following : GEN 1, GEN 4, the APU GEN, EXT AC.
The engine generators are the preferred supplies; the APU GEN and EXT AC are auxiliary
supplies. Only one auxiliary supply can be used at a time. The APU GEN takes priority
over the EXT AC.
AC BUS 1 normally feeds ESS AC; ESS AC normally feeds EMERG AC.
Transformer rectifiers (TRs) convert the main ACto DC. The TRs power the two main DC
busbars. AC BUS 1 powers DC BUS 1 via TR 1. AC BUS 2 powers DC BUS 2 via TR 2.
The main DC busbars are normally connected by a bus-tie.
DC BUS 2 normally supplies the ESS DC BUS. The EMERG DC BUS is normally supplied
by DC BUS 1 and the ESS DC BUS.
The batteries are directly connected to their respective battery busbars. The battery
busbars are connected to EMERG DC. The batteries are normally charged through
EMERG DC via the individual battery busbars.

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Electrical Power

Chapter 2 Topic 4
Page6

Figure 4-4 - Normal Distribution


There are four sources of power for the main AC bus bars
GEN 1

APUGEN

EXTAC

The power Is connec.ted to the main AC busbars by a bus-tle and transfer system

,
I

,,
I
.....

The main AC busbars

ACBUS1

3-phase AC, 1151200 volts, 400Hz

ESSAC BUS

-!'":EMERG AC BUS I

3-phaseAC
1151200 volts
400Hz

I GRND SERVICES BUS I

Single phase AC
11 5 volts
400Hz

3-phase AC
1151200 volts
400Hz

,,

Transformer reetifiers convert the 3-phase AC


to
28 volt DC

TR1

AC BUS2

-AC BUS 2 supplies:-

AC BUS 1 supplies:

TR2

1-

DC BUS 1

The TRs supply the main DC busbars

The main DC busbars are


normally connec.ted by a bus-tle

DC BUS2

Ji

DC 2 supplies the essential DC busbar


The emergency DC busbar is supplied by
DC BUS 1 and the' essential DC busbar

EMERGDCBUS

BATT 1 BUS

II

BATT 2 BUS

BATT1

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BATT2

I
I

ESSDC BUS

The battery busbars are supplied


by the emergency DC busber
The batteries are charged
via the battery busbar

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Electrical Power

Chapt er 2 Topic 4
Page 7

Standby Generator
The standby generator is shown schematically in Figure 4.5.
The standby generator is driven by the green hydraulic system. It supplies both AC and
DC power. The standby generator provides a backup source of power for the essential
and the emergency DC busbars.

If both the main AC busbars fail, the standby generator automatically starts and powers the
essential and emergency busbars; the battery is automatically disconnected from the
emergency DC busbar; so the battery is not being charged. This condition is known as the
essential power level. Although the battery is not being charged, there is no flight time
limitat ion because the loads on the battery are low or of short duration.
At the essential power level, the services available are limited but adequate.
Figure 4.5 - Standby Generator
Green Hydraulics
3-phase AC, 115/200 volts, 400 Hz

-----1:

AC

I STBY GEN I

28 volt DC

DC

!- ---...

,
IQe~s~s~A~c~B~u~sor-.....=~: EMERGAc Bus 1
,~

I EMERG DC BUS I ,,____~'--E_s_s_o_c_'e_u_s_,


The standby generator supplies the essential and the emergency busbars

BATI 2 BUS

BATT 1

The battery busbars are not connected to emergency DC


So the batteries are not being charged
The loads on the battery busbars are small or of short duration
There is no flight time limitation

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Electrical Power

Chapter 2 Topic 4
Pages

Standby Inverter
The standby inverter is shown schematically in Figure 4.6.
The standby inverter supplies single phase AC. The standby inve rter is powered from the
emergency DC busbar. The standby inverter is normally not powered.
Normally, the emergency AC busbar is supplied from the essential AC busbar. If the
essential AC busbar fails, the standby inverter automatically starts and powers the
emergency AC busbar.
Figure 4.6 - Standby Inverter
Normally, the emergency AC busbar is supplied from the essential AC busbar

-IJIIII EMERG AC BUS I

rl"EeissS.AA<c;!BiluiSs~
l

If the essent ial AC busbar fails, the s tandby inverter automatically starts
and supplies th e emergency AC busbar
The standby inverter is powered by the Emergency DC busbar

ESSAC BUS

IEMERG AC BUS I
~

ESS AC
O FF

AC
STBYINV

EMERG DC BUS

iV10200044

Electrical System Channels


The electrical system has two channels: channel 1 and channel 2.
The following are in channel 1:

AC BUS 1 and DC BUS 1.

The ESS DC BUS and the ESS AC BUS.

The EMERG DC BUS and the EMERG AC BUS.

GEN 1, TR 1, the STBY GEN, the STBY INV and the batteries.

The following are in channel 2:

AC BUS 2 and DC BUS 2.

GEN 4 and TR 2.

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Chapt er 2 Topic 4
Page9

Bus-tie Switches

Bus-tie switches on the ELECTRICS panel allow the system to be split into channel 1 and
channel 2. The APU and the EXT AC are not confined to either channel and so are still
able to power both main busbars when the AC bus-tie is open.
Batteries

The batteries are shown schematically in Figure 4.7.


The batteries are normally connected to the emergency DC busbar.
The emergency DC busbar is normally supplied from the TRs via the main DC busbars.
The emergency AC busbar is normally supplied from the essential AC busbar.
If both the main AC busbars fail, the TRs will be lost; so the main DC busbars will also be
lost. If the standby generator also fails, both the essential busbars will also be lost. The
batteries then power the emergency DC busbar. The emergency DC busbar powers the
emergency AC busbar via the standby inverter. This condition is known as the emergency
power level. If one battery is available, it will last for at least 30 minutes. If two batteries
are available, they will last for at least 60 minutes.
The services available at the emergency power level are extremely limited.
Figure 4.7 - Batteries

IIEMERG AC BUS I

~
AC
STBY INV

1!.

BATT 1 BUS

BATT 2 BUS

BATT1

BATT 2

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Electrical Power

Chapter 2 Topic 4
Page 10

Electrically Operated Valves

There are two types of electrically operated valves: motorised valves and solenoid
operated valves.
Motorised Valves

A motorised valve is turned by an electric motor. Power is supplied to the valve from a DC
busbar via a switch. When the valve reaches the selected position, power is automatically
removed from the valve and the valve remains at the selected position.

If electrical power is lost, the valve remains in its position at the time power was lost. If the
valve was open when the busbar was lost, the valve remains open regardless of the
position of the switch. If the valve was shut when the busbar was lost, the valve remains
shut regardless of the position of the switch.
The abnormal and emergency checklist uses the phrase "valve fails in position at time of
power loss" for motorised valves.
Solenoid Operated Valves

Solenoids are two-position devices. They are powered from the DC busbars via switches.
The solenoids operate the valves mechanically.
The solenoids are spring-loaded to the power off position. So the valve automatically
moves to the power off position when power is lost.
Some solenoids move the valve to the valve shut position when power is lost. Others
move the valve to the open position when power is lost.
If a valve is powered to the open position, it will fail to the shut position when power is lost
regardless of the position of the switch. If a valve is powered to the shut position, it will fail
to the open position when power is lost regardless of the position of the switch.
If the valve is powered to the open position, the abnormal and emergency checklist uses
the phrase "valve fails to the shut position".

If the valve is powered to the shut position, the abnormal and emergency checklist uses
the phrase "valve fails to the open position".

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Electrical Power

Chapter 2 Topic 4
Page 11

Flight Deck Panel

A panel for an aircraft with nickel-cadmium batteries and a Garrett APU is shown in Figure
4.8.
The bottom part of the panel contains:

A switch for each main generator.

Fail annunciators for the main generators.

Ammeters for the main generators.

A switch for the main AC power to the galleys.

Above the fail annunciators for the generators there is a row of switches. The row
contains:

A switch for the external AC.

A switch for the AC bus-tie.

A switch for the DC bus-tie.

A switch for the standby inverter.

A switch for the standby generator.

Above the row or switches is a bank of annunciators containing:

The eight busbar OFF annunciators.

Battery no charge and battery high temperature annunciators.

An external AC power available annunciator.

A standby generator on annunciator.

Above the annunciators are two AC meters: voltage and frequency. Between the meters is
a switch to select the source for the meters.
Above the AC voltmeter is a DC voltmeter. To the right of the voltmeter is a switch to
select the source for the DC voltmeter.
The battery switches are to the right of the DC voltmeter switch.
There are three ammeters at the top of the panel: one for each TR and a battery ammeter.
The TR ammeters are always connected to the TR. The battery ammeter indicates the
current through the battery selected on the DC voltmeter switch. The battery ammeter has
a negative and a positive sector. The negative sector indicates that the battery is
discharging. The positive sector indicates that the battery is being charged.

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Electrical Power

Chapter 2 Topic 4
Page 12

Figure 4.8 - Flight Deck Panel

;. .,, -02-0008 '

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Po w e-r Source-s

The hydraulic power sources are shown in Figure 5. 1.


There are two hydraulic systems: yellow and green.
The two inboard engines drive hydraulic pumps. Engine 2 drives ENG 2 pump. Engine 3
drives ENG 3 pump. ENG 2 pump is the normal source of hydraulic power for the yellow
system. ENG 3 pump is the normal source of hydraulic power for the green system.
Each hydraulic system has an auxiliary pump.
The auxiliary pump for the yellow system is a pump driven by an AC powered electric
motor. The pump is called the AC pump; it is powered by AC BUS 1. The AC pump is
available provided any main AC power source is available. At the essential and
emergency power levels, the AC pump is not available.
The auxiliary pump for the green system is a power transfer unit (PTU). The power
transfer unit is a hydraulic motor mechanically driving a hydraulic pump. The motor is
driven by the yellow system ; the pump is in the green system. The PTU can only function
as the auxiliary pump for the green system if the yellow system is serviceable.
ENG 2 pump and the AC pump can power all the services in the yellow system. The
yellow system has one more pump: a pump powered by a DC powered electric motor. The
pump is called the DC pump; it is powered by EMERG DC. The DC pump only supplies
two services: a yellow brake system and a gear emergency lowering assister strut.

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Hydraulic Power

Chapter 2 Topic 5
Page 2

Figure 5.1 - Hydraulic Power Sources

Hydraulic Bay

.
ENG 3 Pump

Driven by engine J
Powered by
AC BUS 1
Green System

ENG 2 Pump
Driven by engine 2

Powered by
EMERG DC

ACPump

DC Pump

Powers the
yellow system

Powers part
of the
yellow system

Yellow System

l==e!

Yellow brakes and gear


emergency lowering
l-'1 10200047

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Chapter 2 Topic 5
Page3

Hydraulic Services

The hydraulic services are shown in Figure 5.2.


The rudder is hydraulically powered. The rudder has two hydraulic actuators. One is
powered by the yellow system; the other is powered by the green system. Either actuator
provides adequate control of the rudder.
The roll spoilers are hydraulically powered. Each roll spoiler has a hydraulic actuator
powered by the yellow system.
The flaps are driven by two hydraulic motors. One motor is powered by the yellow system;
the other motor is powered by the green system. Normally both motors are used. If only
one motor is available, the flaps can still be operated over their full range, but they operate
at half their normal speed.
The flaps are monitored for faults; for some faults, it is important that the flaps are locked in
position. The outboard end of each flap shaft can be locked by a hydraulic brake. The
brakes are operated to the on condition by yellow hydraulic power.
There are three lift spoiler panels on each wing: inner, centre and outboard. Each panel is
operated by a hydraulic jack. The inner spoiler jacks are powered by the yellow system;
the centre and outer spoiler jacks are powered by the green system.
The fuel system uses jet pumps to transfer fuel. The motive flow for these jet pumps
normally comes from AC driven electrical pumps. If the electrical pumps fail, standby
pumps provide the motive flow for some of the jet pumps. There are two standby pumps.
One pump is in the left wing; the other pump is in the right wing. The standby pumps are
driven by hydraulic motors. The motors are powered by the yellow system.
Each leg of the landing gear has a hydraulically powered jack that is used for normal
extension and retraction. These jacks are powered by the green system. Power is
directed to the jacks by an electrically operated valve. The valve is powered by
DC BUS 2. There is also an emergency lowering system. The emergency lowering of the
main gear is hydraulically assisted by an assister strut. The strut is operated by a hydraulic
jack powered by the yellow system.
The nose wheel has a steering actuator. It is powered by the green system.
There is one set of hydraulically powered wheel brakes. The wheel brakes can be
powered by the yellow system or the green system. The required system is selected by a
switch on the centre console. Either system provides adequate braking to stop the aircraft.
The yellow system is used to set the brakes for parking. The green system cannot be used
to set the brakes for parking. When engine 2 is not running and the main busbars are not
powered, the DC pump is the only source of power to set the parking brake.
The standby generator is in the hydraulic bay. The standby generator provides AC and DC
power. The standby generator is driven by a hydraulic motor powered by the green
system. Whenever the standby generator is signalled to run, power to the other green
services is automatically turned off by a green system isolation valve.

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Hydraulic Power

Chapter 2 Topic 5
Page 4

Figure 5.2 - Hydraulic Services


When the standby generator is running,
the rest of the green system ls turned off
Electrical standby generator

Standby fuel pump

[ Flap motor

Contra and outer lilt spoiler

~ Inner lift spoiler

Roll spoiler

Rudder actuator

One set of wheel brakes

Green brake system

Nosewheel steering

[Emergency gear loweri~


Either brake system can stop the aircraft

Either ruddet' actuator provides adequate control of the rudder

If only one ftap motor Is available, the ftaps run at half speed
but can be openrteod over the full normal range

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Hydraulic Power

Chapter 2 Topic 5
Page 5

Hydraulic Panel

The hydraulic panel is shown in Figure 5.3. Yellow system switches, indicators and
annunciators are on the left; green system switches, indicators and annunciators are on the
right.
At the bottom of the panel, there is a row of pump switches: one for each pump. There are
five switches: ENG 2 PUMP, DC PUMP, AC PUMP, PTU and ENG 3 PUMP.
Each system has a reservoir in the hydraulic bay. A quantity indicator for each reservoir is
at the top of the panel.
There is a pressure indicator for each system at the top of the panel.
There are two rows of annunciators in the middle of the panel.
Each system has the following annunciators: LO QTY, HI TEMP, AIR LO PRESS and
LO PRESS.
A LO QTY annunciator means that the level of fluid in the associated reservoir is too low.
A HI TEMP annunciator means that the temperature of the fluid leaving the associated
reservoir is too high.
Each reservoir is pressurised by air. An AIR LO PRESS annunciator means that the air
pressure in the associated reservoir is too low.
A LO PRESS annunciator means that the associated system hydraulic pressure is too low.
Each ENG PUMP switch controls a valve. Each valve has an ENG VALVE annunciator.
The ENG VALVE annunciators are NIPS annunciators.
There are two annunciators for the AC pump: AC PUMP HI TEMP and AC PUMP FAIL.
AC PUMP HI TEMP means that the temperature of the electrical motor driving the pump is
too high.
The AC PUMP FAIL annunciator means that the pump is not doing what it is commanded
to do.
The PTU is turned on and off by a valve in the line from the yellow system to the PTU's
hydraulic motor. The PTU valve is controlled by the PTU switch. A PTU VALVE
annunciator is above the PTU switch. The annunciator is a NIPS annunciator.
The yellow brake system has a brake accumulator. The brake accumulator:

Provides a store of energy for the yellow braking system.

Is used to hold the parking brake on when all the yellow system pumps are off.

A BRK ACC LO PRESS annunciator is above the DC PUMP switch. The annunciator
indicates that the pressure in the brake accumulator is too low.

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Hydraulic Power

Chapter 2 Topic 5
Page6

Figure 5_3 - Hydraulic Panel

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Po w e-r Source-s

The pneumatic power sources are shown schematically in Figure 6.1 .


Each engine supplies air from three outlets on the engine's HP compressor. Two outlets
are dedicated to protecting the engine from ice accretion; one of these takes hot air to the
engine intake; the other takes air to the engine's LP compressor and splitter lip. The
splitter divides the air leaving the engine's fan between the core flow and the bypass flow.
The third outlet is for the aircraft systems. The APU also supplies air to the aircraft
systems.
The aircraft air supply system has a left air supply system and a right air supply system.
The APU supplies both the left and the right system.
The air from the left engines supplies the left air supply system via non-return valves
(NRVs). The air from the right engines supplies the right air supply system via NRVs. The
NRV in each engine air supply prevents the engine compressor being back-fed by another
engine or the APU.
The supplies from the two left engines join together behind the left wing rear spar and then
pass through the spine of the aircraft to the air conditioning bay. The supplies from the two
right engines join together behind the right wing rear spar and then pass through the spine
of the aircraft to the air conditioning bay. The supplies from the engines meet the supply
from the APU in the air conditioning bay. The supply from the APU comes via three
NRVs. The NRVs in the APU supply:

Prevent the engines back-feeding the APU

AND

Divide the aircraft air supply into the left and the right systems.

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AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Pneumatic Power

Chapter 2 Topic 6
Page 2

Figure 6.1 - Power Sources

Engine Ice protection

Left air supply system

Intake Ice protection

Right air supply system

APU air supply

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Pneumatic Power

Chapter 2 Topic 6
Page3

Aircraft Air Supply System

An overview of the aircraft air supply system is shown in Figure 6.2.


Air, from each engine compressor, passes to the services via the engine's pylon. The
pylon contains an engine air valve; the valve regulates the pressure of the air and acts as a
shut-off valve.
The hot air from the engine compressor is cooled in a precooler just downstream of the
engine air valve. The cooling medium for the precooler is engine fan air from the engine
bypass duct.
A temperature control system regulates the temperature of the compressor supply by
controlling the amount of fan air that passes through the heat exchanger.
Some services are supplied from upstream of the valve: the upstream services. The
remainder are supplied from downstream of the valve: the downstream services.
A non-return valve (NRV) downstream of each temperature regulator, prevents air from
another engine entering the pylon bleed system.
The air supply system downstream of the engine air valves is divided into two parts: left
and right.
The sides are normally isolated from each other. Engine 1 and engine 2 normally feed the
left side; engine 3 and engine 4 feed the right side. The APU air is supplied to both sides.
The tail ice protection system has two on-off valves. When both are open, the left and right
sides are connected.
An engine's upstream services will function regardless of the position of its engine air
valve, provided the engine is running.
Air from the APU compressor is supplied via an APU air valve; the valve acts as a shut-off
valve.
Engine air is prevented from entering the APU supply duct by two NRVs. If either NRV
fails, a third NRV prevents engine air reaching the APU compressor.

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AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Pneumatic Power

Chapter 2 Topic 6
Page 4

Figure 6.2 - Airc raft Air Supply System Overview


Each engine air valve acts as a pressure regulator and a stlut-()ff vat~
.--EN
- G
_ 1 _H_P-.,

...

ENG 2 HP

ENG 3 H P

~\-~~
-~G4_
H_
P ___,

compressor

ressor

ENG2AIR

VALVE

Precooler

Precooler

Precooler

Precooler

NRVs prevent cur from


another engtne Of ltle
APU entering the
engine supply dLICls

When both tail ant ioe valves are open.


the left and right sides are connected

Tail ant-ice valve 1

Tail ant-ice val ve 2

left air supply

Right a1r supply


downsweam
service~

downsiJeam
s-ervices

NRV:s A and B

p~event engine air enteri ng the APU supply du~

L--------{~
- ~--~--~~~======~
B

Engme a1r supply


APU

rur Sllpply

left air supply

APUAIR
VALVE

Right air supply

NRV C prewnts engine a r from


reaching the APU compressor if
either A or B leaks.

--,

APU air 11alve acts as a J)(essure


regulator and a shut-()ff valve. ____.

NRV

~Y1 Q2.000St

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AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Pneumatic Power

Chapter 2 Topic 6
Page 5

Aircraft Air Supply Services

A summary of the aircraft air supply services is shown in Figure 6.3.


The prime users of the aircraft air supply system are the air conditioning packs and the
wing and tail ice protection system.
Hot high pressure air enters the air conditioning packs. Temperature controlled air leaves
the packs for air conditioning and pressurisation.
The air from the air conditioning packs leaves the aircraft via discharge valves. On some
aircraft, these valves are called outflow valves. The valves are electrically signalled by the
pressurisation system but pneumatically powered by the air supply system.
Hot high pressure air is used to protect the leading edges of the wing and the tailplane
from ice accretion.
The water tank is below the cabin floor; the tank is pressurised to push water up to the
galleys and toilets.
Both hydraulic reservoirs are pressurised to prevent hydraulic pump cavitation.
Each toilet's flushing system is pneumatically powered.
The stall protection system pushes the stick forward to identify the stall. The stick is
pushed forward by a stick push ram. The ram is pneumatically powered.

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Pneumatic Power

Chapter 2 Topic 6
Page6

Figure 6.3 - Aircraft Air Supply Service Summary

I
Front toilet flush

Power for the stick push ram

Water tank pressurisation

UU

,.----..,

Front outflow or discharge valve

II
Hydraulic reservoir pressurisation

Wing leading edge


ice protection

Rear outflow or discharge valve


Rear toilet flush
Supply to the air
conditioning packs

Tail leading edge

ice protection

i-v1-02-00052

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Pneumatic Power

Chapter 2 Topic 6
Page 7

Division of the Air Supply Services

The division of the air supply services are shown in Figure 6.4. They can be divided into
two groups: those upstream of the engine air valve and those downstream of the engine air
valve. The downstream services are divided into those supplied by the left air supply
system and those supplied by the right air supply system.
The air supply services upstream of the engine air valves are:

For engine 2, the pressurisation of the yellow hydraulic reservoir and the stick push
ram.

For engine 3, the pressurisation of the green hydraulic reservoir and the stick push
ram.

The air supply services downstream of the engine air valves are:

The wing and tail ice protection.

The air conditioning packs.

The servo power to change the air conditioning mode from fresh to recirculation.

The operating power for the pressurisation discharge valves (called outflow valves
for some systems).

The water tank pressurisation.

Toilet flush.

The discharge valves and the water tank pressurisation are supplied via a shuttle valve.
The left and right systems supply the shuttle valve. The system with the highest pressure
will supply the discharge valves and the water tank pressurisation.
Air conditioning pack 1 is supplied by the left system; air conditioning pack 2 is supplied by
the right system.
The air conditioning mode servo power is supplied by the right system; the toilet flush is
supplied by the left system.
The left wing ice protection is normally supplied by the left wing engines; the right wing ice
protection is normally supplied by the right wing engines. The tail ice protection is normally
supplied by all the engines.
APU air can be supplied to all the downstream services, but the APU air must not be used
for airframe ice protection.

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AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Pneumatic Power

Chapter 2 Topic 6
Pages

Figure 6.4 - Division of the Air Supply Services


Right Wing Ice protection

LAlit wing Ice protection

ENG 1

\ supply

ENG2

ENG4
\ supply

ENG 3
\ supply

Green hydraulic reservoir

Ycllow hyd<&"lic ....,""'''

Shuttle valve

] ==========!

Wate r tank

Pressurization
d;scharge valves

' RECIRCIFRESH

t - -'1 Toilet flush

election

PACK2

VALVE
l

Air
Conditioning
Pack 1

APU \

j supply

Conditioning
PacJs 2
1-\11-02.00053

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Pneumatic Power

Chapter 2 Topic 6
Page9

Air Supply Panel

The air supply panel is shown in Figure 6.5.


At the bottom of the panel is a switch for each engine air valve.
Above each switch is an ENG AIR VALVE annunciator. The ENG AIR VALVE
annunciators are NIPS annunciators. Above each NIPS annunciator is an
ENG AIR FAULT annunciator.
The ENG AIR FAULT annunciators indicate that there is a fault in the associated pylon
bleed system. The faults are:

Temperature too low for ice protection.

Temperature too high.

Pressure too high.

A switch for the APU air valve is at the top left of the panel. Below the switch is an
APU VLV NOT SHUT annunciator. The APU VLV NOT SHUT annunciator illuminates if
the valve is commanded to close but is not closed.
Leaks from the air supply system are detected by temperature switches and fire-wires.
The fire-wires are known as loops. There are two loops along each wing rear spar. Most
of the leak detectors are grouped into two zones: left and right.
There are two ZONE TEMP DETECT switches at the top right of the panel: one for the left
loops and one for the right loops. The switches select the loops(s) to be used by the
associated zone overheat detection system.
Two ZONE HI TEMP annunciators are below the switches: one for the left zone and one
for the right zone. The ZONE HI TEMP annunciators indicate that a hot air leak has been
detected in the associated zone.
The stick push system has a reservoir that stores enough energy for three pushes. A
STALL AIR LO PRESS annunciator is between the ZONE HI TEMP annunciators. The
STALL AIR LO PRESS annunciator indicates that the stall air reservoir pressure is too low.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Pneumatic Power

Chapter 2 Topic 6
Page 10

Figure 6.5 - Air supply Panel

AIR SUPPLY.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Pneumatic Power

Chapter 2 Topic 6
Page 11

Page Intentionally Blank

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

Function
The air condit ioning system pressurizes, ventilates and controls the temperature of bo1h
the flight deck compartment and the cabin compartment. Air from the engines or the APU
supplies two air conditioning packs: pack 1 and pack 2.
The packs are in the air conditioning bay at the rear of the aircraft. The packs supply a
distribution system as shown in Figure 7.1 .
Pack 1 is supplied by the APU or the left wing engines; pack 2 is supplied by the APU or
the right wing engines. Pack 1 normally supplies the cabin and the flight deck. Pack 2
normally supplies just the cabin. If one pack fails, the other pack supplies both the flight
deck and the cabin.
The system has two modes of operation: fresh and recirculation. In the recirculation mode,
the flow from the engines or the APU to the packs is reduced and air is drawn from the rear
of the cabin into the fresh air delivery from each pack. A jet pump in each pack ou11et
induces the flow of air from the cabin via a recirculation valve to the pack ou11et.

Figure 7.1 - Distribution

Right wing engine


supply to pack 2

::;-::::;..-~r-- APU

supply to
both packs

~~~~~~7'~----Cabin supply
~J/._,'-- Flight deck suppty

Left wmg engine


supply to pack 1

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Air Conditioning

Chapter 2 Topic 7
Page2

Air Conditioning Panel

The air conditioning panel is shown in Figure 7.2.


Switches to control the pack valves are at the bottom of the panel. Above each pack valve
is a PACK VALVE annunciator. The PACK VALVE annunciators are NIPS annunciators.
Each pack has a cold air unit (CAU). In the process of making cold air, the CAU also
produces hot air. A CAU HI TEMP annunciator is above each NIPS annunciator. A
CAU HI TEMP annunciator indicates that the hot air produced by the associated CAU has
become too hot.
A PACK HI TEMP annunciator is above each CAU HI TEMP annunciator. A
PACK HI TEMP annunciator indicates that the temperature of the air leaving the
associated pack has become too hot.
To the left of the PACK switches, there is a RECIRC switch. The RECIRC switch switches
the packs between the recirculation and the fresh mode. There is a RECIRC VALVE NIPS
annunciator above the switch.
To the right of the PACK switches, there is a RAM AIR switch. The RAM AIR switch
operates the ram air valve. A RAM AIR VALVE NIPS annunciator is above the switch.
The avionics in the avionics bay are cooled by a fan. Some aircraft have two fans, but only
one fan is used at a time. An AVIONICS FAN OFF annunciator indicates that the in-use
fan has failed.
The EFIS display units on the instrument panels are cooled by fans . The aircraft has two
inertial reference systems: IRS 1 and IRS 2. Each IRS has its own cooling fan. An
EFIS/IRS FAN FAIL annunciator is below the AVIONICS FAN OFF annunciator. The
EFIS/IRS FAN FAIL annunciator illuminates if any EFIS fan or IRS fan fails. Individual fan
fail annunciators are on the bottom of the right instrument panel.
A REAR BAY HI TEMP annunciator indicates that there is a leak of hot air into the air
conditioning bay.
The temperature controls and indicators are at the top of the panel. Each pack has a duct
delivery temperature indicator and three temperature controls. The controls and indicator
for pack 1 are labelled FLT DECK TEMP CTRL; the controls and indicator for pack 2 are
labelled CABIN TEMP CTRL. The controls are:

A mode-switch to select either manual or automatic temperature control.

A rotary control to select the required compartment temperature when automatic


control is selected. For pack 1 the associated compartment is the flight deck; for
pack 2, the associated compartment is the cabin.

A three-position switch to manually position a temperature control valve when


manual control is selected.

A cabin temperature indicator indicates the temperature in the forward cabin.


A FLIGHT DECK FAN switch controls a flight deck louvre fan. A CABIN FAN switch
controls a cabin louvre fan.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Air Conditioning

Chapter 2 Topic 7
Page3

Figure 7_2 - Air Conditioning Panel

FCOM:V1-002

lliiiiliiiiiiil

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Air Conditioning

Chapter 2 Topic 7
Page4

Pressurisation

The pressurisation system may be either semi-automatic or fully automatic. There are two
types of semi-automatic system: one for aircraft certificated to a maximum altitude of
31 000 ft and another for aircraft certificated to a maximum altitude of 33 000 ft.
The two semi-automatic systems are very similar. Each one has an automatic (AUTO)
mode and a manual (MAN) mode. In AUTO, it is necessary to set the required cabin
altitude and the required cabin altitude rate. In MAN, the position of the discharge valves is
controlled directly by a rotary position selector on the pressurisation panel. Cabin altitude,
cabin altitude rate and differential pressure are displayed on a single three pointer display
(the triple indicator). The indicator is on the right instrument panel.
There is only one fully automatic system. It has an AUTO mode and a MAN mode. In
AUTO, it is only necessary to set the landing field elevation. In MAN, the required cabin
altitude rate is set. When the required cabin altitude is achieved, the rate is set to zero. An
LCD display is on the right instrument panel; it displays four parameters: cabin altitude,
cabin altitude rate, differential pressure and landing field altitude.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

Landing Gear

A tricycle-type retractable landing gear is fitted. The main landing gear legs retract
sideways into the fuselage. The nose gear leg retracts forwards into a nose gear bay.
When the gear is retracted, doors enclose the three landing gear bays.
The flight deck controls are a normal selector and an emergency lowering lever. Normal
position indication is given by two annunciators for each leg: a green annunciator to
indicate that the leg is down and locked and a red annunciator to indicate that the leg is
unlocked. A green standby annunciator is fitted for each leg. The annunciator indicates
that the leg is down and locked. There are no standby unlocked indicators.
Normal lowering and raising of the gear is electrically signalled and hydraulically powered.
Normal operation requires electrical power from DC BUS 2 and hydraulic power from the
green hydraulic system.
Nosewheel steering is provided. On most aircraft, a steering tiller is provided for the
Captain and the First Officer. On some aircraft, a tiller is provided only for the Captain.
The nosewheel steering is powered by the green hydraulic system.
Emergency lowering is initiated mechanically by pulling a handle on the flight deck.
Emergency extension of the nose gear leg does not require hydraulic power. Emergency
extension of the main gear legs is assisted by hydraulic power f rom the yellow system.
Emergency extension of the landing gear does not require electrical power. There is no
emergency raising system.
Each leg has an oleo-pneumatic shock absorber. Each shock absorber operates squat
switches. The squat switches indicate whether the leg is on the ground or not. The squat
switches signal on-ground and airborne status to the aircraft systems and avionics. There
are three systems: the nose system, system 1 and system 2. System 1 uses a switch on
each main gear; system 2 uses a different switch on each main gear. Each system
controls a set of relays.
When the gear is up, mechanical locks hold all three legs and the main gear doors in the
up position. If hydraulic pressure is lost, the gear remains up. The up-locks are normally
removed hydraulically. The up-locks can also be removed mechanically by the emergency
lowering lever.
When the gear is down, mechanical locks hold all three legs in the down position. If
hydraulic pressure is lost, the gear remains in the down position. The down-locks can only
be removed hydraulically.
A gear warning horn sounds if the gear is not down and locked on the final approach.
Each leg has two wheels. The wheels are fitted with high pressure tubeless tyres. Wheel
brakes are fitted to the four wheels on the main gear legs.
Each wheel has a fusible plug that will deflate the lyre if the temperature of the wheel
exceeds 199C.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Landing Gear and Brakes

Chapter 2 Topic 8
Page2

Brakes

The four main wheels have hydraulically operated, multi-disc, carbon brakes.
The brakes can be operated by either the yellow or the green hydraulic system. A selector
on the centre console selects the hydraulic system to be used for braking. Brake pedals
are on each pilot's rudder pedals.
Two brake pressure gauges are on the bottom of the left instrument panel: YELLOW and
GREEN. The YELLOW gauge indicates hydraulic pressure applied by the pedals when the
yellow braking system is selected. The GREEN gauge indicates hydraulic pressure
applied by the pedals when the green braking system is selected. Each gauge has two
pressure indicators: one for the left brakes and one for the right brakes.
A parking brake lever on the centre console applies the brakes using yellow hydraulic
pressure. Green hydraulic pressure cannot be used to apply the parking brake. When the
parking brake is applied, a PARK BRK ON annunciator illuminates on the CWP.
An electronic anti-skid system is fitted. The heart of the system is an electronic control unit
in the avionics bay. The system uses wheel speed transducers on the four main wheels.
Hydraulic pressure to the brakes is routed via anti-skid control valves. The anti-skid
electronic control unit controls the anti-skid control valves. The valves are commanded to
reduce pressure to the wheels while still maintaining optimum braking efficiency. Pressure
is reduced to the wheels by passing hydraulic fluid from the skid control valves back to the
hydraulic reservoir.
The anti-skid system has a switch and two annunciators on the overhead panel.
An emergency brake selection is available on the centre console. When emergency is
selected, the brakes are forced to the yellow hydraulic system, the anti-skid is turned off
and the DC pump is forced to run.
The main wheel brakes are automatically applied on gear retraction by pressure from the
green hydraulic system.
The brakes are cooled by electrically powered brake fans. The fans are controlled by a
switch on the overhead panel. A caption on the CSP illuminates whenever the brake fans
are selected on.
A brake temperature indicator is fitted; it is normally on the centre console.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Landing Gear and Brakes

Chapter 2 Topic 8
Page3

Page Intentionally Blank

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

General

The aircraft flight control system is divided into the following elements:
The primary flight controls: pitch, roll and yaw.

The secondary flight controls: flaps, lift spoilers and airbrake.

The stall protection system.


The take-off configuration warning system.

Primary Flight Controls

The flight deck primary controls and the control surfaces are shown in Figure 9.1. Each
pilot has a handwheel on a floor mounted column and two foot pedals. The handwheel is
used for primary roll control; fore and aft motion of the column is used for primary pitch
control; the pedals are the primary yaw controls.
Control in pitch is by 1\vo servo tab operated elevators. The columns are mechanically
connected to the tabs not to the elevators. The aerodynamic feel of the servo tabs is
enhanced by an elevator Q-pot and a "g" weight. The elevator Q-pot increases control
forces as speed increases. The ''g'' weight increases control forces as normal "g"
increases. The AP can drive the pitch circuit via an -electric servo motor.
Each elevator has a trim tab . The trim tabs are operated by trim wheels either side of the
centre console. The wheels can be turned manually or driven by an electric servo motor.
The servo motor is controlled via switches on each pilot's handwheel or by the FGS.
Control in roll is by two servo tab operated ailerons and two hydraulically powered roll
spoilers. The handwheels are mechanically connected to the roll spoiler actuators and to
the servo tabs not to the ailerons. The aerodynamic feel of the servo tabs is enhanced by
a spring.
Each aileron has a trim tab. The trim tabs are operated by a trim wheel on the centre
console. There is no electric roll trim. The AP can drive the roll circuit via an electric servo
motor.
Control in yaw is by a hydraulically actuated rudder. There are two hydraulic rudder
actuators. One is powered by the green system and one by the yellow system. Either
actuator provides adequate control in yaw. The actuators are mechanically signalled by a
mechanical summing unit. The summing unit takes inputs from:
The rudder pedals. The maximum rudder pedal input is reduced as speed
increases by a rudder limiter. The rudder limiter is positioned by a rudder 0-pot.

A manually operated rudder trim wheel on the centre console. There is no electric
rudder trim.

A yaw damper (YD).

The AP can drive the rudder pedal input to the summing mechanism via a parallel rudder
servo.
There is no aerodynamic feel in the rudder circuit. Artificial feel is provided by a spring.
The rudder and elevator Q-pots are supplied by a Q-pot pressure head on the left side of
the aircraft's nose.

FCOM:V1 -002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

...

t;;

Pitctl control by elevators.


Roll control by ailerons and roU spoilers.

0>
0

a.

:;:

Yaw control by a single rudder.

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C\J~
~

*-0..
co

Tile rudder and roll spoilers are mechanically signalled


and hydraulically powered; there is no manual reversion

.c.

Ill

Tho maximum ruddor pedal input is redueod


as speed Increases by a rudder limiter

c
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The elevatOfS and aderons are manual controls.

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Loft elevator
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Loft aileron

'<T-

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a:

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There is no aerodynamic feel in the ygw cucult;


artificial feel is providoo from a spring

?:
:2
0
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The aerodynamic feel in tho roll


clrcurt Is enhanced by a spring

The aerodynamic feel in tho pitch circuit


Is enhanced by a Q-pot and a g werght

u.

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Flight Controls

Chapter 2 Topic 9
Page3

Secondary Flight Controls

There are three secondary flight controls: flaps, airbrake and lift spoilers. They are all
electrically signalled and hydraulically powered. The surfaces are shown in Figure 9.2.
The airbrakes are operated by a combined airbrake and spoiler lever. The flaps are
operated by a selector lever with five gates: UP, 18, 24 , 30 and 33. A baulk prevents
the flap lever being moved out of the UP gate at speeds above 227 kt. If the baulk is not
automatically removed, it can be removed manually by pressing a tab just forward of the
selector lever.
Each wing has a single-piece Fowler flap with a tab. When the Fowler flaps are extended,
they increase the area and the camber of the wing. The tab at the trailing edge of each
Fowler flap deflects as the flaps extend to further increase the camber of the wing.
The flaps are controlled electronically by a flap computer. The computer has two control
lanes: yellow and green. The yellow lane requires EMERG AC and EMERG DC to
function. The green lane requires AC 2 and DC 2 to function.
There are two hydraulic motors: yellow and green. The yellow motor is powered by the
yellow hydraulic system and controlled by the yellow control lane. The green motor is
powered by the green hydraulic system and controlled by the green control lane. Either
motor can operate the flaps over the complete range in both directions. When just one
motor is available, the flaps move at half their normal speed. Each control lane controls
hydraulic valves to direct hydraulic pressure to the control lane's motor.
The FGS provides flap trim compensation (FTC). The FTC automatically operates the
pitch trim when the flaps move between 0 and 18 o to compensate for the trim change due
to flap movement.
One hydraulic actuator powers the airbrake. The actuator is powered by the green
hydraulic system. The airbrake lever can be set to any position between IN and OUT. At
OUT, each petal is deflected 60 from the aircraft centreline.
The lift spoilers are used on the ground to destroy lift and thus improve the wheel braking
performance. The lift spoilers are not used in the air. There are three lift spoiler panels on
each wing. Each spoiler has its own hydraulic jack.
The inboard spoiler on each wing is powered by the yellow hydraulic system; electrical
power comes from EMERG DC. The outboard lift spoiler and middle lift spoiler on each
wing are powered by the green hydraulic system; electrical power comes from DC 2.
The lift spoilers can be deployed manually or automatically. The lift spoilers are manually
deployed by selecting the combined airbrake and lift spoiler lever past the airbrake OUT
position to the LIFT SPLR position. If an AUTO SPLR switch on the overhead panel is at
ON, the spoilers will automatically deploy on landing or when a take"off is rejected
regardless of the position of the lift spoiler lever.
There are switches and annunciators for the lift spoilers on the overhead panel.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

...

Gr"n lift ------,.


spoilers

0>
0

a.

All the secondary controls are hydraulically


powered a.nd el~ctrlcally slg nailed

~v

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Airbrake
The airbrake consists of two mechanicall1nked petals powered by the green system
Bectrical power comes from DC 2 .
Lift spoilers
The yellow lift spoilers are powered from ltie yellow system; electrical power comes from EM ERG AC and EMERG DC .
The green lift spoilers are powered from the green system; electrical power comes from AC 2 and DC 2.

CfE
t0::J
v~g

Flaps
The ftaps are moved by two hydraulic motors; one powered by the green system, the other by the yellow system.

Either motor can operate the flaps over the full range.
Electrical power to control the yellow motor comes from EMERG AC and EM ERG DC.

?i:

Electrical power to control the green motor comes from AC 2 and DC 2 .

a:

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Function

The fuel system stores fuel and supplies it to the engines and the APU. An overview
schematic is shown in Figure 10.1 .
Tanks

Fuel is carried in three main tanks: the left wing tank, the centre tank and the right wing
tank. Two optional auxiliary tanks may be fitted on the top of the fuselage behind the
centre tank. The auxiliary tanks are also called pannier tanks.
Each wing tank is divided into four sections: a main compartment, an inner feed tank, an
outer feed tank and a surge tank.
The centre tank fuel is transferred equally to the left and right wing main compartments.
The wing compartment fuel is transferred to the feed tanks.
If auxiliary tanks are fitted, the left auxiliary tank fuel is transferred to the left wing main
compartment and the right auxiliary tank fuel is transferred to the right wing main
compartment.
Pumps and Feed Valves

Each feed tank contains an electrically driven fuel pump. In normal operation, the inner
feed tank pump feeds the inner engine and the outer pump feeds the outer engine.
Each wing has an electrically operated common feed valve. The valve links the feed lines
to the inner and outer engines downstream from the pumps. With the common feed open,
either pump can feed both engines on that wing.
An electrically operated cross-feed valve interconnects the feed systems in both wings.
This allows fuel in one wing t<> be cross fed to the engines on the other wing.
The APU is normally fed from the left inner pump, but it can be fed from any pump if
suitable selections of the cross and common feed valves are made.
Low Pressure Valves

Each engine can be isolated from the fuel system by an associated low pressure valve.
The valve is mechanically operated by the engine's fire handle.
The APU is isolated from the fuel system by an electrically operated low pressure valve.
The valve is signalled by the APU START/STOP switch.
Fuel Quantity

Fuel quantity indicators for both wing tanks and the centre tank are beneath the engine
instruments on the centre instrument panel. Each wing tank quantity indicator includes the
quantity of the associated two feed tanks.

If auxiliary tanks are fit ted, the left wing tank quantity indicator includes the left auxiliary
tank contents and the right wing tank quantity indicator includes the quantity of the right
auxiliary tank.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

Surge
tank

Outer
feed

tank

A IRCRAFT GENERAL
Fuel System

= I
tank

Chapter 2 Topic 10
Page 2

Figure 10.1 -Overview Schematic


Main wing
c ompartment

G
--.

Electrically driven ftJel pump


Fuellransfer
Gravity refuel points

Auxiliary tanks cannot be refuelled

Surge tanks;

via the gravrty refuel points

,..

Provide inward and outward


venting

;.

Collect fuel and return it to the


main tanks
Presswre refuel/defuel station
below leading edge of wing

Optional
auxiliary tanks

Cross feed
valve
Right common
feed valve

Left common
feed valve
Engine
LPvalves

To engine 2

APU LP
valve
APU LPvalve
controlled by
START/STOP
switch

To engime 3
To engine 4
Engine LP valve controlled by
assoaaled fire handle

To engine 1

FCOM:V1-002

Engine
LP valves

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Fuel System

Chapter 2 Topic 1o
Page3

Fuel Transfer

The fuel transfer system is shown schematically in Figure 10.2.


Fuel is transferred from the centre tank to the main compartment of each wing tank by jet
pumps. The motive flow for the jet pumps comes from the feed tank pumps.
If auxiliary tanks are fitted, the auxiliary fuel is transferred to the wing main compartments:
the left auxiliary fuel to the left wing and the right auxiliary fuel to the right wing.
Auxiliary fuel transfer is by gravity and jet pumps. The motive flow for the jet pumps comes
from the feed tank pumps.
Fuel from each main wing compartment is transferred to the associated feed tanks by
gravity and jet pumps. The motive flow for the jet pumps normally comes from the inner
feed tank pumps. Hydraulically driven standby pumps provide an alternative source of
motive flow for these pumps. The standby pumps are driven by the yellow hydraulic
system.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Fuel System

Chapter 2 Topic 10
Page 4

Figure 10_2 - Transfer Schematic

Surge
tank

Outer
feed
blnk

Inner

I feed

bink

MaJn wing
companment

Centre
tank

...
--..

Gravity transfer direction


Jet pump transfer drecbon

Optional

auxiliary tanu
,

Centre tank fuel transfers by iet pump lo the wing tank main compartments_

Auxiliary tanks lransfer by gravity and jet pump to the wing tank main compartments.

Main wng compartments transfer by gravity and jet pumps to tne mner feed tanks

Inner feed lanks transfer by gravity to the outer feed lanl<s.


lvl-4!200060

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Fuel System

Chapter 2 Topic 1o
Page 5

Fuel Panel

The fuel panel is shown in Figure 10.3.


At the top of the panel is a row of feed tank gauges: one for each of the four feed tanks.
At the bottom of the panel is a switch for each feed tank pump. Above each switch is a
LO PRESS annunciator. A LO PESS annunciator indicates that a pump is not working
when its switch is at the ON position.
FEED LO LEVEL annunciators are below outer feed tank gauges. The L FEED LO LEVEL
annunciator indicates that either the left outer or the left inner feed tank is not full. The
R FEED LO LEVEL annunciator indicates that either the right outer or the right inner feed
tank is not full.
If auxiliary tanks are fitted, two auxiliary tank not empty annunciators are fitted:
L AUX TANK NOT EMPTY and L AUX TANK NOT EMPTY. An auxiliary tank not empty
annunciator indicates that the associated auxiliary tank still contains some fuel.
A fuel temperature gauge is on the left side of the panel. It indicates the temperature of the
fuel in the right outer feed tank.
A three-position centre tank transfer switch is to the right of the fuel temperature gauge.
The switch controls the transfer of fuel from the centre tank to the wing tanks. The
positions are AUTO, SHUT and OPEN. At AUTO, fuel transfer takes place in the air but
not on the ground. At SHUT, fuel transfer cannot take place. At OPEN, fuel transfer is
forced to take place.
There are two centre tank transfer annunciators above the switch: TRANSFER TO L TANK
and TRANSFER TOR TANK. An annunciator indicates that transfer is taking place from
the centre tank to the associated wing tank.
To the right of the CTR TANK TRANSFER switch, there is a X-FEED switch. The X-FEED
switch controls the cross-feed valve. A NIPS annunciator is immediately above the switch.
Beneath the CTR TANK TRANSFER switch, there are two COMMON FEED switches: one
for the left common feed valve and one for the right common feed valve. A NIPS
annunciator is beneath each switch.
A switch for the left standby pump is to the left of the common feed valve switches. A
switch for the right standby pump is to the right of the common feed switches. A
STBY LO PRESS annunciator is beneath each switch.
A REFUEL SELECTED annunciator is above the fuel temperature indicator. A refuel panel
is beneath the right wing leading edge. The annunciator indicates that the refuel panel is
not in the flight condition.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Fuel System

Chapter 2 Topic 10
Page6

Figure 10.3- Fuel Panel

IV1 0200085

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Fuel System

Chapter 2 Topic 1o
Page 7

Page Intentionally Blank

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

Protected Items
Ice protection is provided by hot air derived from the engine HP compressors, hot oil from
the engines and by electrical heaters.
Hot air from the engines is used to:

Protect the wing leading edges.

The tailplane leading edges.

The engine intakes.

The engine LP compressor.

The engine splitter lip. The splitter divides the flow from the engine fan into the
core and bypass flows.

Hot oil from each engine is used to protect the fan spinner from ice accretion.
Electrical heaters are provided for:

The A windscreens and the 8 windscreens.

The pilot heads.

The Q-pot pressure head.

The TAT probes.

The angle of airflow vanes.

The nose static vent plates.

The domestic water pipes and drain masts.

Some items in the flying control circuit.

An electrically powered windscreen wash system is provided for the two A screens. Each
A screen has an electrically powered windscreen wiper.

Ice Detection
An electrically powered rotary ice detector is fitted to the left side of the nose. When ice is
detected, an amber ICE DETECTED caption illuminates on the CWP.

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Ice and Rain Protection

Chapter 2 Topic 11
Page2

Ice Protection Panels


There are two ice protection panels on the overhead panel: one for the engines and one for
the airframe. The two panels are shown in Figure 11 .1. The engine ice protection panel is
the bottom section of the engines panel.
The top part of the airframe ice protection panel contains switches and annunciators for:

The windscreen heaters.

Some of the air data sensor heaters.

The bottom part of the panel contains:

The switches and annunciators for the wing and tail ice protection.

The ice detector switch.

There are four ENG ANT-ICE switches: one for each engine. The switches have two
positions: ON and OFF.
Each switch controls two valves: the engine valve and the intake valve. The engine valve,
takes hot air from its engine's HP compressor to its intake. The intake valve takes hot air
from its engine's HP compressor to its LP compressor and splitter lip.
Above each switch are three annunciators: a white ENG VLV NOT SHUT annunciator, an
amber INTAKE LO PRESS annunciator and an amber INTAKE HI PRESS annunciator.
The ENG VLV NOT SHUT annunciator indicates that the engine valve is open.
The INTAKE LO PRESS annunciator indicates that the pressure in its intake is too low for
ice protection when its switch is on.
The INTAKE HI PRESS annunciator indicates that the pressure in its intake is too high.

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Ice and Rain Protection

Chapter 2 Topic 11
Page3

Figure 11-1 - Ice Protection Panels

I v1.(J2.00086

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Ice and Rain Protection

Chapter 2 Topic 11
Page4

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General
Gaseous oxygen is provided for the flight deck crew. Dropdown masks are fitted in the
cabin. The dropdown masks are supplied by a chemical system. Portable gaseous
oxygen cylinders are also available in the cabin.
Flight Deck Crew Oxygen
Gaseous oxygen is provided for the flight crew. It is stored in a cylinder behind the right
wall of the forward cargo bay. The cylinder can be charged from a charging point in the
forward cargo bay. If the pressure in the cylinder becomes too high, all the oxygen in the
cylinder is vented overboard. A visual indication of pressure relief is given on the outside
of the fuselage just forward of the forward cargo bay door.
The cylinder supplies three flight deck masks via a main valve and a pressure regulator.
The main valve is a shut-off valve. It is on the right console. A pressure gauge on the right
console indicates the pressure downstream of the main valve but before the regulator. The
arrangement is shown schematically in Figure 12.1.
The cylinder does not provide oxygen for the passengers or the cabin crew.
Figure 12.1 - Flight Crew Oxygen Supply

Forward Cargo Bay

I I
Oxygen Cylinder

Flight Deck
Main Valve
Main Supply
Pressure
Left

mask

Pressure Regulator

Right
mask

3rd crew
mask
iV10200087

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Oxygen

Chapter 2 Topic 12
Page2

Cabin Oxygen System

The chemical system consists of a number of stowage boxes. Within each box is one
chemical oxygen generator and between two and four oxygen masks. There is a stowage
box in each passenger service unit (PSU), in each toilet and at each cabin attendant's
station.
The masks automatically drop out of the boxes if the cabin altitude exceeds 13 250 ft. The
passenger masks can also be deployed manually. A DROP OUT OVRD switch is fitted to
each side console. Pressing either switch deploys the passenger masks. A
PAX OXY OUT caption on each switch illuminates when the masks drop.
Once the masks have dropped, a sharp pull on any mask starts the oxygen generation
process. Once the passenger supply has been initiated, it cannot be turned off. The
supply will last for a fixed time depending on the size of generator fitted: 13 min; 15 min or
22 min.
The dropout system is powered from the emergency DC busbar. The system is shown
schematically in Figure 12.2.
Oxygen is also available from portable cylinders containing gaseous oxygen.

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Oxygen

Chapter 2 Topic 12
Page3

Figure 12-2- Cabin Dropout System


Left Consolo
Oxygen Panel

Right Console
Oxygen Panel

-OUTOVIID

Flight Deck

EMERG DC
Left drop out
override switch

Annunciator on

Latch

Right drop out


override switch

Aneroid
switch

Drop out signal

Latch
Cabin

Mask
stowage unit

Mask

Mask

stowage unit

"

stowage unit

A chemical generator In each stowage unit supplies aJI rnas.k s in the umt.
The drop out signal causes all the stowage units to open: all the cablll masks drop out.
Pulling any rnas.k in a umt starts the oxygen generation for all masks in

Drop Out
Override switch

that unrl

The PAX OXY OUT annunciators are latched on when:


,

The masks are automatically deployed.

OR
,.

The masks are manually deployed

The dear plastic guard must be raised to press the switch.


Pressing either swildl deploys the masks.

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Oxygen

Chapter 2 Topic 12
Page4

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Equipment

The following communications items are fitted to the aircraft either as part of the standard
fit or as options:

VHF radios. The standard fit is two radios: VHF 1 and VHF 2. A third VHF radio
(VHF 3) may be added as an option. Each radio is in the avionics bay. The radios
are controlled from either of two radio management panels on the centre console.

HF radios. One or two HF radios are available as options: HF 1 and HF 2. Each

radio is in the avionics bay. The radios are controlled from either of two radio
management panels on the centre console.

Flight deck and cabin intercoms.

Passenger address (PA) system.

Navigation system audio identification signals.

Flight deck audio selector panels (ASPs).

These allow the pilot to select receive and transmit functions for the various
communications devices.
The central audio unit (CAU). The CAU is the brain of the communication system.

Crew call system.

Emergency locator transmitter (ELT). The ELT is an option.

Selective calling (SELCAL) system. SELCAL is an option.

Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS). ACARS is


an option.

Cabin radio t elephone.

Static discharge wicks.

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Communication

Chapter 2 Topic 13
Page2

Overview Schematic

The heart of the communications system is the central audio system (CAU). The CAU
controls and distributes all the audio signals. The CAU contains a flight deck intercom and
a service intercom. The communications system is shown schematically in Figure 13.1.
The flight deck intercom is used for communication between the three flight deck
occupants and a ground crew member via a connection at the external AC connection
point.
The service intercom is used for communication between the flight deck and the cabin.
The ground crew can also connect to the service intercom via four connections points.
There is a ground crew connection point in the electrical bay, in the hydraulic bay, in the air
conditioning bay and at the refuel panel.
There is an audio selector panel (ASP) for each flight deck crewmember. Each ASP allows
the associated crewmember to select transmit functions and receive functions. Each ASP
communicates with the CAU .
Each flight deck crewmember has a headset with ear pieces and a boom microphone.
Each headset is connected to the associated ASP.
On the outboard horn of each control wheel, there is a three-position intercom and transmit
switch. The position of the left switch goes to the left seat ASP; the position of the right
switch goes to the rig ht seat ASP.
Each pilot has a hand microphone stowed on the associated control column. Each
microphone has a press to talk switch and is connected to the associated ASP.
Each crew member has an oxygen mask containing a microphone connected to the
associated ASP. A switch on each ASP is used to select the mask microphone.
There are two flight deck speakers on the roof panel: one on the left and one on the right.
They are driven by the CAU. Each speaker has an on/off switch.
All the radios communicate with the CAU. Each crewmember selects the radio for
transmission on the associated ASP. Each crewmember selects the radios for reception
on the associated ASP.
All navigation audio signals are sent to the CAU. Each crewmember can individually select
any navigation facility on his ASP.
The audible warning system sends the audio warnings to the CAU. The CAU sends the
warnings to the headsets and the speakers.
A passenger address amplifier provides audio signals to speakers in the cabin. The audio
signals can be speech from any of the crewmembers or the output from a tape player.
There are up to three handsets in the cabin. They communicate with the CAU. Each
handset has a press to talk button, a set of push switches and a set of indicator lights.
Each handset can be connected to the service intercom or to the PAusing switches on the
associated control panel.
The three flight deck crew inputs to the CVR come from the CAU.
The CAU has two channels: channel A and channel B. Channel A is powered from
EMERG DC and channel B is powered from DC BUS 2.

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Communication

Chapter 2 Topic 13
Page3

Figure 13.1 -Overview Schematic


Handwheel Intercom
and transmit switches

[EMeRG oc ,
I
Channel A

[D'"cBUS 2
I
Channei B

VHF 1

Central Audio Unit

Flight Deck Intercom

1+---1 Audible Warning Unit

Tape
Player
VOR 1
VOR 2 1------i~

Service Intercom

Five ground crew sockets

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Communication

Chapter 2 Topic 13
Page4

CAU Channels

Channel A drives all the audio functions except the right hand microphone and the right
speaker. Channel 8 drives all the audio functions except the left hand microphone and the
left speaker.
With a channel A failure, the left speaker and left hand microphone are lost. With a
channel 8 failure, the right speaker and right hand microphone are lost.
If EMERG DC fails, channel A will be lost; so the left hand microphone and the left speaker
will be lost. If DC BUS 2 fails, channel 8 will be lost; so the right hand microphone and the
right speaker will be lost.
Audio Warnings

The audible warning unit sends the audio warnings to the CAU. The CAU sends the
warnings to the flight deck speakers and the earphones of the three headsets. It is not
possible to select the audio warnings off.
Crew Call

A crew call system is fitted. The crew call system is used to attract the attention of a
crewmember or the ground crew. The system uses switches, annunciators, lights, chimes
and a horn. The flight deck switches and annunciators are on a crew call panel. The panel
is either on the overhead panel or the centre console.
ASPs and Crew Call Panels

There are two standards of ASP:

One has transmit selectors for the PA and the service intercom. If this standard is
fitted, the crew call panel is on the roof panel; the crew call panel only contains
switches and annunciators associated with the crew call system.

The other does not have transmit selectors for the PA and the service intercom. If
this standard is fitted, the crew call panel is on the centre console; the crew call
panel contains the crew call switches and annunciators; the panel also contains the
PA and service intercom selectors.

Static Dischargers

Static dischargers are fitted to the aircraft to provide an easy path for electrical charge
accumulated on the airframe to discharge to the atmosphere.
Video Surveillance

A video surveillance system may be fitted. It allows part of the cabin to be viewed from the
flight deck via two cameras and a video screen.

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Flight Instruments

Each pilot's instrument panel contains the following flight instruments:

Two electronic flight instrument displays: a primary flying display (PFO) and a
navigation display (NO).

A main altimeter.

A TCAS traffic display.

A distance bearing indicator.

The left instrument panel also contains some standby instruments:

A combined standby altimeter and standby AS I.

A standby attitude indicator containing an ILS localiser deviation indicator and an


ILS glideslope deviation indicator.

An outside air temperature indicator is on the right instrument panel.


EFIS

An electronic flight instrument system is fitted. The system has two symbol generators
(SGs): SG 1 and SG 2. There are two CRT display units (OUs) on each pilot's instrument
panel, one above the other. The top panel is known as the primary flying display (PFO).
The bottom panel is called the navigation display (NO).
The EFIS controls are on the instrument panels and the centre console.
The symbols generators take inputs from t he aircraft avionics and supply pictures to the
OUs. SG 1 normally supplies the left OUs and SG 2 normally supplies the right OUs.
If one OU fails, a compact format can be displayed on the working OU. The compact
format contains all the elements of the normal PFO and some elements of the normal NO.
If one SG fails, a transfer system allows one SG to supply all four displays. An EF IS
transfer switch is fitted beneath the left NO.
An EFIS master switch on the left instrument panel controls power to SG 1 and the left
OUs. Another EFIS master switch on the right instrument panel controls the power to SG 2
and the right OUs.
An EFIS dimming panel is fitted to the left of each PFO. Two EFIS control panels are fitted

on the forward centre console: one for SG 1 and one for SG 2.


Each pair of OUs has a cooling fan. EFIS cooling fan fail annunciators are on the bottom
of the right instrument panel.

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Navigation

Chapter 2 Topic 14
Page2

Weather Radar

A digital, light weight radar is fitted. A colour radar indicator is fitted to the forward centre
console.
There are two types of weather radar available: a Primus 708A and a Bendix RDR 4A.
The EGPWS creates a terrain awareness display (TAD) based on GPS position and a
terrain database. The TAD can be displayed on the weather radar indicator. A switch to
change the indicator between a radar picture and the TAD is just aft of the radar indicator.
Some aircraft have an optional unit that displays data on the radar indicator: checklists and
navigation data or just checklists.
The radar indicator can only display one of the three pictures at a time.
The weather radar picture can also be displayed on both NOs. The EFIS cannot display
the TAD or the picture from the optional unit.
NMS and FMS

Either two GNS-X navigation management systems (NMSs) are fitted or two flight
management systems (FMSs) are fitted . There are two FMSs available: a GNS-XLS or a
Collins FMS. The control and display units are on the forward centre console.
The NMSs and FMSs have a lateral navigation (L NAV) element. Position is determined
from the following sensors:

VOR.

DME.

IRS.

All FMSs also have a GPS sensor. The GPS sensor is an option for the GNS-X NMS.
The FMSs also have a vertical navigation (VNAV) element. However, the major element of
the NMSs and the NMSs is the L NAV element. The NMSs and FMSs are known
collectively as L NAVs: L NAV 1 and L NAV 2.
Normally L NAV 1 supplies SG 1 and L NAV 2 supplies L NAV 2. If one L NAV fails, a
transfer system allows one L NAV to supply both SGs. An L NAV transfer switch is just aft
of the weather radar indicator.
Inertial Reference System

Two Laseref Ill inertial reference systems (IRS 1 and IRS 2) are fitted. Each IRS has an
inertial reference unit (IRU); both IRUs are controlled from a mode select unit (MSU) on the
right side console.
Each IRU is an autonomous navigator providing attitude and navigation data. The IRUs
supply data via three digital data busses to the flight instruments and other avionics.

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Navigation

Chapter 2 Topic 14
Page3

Radio Altimeter

Two radio altimeters are fitted. Radio altitude is indicated on the EFIS and is also used by
some of the other avionics.

Air Data
Pitot probes, static pressure vents, temperature probes and angle of airflow vanes are
fitted to the fuselage.
Two air data computers (AOCs) are in the avionics bay. The AOCs supply air data to the
flight instruments and the aircraft systems. Airspeed, Mach number and vertical speed are
shown on the EFIS displays. The only displays of Mach number and vertical speed are on
the EFIS.
The vertical speed supplied to the EFIS is a function of inertial vertical speed and ADC
vertical speed; the IRSs normally supply vertical speed to the EFIS displays. The EFIS
displays can be supplied by the AOCs if vertical speed is not available from the IRSs.
A main altimeter is fitted to each pilot's instrument panel. The main altimeters are supplied
by the AOCs. A combined standby altimeter and airspeed indicator is on the left instrument
panel. The standby airspeed and standby altitude displays are capsule driven. The
standby displays do not take inputs from the ADCs. The EFIS VSis are the only displays
of vertical speed available on the flight deck.
An ADC transfer system is fitted for use when one ADC fails . A transfer switch is on the
bottom of the left instrument panel.
An outside air temperature indicator is on the right instrument panel. The indicator does
not show total air temperature (TAT), but indicated outside air temperature (IOAT) with a
recovery factor of 0. 7.
Radio Navigation

The following radio navigation aids are fitted:

Two ILS receivers: ILS 1 and ILS 2.

Two VOR receivers: VOR 1 and VOR 2. VOR 1 contains a marker beacon
receiver.

Two OME interrogators: OME 1 and OME 2.

One or two AOF receivers: AOF 1 and AOF 2.

Two distance bearing indicators (OBis) are fitted. Each OBI has a compass display with
two bearing pointers; there are two distance indicators above the compass display. The
bearing pointers display ADF or VOR bearings and the distance indicators display DME
distance. The compass displays are supplied by the IRSs.
Each OME interrogator has five channels: channels 1 to 5.
ILS 1, VOR 1 and OME 1 channel 1 are controlled from a VHF NAV 1 controller on the left
of the centre glareshield. ILS 2, VOR 2 and OME 2 channel 1 are controlled from a VHF
NAV 2 controller on the right of the centre glareshield. OME 1 and 2 channels 2 to 5 are
automatically tuned by the NMSs or FMSs.

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Navigation

Chapter 2 Topic 14
Page4

Standby Attitude and Heading

A standby attitude indicator is on the left instrument panel. The attitude indicator is
completely self contained. It has its own gyro powered from the EMERG DC busbar. The
indicator does not take inputs from the IRSs. The indicator also displays ILS localiser and
glideslope deviation from ILS 1. It is not possible to display ILS 2 on the standby attitude
indicator.
A magnetic standby compass is fitted below the overhead panel.
Transponder and TCAS

Two mode "S" transponders are fitted.


A terrain collision and avoidance system (TCAS) is fitted . A TCAS traffic display is fitted to
each pilot's instrument panel. Resolution advisories are displayed on the EFIS VSis.
A combined TCAS and transponder controller is on the centre console. There are three
different controllers available.
EGPWS

An enhanced ground proximity warning system is fitted.

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Funct ions
The FGS provides the following functions:

A thee axis autopilot (AP): pitch roll and yaw.

A flight director (FD).


A yaw damper.

Electric trim.
Flap trim compensation (FTC).

An auto throttle.

Thrust modulation control (TMC). TMC reduces the workload when the thrust
levers are being manually controlled.

Category 3 approach.

Automatic Landing.

Altitude alerting.

A reactive windshear detection and guidance system.

The AP can be used from 350 It after take-off through to an automatic landing. The AP can
also be used for a go-around. The flight director can be used from take-off through to
decision height; the FD can also be used for a go-around. The autothrottle can be used
from take-off through to landing. The autothrottle can also be used for a go-around.
The yaw channel of the AP is known as the parallel rudder. When the AP makes a rudder
input, the rudder pedals move. The parallel rudder is engaged when the AP is engaged in
the take-off, go-around and category 3 phases of flight. The parallel rudder, when
engaged:

Will take over the function of the yaw damper.

Will, if necessary, apply rudder to compensate for the loss of an engine.

Will apply rudder, to align the longitudinal axis of the aircraft with the runway
centreline in the final stages of an automatic landing.

When the parallel rudder disengages, the yaw damper engages automatically. When the
yaw damper makes a rudder input, the rudder pedals do not move.
The electric trim drives the elevator trim tabs to provide:

Automatic AP pitch trim.

Electric elevator trim when the AP is not engaged via switches on each control
column.

Automatic compensation for the change of trim when the flaps move in the range 0
to 18 .

The AP, FD, YO and autothrottle may be used independently or in any combination. Most
of the FGS controls are on a mode control panel (MCP) on the glareshield.

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AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Flight Guidance System

Chapter 2 Topic 15
Page2

AP and FD Modes

The modes are split into vertical and lateral modes. All modes are common to both the AP
and FD with the exception that there is no FD autoland mode.
The vertical modes are:

Take off - holds speed.

Level change - holds the speed selected on the MCP and manoeuvres the aircraft
towards the altitude selected on the MCP.

Vertical speed - holds the vertical speed selected on the MCP and is the basic
vertical mode.

Altitude hold - holds the altitude existing on mode engagement.

Glideslope -acquires and holds an ILS glideslope.

Flare- the autoland flare manoeuvre.

Ground -the autoland nose lowering mode.

Go-around -holds the speed in the MCP speed window.

Take-off or go-around windshear- windshear recovery flight path guidance.

The lateral modes are:

Track - holds the aircraft track.

Heading hold - rolls the wings level and then holds heading ; heading hold is the
basic lateral mode.

Heading select- holds the heading in the MCP HEADING window.

L NAV - acquires and holds a lateral navigation system track.

VOR - acquires and holds a VOR radial .

Localiser - acquires and holds an ILS front course.

Back localiser - an optional mode that acquires and holds an ILS back course.

Ground roll- the autoland lateral control on the runway.

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Flight Dec k Lighting

The area lighting in l he flight deck has the following elements:

Flight deck entry lights.

Flood lights for the instrument panels and the centre console.
Storm lights.

Emergency lights.

The panels have white legends and lines engraved on them. These engravings are
illuminated by lights within the panels. This lighting is known as panel lighting. The panel
lights also illuminate the selected end of each rocker switch.
Panel lighting is provided for the overhead panels, the glareshield, the instrument panels
and the panels on the centre and side consoles.
Instrument lighting is provided for the instruments on the overhead panels, on the
instrument panels, on the centre console and on the side consoles.
The standby compass has an integral light. Another light behind the standby compass
illuminates the eye locator. A switch on the overhead panel controls both lights.
Two reading lights are provided for each pilot: a sill light and a lap light. The sill light
illuminates the on-side notepad holder on the window sill ; the lap light illuminates the pilot's
lap.
Each pilot has a dimming panel on the on-side side console. The left dimming panel
controls the lighting for the left side console, left instrument panel and the centre instrument
panel. The right dimming panel controls the lighting for t he right side console and the right
instrument panel.
A dimming panel on the centre console controls the centre console lighting.
Dimmers for the overhead panels and instruments are on the overhead panel. A dimmer
for the glareshield is on the overhead panel .
Some electronic displays have individual dimmers.
Switches for the external lights, cabin emergency lights and cabin signs are on the
overhead panel.

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Volume 1

AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Lights

Chapter 2 Topic 16
Page2

Cabin Lighting

All the cabin lights are controlled from the forward cabin attendant's panel. The panel is
above the forward service door.
Main cabin lighting is provided by fluorescent centre aisle lights and side lights.
Toilet lighting is provided by fluorescent lights and standby incandescent lights.
Fluorescent lighting is provided for each vestibule. The forward vestibule fluorescent lights
are forced to on whenever the flight deck entry lights are on. When the flight deck entry
lights are off, the forward vestibule fluorescent lights are controlled by a switch on the
forward cabin attendant's panel.
Dim incandescent lighting is also provided for the forward vestibule. The dim lights are
powered directly from external AC when external AC is connected to the aircraft but is not
connected to the main busbars or the ground service busbar.
Emergency aisle lights and exit lights are fitted to all aircraft. Some aircraft have floor
proximity escape path marking. The emergency lights are controlled from a switch in the
flight deck and a switch in the forward vestibule.
No smoking signs and seat belt signs are fitted strategically through the cabin. A switch for
the no smoking signs and a switch for the seat belt signs are in the flight deck.

Bay Lighting
Lighting is provided for the following bays:

The avionics bay.

The hydraulics bay.

The air conditioning bay.

The main gear bays and the nose gear bay.

The forward cargo bay.

The aft cargo bay.

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Lights

Chapter 2 Topic 16
Page3

External Lights

The following external lights are fitted to all aircraft:

Wing tip and tail navigation lights.

Wing tip and tail strobe lights.

Upper and lower red anti collision beacons.

Landing and taxi lights.

Runway exit lights.

Wing inspection lights.

Some aircraft have logo lights fitted to the underside of the tailplane. The logo lights
illuminate the sides of the fin.

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Lights

Chapter 2 Topic 16
Page4

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Topic 1 - Overview
Function.................................. ......................................................... .............................
Standards of EFIS Cooling Fan Caption .......... .............................................................
Air Conditioning Schematic ...........................................................................................
Pressurization ... ...... ...... ..... ...... ..... ........... .... .. ........... ...... ........... ...... ..... ..... ............ ..... ..
Fans..............................................................................................................................
Overhead Panel Controls and Indicators ..... .. ..... ... .. ... ........ .......... ... ........ .. ........ .. .........
Lower Section of the Air Conditioning Panel.... ....................... ......................................
Upper Section of the Air Conditioning Panel................................................... ..............
Flight Deck Air Switch ............... ... ... ....... ...... ............ ................ ... ....... ...... ....... ..... .........
31 000 ft Semi Automatic Pressurization Panel ............................................................
33 000 ft Semi Automatic Pressurization Panel.......... ....................... ....................... ....
Fully Automatic Pressurization Panel............................................... .............................
CWP Fully Automatic System Pressurization Captions .................................. ............. .
Pressurization Indicators ..................... .................................. ........................................

Triple Indicator ..............................................................................................................


Quad Indicator... ......................................................................................... ...................
Ground Pressurization Switch .............. ............................................ .............................
Cabin High Altitude.......................................................................... .............................
Flight Deck Distribution .............................................. ........... ....................... .................

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17
17
19
19
19

Topic 2 - Packs
Air Conditioning Bay......................................................................................................
Ram Air Inlet .................................................................................... ..................... ... .....
Pack Valves ..................................................................................... .............................
Pack Modes ...... ...... ... ........ ........... ...... ..... .... ............. ..... ...... ........... . ..... ........... ..... ...... ..
Production of Warm and Cold Air..................................................... .............................
The CAU .......................................................................................................................
Pack Temperature Control ........ ............. ............................................ ............. ..............
Pack Delivery Duct High Temperature... ............. ........ ....................... ............. ..............

1
2
4
6
8
10
12

Topic 3 - Air Distribution

Overview ........... ......................................................................................... ...................


Cabin and Flight Deck Air Distribution ... ........... .. ........... .................. .. ... ........ .. ........... ...
Cabin Distribution............................................................................. .............................
Flight Deck Distribution .............................................. ........... ....................... .................
Flight Deck Fan.............................................................................................................
Flight Deck Boost Valve................................................................................................
Avionics Fan Air System ........... ............. ............................................ ............. ..............
Avionics Fan Electrical Supply ................................... ...................................................
EFIS Cooling Fans ........................................................................... .............................
IRS Cooling Fans ..........................................................................................................

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Chapter 3 TOC
Page2

Topic 4 - Ram Air

Ram Air Supply .. ...... ..... ... ... ... .... ....... .. . ...... ....... ... ..... ...... ..... ...... ... ... . .... .. .... ..... . ..... ..... ..
Ram Air Valve Control and Indication...........................................................................

1
2

Topic 5 - External Ground Conditioning

External Air Supply Connection . .. ... ..... ... ... ....... ..... .. .. .... .. ...... ... .. ... ... ..... . ..... ..... ...... ......
External Air Supply Schematic......................................................................................

1
2

Topic 6- Rear Bay High Temperature

Temperature Switches ..... ... ... .. .. .... . .... . ..... ...... ...................... ... ..... ... . .... .. .... ...... ............

Topic 7 - Semi-automatic Pressurization


Overview.......................................................................................................................
Discharge Valve Control ........................................................... ......... ......... ..................
Discharge Valve Protective Features............................................................................
Maximum Cabin Altitude Limiter ............................................... ......... ...........................
Positive Relief Control Valve.........................................................................................
Inward Relief Valve........................ ...............................................................................
Ditching.........................................................................................................................
Pressurization Controller...............................................................................................
Automatic Mode Control in Flight..................................................................................
Automatic Mode Control on the Ground........................................................................

1
2
4
4

4
6
6
8

1o
11

Topic 8- Fully Automatic Pressurization

Overview.......................................................................................................................
Outflow Valve Control...................................................................................................
Outflow Valve Protective Features................................................................................
Cabin Altitude Limit Control...........................................................................................
Positive Relief Control Valve.........................................................................................
Inward Relief.................................................................................................................
Ditch Valve....................................................................................................................
System Control.................................................................................. ......... ...................
Software Maximum Differential Pressure Protection.....................................................
System Indication.............................................................................. ............................
White PRESSN Caption................................................................................................
Amber PRESSN i Caption...........................................................................................
CABIN HI ALT Caption................... ...............................................................................
Sub-modes....................................................................................................................
Ground Sub-mode.........................................................................................................
Take-off Sub-mode .......... .. .... .. .. .... ..... . ..... ..... . ...................... ... ...... .. . .... .. ......... . ............
Take-off Abort Sub-mode.................................................................. ............................
Climb Sub-mode ........... ... ...... .... .. .. ...... ...... ............... ...... ...... ... .. ... ... . .... .. .... ..... . ..... ..... ..

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Contents

Chapter 3 TOC
Page3

Topic 8 - Fully Automatic Pressurization (continued)

Descent Sub-mode .... ... ..... . ....... .... ... .. .. ...... . .. .... ... .... ... ... .. .... ..... ...... ..... ...... ..... .... .. ... .. ..
Landing Sub-mode........................................................................................................
Automatic Mode Selection and Indication.................... ......................................... ........
Manual Mode Selection and Indication ....... ........................... ............................... ........
ADC Failures.................................................................................................................
Excess Rate Test..........................................................................................................
Verify Test Mode ...........................................................................................................
Panel Display ... .. . .... ... ... ..... . ...... .... ...... .. ...... . .. .... ... .... ... ... . .... . ..... ..... ...... ...... ... .. .... .. .. ... ..
Fault Display ....... .............................. ..................................... ......... ..................... .... .....

14
14
14
15
15
16
16
16
18

Topic 9- Cabin High Altitude Warning

CWP caption ..... .. .... ... ... ..... . ...... .... .... .... ...... . .. ..... .. . ... ... ... ... .. . ...... .... ...... ..... ...... .... .. ... .. ..
Fully Automatic Pressurization......................................................................................
Semi-automatic Pressurization......... ............................................................................

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Funct ion
The air conditioning system pressurizes, ventilates and controls the temperature of both
the flight deck compartment and the cabin compartment. Air from the engines or the APU
supplies two air conditioning packs: pack 1 and pack 2.
The packs are in the air conditioning bay at the rear of the aircraft. The packs supply a
distribution system as shown in Figure 1. 1.
Pack 1 is supplied by the APU or the left wing engi nes; pack 2 is supplied by the APU or
the right wing engines. Pack 1 normally supplies the cabin and the flight deck. Pack 2
normally supplies just the cabin. If one pack fails, the other pack supplies both the flight
deck and the cabin.
The system has two modes of operation: fresh and recirculation. In the recirculation mode,
the flow from the engines or t he APU to the packs is reduced and air is drawn from the rear
of the cabin into the fresh air delivery from each pack. A jet pump in each pack outlet
induces the flow of air from the cabin via a recirculation valve to the pack outlet.

Figure 1.1 - Distribution

Right wing engine


supply to pack 2

Pack 2

Rtght cabm
supply Recirculation

ducting..-,...,
~~-- Pack1

~~~:'i?~:c--;-L--- Cabtn supply

l iJ"'Ii~;------ Fllg'ht deck supply

........:::.-- - left wmg engine


supply to pack: 2

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AIR CONDITIONING
Overview

Standards of EFIS Cooling Fan Caption


There are two standards of EFIS fan failure amber caption. These are L EFIS and R EFIS
or L FAN and R FAN as shown in Figure 1.2. Throughou1 this chapter any references to
EFIS fan fail captions L EFIS or R EFIS should be read as being also applicable to EFIS
fan fail captions L FAN orR FAN.
Both standards of EFIS fan fail caption perform the same function of indicating that the
associated EFIS tan has a fault.
Figure 1.2 - Standards of EFIS Fan Fail Caption

Panel .vithout an avionic fan changeover switch.

Panel with an avionic fan changeover switch.

AVIONIC COOLING FANS


FAN I

"

--

FAN 2

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IRS

IRS 2

rns

R EF IS

PTR

EFtS 2
MSTR

f.

()
OFF

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Air Conditioning Schematic

A schematic of the air conditioning system is shown in Figure 1.3.


Air is supplied to the left air supply system by the two left engines or the APU. Air is
supplied to the right air supply system by the two right engines or the APU. Each pack has
a pack valve: pack 1 valve for pack 1 and pack 2 valve for pack 2. Pack 1 is supplied by
the left air supply system via pack 1 valve. Pack 2 is supplied by the right air supply
system via pack 2 valve.
Each pack valve acts as an isolation valve and a flow control valve. The flow control valve
has two settings: 50 lb/min and 30 lb/min.
The packs control the temperature of the conditioned air. The air is continually supplied
from the packs to the cabin and flight deck and leaves through the two discharge valves or
outflow valves, thus achieving ventilation.
The aircraft is pressurized by adjusting the position of two discharge valves or outflow
valves.
The valves are electronically signalled but pneumatically operated. A pressurization
controller supplies the electrical signal; the pneumatic power source is the air supply
system. The pneumatic power to operate the valves comes from either the left or the right
air supply system via a shuttle valve: this allows the highest pressure available from either
APU air or Engine air to be used to operate the valves.
Pressurization can be maintained with just one air conditioning pack.
The cabin and flight deck temperatures are normally automatically controlled to the values
set in the flight deck. A manual temperature control facility is also available.
The air conditioning system has two modes: fresh and recirculation. The mode is selected
on a two position switch; the positions are FRESH and RECIRC. The switch electrically
signals a mode valve. The mode valve uses air pressure from the right air supply system
to switch the packs to the recirculation mode.
At FRESH, the pack valves are at the high flow setting and all the air supplied to the cabin
and flight deck originates from the source supplying the packs. At RECIRC, the pack
valves are set to the low flow setting and air is taken from the cabin, via a recirculation
valve, into the packs and mixed with the pack delivery air.
A ram air valve is fitted. It is opened to ventilate the cabin and the flight deck in flight after
failure of both packs. The ram air is introduced to the distribution system downstream of
the packs; the ram air supplies both the cabin and the flight deck.
An optional low pressure ground connector may be fitted. It allows air to be supplied by a
ground conditioning unit to the cabin and the flight deck when the packs are not available.
Some aircraft have a flight deck boost valve. The boost valve is controlled by a switch on
the bottom of the right instrument panel. The boost position of the valve is for use on the
ground only. The boost position increases the flow of air from pack 1 to the flight deck and
decreases the flow of air from pack 1 to the cabin.

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Page 4

Figure 1.3 - Overview Schematic

Pressurisatlon
Controller
I

Electronic position control


Pressurization
discharge val ves
OR
outflow vatves.

Flight deck

.f
.f
(2._2

Pneumatic - - - .
servo power

Cabin
distribution

distribution

Mode valve !'--"';;;;;;;;!'

Pneumatic servo power


to change mode from
fresh to rec1rcula1ton

Flight deck

boost valve

To both packs both


pack valves and the
RECIRC valve

RecirculatiOn now
from roar cabin

Ground

supply Inlet
PACK 11

PACK2

VALVE

VALVE

APU AIR

VALVE

1-- -1
o-v1 -03-00002

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Pressurization

The pressurization system may be either semi automatic or fully automatic. There are two
types of semi automatic system: one for aircraft certificated to a maximum altitude of
31 000 ft and another for aircraft certificated to a maximum altitude of 33 000 ft.
The two semi-automatic systems are very similar. Each one has an automatic (AUTO)
mode and a manual (MAN) mode. In AUTO, it is necessary to set the required cabin
altitude and the required cabin altitude rate. In MAN, the position of the discharge valves is
controlled directly by a rotary position selector on the pressurization panel. Cabin altitude,
cabin altitude rate and differential pressure are displayed on a single three-pointer display
(the triple indicator). The indicator is on the right instrument panel.
There is only one fully automatic system: for aircraft certificated to a maximum of 35 ooo ft.
It has an AUTO mode and a MAN mode. In AUTO, it is only necessary to set the landing
field elevation. In MAN, the required cabin altitude rate is set. When the required cabin
altitude is achieved, the rate is set to zero. An LCD display is on the right instrument
panel; it displays four parameters: cabin altitude, cabin altitude rate, differential pressure
and landing field altitude.
Fans

A flight deck fan supplies adjustable louvres on the flight deck. A cabin fan supplies
adjustable louvres in the cabin. Freighter aircraft and some special roles aircraft do not

have a cabin fan.


An avionics fan draws cooling air over the avionic equipment. Some aircraft have a second
fan. Some aircraft with the second fan have a switch to select between the two fans on the
bottom of the right instrument panel.
Two EFIS fans are fitted. The fans cool the EFIS display units. A press to reset switch is
fitted to the bottom of the right instrument panel. The switch contains two fan fail
annunciators: L EFIS and R EFIS.
Two IRS fans are fitted. They cool the inertial reference units in the avionics bay. There
are two fan fail annunciators next to the EFIS fan fail annunciators. The annunciator
legends are IRS 1 and IRS 2.
Overhead Panel Controls and Indicators

The bulk of the controls and indicators are on the flight deck air conditioning and
pressurization panels. The panels are shown in Figure 1.4.
The air conditioning panel has two sections. The upper section is used for temperature
control and louvre fan selection. The lower section contains the other switches and the
annunciators.

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Figure 1.4 - Flight Deck Overhead Panels

Tempera.ture
control.

Fan selection.

Wamings.
Pack selection.
Pack mode selection.
Ram air selection.

Pressurisatlon control.
31 000 ft semlaut:omatlc panel shown.
33 000 semi-automatic panel may be fitted.
Fully automatic panel may be fitted.
lv103-000<1 ~

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Lower Section of the Air Conditioning Panel

The lower section of the air conditioning panel is shown in Figure 1.5.
Each pack valve has a two-position pack switch: ON and OFF. Above each switch are
three failure annunciators:

A NIPS annunciator: PACK VALVE.

A cold air unit high (CAU) temperature annunciator: CAU HI TEMP. Each pack has
a CAU. In the process of making cold air, the CAU gets hot. If a CAU becomes
excessively hot, the associated CAU HI TEMP annunciator illuminates and the
associated pack valve is automatically closed.

A pack delivery duct high temperature annunciator: PACK HI TEMP. If a pack's


delivery duct temperature becomes too high, the associated PACK HI TEMP
annunciator illuminates and the associated pack valve is automatically closed.

A two-position CABIN AIR switch changes the air conditioning system between the
recirculation and the fresh modes. The two positions are FRESH and RECIRC. Above the
switch is a recirculation valve NIPS annunciator: RECIRC VALVE. The recirculation valve
is open in the recirculation mode and closed in the fresh mode.
A two-position RAM AIR switch is fitted: the positions are SHUT and OPEN. The switch is
normally at the SHUT position. The switch is put to the OPEN position to ventilate the
cabin and flight deck at low differential pressure when both packs are off. At OPEN, the
ram air valve is open; at SHUT, the ram air valve is shut. A NIPS annunciator is above the
switch; the legend is RAM AIR VALVE.
An AVIONICS FAN annunciator indicates that flow is low at the inlet to the avionics fan.
Some aircraft have a second avionics fan. Some of these aircraft have a switch to select
the required fan. The switch is shown in Figure 1.6.
A REAR BAY high temperature annunciator indicates that the temperature in the air
conditioning bay is too high.
An EFIS/IRS FAN FAIL annunciator is fitted. The associated fan fail annunciator will
illuminate on the bottom of the right instrument panel. The fan fail annunciators are shown
in Figure 1.6.

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AIR CONDITIONING
Overview

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Figure 1 _s - Lower Section of the Air Conditioning Panel

i-v1-03-00044

Figure 1.6 - EFIS and IRS Fan Fail Annunciators


Panel without an avionic fan changeover sWitch.

Panel with an avionic fan changeover switc h.

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Upper Section of the Air Conditioning Panel


The upper section of the air conditioning panel is shown in Figure 1.8.
Each pack has a duct delivery temperature indicator and three temperature controls. The
controls and indicator for pack 1 are labelled FL T DECK TEMP CTRL; the controls and
indicator for pack 2 are labelled CABIN TEMP CTRL. The controls are:

A mode-switch to select either manual or automatic temperature control.

A rotary control to select the required compartment temperature when automatic


control is selected. For pack 1 the associated compartment is the flight deck; for
pack 2, the associated compartment is the cabin. The temperature selector does
not have temperature markings. However, the range of the selector is from 180C to
270C .

A three-position switch to manually position a temperature control valve when


manual control is selected. The switch is spring-loaded to the unmarked centre
position. The other two positions are labelled WARM and COOL.

A cabin temperature indicator shows the temperatur-e in the forward cabin.


A FLIGHT DECK FAN switch controls the flight deck louvre fan.
A CABIN FAN switch controls the cabin louvre fan.
Flight Deck Air Switch
A flight deck air switch operates the flight deck boost valve. The switch is on the bottom of
the right instrument panel. When flight deck air is selected, an AIR FLOW annunciator
illuminates the switch. The switch is shown in Figure 1.7.
Fi gure 1.7 - Flight Dec k Air Switch
FLIGHT
DECK AIR

GROUND
USE

ONLY
i-v1-03-00006

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AIR CONDITIONING
Overview

Figure 1.8 - Upper Section of the Air Conditioning Panel

- 10
-'

..........

30

oc TEinP :::
~

,.......

/''J'''

CABIN TEMF'

i-v1-03-00042

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Chapter 3 Topic 1
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31 000 ft Semi Automatic Pressurization Panel

The 31 ooo ft controller is shown in Figure 1.9. The controller has a manual mode and an
automatic mode.
The controller has the following selectors and indicators:

An illuminated pushbutton switch to select between the automatic mode and the
manual mode. The switch shows the selected mode: a white MAN legend for the
manual mode and a green AUTO legend for the automatic mode.

A rotary discharge valve position selector for use in the manual mode.

Two discharge valve position indicators.

A cabin rate selector. The normal position has a detent.

A selected cabin altitude indicator. The indicator is a circular card with a pointer
that indicates against two circular scales. The outer scale is the selected cabin
altitude; the inner scale is the cruise altitude at which the differential pressure will
be approximately 6.3 psi at the selected cabin altitude. The dial has a barometric
scale in a reference window.

A cabin altitude selector that rotates the altitude pointer relative to the card while
the card is stationary.

A barometric datum selector that rotates the card relative to the barometric scale.
The altitude pointer does not move with the card when the card is rotated. The
baro datum should be set before the cabin altitude is set.

A four position discharge valve rotary switch: DITCH, NORMAL, SHUT 1 and SHUT
2. At NORMAL, control is via valve 1 and valve 2 in both the manual and the
automatic modes. At SHUT 1, discharge valve 1 is closed and control is via valve
2. At SHUT 2, discharge valve 2 is closed and control is via valve 1. At DITCH,
both valves are closed when the aircraft ditches.

In the automatic mode, the cabin rate is controlled to the set rate until the set cabin altitude
is attained. The set cabin altitude is then held. The rate direction does not need to be set.
The cabin will climb if the actual cabin altitude is below the set value and descend if the
actual cabin altitude is above the set value.
In the manual mode, the pilot must manually position the discharge valves to achieve the
required rate and cabin altitude.

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Chapter 3 Topic 1
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AIR CONDITIONING
Overview

Figure 1.9- 31 000 ft Semi-automatic Controller

Discharge valve switch

Discharge valve position Indicators

Altitude
poi nter -!~r------r~

Cabin
altitude
scale

-f- - -+ -

Cruise altitude
scala

+-- --1

Rata selector
At the detent.

BARO selector

Cabin altitude selector

BARD

Mode
selector
st~ttlng

scale

Discharge valve
position control
f..Y1 03-00009

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Overview

Chapter 3 Topic 1
Page 13

33 000 ft Semi Automatic Pressurization Panel


The 33 ooo ft controller is shown in Figure 1 .1o. The controller has a manual mode and an
automatic mode.
The controller has the following selectors and indicators:

An illuminated push-button switch to switch between the automatic mode and the
manual mode. The switch shows the selected mode: a white MAN legend for the
manual mode and a green AUTO legend for the automatic mode.

A rotary discharge valve position selector for use in the manual mode.

Two discharge valve position indicators.

A cabin rate selector. The normal position has a detent. At the detent there is a
radial line. A white arc extends from the detent to a longer radial line. When the
selector is out of the detent but within the white arc, the rates are acceptable but
higher than the detented rates.

A selected cabin altitude indicator. The indicator is a circular card with a pointer
that indicates against two circular scales. The outer scale is the selected cabin
altitude; the inner scale is the cruise altitude at which the differential pressure will
be approximately 7 psi at the selected cabin altitude; 6.97 psi at and below
29 000 ft and 7.12 psi above 29 000 ft. The dial has a barometric scale in a
reference window.

A cabin altitude selector that rotates the altitude pointer relative to the card while
the card is stationary.

A barometric datum selector that rotates the card relative to the barometric scale.
The altitude pointer does not move with the card when the card is rotated. So the
baro datum should be set before the cabin altitude is set.

A fou r position discharge valve rotary switch: DITCH, NORMAL, SHUT 1 and SHUT
2. At NORMAL, control is via valve 1 and valve 2 in both the manual and the
automatic modes. At SHUT 1, discharge valve 1 is closed and control is via valve
2. At SHUT 2, discharge valve 2 is closed and control is via valve 1. At DITCH,
both valves are closed when the aircraft ditches.

In the automatic mode, the cabin rate is controlled to the set rate until the set cabin altitude
is attained. The set cabin altitude is then held. The rate direction does not need to be set.
The cabin will climb if the actual cabin altitude is below the set value and descend if the
actual cabin altitude is above the set value.
In the manual mode, the pilot must manually position the discharge valves to achieve the
required rate and cabin altitude.

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Figure 1.10 - 33 000 ft Semi-automatic Contr oller


Discharge valve switch

Discharge valve posit ion Indicators

Altitude
pointer
Cruise
altitude
scale

-+- - -f-

Cabin -+---~

altitude
scale

Mode
selector

BARO $'elector
Cabin altitude selector

BARO settlng scale

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Rate select.o r
At the detent

Increased
rate po.sition

Discharge valve
position control

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Overview

Chapter 3 Topic 1
Page 15

Fully Automatic Pressurization Panel

The fully automatic controller has an automatic mode and a manual mode. The control
panel is shown in Figure 1.11 .
The control panel has the following selectors and indicators:

An illuminated pushbutton switch to select between the automatic mode and the
manual mode. The switch shows the selected mode: a white MAN legend for the
manual mode and a green AUTO legend for the automatic mode.

A three-line LCD display.

A landing altitude (LOG ALT) selector for use in the automatic mode.

A cabin rate (MAN RATE) selector for use in the manual mode.

A three-position OUTFLOW VALVES selector: DITCH, NORMAL and DUMP. At


the NORMAL position, the valves are positioned by the controller to give the
required cabin rate or altitude. At DITCH, the valves are forced closed on ditching.
At DUMP, the valves are fully open. The switch must be pulled out before it can be
rotated to DITCH or DUMP.

Two green FULL OPEN outflow valve annunciators: one for the PRIMARY valve
and one for the SECONDARY valve.

A CLEAR DISPLAY FAULT button. The middle line of the display normally
indicates ~p but it can display faults. Pressing the button removes faults from the
display and returns the display to ~p.

The top line of the LCD display normally indicates actual cabin rate. An arrow indicates the
direction of the cabin rate. In the manual mode, the top line indicates the selected manual
rate while the manual rate is being changed and for five seconds after it has been set.
When manual rate is displayed, MR precedes the rate.
The bottom line of the display normally indicates actual cabin altitude. While the landing
field altitude is being set, it replaces the cabin altitude; landing field altitude remains
displayed for five seconds after it has been set; a legend LA precedes the altitude while the
landing altitude is displayed.
CWP Fully Automatic System Pressurization Captions

The CWP has an amber PRESSNi caption and a white PRESSN caption. Either channel
can signal the captions.
The white PRESSN caption indicates that an abnormal system selection has been made or
that a minor system failure has occurred. A minor system failure is one that does not
require pilot action.
The abnormal selections are DUMP, DITCH or MAN.
The amber PRESSNi caption indicates that the differential pressure is outside the range
-0.5 to 7.6 psi or that a major system failure has occurred requiring pilot action.

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Chapter 3 Topic 1
Page 16

Figu re 1-11 - Fully Automatic Pressurization Controller


Landing altitude selector

Panel indicator

Outflow valve

Outflow valve full

selector

open annunciators

Button to clear faults f rom the


/:!, P line on the panel dis p lay.

Mode selector
Manual mode rate selector
i-v1-03-00010

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Chapter 3 Topic 1
Page 17

Pressurization Indicators

If a semi-automatic pressurization controller is fitted , a triple indicator is fitted to the bottom


of the right instrument panel. The triple indicator is shown in Figure 1.12.
If a fully automatic pressurization controller is fitted, a QUAD indicator is fitted to the bottom
of the right instrument panel. The QUAD indicator is shown in Figure 1.13.
Triple Indicator

The triple indicator has three analogue displays.


A cabin rate indicator is on the left side of the indicator.
The right side of the display has two indicators: cabin altitude and cabin differential
pressure. There are two scales: an outer scale and an inner scale. Each scale has a
pointer.
The outer scale is the cabin differential pressure scale. Its pointer is yellow with a black .1p
legend. On aircraft with a 31 000 ft system, there is a red radial mark at 6.8 psi. On
aircraft with a 33 000 ft system, there is a yellow radial at 7.37 psi and a red radial at
7.51 psi.
The inner scale is the cabin altitude scale. Its pointer is white with a black AlT legend.
The ambient pressure reference for differential pressure indicator is provided by the two
balanced 83 static ports.
Quad Indicator

The pressurization indicator (QUAD indicator) is a four-line LCD display.


The top line of the QUAD indicator is similar to the top line of the panel display. MAN
rather than MR precedes the manually set rate.
The second row of the QUAD indicator always displays differential pressure.
The third row of the QUAD indicator always displays cabin altitude.
The bottom row always displays the landing field altitude.
The QUAD indicator cannot display system faults.
The data for the QUAD indicator is supplied electronically by the pressurization controller.

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AIR CONDITIONING
Overview

Chapter 3 Topic 1
Page 18

Figure 1.12 - The Triple Indicator


Indicator for 31 000 ft system

Indicator for 33 000 ft system


Cabin

Red radial

Cabin rate

Cabi n differential pressure

Yellow and red radials

Figure 1.13 - The QUAD Indicator


Arrow indicates the rate direction
. - - - - - - - - Cabin rate i ndicator
Normally the actual rate.
Indicates the manually set rate when
it is being set on the controller.
MAN is written above RATE when
the manually set rate is displayed.

i-v1-03-00012

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Overview

Chapt er 3 Topic 1
Page 19

Ground Pressurization Swttch

A GR ND PRESSN switch is on the overhead panel. The switch has an integral amber
lamp. The switch enables the pressurization system to be fully tested on the ground. At
the test position, the switch bypasses the on-ground squat switch signal. The test position
is indicated by the illumination of the amber light. The switch is shown in Figure 1.14.
Figure 1.14 - Ground Pressurization Switch

i-V 103-00013

Cabin High Altitude

There is a CABIN HI ALT red caption on the CWP. The caption illuminates if the cabin
altitude exceeds a preset value.
Flight Deck Distribution

Air to the flight deck is distributed via:


Floor outlets.
Adjustable side console outlets. The outlet direction and flow rate can be adjusted.

Roof outlets. Some roof outlets allow the direction of the airflow to be controlled.

The flow of air through the outlets can be adjusted by two selectors on each side of the
console wall:
A flight deck air selector (F/DECK AIR).

A forward floor air selector (FWD FLOOR air).

The positions of the floor and side console outlets are shown in Figure 1.15. Operation of
the side console outlets is shown in Figure 1. 16. The roof outlets are shown in Figure
1.17. The side wall selectors are shown in Figure 1.18.
The flight deck fan supplies either two or three adjustable louvres. Each louvre's direction
and flow rate can be adjusted.
All aircraft have a louvre for the left seat pilot and a louvre for the right seat pilot. Aircraft
without a cargo bay smoke detection system also have a louvre for the third crew member.
The louvres are shown in Figure 1.19.

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Overview

Chapter 3 Topic 1
Page 20

Figure 1.15- Floor and Side Console Vent Positions


Flight deck air selector

Forward floor selector

.......... ......
Flight deck air selector

"

Aft floor outlet

i-vl -0:3-0001 ~

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Overview

Chapt er 3 Topic 1
Page 21

Figure 1.16 - Adjustable Side Console Outlet


The outlet

The flow control


Mid flow postbon

Flow off position

Maximum flow position

The outlet Is on a ball and socket joint so


that the outlet direction can be adjusted.

l-v1-0).00()1S

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Overview

Chapter 3 Topic 1
Page 22

Figure 1.17 - Roof Outlets


Outlet without adjustable cover

01!Jtlet cover
The cover rotates about its centre.

Air leaves the cover here.


i.v1-03-000 111

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Overview

Chapt er 3 Topic 1
Page 23

F igure 1.18 - Side Wall Controls


The FWD FLOOR AIR selector controls the
flow of air from just the forward Roor outlet.

.......

FWD FLOOR AIR


~

At OFF, there is no flow from


the fMVard floor ouUet.
The flow from the forward floor outlet Increases

as the &elaelor Is movad lowards FULL


The actual flow rate depends on the position of
the F/OECK AIR selector

L--------+--- Control
Friction knob

........

The F/OECK AIR selector controls the flow of air

FIDECKAIR
~
I!OCf

.u

NWl

from both floor outlets, the side console outlet


and the roof outlet

oAR

'~0011

At ROOF, full flow goes to the roof outlet and


there is no now from the other outlets.
Betweem MAX FWD and AFT FLOOR, there Is
no flow from the roof ouUet.
At AFT FLOOR, the llow from the aft floor outlet
Is at a maximum.
At MAX FWD, the now from the aft floor outlet is
reduced and the flow from the forward floor
outlet and the side console outlet Is increased.

Control

Fric1ion knob
1-1..03-00017

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Overview

Chapter 3 Topic 1
Page 24

Figure 1.19 - Flight Deck Louvres

i v1 03-00018

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Overview

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Page 25

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Air Conditioning Bay

The two packs are in the air conditioning bay. The air conditioning bay is also known as
the rear bay. The air conditioning bay is just forward of the APU bay.
Ram Air Inlet

A ram air inlet is at the base of the fin. Air taken from the ram air inlet is used to cool the
hot air coming to the packs from the APU or the engines. The cooling air leaves pack 1
through an outlet on the left side of the fuselage. The cooling air leaves pack 2 through an
outlet on the right side of the fuselage.
The arrangement is shown in Figure 2.1 .
Figure 2.1 - Ram Air Inlet

APU bay

Pack 1

Pack 1 cooling air outlet

Pack 2
Rear cabin

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AIR CONDITIONING
Packs

Chapter 3 Topic 2
Page2

Pack Valves

Air from the air supply system passes to each air conditioning pack via its pack valve. The
pack valve acts as a shut-off valve and a flow-control valve. The pack valves are shown
schematically in Figure 2.2.
The valve requires electrical power and pneumatic power to open. If either electrical power
or pneumatic power is lost, the valve will automatically close.
Pneumatic power for pack 1 valve comes from the left air supply system; pneumatic power
for pack 2 comes from the right air supply system.
Electrical power for pack 1 normally comes from DC BUS 1; if DC BUS 1 fails, the
emergency DC busbar automatically supplies pack 1 valve.
Electrical power for pack 2 normally comes from DC BUS 2; if DC BUS 2 fails, the
emergency DC busbar automatically supplies pack 2 valve.
Both packs are available in all the electrical failure conditions considered in the abnormal
and emergency checklist.
Each pack valve has an ON/OFF switch on the air conditioning panel. Each switch
controls its valve via ON/OFF logic. The valves can also be closed by fault protection
logic.
There is a flow switch in the outlet of each pack. The flow switch position and the flight
deck switch position are passed to a NIPS logic circuit. The logic circuit drives a NIPS
annunciator above the pack switch. The annunciator illuminates if:

The switch is on and the flow is low.

OR

The switch is off and the flow is high.

The pack valves have two flow control settings: 50 lb/min and 30 lb/min. The low rate
setting is selected by pneumatic pressure from the right air supply system. In the low flow
mode, a mode valve passes pneumatic pressure to each pack valve to select the low flow
setting. Without this pneumatic pressure, the valves will automatically go to the high flow
setting.
Each pack has a cold air unit (CAU). In the process of generating cold air, part of the cold
air unit becomes hot. At high ambient temperatures and low airspeed, the CAU may
become too hot. To prevent this happening, a temperature sensor in the CAU
pneumatically reduces the flow from the pack valve to the pack.

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Packs

Chapter 3 Topic 2
Page3

Figure 2_2 - Pack Valves


Flight Deck
Cabin

NIPS
logic

Flow
switch

Flow
switch

PACK 1

PACK2
CAU flow
rate control

PACK 1

VALVE

CAUflow
rate control

1-+-

ON/OFF '1+--i--1
logic

Fault
logic

+1 ON/OFF logic

-.1 PACK2

VALVE

Fault
logic

Flow rato solnction


Left a.r supply

Normal supply
for pack 1

Power to switch
tho valves

Backup supply for


pac~ 1 and pack 2

...__ _ _......----<-:~ o>------il EMERG oc

Mode valve

Normal supply
for pack 2

]t----o w:r- --:__o_c_ a_u_s_2_,


~ v1 -DJ.00039

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AIR CONDITIONING
Packs

Chapter 3 Topic 2
Page4

Pack Modes

The packs have two modes of operation: fresh and recirculation. In the recirculation mode,
the pack valves reduce the flow to the packs and air is drawn from the rear cabin into the
fresh air delivery from each pack. A jet pump, located near each pack outlet, induces the
flow of air from the cabin to the pack outlet via a recirculation pump.
The system is shown schematically in Figure 2.3.
A mode valve pneumatically signals the pack valves, a fresh air valve within each pack and
a recirculation pack. The recirculation valve allows air to be drawn from the cabin into the
packs and then to be returned to the cabin and flight deck.
The mode valve is supplied from the right air supply system. Air pressure is required to
open the recirculation valve, set the fresh air valves to the recirculation position and set the
pack valves to the low flow position. Without pneumatic power, the recirculation valve
automatically closes, the fresh air valves automatically move to the fresh position and the
pack valves automatically move to the high flow setting.
The mode valve is electrically operated by DC BUS 1 via the CABIN AIR switch on the air
conditioning panel. Electrical power is required to move the mode select valve to the
recirculation position. Without electrical power, the mode select valve automatically moves
to the fresh position.
Therefore, both electrical power and pneumatic power are required to set the air
conditioning system to the recirculation mode. If the mode valve loses electrical power or
pneumatic power, the system automatically goes to the fresh mode.
When the mode valve is in the fresh position:

The pack valves are set to the high setting (50 lb/min).

The fresh air valves are opened.

The recirculation valve is closed.

When the mode valve is in the recirculation position and the right air supply system is
powered:

The pack valves are set to the low flow setting (30 lb/min).

The fresh air valves are closed.

The recirculation valve is opened.

Electrical power is removed from the mode valve by a recirculation mode inhibit circuit.
The recirculation mode is inhibited and the fresh mode automatically selected if any of the
following occur:

The cabin high altitude warning is given.

The standby generator delivers power.

The APU air valve is closed and only one pack is on.

A recirculation valve NIPS annunciator (RECIRC VALVE) is above the CABIN AIR switch.

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Chapter 3 Topic 2
Page 5

Packs
Figure 2.3 - Recirculation Schematic

DC BUS 1

Flight Dec k

Cabin
Recirculation inlet

RECIRC

VALVE

~J.~~~~~
t----~~liN~IPS
logic

Servo pressure to
open the
recirculation valve

Flight

deck
boost
valve

Electncal power
to open the
mode valve.

Jet
pump

Servo pressure
to open tho
rresh ar valves

PACK 1

VALVE

PACK2

VALVE

Servo pressure
to reduce the
flow rate

Mode valve

Right afr
upply

Loft a1r
supply

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Packs

Chapter 3 Topic 2
Page6

Production of Warm and Cold Air

The packs take in hot air from the engines and the APU via the pack valves. The packs
make warm air and cold air. The hot air from the pack valves is cooled using heat
exchangers and a cold air unit (CAU).
The heat exchangers cool the air by passing cooling air over the air to be cooled. The
principle is shown in Figure 2.4.
There are four heat exchangers in the pack: the primary A heat exchanger, the primary B
heat exchanger, the secondary heat exchanger and the condenser. The condenser also
extracts water from the air supplied to the packs from the air supply system.
The cooling air for the primary and secondary heat exchangers is ambient air taken from
the ram air inlet at the base of the fin. The cooling air for the condenser is taken from the
pack outlet flow.
The cooling air from the primary and secondary heat exchangers leaves the packs via
outlets on the side of the rear fuselage as shown in Figure 2.1.
The CAU is a compressor driven by a turbine. The air passing through the turbine loses
heat to the air passing through the compressor, so the air leaving the compressor is heated
while the air passing through the turbine is cooled.
The CAU also drives a fan. The fan is used on the ground to draw air through the ram air
inlet into the primary and secondary heat exchangers.
The principle of the CAU is shown in Figure 2.5.

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AIR CONDITIONING

Chapter 3 Topic 2
Page 7

Packs

Figure 2.4 - Principle of the Heat Exchangers


Cooling ai1r

Hot air

lj

Cooler air

The cooling air leaves the heat exchanger at a higher


temperature because heat has been extracted from the hot air.
i-v1-03-00023

Figure 2.5 - Principle of the CAU


Turbine

Compressor

Fan

The turbine does work on atr passing through the compressor.


So air passing through the compressor is healed wh tle air
passing through the turbine is cooled.
The air leaving the turbine is typically -2oc to -3oc.
The far'l draws air through the ram air Inlet Into the primary and
secondary heat exchangers

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Packs

Chapter 3 Topic 2
Page a

T he CAU

A schematic of the CAU operation is shown in Figure 2.6.


The air from the pack valve passes to the primary A heat exchanger. The air from the pack
valve is cooled by the primary A heat exchanger. The cooled air enters the CAU
compressor where it is heated.
The hotter air leaves the compressor outlet for the secondary heat exchanger. The
secondary heat exchanger cools the air from the compressor outlet.
The air from the secondary heat exchanger then passes to the condenser; the condenser
cools the air further and removes moisture from the air. From the condenser, the air
passes to the CAU turbine.
The air from the condenser powers the turbine. The turbine drives the compressor. The
air passing through the turbine loses heat to the air passing through the compressor, so
the temperature of the air passing through the turbine is reduced. The temperature of the
air leaving the turbine is typically between -20"C and -30"C.
At high ambient temperatures and low airspeed, the temperature of the air leaving the
compressor may become too hot. A temperature sensor in the CAU compressor outlet
pneumatically controls the flow from the pack valve to prevent the air temperature at the
compressor outlet rising above 2400C.
There is also a 255 OC temperature switch in the CAU compressor outlet. There is a CAU
high temperature annunciator above each PACK VALVE NIPS annunciator. The
annunciator legends are CAU 1 HI TEMP and CAU 2 HI TEMP. If the temperature at the
CAU compressor outlet is 255 "C or greater:

The associated CAU HI TEMP annunciator is latched on.

The associated pack valve is latched shut; the PACK VALVE NIPS annunciator
illuminates.

The PACK VALVE annunciator remains illuminated until the PACK switch is set to OFF.
The CAU HI TEMP annunciator remains lit until:

The PACK switch is set to OFF.

AND

The temperature falls below 2550C.

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Chapter 3 Topic 2
Page9

AIR CONDITIONING
Packs

Figure 2.6 - Cold Air Unit Schematic


Cooling air from the ram air inlet.
Secondary heat
exchanger

Primary A heat
exchanger

From the
1r supply
sy

PACK

VALVE

ON/OFF
logic
POJeumalic

control
PAI_,K
HI HMI-'

Fault

'.:AU
HI T[ II'P

logic

PACK
At

Cold air unit

vr

NIPS

logic

Condenser

Temperature typically

-20 to -3oc
Cooling air from
the pack outlet.

Flow
switch

In pack dell"ery duct.


1-Yl-03-0002$

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Packs

Chapter 3 Topic 2
Page 10

Pack Temperature Control

The control of the pack delivery duct temperature is shown schematically in Figure 2.7.
There are two temperature control modes: automatic and manual.
Each pack has a temperature control valve (TCV). In both the automatic and the manual
mode, the temperature of the air delivered by a pack depends on the position of its TCV.
Each pack has a duct delivery temperature indicator and three temperature controls. The
controls and indicator for pack 1 are labelled FLT DECK TEMP CTRL; the controls and
indicator for pack 2 are labelled CABIN TEMP CTRL. The controls are:

A mode switch to select either manual or automatic temperature control.

A rotary control to select the required compartment temperature when automatic


control is selected. For pack 1 the associated compartment is the flight deck; for
pack 2, the associated compartment is the cabin.

A three-position switch to manually position the TCV when manual control is


selected. The switch is spring-loaded to the unmarked centre position . The other
two positions are labelled WARM and COOL.

The TCV has two inlets and one outlet. One inlet takes hot air directly from the pack valve ;
the other inlet takes warm air that has passed through both the primary A and the primary
B heat exchangers. The position of the TCV determines how much warm and hot air
leaves the TCV. The air leaving the TCV is mixed with the cold air from the CAU.
Each pack has an automatic temperature controller. The automatic temperature controller
is only used when the associated mode-switch is at AUTO. Each automatic temperature
controller has three inputs:

The automatically set temperature for the associated compartment.

The actual compartment temperature from a compartment temperature sensor.

The pack delivery duct temperature.

The automatic temperature controller adjusts the pack delivery duct temperature to achieve
the temperature selected on the rotary selector at the compartment sensor. The duct
temperature sensor is used to limit the duct temperature to between 3 C and 750C.
When a mode-select switch is at MAN:

The three-position switch directly controls the position of the associated TCV.

The duct temperature sensor does not limit the duct temperature. The flight crew
must keep the duct temperature between 30C and 750C using the duct temperature
indicator.

When the switch is held to WARM, the TCV moves to increase the temperature of
the air in the pack delivery duct.

When the switch is held to COOL, the TCV moves to reduce the temperature of the
air in the pack delivery duct.

When the switch is in the mid-position, the TCV is stationary.

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Packs

Chapter 3 Topic 2
Page 11

Figure 2.7 - Temperature Control


From tho
ar supply
ystcl"'

PACK

VALV1E

Primary heat

:change: ~~~

Hot air

II
Wann a r

CAU

Temperature
control valve

Automatic
temperature
controller

Air mixing

Pack delivery duct


Duct temperature sensor

Compartment temperature sensor]

Flight deck temperature sensor for pack 1.


Cabin temperature sensor for pack 2.

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AIR CONDITIONING
Packs

Chapter 3 Topic 2
Page 12

Pack Delivery Duct High Temperature


A schematic of the duct high temperature protection is shown in Figure 2.8.
During automatic temperature control, the automatic temperature controller limits the duct
temperature between 3"C and 75"C.
When the tem perature is being controlled manually, the flight crew are responsible for
maintain ing the duct temperature between 30C and 750C by monitoring the duct
temperature indicator and adjusting the position of the TCV as necessary.
There is also a 1050C temperature switch in the pack delivery duct. There is a pack high
temperature annunciator above the CAU HI TEMP annunciator. The annunciator legends
are PACK 1 HI TEMP and PACK 2 HI TEMP. If the temperature in the pack delivery duct
is 105 OC or greater:

The associated PACK HI TEMP annunciator is latched on.

The associated pack valve is latched shut; the PACK VALVES annunciator
illuminates.

The PACK VALVE annunciator remains illuminated until the PACK switch is set to OFF.
The PACK HI TEMP annunciator remains lit until:

The PACK switch is set to OFF.

AND

The temperature falls to below 105 OC.

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AIR CONDITIONING
Packs

Chapter 3 Topic 2
Page 13

Figure 2.8 - Pack Delivery Duct High Temperature


From
a r supply -"""'.i.,;
syst m

PACK

VALVE

ON/OFF 14-- - - - - - ,
logic

Primary heat

:change: ~~~

Hot air

II
warm air

CAU
Temperature
control valVe

Air mixing

Automatic tempell'ature
controller

Pack delivery duct

Duct temperature sensor

Fault
logic

Flow
switch

NIPS
logic
l-v10~27

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AIR CONDITIONING
Packs

Chapter 3 Topic 2
Page 14

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Overview
Figure 3.1 provides an overview of the air distribution system.
Underfloor ducts deliver conditioned air from the packs to each side of the cabin. Air is
distributed to the cabin via distribution boxes above the cabin windows.
Another underfloor duct takes air from the packs to the flight deck. Air to the flight deck is
distributed via:

Floor outlets.

Side console outlets.

Roof outlets.

The air leaves the cabin and flight deck via floor level vents into the underfloor bays. The
air leaves the underfloor bays via the discharge or outflow valves.
Figure 3.1 - Distribution Overview

Right cabin

supply

Regrcula!ion
ductlng

.)...,.1-.:L-- - Pack 1
...J!!Iooiii~"'i?~:c---;-~-~-- Cabin supply

17"[; -<--- Flight deck supply

l-v1 .(13-00028

dtslnbution

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Volume 1

AIR CONDITIONING
Air Distribution

Chapter 3 Topic 3
Page2

Cabin and Flight Deck Air Distribution

The cabin and flight deck air distribution is shown schematically in Figure 3.2.
Each pack has a non-return valve in its delivery duct, so one pack cannot back-feed into
the other pack. The two delivery ducts are joined together by a pack supply interconnect
duct. An underfloor duct leads from the left side of the interconnect duct to the flight deck;
a duct from the middle of the interconnect duct leads to the cabin. This arrangement:

Under normal circumstances, allows pack 1 to supply both the cabin and the flight
deck and pack 2 to supply only the cabin.

After failure of one pack, allows the other pack to supply both the cabin and the
flight deck.

The duct feeding the cabin is a mixing duct. The temperature of the two supplies are
equalised in the mixing duct.
From the mixing duct, the supply splits into two underfloor ducts. One duct supplies the left
side of the cabin and the other duct supplies the right side of the cabin.
A filter may be fitted in the mixing duct. The filter has two parts. One part removes
particles from the air; the other part is an activated carbon cloth. The activated carbon
removes odours and, to a minor extent, particles from the air.
An optional flight deck boost valve may be fitted within the interconnect duct between the
flight deck and cabin supply ducts. The valve has a high and low flow position. At the high
flow position, the amount of air supplied to the flight deck by pack 1 is increased.
Air from the two underfloor ducts is taken by pipes around each window to a distribution
box above the window.
A filter may be fitted in the duct leading to the flight deck. This filter does not have a
dedicated particle filter; the filter just has an activated carbon cloth.
On each side of the flight deck there are:

Two floor outlets: forward and left.

One side console outlet.

One roof outlet.

A C-screen demist vent.

The air leaves the cabin and flight deck for the underfloor bays via vents at floor level. The
air leaves the aircraft via the discharge or outflow valves.
A cabin fan draws air from the roof to the adjustable louvres on the passenger service units
(PSUs). There is an adjustable louvre for each passenger.
A flight deck fan draws air from the right aft floor vent to supply adjustable louvres and to
cool the overhead instrument panel.

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Volume 1

AIR CONDITIONING
Air Distribution

Chapter 3 Topic 3
Page3

Figure 3.2 - Air Distribution Schematic


Flight Deck

@] ~ @ I

Flight
deck fan

Roof panel

Adjustable louvres

......
.....

Forward floor vents

......

Side console adjustable outlets

.....

.....
...... -- - ,

.....

Aft floor vents

C screen demist

: ~~

1-

...
........

- 14.....

~~

Roof outlets
Cabin

+ ...

....

Distribution boxes above the w indows+

...
.....

Flight deck
filter

IO 0 O j

OOOI

j ~

PSUs

I Cabin fan
~

OOOI

loool .

Cabin filter

...
Flight deck
boost valve

Air from pack 1 and air from


pack 2. are mixed in this duct

,..1.
The two filters and the
boost valve are options.

PACK 1

{
PACKZ
i-v1 -03-00029

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Volume 1

Chapt er 3 Topic 3
Page 4

AIR CONDITIONING
Air Dist ribution

Cabin Distribution
There is a distribut ion box :above each cabin window. Air from the underfloor ducts is
taken to the distribution boxes by wall pipes. There are two pipes for each cabin window.
The air enters the cabin from the distribution boxes. The air leaves the cabin via floor level
vents for the underfloor bays. The arrangement is shown in Figure 3.3.
From one of each pair of wall pipes, a small pipe takes air to demisi the associated cabin
window. Each cabin window has an outer and an inner pane. The panes are separated by
a rubber seal, so there is an air cavity between the two panes. The small pipe passes air
between the two panes. The air leaves the window via a hole in the inner pane.
The cabin fan delivers air to the adjustable louvres on the PSUs, in the toilets and in the
vestibules. There is one louvre for each passenger. The direction of each louvre and the
flow rate from each louvre ar-e adjustable. The cabin fan is powered from AC BUS 2 and is
controlled from the CABIN FAN switch on the air conditioning panel via DC BUS 2. Both
AC BUS 2 and DC BUS 2 must be powered for the fan to run. The cabin fan is shown
schematically in Figure 3.4.
Figure 3.3 - Cabin Air Distribution
The conditioned air leaves the
distribution boxes for the cabin.

The conditioned air is


delivered to lhe
distribution boxes via
wall ptpes either side of
each window.

The conditioned air is


delivered to the wall pipes
from lhe under-floor duds.
The stale air exhausts at floor
level into the under-floor bays.

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AIR CONDITIONING
Air Di stribution

Chapter 3 Topic 3
Page 5

Figure 3-4 - Cabin Fan


Rear cabin roof

AC BUS 2

DC BUS 2

r
~

Fan power

Relay c ontrol

Cabin
fan
relay

1----+-o
1 - 8 Cab;n Fan

Adjustabl e louvres

On each PSU.
In the vestibules.
In the toilets.
i-v1-03-00031

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Volume 1

AIR CONDITIONING
Air Distribution

Chapter 3 Topic 3
Page6

Flight Deck Distribution

A schematic of the flight deck air distribution is shown in Figure 3.5.


The air supply to the flight deck splits into a left and right flight deck supply system. On
each side of the flight deck there are:

Two floor outlets: forward and aft.

One side console outlet.

One roof outlet.

A C-screen demist vent.

The air leaves the flight deck for the electrical bay via vents at floor level. The air leaves
the aircraft via the forward discharge or outflow valve.
The supply on each side goes to a C-screen demist vent, a roof outlet shut-off valve and a
flap valve. From the roof outlet shut-off valve, the air goes to the onside roof outlet. There
are two outlets from the flap valve. One goes to the onside aft floor outlet; the other goes
directly to the onside side console outlet and to the onside forward floor outlet via a forward
floor selector valve. The forward air selector valve is a butterfly valve.
On each side console wall there is a flight deck air (F/DECK AIR) selector and a forward air
(FWD/AIR) selector. Each flight deck air selector has three marked positions: ROOF, MAX
FWD and AFT. Each forward air selector has two marked positions: OFF and FULL.
Each flight deck air selector is connected to the onside roof outlet shut-off valve and the
flap valve. Each forward air selector is connected to the onside forward floor selector
valve.

A roof outlet shut-off valve is fully open when the onside flight deck air control is at ROOF.
The shut-off valve moves progressively towards fully closed as the control is moved
towards MAX FWD. Between MAX FWD and AFT, the roof outlet shut-off valve is closed.
When a flight deck air selector is set to ROOF, the onside flow valve is set so that there is
no flow to the onside floor outlets and the onside side console outlet. When the selector is
moved away from ROOF, the flap valve is set to give flow to the onside floor and side
console outlets; at AFT, flow to the aft floor outlet is at a maximum; at MAX FWD, flow to
the forward floor and side console outlets is at a maximum.
Each forward floor selector valve is fully open when the onside forward air selector is at
FULL. The valve moves progressively towards closed as the forward air selector is moved
towards OFF. When the forward air selector is at OFF, the forward air selector valve is
fully closed.
A flight deck fan draws air from the supply to the right aft floor outlet to supply adjustable
louvres and to cool the overhead instrument panel.

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AIR CONDITIONING
Air Di stribution

Chapter 3 Topic 3
Page 7

Figure 3.5 - Flight Deck Distribution


Flight
deck fan
Roof panel

..............

FWD FLOOR AIR

"''

Adjustable
louvres

....... ........

FWD FLOOR AIR


OH

fUU.

Forward floor
select or valve

Forward floor vents

Side console adjustable outlets

Aft ftoor vents

FIDECKAIR

n ~

11.0011

....
fWO

c screen

C screen
domlst

domist

Roof outlets

Nonnally from pack 11 ,


From pack 2 If pack 1 falls.
1-111 03 00032

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AIR CONDITIONING
Air Distribution

Chapter 3 Topic 3
Page a

Flight Deck Fan

The flight deck fan supplies:

Air to the adjustable louvres on the overhead panel.

Cooling air to the overhead paneL

The direction of each louvre and the flow rate from each louvre are adjustable. The flight
deck fan is powered from AC BUS 2 and is controlled from the FLT DECK FAN switch on
the air conditioning panel. The cabin fan is shown schematically in Figure 3.6.

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AIR CONDITIONING
Air Di stribution

Chapter 3 Topic 3
Page9

Figure 3.6 - Flight Deck Fan


Adjustabl e louvres
To
f orward
outlets

Overhead panel cool ing

AC BUS 2

Fan powe'

Flight
deck

Relay control

relay

fan

Flight
deck fan

Right aft floor


outlet
Rig ht air
conditioning
supply
i-V1-03-00033

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AIR CONDITIONING
Air Distribution

Chapter 3 Topic 3
Page 10

Flight Deck Boost Valve

A flight deck boost valve is available as an option. The function of the boost valve is to
increase the flow of air to the flight deck when the aircraft is on the ground. The valve is
controlled from a switch on the bottom of the right instrument panel.
The flight deck boost valve is in the pack supply interconnect duct between the ducts for
the flight deck air supply and the cabin air supply. The arrangement is shown in Figure
3.7.
The flight deck boost valve is a butterfly valve with two holes in the butterfly. When the
valve is open, the butterfly is parallel to the axis of the duct and there is hardly any
restriction to the air flow through the duct. When the valve is closed, the butterfly is at right
angles to the axis of the duct and air can only pass the valve through the two holes in the
butterfly.
When the valve is closed, the restriction in the common duct causes a greater percentage
of pack 1 air to pass to the flight deck. Of course, the amount of air going from pack 1 to
the cabin is reduced.
The valve is electrically operated by a motor powered from the DC busbar supplying
pack 1.
When the valve is open, a white AIR HI FLOW annunciator illuminates in the switch.
The valve should be open when the aircraft is in flight. The valve is not automatically
opened when the aircraft becomes airborne. The FLIGHT DECK AIR switch should be
selected OFF before take-off.

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A IR CONDITIONING
Air Di stribut ion

Chapter 3 Topic 3
Page 11

Figure 3.7 - Fligh t Deck Boost Valve

Flight Deck

Cabin

Flight deck
!boost valve

~----. .- - - - - - - - - - - -. .
FLIGHT
DECK AIR

The DC bus
supplying pack 1.

DC BUS 1
PACK 1

PACK2
GROUND
USE
ONLY

Duct cross-section
without a boost va lve.

No restriction in
the duct.

Duct cross-section with a boost valve.


Boost valve open.
Boost valve closed.

Negligible restriction
in the duct.

Flow in the duct


is restricted.
iV1 03-00034

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AIR CONDITIONING
Air Distribution

Chapter 3 Topic 3
Page 12

Avionics Fan Air System

All aircraft have at least one avionics fan. A second fan may be fitted as an option. If two
fans are fitted, only one fan is used at a time; the other is a spare. The fan air system is
shown schematically in Figure 3.8. The avionics fan:

Draws air through avionics and electrical equipment in the electrical and avionics
bay.

Draws air through the flight deck instruments panel.

Draws air over the temperature sensor for the cabin automatic temperature
controller.

Draws air over the temperature sensor for the flight deck automatic temperature
controller.

Draws air through an inlet in the forward vestibule to ventilate the forward galley.

The air passes through the fan and then over the electrical smoke detector. If smoke is
detected, an ELECT SMOKE red caption illuminates on the CWP.
From the smoke detector, the air leaves the aircraft via the forward discharge or outflow
valve.

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AIR CONDITIONING
Air Di stribution

Chapter 3 Topic 3
Page 13

Figure 3_8 - Avionics Fan Schematic

Galley
ventilation

Cabin
automatic
temperature
controller

Fllght deck
automatic
temperature
controller

Flight deck
temperature
sensor

'' 10

- t
_,

JO ,
'I;

IP

, I \ \''

..=.:

I I

Cabin
Cabin
~==1 t&mperature ~~~ temperature
sensor
sensor

Flight deck
instrument
panels

Electrical and
avionic
equipment

Optional
avionics fan 2

Pressure

ewttch

Avionics fan 1

AVIONICS
FAN OFF

lv1 OUXI035

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AIR CONDITIONING
Air Distribution

Chapter 3 Topic 3
Page 14

Avionics Fan Electrical Supply

All aircraft have at least one avionics fan. A second fan may be fitted as an option. If two
fans are fitted, only one fan is used at a time; the other is a spare.
If just one fan is fitted:

The fan is normally supplied by AC BUS 1.

If AC BUS 1 fails, the fan is automatically supplied by AC BUS 2.

A flight deck fan switch is not fitted.

If two fans are fitted:

A flight deck fan switch is fitted.

The switch is in the avionics bay or on the flight deck. The switch has two
positions: FAN 1 and FAN 2.

The selected fan is normally supplied by AC BUS 1.

If AC BUS 1 fails, the selected fan is automatically supplied by AC BUS 2.

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AIR CONDITIONING
Air Di stribution

Chapter 3 Topic 3
Page 15

Figure 3_9- Avionics Fan Electrical Supply


One fan fitted

AC BUS 1

Bus selection t - --+t

circuit

AC BUS 2

Avionic tan

Two fans fitted

Avionic fa n 1

AC BUS 1
Bus selection
Fan selecdon
1--+ l
circuit
circuit

~~

AC BUS 2

Avionic fan 2

OR

Flight deck switc h

Avionics bay switch


Either an avionics bay switch or a flight deck switch is fitted , but not both.
..v 103-00036

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AIR CONDITIONING
Air Distribution

Chapter 3 Topic 3
Page 16

EFIS Cooling Fans

There are two EFIS cooling fans: one cools the two left display units and the other cools
the two right display units. The fans are monitored. If a fault is detected, a flight deck
warning is given.
The cooling fan control and monitoring circuit is shown schematically in Figure 3.1 0.
There are two amber EFIS fan fail annunciators on the lower part of the right instrument
panel: L EFIS and R EFIS. The annunciators are on a pushbutton switch. The button can
be pushed in to reset the monitoring circuits.
If either EFIS fan fail annunciator illuminates, an amber EFIS/IRS FAN FAIL annunciator
illuminates on the overhead air conditioning panel.
The left EFIS fan is powered from ESS AC and the right EFIS fan is powered by AC BUS
2.
There is a monitoring circuit for each EFIS fan. The left monitoring circuit is powered from
ESS DC and the right from DC BUS 2. If a monitoring circuit detects that its fan is running
at less than half speed, the monitoring circuit illuminates the associated fan fail
annunciator. The warning is latched ON. If the fault is transient, the monitoring circuit can
be reset by removing power from the monitoring circuit. Power to the monitoring circuits is
routed through the pushbutton switch containing the EFIS fan fail annunciators. Pushing
the switch in removes power from the monitors. The switch is spring-loaded to the out
position. Pushing and releasing the switch resets the monitors.

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AIR CONDITIONING
Air Di stribution

Chapter 3 Topic 3
Page 17

Figure 3_10- EFIS Display Unit Cooling


ESSAC

AC BUS 2

Left EFIS
f an m onitor

Right EFIS
fa n monitor

L EFIS
R EFIS
Press to reset

__

At normal the monitors are powered.


At reset, power is removed from the
monitors to allow a transient fault to
be reset.

ESSDC

DC BUS 2

i-v1 -03-00076

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Chapt er 3 Topic 3
Page 18

AIR CONDITIONING
Air Distribution

IRS Cooling Fans

Each IRS has an inertial reference unit (IRU) in the avionics bay. Each IRU has a cooling
fan. An overheat annunciator for each IRU is on the bottom of the right instrument panel.
The legends are IRS 1 and IRS 2 in amber. AC 1 supplies IRS 1 fan and AC 2 supplies
IRS 2 fan. If either IRS annunciator illuminates, an amber EFIS/IRS FAN FAIL annunciator
illuminates on the air conditioning panel.
An overheat condition is sensed by temperature sensors within the IRU. If an overheat
condition is sensed, the IRU illuminates the associated IRS annunciator. The arrangement
is shown in Figure 3.11 .
Figure 3.11 - IRU Cooling
AC BUS 1

l,nertial
reference
unit 1

AC BUS 2

Inertial
reference
unit 2

f- Overheat

Overheat -

i-v1-03-00075

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Ram Air Supply


An optional ram air supply for the cabin and flight deck may be fitted. The function of the
ram air valve is to provide ventilation of the cabin and the flight deck when both packs are
off.
The ram air supply is controlled from a RAM AIR VALVE switch on the overhead air
conditioning panel. The ram air supply is shown schematically in Figure 4 .1.
Each pack takes a cooling air supply from the ram air inlet at the base of the fin. A tapping
from the supply to pack 2 takes air to a ram air valve. From the ram air valve, a duct takes
air to the pack supply interconnect duct via a non-return valve.
The function of the non-return valve is to prevent the loss of pressurisation if the ram air
valve fails to open when the aircraft is pressurised.
Figure 4.1 - Ram Air Supply

Flight Deck

Cabin

Flight deck
boost valve

Ra m air valve

.,__

(\

\..../

PACK 1

PACK2

f t

Left air
supply

Cooling air to packs


Ram air inlet

t f

Right air
~upply

lv1-03-00051

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Chapt er 3 Topic 4
Page 2

AIR CONDITIONING
Ram Air

Ram Air Valve Control and Indication


Ram air control and indication is shown schematically in Figure 4.2.
The ram air valve is controlled by the RAM AIR VALVE switch on the air conditioning
overhead panel. A RAM AIR VALVE NIPS annunciator is above the switch.
The valve is operated by an electric motor supplied by DC BUS 1.
The NIPS annunciator is powered from DC BUS 2.
Figure 4.2 - Ram Air Control a.nd Indication

Flight Deck

Cabin

Flight deck

boost valve
Ram air valve

From ram
alr Inlet
NIPS
logic

DC BUS2

DC BUS 1

PACK 1

PACK2

Power to
operate
the valve

Loft air

Rl hl Dlr
supply

supply

I-V10J.()Q0f>2

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External Air Supply Connection


Some aircraft have a connection for low pressure external air conditioning unit. The
connection is behind a door on the lower rear fuselage. The door may be on the left or on
the right. The location of a right door is shown in Figure 5.1 . A left door would be in a
similar position on the other side of the fuselage.
The connection is behind the door. The door is opened by releasing two latches.
The ground air supply unit must mate with the aircraft connection - MS3562 (ASG). The
supply from the rig must be off while the connection is being made. The connection must
be locked in position before the external supply is introduced.
Figure 5.1 - External Air Conditioning Doo r

' '''

\..

This door can be on the left or the right.

Latches

External ground
conditioning door

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Volume 1

AIR CONDITIONING
External Ground Conditioning

Chapt er 3 Topic 5
Page 2

External Air Supply Schematic


From the ground connection, the supply goes to 1he pack supply interconnection via a
non-return valve. The arrangement is shown schematically in Figure 5.2.
Figure 5.2 - External Air Supply Schematic

Flight deck

Cabin

Flight deck
boost valve

From ram
air inlet
Ram air valv e

PACK 1

PACK2

Ground air
supply
Left air
supply

Right air
supply
i-v1-03-00054

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Temperature Switches
There are six high temperature switches in the rear bay. They detect leaks from the
engine bleed dueling, the packs and the pack dueling.
The switches activate at 120 C. If any one of the switches detects a high temperature, the
REAR BAY HI TEMP annunciator illuminates on the overhead air conditioning panel.
The switches quickly reset on falling temperature.

There is a test switch on the overhead test panel. The switch tests the warning circuit
apart from the temperature switches. When the switch is pressed and held, the REAR
BAY HI TEMP annunciator should illuminate. The circuit schematic is shown in Figure 6.1.
Fi gure 6.1 -Rear Bay High Temperature Schematic
ESSDC

Flight deck test switch

Overheat
switch 1

Overheat
switch 4

Overheat
switch 2

Overheat
switch 5

Overheat
switch 3

Overheat
switch 6

REAR BAY
HI TEMP

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AIR CONDITIONING
Rear Bay High Temperature

Chapter 3 Topic 6
Page2

Page Intentionally Blank

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Overview
The pressurization system provides the means for controlling the cabin pressure during all
ground and flight operations. The system ensures that comfortable changes of cabin
pressure are achieved inside the cabin regardless of the aircraft ascent and descent rates.
A pressurization overview schematic is shown in Figure 7.1 .
The air supply for the pressurization system comes from the two air conditioning packs.
The packs are supplied by the aircraft air supply system. The aircraft air supply system is
supplied by the engines or the APU. The aircraft air supply system is divided into two
parts: the left and the right. The APU supplies the left and the right system. The left wing
engines supply the left system and the right wing engines supply the right system. Pack 1
is supplied by the left system and pack 2 is supplied by the right system.
The air supply leaves the aircraft via two discharge valves on the left side of the fuselage:
discharge valve 1 :and discharge valve 2. The pressurization system pressurizes the
aircraft by regulating the flow of air from the discharge valves.
The discharge valves are electrically controlled and pneumatically operated. The control
signal comes from the pressurization controller on the flight deck overhead panel. The
pneumatic power comes from either the left or the right air supply system via a shuttle
valve. Pneumatic power is available to operate the valves provided the APU air is
available, or air is available from at least one engine.
Figure 7.1 - Pressurization Overview Schematic

Engine

41

( Engine

31

Right air supply

Flight

deck

Engine

APU bay

Cabin

21 i+~

( Englne1

Ldt air supply


IVl..()).()O()G()

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Volume 1

AIR CONDITIONING
Semi-automatic Pressurization

Chapter 3 Topic 7
Page2

Discharge Valve Control

The outlet area of each discharge valve is controlled by the pressurization controller
between fully closed and fully open. When a discharge valve is fully closed, no cabin air
can leave the aircraft via the discharge valve.
When both discharge valves are closed, there is still leakage of air from the aircraft: for
example, through the door seals.
When a valve is not fully closed, the cabin differential pressure depends on the valve outlet
area and the flow rate through the valve. The differential pressure increases as the valve
outlet area is decreased. The flow rate through the valve increases as the differential
pressure increases. In stable conditions, the total flow through the two discharge valves
and other leakage paths in the aircraft is equal to the net flow into the cabin from the
packs.
When both valves are fully open and both packs are on, the pressure drop across the valve
is close to zero when stable conditions have been established.
The pressurization controller positions the discharge valves so that the cabin pressure
required by the panel settings is achieved.
Each discharge valve is biased to the fully closed position by a spring. The valve is
positioned by the balance of forces due to:

The pressure in the reference chamber.

Cabin pressure.

Valve discharge pressure.

The spring.

The arrangement is shown in Figure 7.2.


The controller controls the discharge valve position by changing the pressure in the
reference chamber. To move the valve towards the closed position, the pressure in the
reference chamber is increased; to move the valve towards a closed position, the pressure
in the reference chamber is reduced. Reference chamber pressure is increased by
admitting air from the cabin into the reference chamber; reference chamber pressure is
reduced by sucking air out of the reference chamber using a jet pump. The motive flow for
the jet pump comes from the air supply system. The flow from the jet pump is discharged
into the discharge valve outlet.
The controller changes the reference chamber pressure by changing the position of a valve
operated by an electric torque motor. The valve has a cabin inlet orifice and an outlet
orifice that vents to the jet pump. The valve varies the balance of the flow through the inlet
orifice and the outlet orifice to control pressure in the reference chamber and thus the
position of the discharge valve.

FCOM:V1-002

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Volume 1

Chapter 3 Topic 7
Page3

AIR CONDITIONING
Semi-automatic Pressurization
Figure 7_2 - Discharge Valve Control

o4

Cabin pressure

Left air
supply

Alght air

po

supply

~
t-----position
Va ...
lv-e- - - - - - - " " " iCabin pressurol

Flow from
cabin and
flight deck

Valve
control

Torque
motor

Rererrenc:e c:namber
Reference chamber

pressure

Cabin
prossun.

Discharge prossuro
(close to ambient pressure)

Valve outlet

Discharge
flow
1-\11.()3-00047

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Volume 1

AIR CONDITIONING
Semi-automatic Pressurization

Chapter 3 Topic 7
Page4

Discharge Valve Protective Features

Each discharge valve has protective features that are:

Pneumatically operated.

Do not require

electricity~

There are three protective features:

Maximum cabin altitude.

Maximum positive differential pressure protection: also called outward relief.

Maximum negative differential pressure protection: also called inward relief.

Maximum Cabin Altitude Limiter

Maximum cabin altitude protection is provided by a maximum cabin altitude control valve
on each valve. A cabin altitude control valve prevents the cabin altitude rising above
15 000 ft provided an adequate flow of air is entering the cabin from the packs. The cabin
altitude control valve is shown schematically in Figure 7.3.
Each cabin altitude control valve senses cabin pressure; if the cabin altitude rises above
15 ooo ft, the cabin altitude control valve increases the reference chamber pressure by
increasing cabin pressure into the reference chamber. A cabin altitude control valve will
control to 15 000 ft if an adequate air supply is available; if not, it will close its discharge
valve.
Positive Relief Control Valve

Maximum differential protection is provided by a positive relief control valve on each


discharge valve. The control valve is shown schematically in Figure 7.3.
Each positive relief control valve senses cabin pressure and ambient pressure. Ambient
pressure sensing is from S4 for the forward discharge valve (valve 1) and from S5 for the
aft discharge (valve 2). Each positive relief control valve has a spring that biases its relief
valve towards closed. A positive relief control valve opens when the cabin differential
pressure exceeds the limit. When a positive relief control valve is opened, the discharge
valve reference chamber is connected to a local area of low pressure air in the outlet of the
discharge valve. The discharge valve then moves towards open, relieving the cabin
pressure.
Either positive relief control valve takes priority over all normal control functions and will
control to the maximum differential pressure. When the cabin altitude is set to 8 000 ft and
the aircraft is at the maximum certified altitude, control is normally via the positive relief
control valve.
Each discharge valve has an altitude limiter; the limiter increases the datum of the positive
relief control valve when the aircraft is above 29 000 ft.
On aircraft with a maximum certified altitude of 31 000 ft, the positive relief control valve is
set at 6.55 psi at 29 000 ft and below and to 6. 75 psi above 29 000 ft. On aircraft with a
maximum certified altitude of 33 000 ft, the positive relief control valve is set to 7.17 psi at
29 ooo ft below and to 7.33 psi above 29 ooo ft.

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Volume 1

AIR CONDITIONING
Semi-automatic Pressurization

Chapter 3 Topic 7
Page 5

Figure 7_3- Maximum Altitude and Positive Relief Control Valves


S4 for the forward valve

SS for the aft v,a lve


Cabin pres$ure

Loft atr
supply
Altitude
limiter

Right It r
supply
Maximum
cabin altitude
control valve

Positive relief
control valve

Valve
normal
control

~-

Shuttle valve

Torque
mot or

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AVRO 146-RJ Series

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Volume 1

AIR CONDITIONING
Semi-automatic Pressurization

Chapter 3 Topic 7
Page6

Inward Relief Valve

The increase in external pressure that occurs when the aircraft is descending very rapidly
after loss of both packs may cause a negative differential pressure. An inward relief valve
on each discharge valve limits negative differential to 0.5 psi.
The inward relief valve vents the reference chamber to the cabin; thus the higher ambient
pressure will tend to open the discharge valve.
The inward relief valve is shown schematically in Figure 7.4.
Ditching

The ditching system is shown schematically in Figure 7 .4.


Each discharge valve has a ditch inward relief valve, an inward relief servo valve and a
ditching mechanism. The ditching mechanism is operated by a DC motor. The DC motor
moves to the ditching position when the DISCH VALVES switch on the pressurization
panel is set to DITCH. The DC motor is powered from the emergency battery busbar.
When DITCH is selected, the inward relief valve is closed and the ditch inward relief valve
is opened. In this condition, inward relief is given by the inward relief servo valve and the
ditch inward relief valve.
The inward relief servo valve compares ambient pressure and cabin pressure; when
ambient pressure is higher than cabin pressure, the inward relief servo valve opens to vent
the reference chamber. The ambient pressure reference is S3 for the forward valve and
sa for the rear valve.
When the ditch inward relief valve is opened, ambient pressure from a port in the outlet of
the discharge valve is connected to the reference chamber. This reduces the reference
chamber pressure and forces the discharge valve to open and will reduce cabin pressure.
The differential pressure will be reduced to zero if the packs are off. If one or both packs
are on, the discharge valves will control to a low positive differential pressure. The packs
are switched off before ditching.
On ditching, water enters the reference chamber via the port in the discharge valve outlet
and the ditching inward relief valve. Pressure is equalised on either side of the valve and it
closes under the influence of the spring. Water cannot enter the aircraft via the discharge
valves.

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Volume 1

AIR CONDITIONING
Semi-automatic Pressurization

Chapter 3 Topic 7
Page 7

Figure 7.4 - Ditching and Inward Relief


53 for the forward valve

58 for the aft val\le


To cabin
To cabin

Ditch
motor

Valve
normal
control

DITCH
lnwa rd relief
servo valve

Close
~
Open

Inward
relief
valve

Cabin
pressure

Ditch Inward
relief valve

Loft a r
supply
Rfghtafr
supply

Shuttle vlve
Torque
motor

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AIR CONDITIONING
Semi-automatic Pressurization

Chapter 3 Topic 7
Page a

Pressurization Controller

The pressurization controller is electronic. It is behind the pressurization panel on the flight
deck overhead panel. The controller functions are shown schematically in Figure 7.5.
The controller has one control circuit for the automatic mode and another for the manual
mode. The automatic mode circuit is normally powered by essential AC, but will be
powered automatically by the emergency battery busbar if essential AC fails. The manual
mode circuit is powered by the emergency battery busbar. When the mode switch is
selected to AUTO, the automatic control circuit is turned on and the manual control circuit
is turned off. When the mode switch is selected to MAN, the automatic control circuit is
turned off and the manual control circuit is turned on.
The discharge valve position indicators are powered from emergency battery busbar.
The ditch function is normally powered from essential AC; if essential AC fails, the ditch
function is automatically powered from the emergency battery busbar. If the DISCH
VALVES switch is set to DITCH, the ditch motors in both discharge valves rotate to the
ditch position.
Both the automatic control circuit and the manual control circuit respond to the NORMAL,
SHUT 1 and SHUT 2 positions of the DISCH VALVES switch. At NORMAL both valves are
controlled; the positions of the valves will be approximately the same. At SHUT 1, valve 1
is shut and control is maintained using valve 2. At SHUT 2, valve 2 is shut and control is
maintained using valve 1.
When the mode selector is selected to MAN, the position of the discharge valves is
determined by the rotary MAN control and the position of the DISCH VALVES switch. The
MAN switch sends a position demand to the valves. Provided a valve has not been
selected SHUT, it will take up the position demanded by the rotary control.
When the mode selector is at AUTO:

In the air, the valves are positioned to satisfy the rate and cabin altitude demands
set on the controller. Provided a valve has not been selected to SHUT, both valves
will be at approximately the same position.

On the ground, the valve position depends on a ground logic circuit within the
automatic control circuit. The ground logic circuit looks at the squat switch position
and the position of the thrust lever of engine 2.

In the automatic mode, the controller uses a pressure transducer that senses cabin
pressure to determine the actual cabin altitude and the actual rate of change of cabin
altitude.

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AIR CONDITIONING
Semi-automatic Pressurization

Chapter 3 Topic 7
Page9

Figure 7-5- Controller Schematic


Pfe'SSurisation Controller

Valve 1 Indicator
position sensor

Valve 2 Indicator
position sensor

Manual control

Normal/shut 1/shut 2

EMERG BATT

Power
supply
AUTO
and
DITCH

ESSAC

Thrust

Ditch

Valve1
ditching
motor

Ditch

Valve 2
ditching
motor

Normal/shut 1/shut 2

~~~

Valve 1
torque motor
Automatic control
Valve 2
torque motor

Pack and
engine air

switching

Cabin pressure transducer

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AIR CONDITIONING
Semi-automatic Pressurization

Chapter 3 Topic 7
Page 10

Automatic Mode Control in Flight

In the automatic mode, the cabin rate is controlled to the set rate until the set cabin altitude
is attained. The set cabin altitude is then held. The rate direction does not need to be set.
The cabin altitude will climb if the actual cabin altitude is below the set value and descend
if the actual cabin altitude is above the set value.
The selected rates of climb are the equivalent sea level rates; they are:

At the detented position on 31 000 ft controllers, 525 ft/min in a climb and 375 ft/min
in a descent.

At the detented position on 33 000 ft controllers, 500 ft/min in a climb and 325 ft/min
in a descent.

At the increased rate setting on 33 000 ft controllers, 600ft/min in a climb and 360
ft/min in a descent.

At the minimum position, 150 ft/min in a climb and 100 ftlmin in a descent.

At the maximum position, 1 800 ftlmin in a climb and 1 200 ftlmin in a descent.

The controller will control to the cabin altitude set on the cabin altitude scale. The cabin
altitude is set using the ALT control. The datum for the cabin altitude will be the setting on
the baro setting scale. The datum is changed with the BARO control.
The discharge valves move more quickly when either pack switch is operated or either
inboard engine air switch is operated.

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Chapter 3 Topic 7
Page 11

Automatic Mode Control on the Ground

On the ground with the thrust lever of engine 2 below the take-off range, the system sets
the altitude for control to 14 000 ft and the rate of control to 1 200 ft/min. Both discharge
valves move to fully open provided air is available from the air supply system.
On the ground with at least one pack on, the system selects a cabin rate of descent of
600ft/min when the thrust lever of engine 2 is moved into the take-off range. On take-off,
the system is controlling at rotation.
On the ground with both packs off, the system signals both valves towards the closed
position when the thrust lever of engine 2 is moved into the take-off range.
The ground logic requires:

Emergency DC to power the squat switch to the ground state.

AND

Another DC power source to signal the controller that the aircraft is on the ground.

On early aircraft the DC signal comes from DC 2; on most aircraft the signal comes from
ESS DC. Early aircraft require both DC 2 and EMERG DC for the ground logic to work, but
most aircraft require ESS DC and EM ERG DC for the ground logic to work.
If the GRND PRESSN switch light on the overhead test panel is selected to ground
pressurization mode, the on ground signal is removed from the controller; the automatic
system will function on the ground in the same way that it does in the air. The ground
pressurization mode is for maintenance purposes only.

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Semi-automatic Pressurization

Chapter 3 Topic 7
Page 12

Page Intentionally Blank

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Overview
The pressurization system provides the means for controlling the cabin pressure during all
ground and flight operations. The system ensures that comfortable changes of cabin
pressure are achieved inside the cabin regardless of the aircraft ascent and descent rates.
A pressurization overview schematic is shown in Figure 8.1 .
The air supply for the pressurization system comes from the two air conditioning packs.
The packs are supplied by the aircraft air supply system. The aircraft air supply system is
supplied by the engines and the APU. The aircraft air supply system is divided into two
parts: the left and the right. The APU supplies the left and the right system The left wing
engines supply the left system and the right wing engines supply the right system. Pack 1
is supplied by the left system and pack 2 is supplied by the right system.
The air supply leaves the aircraft via two out flow valves on the left side of the fuselage: the
primary outflow valve and the secondary outflow valve. The pressurization system
pressurizes the aircraft by regulating the flow of air from the outflow valves.
The outflow valves are electrically controlled and pneumatically operated. The control
signal comes from the pressurization controller on the flight deck overhead panel. The
pneumatic power comes from either the left or the right air supply system via a shuttle
valve. Pneumatic power is available to operate the valves provided the APU air is
available or air is available from at least one engine.
Figure 8.1 - Pressurization Overview Schematic

IEngine !~
IEngine 31--ffi
Flight

deck

Cabin

APU bay

APU

Primery
valve

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AIR CONDITIONING
Fully Automatic Pressurization

Chapter 3 Topic 8
Page2

Outflow Valve Control

The pressurization controller controls one outflow valve. The position of the other outflow
valve is pneumatically slaved to the position of the valve being controlled by the controller.
The outlet area of the inecontrol valve is controlled by the pressurization controller between
fully closed and fully open. When the outflow valve is fully closed, no cabin air can leave
the aircraft via the outflow valve. When both outflow valves are closed, there is still
leakage of air from the aircraft: for example, through the door seals.
When a valve is not fully closed, the cabin differential pressure depends on the valve outlet
area and the flow rate through the valve. The differential pressure increases as the valve
outlet area is decreased. The flow rate through the valve increases as the differential
pressure increases. In stable conditions, the total flow through the two outflow valves and
other leakage paths in the aircraft is equal to the net flow into the cabin from the packs.
When both valves are fully open and both packs are on, the pressure drop across the valve
is close to zero when stable conditions have been established. The pressurization
controller positions the outflow valves so that the cabin pressure required by the panel
settings is achieved.
Each outlet valve is biased to the fully closed position by a spring. The valve is positioned
by the balance of forces due to:

The pressure in a reference chamber.

Cabin pressure.

Valve discharge pressure.

The spring.

The arrangement is shown in Figure 8.2.


The controller controls the outflow valve position by changing the pressure in the reference
chamber. To move the valve towards a more closed position, the pressure in the reference
chamber is increased; to move the valve towards a more open position, the pressure in the
reference chamber is reduced. Reference chamber pressure is increased by admitting air
from the cabin into the reference chamber; reference chamber pressure is reduced by
sucking air out of the reference chamber using a jet pump. The motive flow for the jet
pump comes from the air supply system. The flow from the jet pump is discharged into the
discharge valve outlet.
Cabin air permanently leaks into the reference chamber. The controller changes the
reference chamber pressure by changing the position of the valve operated by an electric
torque motor. The valve varies the amount of suction applied by the jet pump.
The primary valve has a permanent bleed from the cabin directly into the valve. When the
primary valve is in control, the pneumatic link between the two valves keeps pressure in
the secondary valve reference chamber the same as that in the primary valve; the
secondary valve position is slaved to the primary valve's position.
The secondary valve does not have a direct bleed from the cabin to the valve. When the
secondary valve is in control, the bleed is effectively from the cabin bleed port on the
primary valve via the pneumatic link.

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AIR CONDITIONING
Fully Automatic Pressurization

Chapter 3 Topic 8
Page3

Figure 8_2 - Outflow Valve Control

1. . . . .-

Cabin pressure

Cabin pressure Inlet


Only fitted to the
primary valve

Valve
fully opon

Pneumatic link to the


other outflow valve

loft a1r
up ply

Right lr
supply

Valve
control

Flow from
cabin and
flight deck
Reference chamber

Cabin
pressure

Discharge pressure
(close to ambiont prossuro)

Valve outlet - - - - - - -

Discharge
flow
i-vl-03-00062

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AIR CONDITIONING
Fully Automatic Pressurization

Chapter 3 Topic 8
Page4

Outflow Valve Protective Features

Each outflow valve has protective features that are:

Pneumatically operated.

Do not require

electricity~

There are three protective features:

Maximum cabin altitude.

Maximum positive differential pressure protection: also called outward relief.

Maximum negative differential pressure protection: also called inward relief.

Cabin Altitude Limit Control

Maximum cabin altitude protection is provided by a cabin altitude limit control valve on
each outflow valve. A cabin altitude limit control valve prevents the cabin altitude rising
above 15 000 ft provided an adequate flow of air is entering the cabin from the packs. The
control valve is shown schematically in Figure 8.3. If the OUTFLOW VALVES switch has
been set to DUMP, the cabin altitude limit control valve controls to 15 700ft.
Each cabin altitude limit control valve senses cabin pressure; if the cabin altitude rises
above 15 000 ft (15 700ft if DUMP is selected), the cabin altitude limit control valve
increases the reference chamber pressure by introducing cabin pressure into the reference
chamber. A control valve will control cabin altitude to the limit if an adequate air supply is
available; if not, it will close its outflow valve.
Positive Relief Control Valve

Maximum differential protection is provided by a positive relief control valve on each


discharge valve. The control valve is shown schematically in Figure 8.3.
Each positive relief control valve senses cabin pressure and ambient pressure. Ambient
pressure sensing is from S4 for the primary valve and S5 for the secondary discharge
valve. Each positive relief control valve has a spring that biases its relief valve towards
closed. A positive relief control valve opens when the cabin differential pressure exceeds
7.7 psi. When a positive relief control valve is opened, the discharge valve reference
chamber is connected to a local area of low pressure air in the outlet of the discharge
valve. The discharge valve then moves towards open, relieving the cabin pressure.
Either positive relief control valve takes priority over all normal control functions and will
control to 7.7 psi if the cabin differential pressure reaches 7.7 psi.

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Chapter 3 Topic 8
Page 5

AIR CONDITIONING
Fully Automatic Pressurization

Figure 8.3 - Maximum Altitude and Positive Relief Control Valves


~

for the primary valve

SS for the secondary valve


Pneumatic link to the
other o utflow valve.

Cabin pressure

Loft ar
supply

Right air
Cabin pressure
au ply
Inlet
Only fitted to lhe
primary valve
I

Positive relief
control valve

Cabin altitude
limit control
valve

Valve
control

Shuttle valva

Reference chamber

!..=======~ Area of low pressure.

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AIR CONDITIONING
Fully Automatic Pressurization

Chapter 3 Topic 8
Page6

Inward Relief

The increase in external pressure that occurs when the aircraft is descending very rapidly
after loss of both packs may cause a negative differential pressure. The design of the
outflow valve limits any negative differential to 0.5 psi.
When the ambient pressure significantly exceeds the cabin pressure, the balance of forces
across the outflow valves forces them towards the open position. Pressure is prevented
from rising in the reference chambers by the permanently open bleed port in the primary
valve to the cabin.
Ditch Valve

Each discharge valve has a ditching valve. The ditching valve is shown schematically in
Figure 8.4.
The ditching valve is operated by an electric solenoid. When the solenoid is powered, the
ditching valve is opened. The solenoid is powered from the emergency battery busbar.
When the ditching valve is open, the reference chamber is connected to a port in the valve
outlet.
When the OUTFLOW VALVES switch is selected to DITCH:

The ditching valve is opened.

AND

Power is removed from the torque motors.

On ditching, water enters the reference chamber via the port in the outflow valve outlet and
the ditching valve. As a result, the pressure is equalised on either side of the valve and the
valve closes under the influence of the spring. This ensures that water cannot enter the
aircraft via the discharge valves.

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Volume 1

Chapter 3 Topic 8
Page 7

AIR CONDITIONING
Fully Automatic Pressurization
Figure 8-4 - Ditching
Pneumatic link to the
other outflow valve.

Left air
supply

Right air
Cabin pressure
supply
inlet
Only fitted to the
primary valve.

Ditch

Valve
control

Ditching valve

Reference chamber
Spring

iv1.Q3.QQQ64

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AIR CONDITIONING
Fully Automatic Pressurization

Chapter 3 Topic 8
Page8

System Control

System control is shown schematically in Figure 8.5.


The outflow valves are electrically signalled by the controller. The valves are spring loaded
to the closed position; valve position can be varied by applying suction to it. Each valve
has its own jet pump to supply suction. The motive flow for the jet pumps is from the air
supply system. Any engine or the APU can supply the motive flow.
The system has two channels: primary and secondary. Each channel can control the
system in either manual or automatic mode.
When the primary channel is in control, it electrically signals the primary valve; the
secondary valve is not electrically signalled, but is pneumatically slaved to the primary
valve.
When the secondary channel is in control, it electrically signals the secondary valve; the
primary valve is not electrically signalled, but is pneumatically slaved to the secondary
valve.
Normally the primary channel is in control. If the primary channel fails, the secondary
channel automatically takes over control.
Each channel receives:

Altitude, baro-set and airspeed from both ADCs .

The engine 2 thrust lever position and the squat switch position. These inputs are
used to determine whether the aircraft is taking off or landing.

The cabin pressure. There is one sensor for each channel.

The positions of all the panel switches .

The primary channel is powered by DC 2; the secondary channel is powered by EMERG


DC.
Software Maximum Differential Pressure Protection

Each channel provides software maximum cabin differential protection. If the cabin
differential pressure exceeds the software limit, a rate of climb is commanded. Maximum
differential protection overrides all other software functions.
The protection is available in both the manual mode and the automatic mode.
The software limits are:

7.36 psi below FL 270.

7.46 psi above FL 270.

A channel calculates differential pressure from its cabin pressure sensor and ADC aircraft
altitude data. If neither ADC is available, the software maximum cabin differential
protection is not available.

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Volume 1

Chapter 3 Topic 8
Page9

AIR CONDITIONING
Fully Automatic Pressurization
Figure 8_5 - System Control Schematic

Primary
channel
Cabin
pru$ure
sansor

s~ondary

ADC 1

channel

ADC 2

Cabin

:!=!==

~=!: pressure

sensor

Thrust
lever 2

Controller switch positions

Automat~~- ~

Automatic
mode control

mode con: J

Manual mode
control

Manual mode
control
Ditching valve power

EM ERG BATT

Valve control

Valve control
Ditchi ng
valve

Ditching
valve

Torque
motor

Torque
motor

Jet pumps
Primary outflow valve

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AIR CONDITIONING
Fully Automatic Pressurization

Chapter 3 Topic 8
Page 10

System Indication

System indication is shown schematically in Figure 8.6.


The FULL OPEN annunciators are driven by micro switches on the valves. The electrical
power comes from the emergency battery busbar.
The controller provides the signal for the CWP CABIN HI AL T caption. Either channel can
signal the caption.
The CWP has an amber PRESSNi caption and a white PRESSN caption . Either channel
can signal the captions.
The panel LCD display is supplied by the secondary channel. The primary channel cannot
supply the panel display.
The QUAD display can be supplied by either channel. Normally, the primary channel is in
control and supplies the QUAD indicator while the secondary channel supplies the panel
display. If the primary channel fails the secondary channel automatically takes over control
and supplies both the QUAD indicator and the panel display.
The QUAD indicator is normally powered by DC 2. If DC 2 fails, the QUAD indicator is
automatically transferred to EM ERG DC.
White PRESSN Caption

The white PRESSN caption indicates that an abnormal system selection has been made or
that a minor system failure has occurred. A minor system failure is one that does not
require pilot action: for example, a single channel failure.
The abnormal selections are DUMP, DITCH or MAN.
Amber PRESSN

i Caption

The amber PRESSN i caption indicates that the differential pressure is outside the range
-0.5 to 7.6 psi or that a major system failure has occurred requiring pilot action: for
example, dual channel failure or dual ADC failure.
When the differential pressure is outside the range of -0.5 to 7.6 psi, the indication of
differential pressure on the panel display and the QUAD indicator will flash.
CABIN HI ALT Caption

The logic associated with the CABIN HI ALT caption is described in the Cabin High
Altitude Warning topic of this chapter.

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Fully Automatic Pressurization

Chapter 3 Topic 8
Page 11

Figure 8_6- System Indication Schematic

------t~ERG

Normal
supply

Bock-up
SUpJJIY

Primary
channel

o"CJ

Secondary
channel

Normal
indication

,...,
u
,..., ,...,
uu

,...,,...,

LJ

Normal
indication

PRESSN

PRESSN

PRIMARY
Ol'tN

~UlL

SFUlNOARY
Full OPfN

Valve control

EMERGBATI

Torque
motor

Valve control

Torque
motor

Valve
Valve
position 1+---"1---+! position
switches
switches
Primary outflow valve

~===========:1 Secondary outflow valve

~----------------~

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AIR CONDITIONING
Fully Automatic Pressurization

Chapter 3 Topic 8
Page 12

Sub-modes

The controller has the following sub-modes:

Ground sub-mode.

Take-off sub-mode ~

Take-off abort sub-mode.

Climb sub-mode.

Descent sub-mode.

Landing sub-mode.

Ground Sub-mode

The ground sub-mode is used to prevent pressurization on the ground. The ground
sub-mode is first entered when the controller is powered up and an on ground signal from
the squat switch is present. In the ground sub-mode, both outflow valves are signalled fully
open. The system transfers to the take-off sub-mode when either engine 2 thrust lever is
moved into the take-off range, or the airspeed exceeds 160 kt.
Take-off Sub-mode

In the take-off sub-mode, a cabin rate of descent is signalled so that the system is in
control when the aircraft rotates. A small degree of pressurization is achieved during the
take-off run. However, the cabin altitude does not descend more than 200ft below the
ru nway altitude.
Take-off Abort Sub-mode

If the engine 2 thrust lever is retarded while the aircraft is still on the ground, the take-off
abort sub-mode is entered. In the take-off abort sub-mode, the cabin pressure is reduced
gradually for 20 seconds and then the outflow valves are opened fully. The system then
transfers back to the ground mode.
Climb Sub-mode

The climb sub-mode is entered 10 seconds after the aircraft becomes airborne. The
aircraft is considered airborne if either weight is off the wheels or the airspeed is greater
than 160 kt.
The automatic mode uses a principal schedule of cabin altitude against aircraft altitude.
The principal schedule is shown in Figure 8 .7. To minimise unnecessary descents after
take-off in the automatic mode, on first entering the climb sub-mode after take-off:

For take-off altitudes less than 2 ooo ft, the cabin altitude is controlled to a take-off
schedule of cabin altitude versus aircraft altitude. The schedule starts with a cabin
altitude slightly below the take-off altitude. The system follows the take-off
schedule until it intersects with the principal schedule. This occurs at an aircraft
altitude of 1 5 000 ft.

For take-offs at 2 000 ft or above, but not above 8 000 ft, the cabin altitude is held
at the take-off value for 5 minutes. Then, cabin altitude is controlled to the higher of
the cabin altitude of the principal schedule and the landing field elevation.

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AIR CONDITIONING
Fully Automatic Pressurization

Chapter 3 Topic 8
Page 13

In the automatic mode, when the climb mode is first entered from a take-off altitude greater
than 8 000 ft, the cabin altitude is controlled to the higher of the cabin altitude of the
principal schedule and the landing field elevation.
On entries to the climb mode other than the first, the cabin altitude is controlled to the
higher of the cabin altitude of the principal schedule and the landing field elevation.
When seeking the cabin altitude of the principal schedule, the cabin rate of change is
limited to pressure rates of change equivalent to a climb rate of 600 It/min at sea level and
a descent rate of 325 ftfmin at sea level.
In the manual mode, the cabin rate is controlled to the set rate. When the rate is set to
zero, the system holds the existing cabin alt itude.
Figure 8.7 - The Principal Schedule
10 000

r
g

6 000

Q)

"0

...

:l

4 000

:;:;

cv

c
:0
cv

8 000

2 000

-2 000
-5 000

~
0

v
v
10 000

_/

20 000

Aircraft altitude (ft)

30 000

40 000

i-v 1-0300067

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AIR CONDITIONING
Fully Automatic Pressurization

Chapter 3 Topic 8
Page 14

Descent Sub-mode

The climb sub-mode transfers to the descent sub-mode if the aircraft descends more than
500ft. The descent sub-mode transfers back to the climb sub-mode if the aircraft climbs
more than 500 ft.
In the descent sub-mode, the cabin altitude is controlled to the higher of the cabin altitude
of the principal schedule and the landing field elevation.
When seeking the cabin altitude of the principal schedule, the cabin rate of change is
limited to pressure rates of change equivalent to a climb rate of 525ft/min at sea level and
a descent rate of 325 ft/min at sea level.
In the manual mode, the cabin rate of change is controlled to a set rate. When the rate is
set to zero, the system holds the existing cabin altitude.
Landing Sub-mode

The landing mode reduces any residual cabin differential pressure on landing in a
controlled manner. Landing mode is entered from either climb, descent or flight modes
when the squat switch senses an on-ground condition and the airspeed is less than 140
kt. After 20 seconds, the system changes to the ground sub-mode.
Automatic Mode Selection and Indication

In the automatic mode, a landing field elevation can be selected using the LOG ALT control
on the panel; rate control is automatic.
The LOG ALT switch is a 16 position switch. It moves in clicks and allows the landing field
altitude to be set in steps of 100 ft. The first click causes the currently selected landing
altitude to be displayed on the panel indicator bottom line. Each further click of the selector
causes the landing altitude to change by 1oo ft. Clockwise rotation causes an increase in
landing altitude. While the landing altitude is being displayed on the panel indicator, LA
precedes the displayed altitude. The displayed landing altitude is referenced to the
sub-scale setting on the left altimeter.
On the ground, the landing field altitude can be set between -1 000 ft and 8 000 ft. In the
air, the landing field elevation can be set above 8 000 ft, but not above 14 000 ft.
The cabin altitude displayed on the panel indicator and the QUAD indicator is referenced to
the altimeter sub-scale setting on the left altimeter.

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AIR CONDITIONING
Fully Automatic Pressurization

Chapter 3 Topic 8
Page 15

Manual Mode Selection and Indication

Landing field elevation is not used in the manual mode. The only manual control is the
MAN RATE control on the panel. In the manual mode, cabin rate is controlled to the set
rate. When the rate is set to zero, the system holds the existing cabin altitude.
The MAN RATE switch is a 16 position switch. It moves in clicks and allows the manual
rate to be displayed on the panel indicator top line and the QUAD indicator top line. Each
further click of the selector causes the manual rate to change by 50 fVmin. Clockwise
rotation causes an increase in manual rate. While the manual rate is being displayed on
the panel indicator, MR precedes the displayed rate. While the manual rate is being
displayed on the QUAD indicator, MAN precedes the displayed rate.
The MAN RATE can be set between -2 500 fVmin and 2 500 fVmin. The selected rate
gives a pressure equivalent to the selected rate at sea level. The indicated rate is the
actual rate. At cabin altitudes above sea level, the indicated rate will be higher than the
actual rate: about 20% higher at 8 000 ft cabin altitude. Cabin comfort depends on the
pressure rate and not the altitude rate.
If either ADC is available, the displayed cabin altitude is referenced to the altimeter sub
scale setting on the left altimeter.

If both ADCs have failed, the displayed cabin altitude is referenced to 1013 mb and there
will be no indication of ~p .
ADC Failures

If a single ADC failure occurs, the white PRESSN caption illuminates and ADC 1 or 2, as
appropriate, is displayed on the middle line of the panel display. The controlling channel
will use data from the serviceable ADC.
If both ADCs fail:

The system automatically reverts to manual. Automatic control requires aircraft


altitude data from one ADC.

Cabin differential pressure cannot be calculated. The display of cabin differential


pressure will be dashes on both indicators.

Software maximum differential pressure is no longer available.


protection on the outflow valves is still available.

The amber PRESSNi caption illuminates.

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However, the

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AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIR CONDITIONING
Fully Automatic Pressurization

Chapter 3 Topic 8
Page 16

Excess Rate Test

The controller performs an excess rate test. The test continuously monitors the actual
cabin rate compared to the demanded rate. A fail point is determined by the rate of error
and the time for which it existed. If the test fails, the controlling channel will be failed and
control will be transferred to the other channel. The white PRESSN caption will illuminate
and the failed channel will be indicated on the middle line of the display panel.
If the second channel subsequently fails the test:

The amber PRESSNi caption illuminates and a DUAL fault is annunciated on the
middle line of the panel display.

Control is passed back to the original channel.

If the dual fault clears, control will automatically be resumed.

The excess rate test can fail in both channels if both air conditioning packs are off in flight.
As soon as the packs are restored, the PRESSNi caption extinguishes and the dual fault
clears. A typical case is a take-off without air conditioning followed by a late introduction of
air conditioning.
Verify Test Mode

A verify test mode can be entered on the ground by either rotating the LOG ALT selector
five clicks past -1 000 ft or 5 clicks past 8 000 ft. If the test passes, PASS is displayed on
the panel display for 5 seconds after the test is complete. If the test fails, the fault is shown
on the middle of the display.
Panel Display

The panel display is shown in Figure 8.8.


The top line shows the cabin rate in tvmin. An arrow indicates the direction of the rate. If a
manually selected rate is being displayed, MR precedes the rate.
The middle line shows cabin differential pressure in psi. Faults can also be displayed on
the middle line.
The bottom line shows cabin altitude or landing field altitude in ft. If landing field altitude is
being displayed then LA precedes the altitude.

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AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIR CONDITIONING
Fully Automatic Pressurization

Chapter 3 Topic 8
Page 17

Figure 8.8 - Panel Display


Arrow indicates a rate of climb.

Actual cabin rate


Differential pressure - - - -....H
Cabin altitude

---------1~

Arrow indicates a rate of climb.

MR+

Manually set cabin rate

-: n n

~uu

n
.u

Differential pressure

~nn

Cabin altitude

~uu

Arrow indicates a rate of descent.

Manually set cabin rate

.,

Differential pressure

.,

l anding altitude

IJio

i-v1 -03-00068

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AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIR CONDITIONING
Fully Automatic Pressurization

Chapt er 3 Topic 8
Page 18

Fault Display
The panel indicator normally displays cabin differential pressure on the middle line. If a
fault occurs, differential pressure is replaced by the fault. The display can be returned to
the differential pressure by pressing the CLEAR DISPLAY FAULT button on the panel.
If a fault is diplayed it should be recorded for maintenance action. Once recorded, the
CLEAR DISPLAY FAULT button is pressed. If more than one fault has been detected, the
next fault is displayed after the button is pressed.

If a particular fault is common to both channels, two presses must be made to clear the
fault from the display. Once all faults are cleared from the display, differential pressure is
again indicated.
It is important to realise that the button only clears the fault from the display. Pressing the
button does not cure the fault.
An example of the fault display is shown in Figure 8.9. The various fault annunciations and
their meanings are given in Table 8.1.

Figure 8.9 - Fault Display

Actual cabin rate

ADC 2 - ADC 2 failed

...

Cabin altitude

...

Ti

..!J

.-.

n
w

-:.
'- c
::. nn
ww
i-v1-03-00069

LCD Panel Display Annunciations


Annunciation

Meaning

TEST

The verify mode test is running.

PASS

The controller has passed the verify mode test.

PRI

The primary channel has failed.

SEC

The secondary channel has failed.

POFV

There is a fault in the primary outflow valve.

SOFV

There is a fault in the secondary outflow valve.

ADC1

There is a fault in the air data computer 1 input.

ADC2

There is a fault in the air data computer 2 input.

ADC

There is a fault in both air data computer inputs.

DUAL

Both the primary and secondary channels have failed.

ALT

There is a fault in the cabin high altitude warning circuit.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

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CWP caption
Every aircraft has a red CABIN HI ALT caption on the CWP. If the caption illuminates, the
triple chime sounds and the glareshield red alert lamps flash.
Fully Automatic Pressurization
In aircraft with a fully automatic pressurization system, the caption is illuminated by the
pressurization controller. Each channel independently generates the cabin high altitude
warning in both the manual and the automatic modes. Either channel can illuminate the
CABIN HI ALT caption. The system is shown schematically in Figure 9.1 .
In cruise or descent, the cabin high altitude warning threshold is the higher of the following:

9 700ft.

The selected landing field altitude plus 500 ft.

In the climb, the cabin high altitude warning threshold is the higher of:

9 700ft.

The selected landing field plus 500 ft.

Take-off altitude plus 500 It minus 300 times the airborne time in minutes.

The logic caters for take-offs and landings at high altitude airfields.
The emergency battery busbar supplies the cabin high altitude warning circuit. For the
cabin high attitude warning to work, one channel of the pressurization controller must be
working and the emergency battery bus must be powered.
When the cabin high altitude caption is illuminated, the air conditioning is forced to the

fresh mode.
If the cabin altitude exceeds 8 700 It, the panel and QUAD displays of cabin altitude flash.
This flashing can be cancelled by pressing the CLEAR DISPLAY FAULT button. If the
cabin altitude is at or above the high altitude warning threshold, both displays of cabin
altitude will flash. In this case the CLEAR DISPLAY FAULT button has no effect. The
flashing stops when the cabin altitude reduces below the warning threshold.
Figure 9.1 - Cabin High Altitude Warning with Fully Automatic Pressurization

DC BUS 2

I
I

I
I

Primary channel!

1- r-

Cabin air
to fresh

Pressurisation controfler

EMERG DC

EMERG BATT

I
I

I
I

Secondary channel :

1-1- ---------

Relay control
Caption power ----.1

Cabin high
altitude relay

i-v1 -03-00070

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Volume 1

AIR CONDITIONING
Cabin High Altitude Warning

Chapter 3 Topic 9
Page2

Semi-automatic Pressurization

In an aircraft with a semi-automatic pressurization system, the caption is illuminated by a


pressure switch that is independent of the pressurization system.
There are three standards of warning :

For aircraft cleared to operate from airfields up to 8 000 ft, there is one high altitude
pressure switch. The pressure switch illuminates the caption if the cabin altitude
exceeds 9 300ft. The caption remains illuminated until the cabin altitude reduces
to below 8 500 ft.

For aircraft cleared to operate from airfields up to 9 300ft, there is one high altitude
pressure switch. The pressure switch illuminates the caption if the cabin altitude
exceeds 10 000 ft. The caption remains illuminated until the cabin altitude reduces
below 9 200 ft.

For aircraft cleared to operate at specific airfields above 9 300ft, there are two
pressure switches: one operates at 9 300 ft and the other at 13 500 ft. The
required switch is selected by a push-button light-switch on the right instrument
panel. When the button is out, the 9 300 ft pressure switch is selected. When the
button is in, the 13 500ft pressure switch is selected and a white CAB HI DATUM
legend illuminates on the switch. The CABIN HI ALT caption remains illuminated
until the cabin altitude is 800 ft below the selected datum.

The emergency battery busbar supplies the cabin high altitude warning circuit.
When the cabin high altitude caption is illuminated, the air conditioning is forced to the
fresh mode.
In aircraft with one high altitude switch, the cabin high altitude switch operates a relay that
illuminates the CAB HI ALT caption and forces the cabin air to the fresh mode. The
arrangement is shown schematically in Figure 9.2.
In aircraft with two cabin high altitude switches, the selected cabin high altitude switch
operates a relay that illuminates the CAB HI ALT caption and forces the cabin air to the
fresh mode. The arrangement is shown schematically in Figure 9.3.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIR CONDITIONING
Cabin High Altitude Warning

Chapter 3 Topic 9
Page3

Figure 9-2 - Cabin High Altitude Warning with One Altitude Switch
Cabin air
to fresh

Cabin high altitude


pressure switc h

EMERG BATT

1-- Relay control

:f---------

Cabin high
altitude relay
Caption power
i-v1 -03-00071

Figure 9.3 - Cabin High Altitude Warning with Selectable Datum


Cabin h igh altitude

pressure switch
9 300ft

The CABAL T WARN switch selects the high


altitude pressure switch to be used,
The CAB HI DATUM annunciator illuminates
when the 13 500ft switch is selected.

Cabin air
to fresh

Cabin high altitude


pressure switc h
13 500ft
EMERG BATT

1-- - - - - - --

Relay control
Cabin high
altitude r elay
Caption power

- --.r' - -- - - - - --'
i-v1-03-00072

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Volume 1

AIR CONDITIONING
Cabin High Altitude Warning

Chapter 3 Topic 9
Page4

Page Intentionally Blank

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Nov 01 /09

Topic 1 - Overview

General ..... .............................. ...................................... ....... ........................................ .


Engine Air Supply.............. .................. ......................................................... .................
APU Air Supply ................................................................................ ........... .......... ... .....
Air Supply Services ............................. ......................................................... .................
Upstream Services ........................................................................................................
Downstream Services .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. ... . .. ... .. ... .. . .. ... .. ... .. .. ... . .. ... .. ... .
Engine Pylon Bleed System....................................... .................................. .................
APU Bleed System.................... ............. ............................................ ...........................
Air Supply Ducting.................... ......... .... ......... .... ............................................ ...... .........
Burst Duct Detection ..... ... .......... ............. ......... ............. ...... ... .......... ... ......... ............. ....

1
1
3
3
3
5
5
7
7

Topic 2- Engine Supply

General................................... .. ............. ............................... ............. ........ ...................


Airframe Supply......................................... ....................................................................
Engine Valve Control and Indication .... ...................................... ...... .............................
Fault Protection .............................................................................................................
Low Supply Temperature......................................... ............................................ .........
Duct Relief Valve....................... ......................................................... ...........................
Engine Air Valve Power Supplies..................... ................................ ............ .................
ENG AIR ON Selection on the Ground...................................... ...... .............................

1
1

3
3
5
6
7
7

Topic 3- APU Supply

General .........................................................................................................................
Garrett APU Air Valve...................................................................... .. ............. ..............
Sundstrand APU Air Valve.................... ............. ...... ............................................... ......
APU VLV NOT SHUT Annunciator ....... ............. ............................... ............................
APU NRV LEAK Annunciator........................................................... ............ ............. ....

1
3
5
5

Topic 4- Services

Engine Ant-ice ... ........................................................................................................... .


Wing and Tail Ice Protection ................ ...................................... ...... .............................
Hydraulic Reservoir Pressurization...... ............ ................................ .............................
Stall System Supply ..................... ... ............... .......... ................ ... ..... ........ ............ .........
Air Conditioning ................................................................................ .............................
Water Tank Pressurization ........................................................................... .................
Toilet Flush................... .................................. ............... ....... .........................................

3
5
5
7
9
9

Topic 5 - Burst Duct Protection

Air Supply Dueling ..................................... ....................................... ............................ .


Burst Duct Detection ................. ... .......... ........... ....................... .......... ........... ................
Pylon Overheat ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. . .. ... .... .. .. ... .... .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .... .... .. .. .. ..... .

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2
2

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Contents

Chapter 4 TOC
Page2

Topic 5- Burst Duct Protection (continued)

Left and Right Zones.....................................................................................................


Magnetic Indicators.......................................................................................................
Blow-out Doors............................... .......................................... ................... ..................
Tail High Temperature...................................................................... ............................
Rear Bay Overheat .. ..... ... ... ... ... . .. .. ...... ... .. ..... . ..... ..... ...... ..... ...... ... ... . .... .. .... ..... . ..... ..... ..

3
5
6
7
8

Topic 6- Summary

Air Supply Panel............................................................................................................


Air Conditioning Panel........................................................................ ......... ..................
Ice Protection Panel......................................................................................................
CWP and CSP captions..................................................................... ...........................
Circuit Breakers.............................................................................................................

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3
4
5
7

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Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Contents

Chapter 4 TOC
Page3

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General

The a.ir supply system provides pressurized, heated air to the aircraft pneumatic services.
An ov-erview of the system is shown in Figure 1.1.
Air is .supplied from five sources: the outlet of each -engine's HP compressor and the outlet
of the APU compressor.
Engine Air Supply

Air from each engine compressor passes to the services via the engine's pylon. The pylon
contains an engine air valve; the valve regulates the pressure of the air and acts as a
shut-off valve.
The hot air from the engine compressor is cooled in a precooler just downstream of the
engine air valve . The cooling medium for the precooler is engine fan air from the engine
bypass duct.
A temperature control system regulates the temperature of the compressor supply by
controlling the amount of fan air that passes through the heat exchanger.
Some services are supplied from upstream of the valve: the upstream services. The
remainder are supplied from downstream of the valve: the downstream services.
A non-return valve (NRV), downstream of each temperature regulator, prevents air from
another engine entering the pylon bleed system.
The air supply system downstream of the engine air valves is divided into two parts: left
and right.
The sides are normally isolated from each other. Engine 1 and engine 2 normally feed the

left side; engine 3 and engine 4 feed the right side. The APU air is supplied to both sides.
The tail ice protection system has two on-off valves. When both are open, the left and right
sides are connected.
An engine's upstream services will function regardless of the position of its engine air valve
provided the engine is running.
APU Air Supply

Air from the APU compressor is supplied via an APU air valve; the valve acts as a shut-off
valve.
Engin-e air is prevented from entering the APU supply duct by two NRVs. If either NRV
fails, a third NRV prevents engine air reaching the A.PU compressor.

FCOM:V1 -002

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AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

Chapter 4 Topic 1
Page 2

AIR SUPPLY
Overview
Figure 1_1 - Air Supply Overview

Each engine air valve acts as a pressure regulator and a shut-off valve.

ENG 1 HP

ENG 2HP

ENG3HP

ENG 4HP

ENG 1 AIR

ENG 2AIR

ENGJAIR

ENG4AIR

VALVE

VALVE

VALVE

VALVE

Precooler

Precooler

Precooler

Precooler

NRVs prevent air from


another engine or the
APU entering the
engine supply ducts.

When both tail anti-i ce valves are open,


the left and right sides are connected.
Tail anti-ice valve 1

T ai I anti-ice valve 2

Left air supply


downstream
services.

Right air supply


downstream
services.

NRVs A and B prevent engine air entering the APU supply duct.

A
Engine air supply
APU air supply
Left air supply

APUAIR

VALVE

Right air supply

I .. I

NRV C prevents engine air from


reaching the APU compressor if
either A or B leaks.
APU air valve acts as a shut-off
valve.

NRV
i-v1-04-00001

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AVRO 146-RJ Series

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AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Overview

Chapter 4 Topic 1
Page3

Air Supply Services

The air supply services are shown in Figure 1.2. They can be divided into two groups:
those upstream of the engine air valve and those downstream of the engine air valve.
Upstream Services

The air supply services upstream of the engine air valves are:

The engine's intake and LP compressor ice protection.

For engine 2, also the pressurization of the yellow hydraulic reservoir and the stick
push ram.

For engine 3, also the pressurization of the green hydraulic reservoir and the stick
push ram.

Downstream Services

The air supply services downstream of the engine air valves are:

The wing and tail ice protection.

The air conditioning packs.

The servo power to change the air conditioning mode from fresh to recirculation.

The operating power for the pressurization discharge valves (called outflow valves
for some systems).

The water tank pressurization.

Toilet flush.

The discharge valves and the water tank pressurization are supplied via a shuttle valve.
The left and right systems supply the shuttle valve. The system with the highest pressure
will supply the discharge valves and the water tank pressurization.
Air conditioning pack 1 is supplied by the left system; air conditioning pack 2 is supplied by
the right system.
The air conditioning mode servo power is supplied by the right system; the toilet flush is
supplied by the left system.
The left wing ice protection is normally supplied by the left wing engines; the right wing ice
protection is normally supplied by the right wing engines. The tail ice protection is normally
supplied by all of the engines.
APU air can be supplied to all the downstream services, but APU air must not be used for
airframe ice protection.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Overview

Chapter 4 Topic 1
Page 4

Figure 1.2 - Air Supply Services

IRight wing Ice protection I

Left wing Ice protection

'

Engine and
intake Ice
protection

Engine and
intake ice
protection

Engine and
intake ice
protection

Engine and
intake ice
protection

Shuttle valve

Water tank

Pressunzabon
discharge valves

i Tollet ftush

Air
Conditioning
Pack 1

FCOM:V1-002

RECIRC/FRESH
selection

Air
Conditioning
Pack 2

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Overview

Chapter 4 Topic 1
Page 5

Engine Pylon Bleed System

A simplified schematic of the pylon bleed system is shown in Figure 1.3.


Each engine air valve is normally controlled by an associated ENG AIR switch on the flight
deck AIR SUPPLY panel. A not-in-position-selected (NIPS) annunciator for each valve is
above the associated switch. Above each NIPS annunciator is an ENG AIR FAULT
annunciator.
If the valve fails to regulate the pressure and the pressure becomes too high, the valve will
be automatically shut and latched shut.
A precooler, downstream of the valve, regulates the temperature of the air. If the
temperature of the air downstream of the precooler becomes too high, the associated
engine air valve is automatically shut and latched shut.
If a valve is automatically shut down , the associated ENG AIR FAULT annunciator
illuminates.
The ENG AIR FAULT annunciator also indicates that the temperature downstream of the
temperature regulator is too low when airframe anti-ice is on.
APU Bleed System

A simplified schematic of the APU bleed system is shown in Figure 1.4.


Air from the APU compressor is supplied via an APU air valve; the valve acts as a shut-off
valve. The valve is controlled by an APU AIR switch on the flight deck AIR SUPPLY
panel. Above the switch is an APU VLV NOT SHUT annunciator.
Engine air is prevented from entering the APU supply duct by two non-return valves
(NRVs).
If either NRV A or NRV 8 fails, engine air will enter the ducting between the three NRVs. A
subsequent failure of NRV C would allow engine air to feed the APU.
Leaks past NRV A or NRV 8 into the APU supply duct are revealed by an APU NRV LEAK
annunciator on the flight deck APU panel.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

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AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Overview

Chapter 4 Topic 1
Page6

Figure 1-3 - Pylon Bleed System


ENG AIR

1
ON

Engine 1 shown, engine 2, .3 and 4 similar.

OFF L--~...J

On/off

+
ENG 1 AIR
VALVE

Left
downstream
services

Precooler

High
pressure

High
temperature

NIPS

ENG 1 AIR
VALVE

Low temperature w i th
ai rframe anti-ice o n.

ENG 1 AIR
FAULT
i-v 1-04-00003

Figure 1.4 - APU Bleed


APU AIR
ON

Right
downstream
services

OFF '-.-, -'

t
I

+
Left
downstream
services

On/off

._c

VALVE

A
Engine air leaking
past NRV A or B

~
APU NRV
LEAK

FCOM:Vl-002

APU AIR

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Valve not shut when


signalled to close

1
APU VLV
NOT SHUT

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AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Overview

Chapter 4 Topic 1
Page 7

Air Supply Ducting

The air supply ducting is shown in Figure 1.5. Each engine supplies air through its pylon
bleed system. The pylon bleed system regulates the pressure and temperature of the air.
The regulated air leaves the pylon through two ducts: one beneath the wing leading edge,
the other near the wing trailing edge.
The leading edge duct supplies the wing ice protection.
The trailing edge supply from each engine enters a common duct running along the rear of
the aft spar. The air is ducted from the trailing edge along the spine of the aircraft to
supply the air conditioning packs and the tail ice protection.
The APU air supply is ducted from the APU bay to the air conditioning bay. The supplies
from the engine and the APU are joined together in the air conditioning bay.
The aircraft spine is split into two compartments -left and right. A seal separates the
compartments. The ducts from the left engine run through the left side of the spine, and
the ducts from the right engines run through the right of the spine.
The duct that supplies air to the tailplane is fed through a compartment in the fin leading
edge. This compartment is isolated from the spine compartments by a seal.
Burst Duct Detection

Temperature-sensitive loops and switches outside the ducts provide signals for flight deck
indication of duct leaks. For some detected leaks, the associated bleed supplies are
automatically shut down.
The flight deck indications of overheat conditions outside the ducts are:

A red PYLON OVHT caption on the CWP for each engine.

Amber L ZONE HI TEMP and R ZONE HI TEMP annunciators on the Air Supply
panel.

An amber TAIL HI TEMP annunciator on the Ice Protection panel.

An amber REAR BAY HI TEMP annunciator on the Air Conditioning panel.

FCOM:V1-002

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AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Overview

Chapter 4 Topic 1
Pages

Figure 1-5 - Air Supply Ducting


-

Air supply dueling

Air condlllonmg d"Uellng

Duct in fin
Ducts aft of rear spar
Ducts along spine

Air Conditioning Packs

; I

Engine supply

lnlo leading
edge Fat
wing ice
protection

Duct beneath
wing in pylon

Pre-cooler

PYLON

Into trailin{l edge

\
Firewall

NRV

ENG AIR
Vat ...e

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

General

The engine air supply is shown schematically in Figure 2.1.


At the higher engine speeds, the HP compressor pressure is too high for some of the
services. Pressure regulators limit the supply pressures to the services.
At the higher engine speeds, the air temperature is too high for the downstream services.
A precooler limits the air supply temperature to the downstream services.
There are three HP compressor bleed points.
One supplies air to the intake for ice protection.
One supplies air to the engine splitter lip and LP compressor for ice protection.

One supplies air to the airframe services; the supply is routed through the
associated pylon.

The air supply to the intake is routed through an intake anti-ice valve; the valve acts as a
shut-off valve and a pressure regulator. The regulator limits pressure to 28 psi. The
temperature of the air is not controlled.
The air supply to the engine LP compressor and splitter lip is routed through an engine
anti-ice valve; the valve acts just as a shut-off valva.. The pressure and temperature of the
air are not controlle-d.
The engine and intake ice protection is fully described in the Engines chapter.
Airframe Supply

On the inboard engines, the airframe supply splits into two paths. One supplies the stick
push system and hydraulic reservoir pressurization; the other supplies t he downstream
services via the engine air valve.
The airframe supply from the outboard engines only supplies the downstream services.
The e-ngine air valve acts as a shut-off valve and pressure regulator. The regulator limits
pressure to 41 psi.
A regulator in the line to the hydraulic reservoirs limits the pressure to 50 psi; another
regulator limits the stick push pressure to 40 psi.
After t he pressure is regulated, the high-temperature air passes from the engine air valve
to the precooler. The precooler limits the air temperature to approximately 21 ooc.
The precooler cools the HP compressor air using fan air from the bypass duct. The flow of
fan air passing through the precooler is determined by a temperature control valve (TCV).
A thermostat downstream of the precooler senses the delivery temperature; the thermostat
blee-ds delivery air to pneumatically control the position of the TCV. Thus temperature
control is independent of the electrical supplies.
From the precooler, the air passes to the downstream services via a venturi and an NRV.
The venturi limits the flow of air that can be taken from the engine. The NRV prevents
reverse flow from the other engines or the APU.

FCOM:V1 -002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY

Chapter 4 Topic 2
Page 2

Engine Supply
Figure 2.1 - Engine Bleed Supply
Fan

HP compressor

Cooling air
from bypass
duct

Intake anti-ice
valve
~--

Temperature
control valve

Intake ice

protection

.__.( Engine anti-ice l- ---1-l


valve

Ice protection

PRV

Inboard
engines only

PRV

50 psi

' - -40psi
-'----'

High pressure and


high temperature air

Flow
modified by
TCV

LP compressor

Stick push

Hydraulic reservoir
Engine air valve is a shut-off
valve and pressure regulator
Limits pressure to 41 psi.

ENG AIR

VALVE

, - -.!!......-

-,

Precooler

Pneumatic
control

High temperature air but pressure regulated


Overboard

Flow
)

limitin~

ventun

..

TCV controls the amount of air through


the precooler to limit the air supply
temperature to approximately 21 ooc.

Pressure regulated and


temperature controlled air

I Thermostat
Thermostat bleeds air
from the air supply line
to control the TCV.

Downstream services:
> On-side pack.
> On-side wing ice protection.
> Tail ice protection.
> Operates discharge valve.
> Water tank pressurization.
> Servo power to change air conditioning mode
to RECIRC (right engines only).
> Toilet flush (left engines only).

iV10400006

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AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

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Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Engine Supply

Chapter 4 Topic 2
Page3

Engine Valve Control and Indication

Normal control of an engine air valve is via its ENG AIR switch on the Air Supply panel. An
amber ENG AIR VALVE NIPS annunciator is above each engine's switch.
The position of the valve is sensed by a pressure switch that senses flow through the
valve. If the switch is ON and the flow is low, the annunciator illuminates. If the switch is
OFF and flow is high, the annunciator illuminates. The arrangement is shown in Figure
2.2.
There are two occasions when the ENG AIR VALVE annunciators illuminate with the
switches on due to low flow rather than a failure of the valve:

At ground idle when the engines are being used to supply the air conditioning
packs.

At low N2 and high altitude. This is generally an indication that N2 is below the
minimum for adequate air conditioning.

Fault Protection

Protection against high temperature and high pressure is provided; the fault protection is
shown schematically in Figure 2.2.
The air supply downstream of the engine air valve is monitored for high pressure by a
pressure switch; the switch is set to 55 psi.
The air supply downstream of the precooler is monitored for high temperature by a
temperature switch. The switch is set to 2550C.
The switches signal fault protection logic circuits. If a high temperature or high pressure
condition is sensed, the circuits:

Illuminate an ENG AIR FAULT annunciator for the associated engine; the
annunciator is above the associated ENG AIR VALVE annunciator.

Send a signal to latch closed the associated engine air valve. When the valve
closes, the associated ENG AIR VALVE annunciator illuminates. It remains
illuminated until the associated switch is selected off.

In the case of a high temperature, latch to white a DUCT 0 /HEAT magnetic


indicator (M I) for the associated engine.

In the case of a high pressure, latch to white a DUCT 0 / PRESS Ml for the
associated engine.

The Mls are on the avionics bay maintenance panel; the Mls are reset by a RESET switch
on the maintenance panel. The magnetic indicators are shown in Figure 2.3.
The ENG AIR FAULT annunciator remains illuminated for 60 seconds after the high
pressure or high temperature condition has cleared or until the associated ENG AIR switch
is selected off, whichever occurs first.
The latch on the valve is removed when the associated ENG AIR switch is set to OFF.

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Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY

Chapter 4 Topic 2
Page 4

Engine Supply

Figure 2.2- Pylon Bleed Fault Protection and Warning


ENG

HP compressor
Flow
switch
ENG AIR

High or__..
low flow

VALVE

AIR

VALVE

NIPS
Logic

i+
-~

'-----Latch valve shut-------,


High
pressure

I
Switch
position

Prossuro

>55psi --,----~

SWitctl

ENG

Precooler

Fault
Protection
logic

NO_ DUCT
OPRESS

AfR
ON

p~~:~c;ohn-

Temperature
> 255"C - - , - - - --+iL ....- - - r - - '

High
temperature
$\\lt (OI'I

High pressure or
high temperature
{60 second hold on)

NO DUCT
O'tiEAT

ENG _ AIR
FAut.T

Relier

valve

)(
Low
temperature

OFF '--.,---'

low temperature and on--side


wing Ice protection on and
ENG AIR switch ON

Flow
limiting
venturi

T@mperature _ _ _ _ _ _...,..
< 12oc

switch

c _ __

Indication
Logic

__,r.

Switch

J position-

On-side wing Ice ' protect~~" valve


Low temperature and on-sido

I' - -positloos
------'

wing Ice protection on

[ Downstream services

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Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Engine Supply

Chapt er 4 Topic 2
Page 5

Figure 2 .3- ZONE HI TEMP Magnetic Indicators

Part of Left Side of


Maintenance Panel

Part of Right Side of


Maintenance Panel

NO 4 DUCT

NO 3 DUCT

NO 2 DUCT

NO 1 DUCT

O!PRESS

QIPRESS

OIPRESS

OlPRESS

NO 4 DUCT
Q,HEAT

NO 3 DUCT
O.HEAT

NO 2 DUCT
OtHEAT

NO 1 DUCT
OIHEAT

Low Supply Temperature


At low N2 the air supply temperature may not be high enough for effective airframe ice
protection. Warning of low temperature is given ; the arrangement is shown schematically
in Figure 2.2.
An AIR LO TEMP annunciator is on the flight deck ICE PROTECTION panel. When the
annunciator illuminates, the ICE PROT t CWP caption illuminates.
Air supply low temperature is sensed by a temperature switch between the flow limiting
venturi and the NRV.
Each wing has two valves to supply hot air to the wing ice protection system.
The AIR LO TEMP annunciator illuminates if:

A low temperature switch senses a temperature of less than 120'C.

AND
Either of the on-side wing ice protection valves is open.

If the associated ENG AIR switch is at ON, the associated ENG AIR FAULT annunciator
also illuminates; when the ENG AIR FAULT annunciator illuminates, the AIR SUPPLY t
CWP caption also illuminates. The associated ENG AIR FAULT annunciator does not
illuminate if the associated ENG AIR switch is at OFF.
The indications for the two cases are shown in Figure 2.4.
The A IR LO TEMP annunciator indicates that the supply temperature is too low for
effective ice protection; however, the basic cause of the problem lies with the air supply
system.
The AIR LO TEMP annunciation is the consequence of a problem in the air supply system.
If an ENG AIR switch has been inadvertently selected OFF, the remedy is to switch it ON.
If N2 is low, the remedy is to increase N2 . If a valve has failed, the appropriate abnormal
procedure must be followed.

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Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Engine Supply

Chapter 4 Topic 2
Page6

Figure 2.4 -Air Low Temperature Indications


There is just one AIR LO TEMP annunciator.
It is on the ICE PROTECTION panel.
Whenever the AIR LO TEMP annunciator illuminates, the CWP ICE PROT caption
illuminates.
There is an ENG AIR FAULT annunciator for each engine on the AIR SUPPLY panel.
Whenever an ENG AIR FAULT annunciator illurnnates, the CWP AIR SUPPLY caption
illuminates.
AIR LO TEMP warning is given if:

>

Temperature is low in the air supply.

AND
~ The on-side wing ice protection is on.

AIRLD
TEMP
ICE
PROT

tl

Just these i ndic ations are given if:


> One or more ENG AIR switches are OFF.
AND
> Temperature is not low in the supply from engines with ENG AIR ON.

AIRLO
TEMP

ICE
PROT

tl

ENG _ AIR
FAULT

AIR
SUPPLY

These indications are given if the


associated ENG AIR switch is ON.

i-v 1-04-000-31

Duct Relief Valve

A duct relief valve is between the precooler and the flow limiting venturi.
If the engine air valve fails to regulate the pressure and the fault protection circuits fail to
shut the valve, the duct relief valve will start to open at 65 psi. The excess pressure is
relieved into the pylon.

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Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Engine Supply

Chapter 4 Topic 2
Page 7

Engine Air Valve Power Supplies

Each engine air valve is electrically controlled but is pneumatically operated by pressure
from its engine's HP compressor. If electrical or pneumatic power is lost the valve closes.
The electrical supplies to the valves are:

DC BUS 1 for the engine 1 air valve.

EM ERG DC BUS for the engine 2 air valve.

On most aircraft, EMERG DC BUS for the engine 3 air valve. On a few early
aircraft the power supply is from the ESS DC BUS.

DC BUS 2 for the engine 4 air valve.

ENG AIR ON Selection on the Ground

A green AIR SEL ON GRND caption is on the central status panel (CSP).
The caption illuminates when the aircraft is on the ground and ENG 1 AIR or ENG 2 AIR or
ENG 3 AIR switch is on. The caption does not illuminate when ENG 4 AIR switch is ON.
With the air conditioning packs off and the APU air not available, it is perm issible to have
one ENG AIR switch ON for take-off and landing so that the discharge valves or the outflow
valves can be controlled. ENG 4 AIR is used for this purpose because it does not
illuminate the CSP caption.

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AIR SUPPLY
Engine Supply

Chapter 4 Topic 2
Page a

Page Intentionally Blank

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General
A Garrett 150 APU or a Sundstrand APU is fitted.
The APU delivers air from its compressor to the aircraft air supply system via an APU air
valve.
The valve is selected by an A PU AIR switch on the AIR SUPPLY panel.
An APU VLV NOT SHUT amber annunciator is below the switch.
Once the APU is ready to deliver power, it delivers a ready to load signal (RTL). The RTL
signal illuminates a green APU PWR AVAILABLE annunciator on the APU panel.
The APU air valve cannot be opened until the RTL signal is available. The valve will close
if the RTL signal is lost.
Garrett APU Air Valve
The air valve on the Garret APU acts as:
A shut-off valve.

A flow limiter.

The flow limiting function ensures that the EGT stays within limits. The function effectively
gives priority to the generator. Because the APU AIR valve has a flow limiting function, it is
often referred to as a load control valve (LCV).
The valve is electrically controlled but pneumatically operated by compressor air pressure.
If the pneumatic supply or electrical supply to the valve is lost. a spring will drive the valve
closed.
The valve is selected by the APU AIR switch. The switch signals the APU electronic
control unit (ECU) and the ECU controls the valve position.
The ECU controls the LCV function; the function limits the flow to ensure that the EGT
does not exceed 665C 14 oc.

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Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
APU Supply

Chapter 4 Topic 3
Page 2

Figure 3.1 -Garrett APU Air Valve


Ql

0..
:I

0
0
0

Ql

E
...

c:

:e

Air supply system + --! APU Air Valve ~---1

Ql

.s::.
.... ....
:II

Garrett APU air valve:

>
>

Shut-off valve.
Flow limiter or load
control valve (LCV).

APU PWR
Position
control

RPM
ECU

APU AIR

LCV limits flow to ensure that the EGT


remains below the continuous limit.

ON

'

EGT

AVAILABLE

RTL
Open/shut
command - t - - - ,

Enable

OFF

RTL:
.> 97% + 4 seconds for the Garrett 150 APU .

Air valve
modulation
i-v1-04-00033

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Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
APU Supply

Chapter 4 Topic 3
Page3

Sundstrand APU Ai r Valve

The Sundstrand APU air valve is:

A shut-off valve.

A pressure

regulator~

There is no LCV function. A flow limiting venturi is placed downstream of the APU air
valve. The venturi limits the flow so that the maximum continuous EGT is not exceeded.
The valve is selected by the APU AIR switch. The switch signals the valve via a relay that
is closed by the RTL signal. The valve is automatically signalled to close when the APU is
shut down
The valve is electrically controlled but pneumatically operated by compressor air pressure.
Pneumatic power is required to both open and close the valve.
If electrical power is lost, the valve will close if pneumatic power is available.
When the APU is shut down, the compressor air pressure decays rapidly. As a result, the
valve may not close completely if the APU is shut down with the APU AIR switch at ON.
The pressure regulator limits the pressure to 47 psi.

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Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
APU Supply

Chapter 4 Topic 3
Page 4

Figure 3-2 - Sund strand APU Air Valve

Venturi
(flow restrictor)
.....___.., r------------,
Air supply system

APU Air Valve

Sundst ra nd APU air valve:


)> Shut-off valve.
)> Pressure regulator.

~--ol

Open/shut
command

Venturi limits flow to ensure that the


EGT remains below the continuous limit.
Air enable
relay

APU PWR
AVAILABLE
0
APU AIR

ON

OFF L..----l

RPM

95% RPM
+

3 seconds
Electronic Sequen ce
Unit (ESU)

iV1 04 00011

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Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
APU Supply

Chapter 4 Topic 3
Page 5

APU VLV NOT SHUT Annunciator

The APU VLV NOT SHUT annunciator indicates that the APU air valve is not shut when it
is signalled to shut. It is signalled to shut when either the START/STOP switch is at STOP
or the APU AIR switch is at OFF.
The APU VLV NOT SHUT annunciator illuminates if:

The START/STOP switch is at STOP or the APU AIR switch is at OFF.

AND

The APU air valve is not fully closed.

APU NRV LEAK Annunciator

The engine and APU supply ducting is shown schematically in Figure 3.3.
The engine and APU supplies converge at three non-return valves (NRVs): A, Band C.
NRV A prevents the right engines feeding the left engines. NRV B prevents the left
engines feeding the right engines.
If either NRV A or NRV B fails, engine air will enter the ducting between the three NRVs. A
subsequent failure of NRV C would allow engine air to feed the APU.
There is a pressure switch between NRV C and the other two NRVs. It is normal for
pressure to be sensed when the APU is supplying air.
If the switch senses pressure when the APU air valve is closed, then engine air is leaking
past either NRV A or NRV B.
Failure of either NRV A or NRV B is indicated by an APU NRV LEAK annunciator on the
APU panel.
The APU NRV LEAK annunciator illuminates if:

The START/STOP switch is at STOP or the APU AIR switch is at OFF.

AND

The APU air valve is closed.

AND

The pressure switch senses high pressure.

A small vent in the APU supply duct bleeds any air away from the duct due to normal
leakage through the NRVs to prevent a spurious warning.
After the APU air valve is closed, it takes a short time for the pressure in the duct to
dissipate through the small vent. It is normal for the APU NRV LEAK annunciator to
illuminate for a few seconds after the APU air valve is closed.

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Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
APU Supply

Chapter 4 Topic 3
Page6

Figure 3_3 - APU Air Valve and NRV Leak Annun ciators
Supply from
right wing
engines

~ ~~

Non-return valve

Right air
supply
services

Position
control
Small
Pressure vent
switch

...0

t +- I-

Ill
Ill

ell
...c.

APU Air
Vave

E
0

(J

Valve
position
Left air
supply
services

lr

'

Indication logic

.,.

Supply from
left wing
engines

Switch

po'i"'"

,
APUNRV
LEAK

APUVLV
f>JOTSHUT

APUNRV LEAK

l'l
STOP

APU VLV NOT SHUT

Warns that air from the engines has leaked


past either NRV A or NRV B.
Illuminates if:
~ START/STOP switch is STOP or APU
AIR switch is OFF.

Warns that the APU air valve has not


closed 'Nhen it is signalled to close.
Illuminates if:
~ START/STOP switch is STOP or APU
AIR switch is OFF.

AND
.> APU air valve is closed.
AND
) Pressure switch senses high pressure .

AND
) APU air valve is not fully closed .

i-v1-04-000 12

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Engine Ant-ice

The engine ant-ice supply is .shown in Figure 4.1.


Air from an engine's HP compressor is used to protect the associated engine's intake and
low pressure (LP) compressor. A more detailed description is given in the Ice Protection
topic of the Engines chapter.
Air is taken from two ports on the HP compressor: one for the intake and one for the LP
compressor.
The supply to the intake is routed via an intake anti-ice valve. The valve acts as a shut-off
valve and a pressure regulator. The valve limits the pressure in the intake to a nominal
28 psi.
The supply to the LP compressor is routed via an engine ant-ice valve. The valve is a
shut-off valve; the valve does not regulate the air pressure.
There is an ENG ANT-ICE switch for each engine on the flight deck ENGINES panel.
Each .switch controls both valves for the associated engine.
The valve.s are also opened during starting and for engine surge protection regardless of
the position of the associated ENG ANT-ICE switch.
There are three annunciators for each engine on the ENGINES panel :
An amber INTAKE LO PRESS annunciator.

An amber INTAKE HI PRESS annunciator.

A white ENG VLV NOT SHUT annunciator.

There are two pressure switches between the intake anti-ice valve and the intake: a low
pressure switch and a high pressure switch.
An INTAKE LO PRESS annunciator illuminates when the pressure in its intake is low and
the associated ENG ANT-ICE switch is ON. The low pressure switch is set to 12 psi.
An INTAKE HI PRESS annunciator illuminates when the pressure is too high in its intake
regardless of the position of the associated ENG ANT-ICE switch; the high pressure switch
is set to 40 psi.
A green ENG A-ICE ON annunciator is on the CSP. The annunciator illuminates if:

Any ENG ANT-ICE switch is ON.

OR

There is pressure in an intake with the associated ENG ANT-ICE switch OFF.

There is just a low pressure switch between the engine ant-ice valve and the LP
compressor. When the pre-ssure is greater than 5 psi, the associated ENG VLV NOT
SHUT annunciator illuminates.

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Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Services

Chapter 4 Topic 4
Page 2

Figure 4 -1 - Engine Ant-ice

ENG

Intake Ice

LP compre..or

ANT ICE

protection

ice

ON

INTAKE
t PRESS

ENGVLV
NOT SHUT

Low
pressure

switcfl

Pressure
> 40 psi

OFF '-"T"""-'

Pressure
> 5 psi

Switch
position

Pressure
< 12 psi

Engine
start

Low
pressure
switch

INTAKE
LO PRESS

Pressure
limited to a
nominal

Engme
surge
protection

ENG fCE
ON

28 psi.
compressor

Intake anti-ice

valve

1----..

. ._ _ _-1 Engine anti-ice


valve

ENG AIR
INTAKE
LO PRESS

Pressure low and


switch ON

INTAKE

Intake pressure

HI PRESS

too high

F~G

VALVE
ENGVLV
NOT SHUT
Precooter
Pressure satisfactory

A-ICE

ON
Any ENG ANT-ICE switch ON .
OR

Pressure in an mtake with the


ass.ocuued ENG ANT-ICE switch OFF.

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Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Services

Chapter 4 Topic 4
Page3

Wing and Tail Ice Protection

The leading edge of each wing and the leading edge of the tailplane are provided with hot
air for ice protection. The air supply is shown schematically in Figure 4.2.
Antieice protection is provided for the whole of each wing leading edge and the tailplane
leading edge.
Additionally, de-ice protection is provided for the inboard leading edge of each wing.
An engine air valve must be open for its engine to supply the wing and tail ice protection
system.
There are two valves in each wing: an outer valve and an inner valve.
The left outer valve connects the left air supply, downstream of the engine air valves, to the
left wing anti-ice protection. The right outer valve connects the right air supply,
downstream of the engine air valves, to the right wing anti-ice protection.
The left inner valve connects the left air supply, downstream of the engine air valves, to the
left wing de-ice protection. The right inner valve connects the right air supply, downstream
of the engine air valves, to the right wing de-ice protection.
The outer valves are controlled by an OUTER WING ANTI-ICE switch on the flight deck
ICE PROTECTION panel.
The inner valves are controlled by an INNER WING DE-ICE switch on the flight deck ICE
PROTECTION panel.
There are two valves in the aircraft tail: tail valve 1 and tail valve 2.
TAIL VALVE 1 connects the left air supply system, downstream of the engine air valves, to
the whole tail leading edge.
TAIL VALVE 2 connects the right air supply system, downstream of the engine air valves,
to the whole tail leading edge.
Either engine on a wing can feed the tail anti-ice and the on-side wing anti-ice and de-ice.
With both tail valves open, the left and right sides are connected. If there is an asymmetry
in engine air supplies between the two wings, there will be a cross flow to the side giving
the least amount of flow.
If the APU air valve is open, the APU air supply can be directed to the wing and tail ice
protection; however, the APU air supply is not adequate for ice protection ; the APU air
valve must be selected OFF when the wing and tail ice protection is in use.
The ice protection valves are electrically motorised valves. If electrical power is lost to a
valve, it remains in its position at the time of loss of electrical power.
Each of the six ice protection valves has an associated NIPS annunciator on the
ICE PROTECTION panel.
A more detailed description of the wing and tail ice protection is given in the Ice Protection
chapter.

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Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Services

Chapter 4 Topic 4
Page 4

Figure 4.2- Wing and Tail lee Protection

r------------------------- OUTER -------------------------,


WING
ANTI-ICE

ON

L INNFR

V.UVE

INNER

WING

NIPS annunctators

DE-ICE

NIPS annunciators

ON

TAIL
ANTI-ICE
ON,----,

NIPS annunciator
.AIL
\I'ALVE

NIPS annunciator
OFF'--"T"""-'

. All
IALVE 2

ITill antJoice j

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Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Services

Chapter 4 Topic 4
Page 5

Hydraulic Reservoir Pressurization

Each of the two main hydraulic systems, yellow and green, has a hydraulic fluid reservoir.
The hydraulic reservoirs are pressurized by the air supply system to prevent cavitation in
the hydraulic pumps. The air supply to the reservoirs is shown schematically in Figure 4.3.
Air is tapped from upstream of engine 2 air valve to pressurize the yellow reservoir; this is
the only air supply to the yellow reservoir.
Air is tapped from upstream of engine 3 air valve to pressurize the green reservoir; this is
the only air supply to the green reservoir.
Provided the associated engine is running, a hydraulic reservoir will be pressurized
regardless of the position of the engine's air valve.
A pressure regulator, between each engine and its associated reservoir, limits the reservoir
air pressure to 50 psi. An NRV, between the regulator and the reservoir, traps air in the
reservoir when the engine is not running.
An air pressure gauge is attached to each reservoir. Each reservoir has a low
switch. An amber AIR LO PRESS annunciator is provided for each reservoir on
deck HYDRAULIC panel. An annunciator illuminates when the associated low
switch senses a pressure less than 12 psi. On some very early aircraft, the
switch is set to 25 psi.

pressure
the flight
pressure
pressure

A more detailed description of the hydraulic reservoirs is given in the Hydraulics chapter.
Stall System Supply

The stall system uses air pressure to operate a stick push ram. The supply to the stall
system is shown schematically in Figure 4.3.
Only engine 2 or engine 3 can supply the stick push system. The air is taken from
upstream of the engine air valves; so, provided that an inboard engine is running , air is
available to the stick push system regardless of the position of the engine air valves.
Air is taken from each hydraulic tank regulator via an NRV to a stall system pressure
regulator. The NRVs prevent a hydraulic reservoir from being fed by the engine on the
opposite wing. The stall system regulator limits the pressure in the stall system to 40 psi.
A stall system air reservoir, downstream of the stall system regulator, stores enough air for
three stick pushes.
An NRV, between the stall system regulator and the stall reservoir, traps pressure in the
reservoir when the inboard engines are not running.
An air pressure gauge, in the forward cargo bay, measures reservoir pressure. A low
pressure switch monitors reservoir pressure. If reservoir pressure is less than 25 psi, a
STALL AIR LO PRESS annunciator on the AIR SUPPLY panel illuminates.
From the reservoir, pressure is supplied to the stick push ram via two on/off valves: stall
valve A and stall valve B. Both valves must be open for the stick push to operate.
A detailed description of the stall system is given in the Flight Controls chapter.

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Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Services

Chapter 4 Topic 4
Page6

Figure 4.3 - Hydraulic and Stall Supply


ENG2

AIRLO

AIR LO

PRESS

PRESS

PRV

Pressure
< 12psi

Pressure
< 12 psi

50 psi

PRV
50 psi

Low
pressure
switches

VALVE

VALVE

pressure
gauge

pressure
gauge
Hydraul'ic reservoirs

Air at 50 psi
Left
downstream
services.

Right
downstream
services.

PRV
40 psi

Air at 40 psi
Low
pressure
switch

Pressure
STALL AIR
--~
< 25 psi
LO PRESS
Air reservoir
3 pushes

Air pressure gauge

<==
Forward

Column

Stick push ram


i-v1-04-000 15

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Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Services

Chapter 4 Topic 4
Page 7

Air Conditioning

The air supply system supplies air to the conditioning system to:

Power two air conditioning packs: pack 1 and pack 2.

Provide the power to operate the pressurization discharge valves~

Provide the servo power to change air conditioning mode from FRESH to RECIRC.

The supply is shown schematically in Figure 4.4.


Pack 1 is supplied downstream of the engine air valves by the left air supply system.
Pack 2 is supplied downstream of the engine air valves by the right air supply system.
The supply to each pack is via an associated pack valve. Each valve acts as a shut-off
valve and a flow controller.
For a pack to function, engine or APU air must be supplying the associated side and the
pack's valve must be open. Normal control of each pack valve is from an associated
PACK switch on the flight deck AIR CONDITIONING panel. The pack valves are
electrically and pneumatically operated. If electrical or pneumatic power is lost, the valve
will close.
There is a flow switch downstream of each pack; there is a PACK VALVE amber
annunciator for each pack on the AIR CONDITIONING panel.
A PACK VALVE annunciator illuminates when the associated:

Flow switch senses a low pressure and the associated PACK switch is ON.

OR

Flow switch senses a high pressure and the associated PACK switch is OFF.

The pack has two modes: fresh and recirculation. The change over from fresh to
recirculation requires pneumatic pressure. The pressure is supplied from the right side.

Without pressure, the mode fails to fresh.


Power to operate the discharge valves is taken from the shuttle valve; thus the valves can
be powered by any engine or the APU.
Each discharge valve has a position gauge on the flight deck PRESSURIZATION panel.
If a fully automatic pressurization system is fitted, the discharge valves are called outflow
valves and the gauges are replaced by green FULL OPEN annunciators.
A detailed description of the air conditioning packs and the pressurization system is given

in the Air Conditioning chapter.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

----;NG 1

AIR SUPPLY
Services

Chapter 4 Topic 4
Pages

Figure 4-4 - Air Conditioning


,.--- ----.
ENG 2 I
ENGJ

ENG4

[+
Shuttle valve
Flight deck

Flight deck

position i ndlcator

position Indicator

Pressurization
discharge valves

OR

REC IRC/FRESH
selection

OR

,..-F-U_u_o_
PE--.1 outfl~~tves ,..~-Ul L -0-P- - .

PACK2

PACK 1
ON

VALVE

VALVE

Flow
regulated
air

I APU I

OFF .__,__.

supply ',

PACK 1

PACK2
NIPS

Logic
Flow
switch

Flow
regulated
air

NIPS
Logic:

'ACK 1

VALVE

Conditioned air

FCOM:Vl-002

Cabin and flight deck


distribution system

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Conditioned air

Nov 01/09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Services

Chapter 4 Topic 4
Page9

Water Tank Pressurization

A water tank is fitted in the hydraulic bay to supply potable water to the galleys and toilet
water basins.
As the water tank is below the level of the cabin, air pressure is used to force the water to
the galleys and toilet water basins. The air supply is shown schematically in Figure 4.5.
Power to pressurize the water tank is taken from the shuttle valve; thus the system can be
pressurized by any engine or the APU.
A pressure regulator limits the pressure to 8 psi.
The water system is fully described in the Water and Waste chapter.
Toilet Flush

Up to three recirculating chemical toilets may be fitted. Air pressure is required to flush the
toilets. The air supply is shown schematically in Figure 4.5.
Air is taken from the left air supply system, via an NRV, to a reservoir for each toilet.
The supply to flush a toilet passes from the associated reservoir to its toilet via a toilet
flushing valve.
The toilets are described in more detail in the Water and Waste chapter.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Services

Chapter 4 Topic 4
Page 10

Figure 4.5 - Domestic Services


, ENG 1

-;
ENG3

ENG2

ENG4

Shuttle valve

wa.... tank

Toilet water basin laps

Galleys

valve

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

Air Supply Ducting


The air supply ducting is shown in Figure 5.1 . Each engine supplies air through its pylon
bleed system. The pylon bleed system regulates the pressure and temper ature of the air.
The regulated air leaves the pylon through two ducts: one beneath the wing leading edge,
the other near the wing trailing edge.
The leading edge duct supplies the wing ice protection.
The trailing edge supply from each engine enters a common duct running along the rear of
the aft spar. The air is dueled from the trailing edge along the spine of the aircraft to
supply the air conditioning packs and the tail ice prot ection.
The APU air supply is dueled from the APU bay to the air conditioning bay. The supplies
from the engine and the APU are joined together in the air conditioning bay.
The aircraft spine is split into two compartments - left and right. A seal separates the
compartments. The duct from the left engines runs through the left side of the spine, and
the duct from the right engines runs through the right side of the spine.

The duct that supplies air to the tailplane is fed through a compartment in the fin leading
edge. This compartment is isolated from the spine compartments by a seal .
Figure 5.1 - Air Supply Ducting
-

Air supply dueling

A ir conditioning dueling

Duct aft of rear spar


I

Duel in fin

Ducts along spme

APU
Air

condtionng packs

Air enters
tralling edge

from pylon
Duct beneath
w ing mpyton

Engine supply

FCOM:V1 -002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Air enters lead n... ~...c.__,


edge from pylon

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY

Chapter 4 Topic 5
Page 2

Burst Duct Protection

Burst Duct Detection


Temperature-sensitive loops and switches outside the ducts provide signals for flight deck
indication of duct leaks. For some detected leaks, the associated bleed supplies are
automatically shutdown.
The flight deck indic;:ttions of overheat conditions outside the ducts are:

A red PYLON OVHT caption on the CWP for each engine.

Amber L ZONE HI TEMP and R ZONE HI TEMP annunciators on the AIR SUPPLY
panel.

An amber TAIL HI TEMP annunciator on the ICE PROTECTION panel.

An amber REAR BAY HI TEMP annunciator on the AIR CONDITIONING panel.

Pylon Over heat


Each engine pylon is divided into two zones: zone 1 and zone 2 . Zone 1 is upstream of the
precooler; zone 2 is downstream of the precooler. There is a temperature switch in each
zone to detect leaks from the ducts. The arrangement is shown in Figure 5.2.
As leaks in zone 1 could be at a high temperature, zone 1 being upstream of the precooler,
the temperature switch activates the associated red PYLON OVHT caption and thrust leve r
red lamp. The caption and lamp will extinguish when the temperature drops below the
overheat threshold. There is no automatic shutdown of bleed supplies or services when a
pylon zone 1 overheat condition is detected.
As the temperature of the air in zone 2 is r&duced by the precooler, leaks in zone 2 activate
the associated amber ZONE HI TEMP annunciator. The on-side e ngine air valves and ice
protection valves are automatically shut down when a pylon zone 2 leak is detected.
Leaks in zone 1. upstream of the engine air valve, cannot be isolat ed by closing the engine
air valve. All leaks in zone 2 can be isolated by closing the on-side engine air valves, the
APU air valve and the on-side tail valve.
Figure 5.2 - Pylon 1 (Other Pylons Similar)

ENG A IR
valve
ZONE1

Pre-cooler

Into leading edge

"""
Firewall

FCOM:V1-002

(Wing ice protection)

'\ NRV

LZONE
HI'TMP
ZONE 1 "'i l4,_.,_-+lil ZONE 2

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Burst Duct Protection

Chapter 4 Topic 5
Page3

Left and Right Zones

The supply ducting, excluding each pylon zone 1, is divided into two aircraft zones: left and
right. The aircraft zone overheat detection is shown schematically in Figure 5.3.
Each zone comprises:

Zone 2 of the two on-side engine pylons.

The portions of the on-side leading edge just above each engine pylon.

The on-side trailing edge.

The on-side spine.

If a leak is detected in the left or right zone:

The associated ZONE HI TEMP annunciator is latched on.

Both on -side engine air valves are latched closed.

The APU air valve is latched closed.

The on-side wing and tail valves are latched closed.

The APU air valve latch is removed when the APU AIR switch is selected to OFF.
An engine air valve latch is removed when the associated ENG AIR switch is selected
O FF.
The latches on the ZONE HI TEMP annunciator and the ice protection valves are removed
when the TAIL ANTI-ICE switch and both associated ENG AIR switches are selected to
O FF.
All the left and right zone high temperature sensors are switches except the sensors in the
trailing edge. The trailing edge temperature sensors are fire-wires. There are two
fire-wires in each trailing edge; each wire has associated electronics. Each fire-wire and its
electronics are together called a loop; and so there are two loops per trailing edge: loop A
and loop 8. There is a three-position switch for each pair of trailing edge loops on the AIR
SUPPLY panel: ZONE TEMP DETECT, L WING and R WING. The three positions are
LOOP A, BOTH LOOPS and LOOP B.
When BOTH LOOPS is selected, a zone high-temperature condition is given only if both
loop A and loop B sense a high-temperature condition.
If LOOP A is selected, a zone high-temperature condition is given whenever loop A senses
a high-temperature condition; loop B has no effect.
If LOOP B is selected, a zone high-temperature condition is given whenever loop B senses
a high-temperature condition; loop A has no effect.
There are two loop test switches on the GRND TEST panel: ZONE TEMP LOOP A and
ZONE TEMP LOOP B. The ZONE TEMP LOOP A switch tests both the left and the right
loop A; the ZONE TEMP LOOP B switch tests both the left and the right loop B. Testing
the system will cause the associated ZONE HI TEMP annunciator to illuminate and the
associated valves to shut. Only the selected loops will respond to the test. At BOTH
LOOPS, the test switches must be pressed together to test the system.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Burst Duct Protection

Chapter 4 Topic 5
Page 4

Figure 5.3 - Zone Overheat


An overh eat in any one of these:
Outboard engine

Inboard engine

Leading Pylon
edge
zone 2

Leading Pylon
edge
zone 2:

will light t his:

Onside trailing
edge loops

Third switch in
RJ100 only

Temperature switches
shown as:

_ ZONE
HI TEMP

APU air valve

and close all of these:

Inboard engine
air valve

Onside spine

Outboard engine
air valve

Onsidewing
inner valve

Onside wing
outer valve

Onside tail
valve

and NIPS annu n ciator will l ight if associated switch is at ON.


ENG_ AIR

ENG_AIR

VALVE

VALVE

INN~

VALVE

_ OUTER

TAIL

VALVE

VALVE_
i-v1 -04 -000:>2

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01/09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Burst Duct Protection

Chapt er 4 Topic 5
Page 5

Magnetic Indicators
The source of a ZONE HI TEMP condition can be determined from the state of magnetic
indicators on the maintenance panel in the electrical bay. There are five magnetic
indicators for each zone:

One LOOP A 0 /HT- trips if loop A detects an overheat condition.

One LOOP B 0 /HT -trips if loop B detects an overheat condition.


One SPINE 0 /H DET - trips if any one of the fuselage spine switches detects an
overheat condition.
Two PYLON 0 /HEAT- one for the inboard pylon and one for the outboard pylon. A
magnetic indicator trips if either the associated pylon zone 2 switch or the
associated leading edge switch detects an overheat condition.

The PYLON 0 /HEAT magnetic indicators are associated with high temperature in zone 2
of the relevant pylon. They are not associated with the red PYLON OVHT caption ; the
caption is associated with high temperature in zone 1 of the relevant pylon.
On the ground, the squat switch circuits prevent the LOOP OIHT magnetic indicators from
moving to the overheat position. The magnetic indicators are shown in Figure 5.4.
Figure 5.4 - Magnetic Indicators
Part of Left Side of Ma1ntenance Panel

Part of Right Side of Matntenance Panel

SPINF R
OHT OfT

LOOP B
Rl-t O.'ftl

LOOP A
RH O'Hl

l';o 4 PYlON

"o J PVI ON

SPI"'F I

O'Hr AT

OHI'AT

OHT OET

FCOM:V1 -002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

LOOP B
l H O:HT

No~ PVI

ON
OHEAT

LOOP A
l H Q,KT

No 1 PVt. ON

OHE.\T

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

Chapter 4 Topic 5
Page6

AIR SUPPLY
Burst Duct Protection

Blow-out Doors
The compartments surrounding the air supply dueling have vents to prevent excessive
pressure due to leaks from the air supply dueling. Leaks into the pylons and spine are
vented overboard via blow-out doors. Blow-out doors are fitted to:
Both sides of each pylon zone 1.

The left side of pylon zone 2.


Both sides of the spine. One door per side on the RJ70 and RJ85; two doors per
side on the RJ1 00.

The blow-out doors are shown in Figure 5.5.


Figure 5.5 - Blow--out Doors
Left pylon zone 1 and 2 doors.

Right pylon zone 1 door

1-

I I I

I
Spine door

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

Chapter 4 Topic 5
Page 7

AIR SUPPLY
Burst Duct Protection

Tail High Temperature


The t:ail anti-ice supply is dueled through the fin leading edge. A temperature switch
detects leaks from the duct into the leading edge. The arrangement is shown in Figure 5.6.
If an overheat condition is sensed:

The TAIL HI TEMP annunciator illuminates.

The left and right tail valves are latched closed.

The TAIL HI TEMP annunciator is not latched on.


If the leak is upstream of a tail anti-ice valve , the annunciator will remain lit until the air
supply to that duct is removed. If the leak is downstream of the tail anti-ice valve, the
annunciator will extinguish shortly after the valves are closed.
If the TAIL ANTI-ICE switch is ON when the failure occurs, both TAIL VALVE NIPS
annunciators will illuminate. They will extinguish when the TAIL ANTI -ICE switch is put to
OFF. Selecting OFF also removes the latch from the tail valves. The tail anti-ice
annunciators and controls are on the ICE PROTECTION panel. The panel is shown in the
Ice Protection Panel section of the Summary topic, Figure 6.3.
Figure 5.6 - TAIL HI TEMP
Seal

\
RIGHT SPINE

From engines 3 and 4

I
I

Temperature switch

FIN LEADING EDGE

Right tail valve

I'

I
I

From engines 1 and 2 __,.,

-4

To tailplane

) Left tail valve

LEFT SPINE

An over heat will:


> Light the TAIL HI TEMP
annunciator.
AND
> Close both tail valves.

TAIL
HI TEMP

TAIL
VALVE 1

NIPS annunciaters will light


if TAIL ANTI-ICE switch is ON.

TAIL
VALVE2
i-v1-04-00023

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Burst Duct Protection

Chapter 4 Topic 5
Pages

Rear Bay Overheat


Six temperature switches are installed in the air conditioning bay. They detect leaks from:

The air conditioning packs.

Engine bleed air.

APU bleed air.

The arrangement is shown schematically in Figure 5.7. If any one of the switches detects
an overheat conditio n, the REAR BAY HI T EMP annunciator on the AIR CONDITIONING
panel illuminates. The AIR CONDITIONING panel is shown in the Air Conditioning Panel
section of the Summary topic, Figure 6.2.
None of the air supply valves are closed when a high temperature is detected, so the leak
must be isolated manually.
Selecting the APU AIR switch to OFF isolates the APU supply dueling to the air
conditioning bay.
Selecting a PACK switch to OFF isolates the pack and the dueling between the valve and
the pack.
Selecting both ENG AIR switches on the same side to OFF isolat es the engine air supply
on that side to the air conditioning bay.
A REAR BAY HI TEMP test button on the GRND TEST panel tests the warning circuit.
The test is passed if the REAR BAY HI TEMP annunciator illuminates.
Figure 5.7 - Air Conditioning Bay
Temperature
switches (6)

AIR CONDITIONING BAY

From engines 3 and 4


REAR SAY
HI TEMP

"

J_l
NRV

REAR BAY
HI TEMP

0~

Test button

NRV

Pack 2
valve

1 -4- 1

Pack 2

APU

NRV
Pack 1
valve
(

.I

Pack 1

From engines 1 and 2


REAR BAY HI TEMP illuminates if:
)> Any one of the six switches senses a high temperature.
OR
)>

REAR BAY HI T EMP te st button pressed.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

i V1 04 00024

Nov 01 / 09

Air Supply Panel

The AIR SUPPLY panel is shown in Figure 6.1 .


Each ENG AIR switch controls the associated engine air valve. When a valve is open, air
from the engine can supply:

The on-side wing ice protection.

The tail ice protection .

The on-side air conditioning pack.


The water tank pressurization.

The operating power for the pressurization system discharge or outflow valves.
For the left system, the power to flush the toilets.

For the right system, t he power to change the pack mode from FRESH to RECIRC.

The position of the valve does not affect:


The engine ant-ice.

The stall system.


The hydraulic reservoir pressurization.

The ENG AIR VALVE annunciators are NIPS annunciators. The logic is based on low flow
rather than valve position, so an annunciator may illuminate when its switch is on and the
flow is low even though the associated valve is open.
The ENG AIR FAULT annunciators indicate that there is a fault in the associated pylon
bleed system. A FAULT annunciator illuminates and the associated engine air valve is

automatically latched shut if:

The delivery air temperature is too high in the associated pylon bleed system.
The pressure is too high in the associated pylon bleed system.

An ENG AIR FAULT annunciator also illuminates if:

The associated ENG AIR switch is ON.

AND

The. on-side wing ice protection is on.


AND
The temperature is too low in the associated pylon bleed system.
The APU AIR switch controls the APU air valve. The APU VLV NOT SHUT annunciator
illuminates if:
The APU START/ STOP switch is at OFF or the APU AIR switch is at OFF.
AND
The APU air valve is not fully closed.

FCOM:Vt -002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Summary

Chapter 4 Topic 6
Page 2

The ZONE HI TEMP annunciators indicate that a hot air leak has been detected in the
associated zone.
The ZONE TEMP DETECT switches select the loop(s) to be used by the associated zone
overheat detection system.
The STALL AIR LO PRESS annunciator indicates that the stall air reservoir pressure is
less than 25 psi.

Figure 6.1 - Air Supply Panel

APU VLV
NOT SHUT

L ZONE
HI TEMP

STALL AIR
LO PRESS

R ZONE
HI TEMP

ENG 1 AIR
FAULT

ENG 2 AIR
FAULT

ENG 3 AIR
FAULT

ENG 4 AIR
FAULT

ENG 1 AIR
VALVE

ENG 2 A IR
VALVE

ENG 3 AIR
VALVE

ENG 4 A IR
VALVE

ENG
i1

AIR

ON

FCOM:V1-002

ON

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01/09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Summary

Chapt er 4 Topic 6
Page 3

Air Conditioning Panel


The lower part of the AIR CONDITIONING panel is shown in Figure 6.2.
Each PACK switch controls the associated pack valve.
The PACK VALVE annunciators are NIPS annunciators. The logic is based on low flow
rather than valve position; so an annunciator may illuminate when its switch is on and the
flow is low even though the associated valve is open.
The REAR BAY HI TEMP annunciator indicates thal a high temperature has been detected
in the air conditioning bay.
The other switches and annunciators are described in the Air Conditioning Chapter.
Figure 6.2 - Lower Part of Air Conditioning Panel

i-v 1-04-00034

FCOM:V1 -002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Summary

Chapter 4 Topic 6
Page 4

Ice Protection Panel


The lower part of the ICE PROTECTION panel is shown in Figure 6 .3.
The OUTER WING ANT-ICE switch controls both wing anti-ice valves: the outer valves.
The INNER WING DE-ICE switch controls both wing de-ice valves: the inner valves.
TAIL ANTI-ICE switch controls both tail anti-ice valves: tail valve 1 and 2.
The VALVE annunciators are all NIPS annunciators.
The A IR LO TEMP annunciator illuminates if:

Air delivery temperature is low in an engine pylon bleed system.

AND

The on-side wing ice protection is on.

The TAIL HI TEMP annunciator illuminates if a high temperature is detected in the fin
leading edge.
The ICE DETECT switch function is described in the Ice Protection Chapter.

Figure 6.3 - Lower Part of Ice Protection Panel

1-v1-04 00027

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Summary

Chapter 4 Topic 6
Page 5

CWP and CSP captions

A PYLON OVHT caption illuminates if an overheat condition exists in zone 1 of the


associated pylon.
A green AIR SEL ON GRND caption is on the CSP.
The caption illuminates when the aircraft is on the ground and ENG 1 AIR or ENG 2 AIR or
ENG 3 AIR switch is ON. The caption does not illuminate when ENG 4 AIR switch is ON.
With the air conditioning packs off and the APU air not available, it is permissible to have
one ENG AIR switch ON for take-off and landing so that the discharge valves or outflow
valves can be controlled. ENG 4 AIR is used for this purpose because it does not
illuminate the CSP caption.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

AIR SUPPLY
Summary

Chapter 4 Topic 6
Page6

Figure 6.4 - Air Supply CWP and CSP Captions

Top ofCWP

CSP

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

Chapter 4 Topic 6
Page 7

AIR SUPPLY
Summary

Circu it Breakers
The circuit breakers are on the bottom row of the FIRE circuit breaker panel and the middle
rows of the AIR & PRESSN circuit breaker panel. The FIRE circuit breaker panel is just
above the engine fire handles. The AIR & PRESSN circuit breaker panel is just above the
GRND TEST panel.
The circuit breakers are shown in Figure 6.5. Circuit breakers are provided for:
Each pylon overheat circuit (F 20 to 23).

Both loop A detection circuits (D 29).

Both loop B detection circuits (D 30).


The left zone warning circuits (D 31 ).
The right zone warning circuits (D 32).

The rear bay high temperature warning circuit (E 32).


Figure 6.5 - Circuit Breaker Panels
Part of AIR & PRESSN CB panel

SAC

SAC

soc

soc

ZONE
TEMP
LOOP A

ZONE
LZONE RZONE
TEMP HI TEMP HI TEMP
LOOPS WARN
WARN

soc

1
REAR
BAY
HI TEMP
WARN

Bottom row of FIRE CB panel

29

:io

31

32
i-v1-04-00029

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01/09

Topic 1 - Overview

General Description ... .......... ........... .. ........ .. ... ........ ... ....... ... ........ .. ... ..... .. ........... ... ........
Normal Operation ..........................................................................................................
Fuel System ..................................................................................... ........................ .....
APU Generator................................................................................ ....................... .......
Ready to Load...............................................................................................................
Automatic Shutdown ...................................... .... ................... ........... .............................
Emergency Shutdown ... ... ... .. .... ...... .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .... .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. ...... .. ... .. ... .. .. .. ... .... .. .. .. ... ..
Indication .... ............................... ............. .......................................... .. ........ ...................

1
3
3
3
4
4
4
4

Topic 2- Configuration

General Description ........................................... ................... ....................................... .


Principle of Operation ................ ........ .... ............. ...... .......................... ............ ...... ........ .
Power Off-takes ..................................... ........ ....................... ........... .............................
Combustor.....................................................................................................................
Igniter........ ................... ........... ...................................... ....... .........................................
Surge Valve General .....................................................................................................
Surge Valve Garrett APU ......................................... ........................ .................... .........
Surge Valve Sundstrand APU ...... .......... ............. ............................. .. ............. ........ ......

2
3
3
4
4
4

Topic 3- APU Bay

General................................... ........................................................ ..............................

Rear Fuselage...............................................................................................................

APU Bay Door...............................................................................................................


Drains........................................ ............. ............................................ ........ ...................
Air Conditioning Bay.................. ........ .... ............. ...... .......................... ............ ...... .........

3
3
5

Topic 4 - Generator

Garrett APU Generator Drive ................. ............ ...... .......................... ............ ......... ......
Garrett APU Generator Cooling ........... .. ............. ............................. .. ............. ..............
Garrett Adapter Gearbox Oil Replenishment................................................................
Sundstrand APU Generator Drive.. ...... ...................................... ...... .............................
Sundstrand APU Generator Cooling ................ ................................ .............................

1
3
5
5

Topic 5- Air

General ................................... .. ............. ............................................ ........ ...................


Garrett APU Air Valve .............. ................................ ......................... ................... .........
Sundstrand APU Air Valve................... .........................................................................
APU VLV NOT SHUT Annunciator...............................................................................
APU NRV LEAK Annunciator.. ............................................ ............. .............................

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01/09

1
1
3
5
5

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Contents

Chapter 5 TOC
Page2

Topic 6 - Fuel System

Aircraft Fuel Supply.......................................................................................................


Garrett 150 APU Fuel System.......................................................................................
Sundstrand APU Fuel System ... .. .. ...... ......... .. ......... ................ ... .. .... ...... .......... ...... ......

1
3
5

Topic 7 - Oil System

Garrett 150 APU Oil System.........................................................................................


Sundstrand APU Oil System..................................................... ....................................

1
3

Topic 8 - Starting

Starter Motor .................... .. ........ .... ..... . ..... ..... . .......... ...................... .. .... .. ... . ..... . .... ...... ..
Starting Supplies ...........................................................................................................
Starting from EXT DC ... ... ... ... .. .. .. ... ..... ....... ... . ... .. .... .. ..... ...... ..... ... ... . .... .. .... ...... ..... ...... .
START PWR Switch ..... ... ... ... ... . .. .. ..... . ... .. ........ ... ......... .. ...... ..... ... ... . ..... . .... ...... ..... ...... .
Starting from the Batteries or TR 1 ...... ... ... ... .. ....... .. .. ...... ..... .... .. .. ..... .... . ..... ..... ...... ..... .
Start Contactor .. ...... ..... ... . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..... . .. .. . ... .. .. ... ..... . ..... ...... ...... .... ... .... .. ... ...... . ..... ..... ..
Garrett 150 APU Start Sequence..................................................................................
Sundstrand APU Start Sequence..................................................................................

1
1
3
3
3

4
7
8

Topic 9 - Fire Protection

General.........................................................................................................................
Fire Detection................................................................................................................
Fire Extinguisher...........................................................................................................
Fire Warning........................................................ ..........................................................

1
1
3

Topic 10- Garrett Electronic Control

General.........................................................................................................................
Power Supply and Normal Shut Down..........................................................................
Emergency Shut Down .... ... ... .... .. ... ..... ..... ....... .... .... .. ..... ...... ..... .... .. . ..... . .... ...... ..... ...... .
Automatic Shut Down....................................................................................................
ECU Functions..............................................................................................................
Garrett 150 Fault Shut Down............................................................ ............................

1
1
1
1
3
5

Topic 11 - Sundstrand Electronic Control

General.........................................................................................................................
Emergency Shut Down .... ... ... .. .. .. .. ..... . .. .. . ... ... .... ..... .. .... ....... ..... ... ... . ..... . .... ...... ..... ...... .
Automatic Shut Down....................................................................................................
Power Supply and Normal Shut Down..........................................................................
ESU Functions..............................................................................................................
Fault Shut Down............................................................................................................

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1
1
1
2
4
6

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Contents

Chapter 5 TOC
Page3

Topic 12- Flight Deck Summary

APU Panel............................................................................. ........................................


APU Circuit Breakers............................................................ ........................................

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5

General Description

A Garrett APU or a Sundstrand APU is fitted. The flight deck placard states which APU is
fitted.
The APU is a single shaft gas turbine engine. A single stage radial turbine drives a single
stage compressor and an accessory gearbox. The APU runs at constant speed: around
60,000 rpm. Figure 1.1 is an overview schematic.
The flight deck APU panel contains:

A START/STOP switch and a FIRE EXT switch.


All the APU annunciators.
An RPM indicator and an EGT indicator. The Garret EGT indicators are labelled
TGT.

An APU OVSPD test button is on the flight deck GRND TEST panel. An APU STOP switch
is in the air conditioning bay; an APU EMERG STOP switch is at the refuel station.
The APU is housed in a fireproof compartment at the rear of the aircraft, just aft of the air
conditioning bay.
A fire detection system detects high temperature in the fireproof compartment. A fire
extinguisher, in the air conditioning bay, can be discharged into the fireproof compartment.
A fire warning annunciator is on the APU panel; the warning is repeated on the CWP.
The APU provides power in two ways:

Shaft power to drive an AC generator. The generator supplies 115/200V 3-phase


power at 400 Hz to the aircraft main AC busbars.

Pneumatic power, in the form of compressed air, to the aircraft air supply system.
The APU air may be used to supply all the air supply services except the wing ice
protection, the tail ice protection, the hydraulic tank pressurization and the stick
push ram.

The generator is controlled by an APU GEN switch on the ELECTRIC panel.


The APU air is supplied via an APU air valve controlled by an APU AIR switch on the
AIR SUPPLY panel. Below the switch is an APU VLV NOT SHUT annunciator.
An APU NRV LEAK annunciator, on the APU panel, indicates that air from the main engine
air supply dueling is leaking into the APU air supply dueling.
A green APU PWR AVAILABLE annunciator indicates that the APU is ready to deliver
generated and pneumatic power (the ready to load signal).
In addition to the generator, the accessory gearbox drives:

An oil pump to pressurize the accessory gearbox's self contained oil system.

A fan to blow air through an oil cooler.

A fuel pump to supply fuel to the APU fuel system.

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Volume 1

APU
Overview

Chapter 5 Topic 1
Page 2

The APU has a DC starter motor which is used for both ground and in-flight starts. The
starter motor turns the turbine shaft through the accessory gearbox.
Many APU functions are electronically controlled: for example, starting and automatic shut
down. Electronic control of the Garrett APU is managed by an electronic control unit
(ECU) ; the equivalent in the Sundstrand APU is the electronic sequencing unit (ESU). The
ECU and ESU are located in the rear of the air conditioning bay.
The APU fuel pump is supplied with fuel from the aircraft fuel system cross feed line:
between the left common feed and the cross feed valve. The left inner pump normally
supplies low pressure fuel to the APU fuel system.
Figure 1.1 - APU Overview Schematic
Maln AC

busbara

APU

APUbay
fireproof compartment
Fim wire

Single shaft

gas turbine
Cools oil

FIRE EXT

Fire

ext

Slatt and run

Pressure

SWitch

ELECTRONICS
I

APU fuel
valve

Vave not

RPM TGTIEGT
STOP

in position
selected
i-v 1-0 5-0000 I

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Volume 1

APU
Overview

Chapter 5 Topic 1
Page3

Normal Operation

The APU start sequence is completely automatic. It is initiated by selecting the


START/STOP switch to START. The switch is left at START while the APU is running.
The APU fuel system automatically maintains the RPM within the governed range as inlet
conditions and power demands change.
In the air, the APU is normally stopped by selecting the START/STOP switch to STOP.
On the ground, the APU is normally stopped by pressing the APU OVSPD button.
The APU can be used to supply air and electrical power simultaneously on the ground.
In the air, the normal use of the APU is:

To supply air to the air conditioning packs for take-off and landing.

To act as a backup to the engine driven generators; the generator does not deliver
power, but is ready to deliver electrical power should an engine generator fail.

If the APU generator is used to supply the aircraft electrical system in the air, the APU air is
selected off in most cases.
Fuel System

Fuel is supplied to the APU via an aircraft low pressure valve. The valve is controlled by
the APU START/STOP switch. An APU FUEL VALVE annunciator is on the APU panel;
the annunciator indicates that the valve is not in the demanded position. An
APU FUEL LO PRESS annunciator, on the APU panel, indicates that pressure from the
airframe fuel system is low when the START/STOP switch is at START.
All aspects of the Garrett APU fuel system are electronically controlled.
Starting and shutdown are electronically controlled on the Sundstrand APU; when the APU
is running , a hydro-mechanical governor controls the APU RPM.
APU Generator

The Garrett APU has an adapter gearbox which couples the generator to the accessory
gearbox. The adapter gearbox has a self contained oil system that cools and lubricates
the generator.
An APU DRIVE FAIL annunciator on the ELECTRIC panel indicates that oil pressure is low
or oil temperature is high in the adapter gearbox. The annunciator legend is
APU GEN FAULT in early aircraft but the meaning is the same.
The Sundstrand APU does not have an adapter gearbox; the generator is mounted directly
to the accessory gearbox; accessory gearbox oil cools and lubricates the generator.
Neither an APU DRIVE FAIL nor an APU GEN FAULT annunciator is fitted.
On the Garrett APU, the oil cooler fan cools the adapter gearbox oil; on the Sundstrand
APU, the oil cooler fan cools the accessory gearbox oil. In both cases, the fan cools the oil
passing through the generator.

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APU
Overview

Chapter 5 Topic 1
Page4

Ready to Load

Once the APU is ready to deliver power, it delivers a ready to load (RTL) signal. Shaft and
pneumatic power cannot be taken from the APU until the RTL signal is given. The RTL
signal illuminates the green APU PWR AVAILABLE annunciator. The RTL signal is given:

Four seconds after 97% RPM is achieved for the Garrett APU.

Three seconds after 95% RPM is achieved for the Sundstrand APU.

Automatic Shutdown

The Garrett ECU and the Sundstrand ESU both have an automatic shutdown function .
Automatic shutdown is achieved by closing a fuel valve in the APU fuel system in the event
of certain faults.
An AUTO SHUTDOWN annunciator on the Sundstrand APU panel directly indicates that
the ESU has automatically shut down the APU.
The Garrett APU has an OIL LO PRESS annunciator in place of the AUTO SHUTDOWN
annunciator. The Sundstrand APU does not have an OIL LO PRESS annunciator.
The Garrett OIL LO PRESS annunciator will illuminate whenever the ECU shuts down the
APU; either because the fault was oil low pressure or purely because the APU has run
down.
Emergency Shutdown

The APU can also be shut down by removing power from the ECU or ESU. The APU
stops because power is required to hold the APU fuel system valves open.
On the ground, an aircraft emergency shut-down circuit can shut down the APU by
removing power from the ECU or ESU. In this case neither the OIL LO PRESS nor the
AUTO SHUTDOWN annunciator illuminates. In this event the RPM and EGT indicators will
not be powered.
The emergency shut-down circuit will also close the aircraft low pressure fuel valve.
Indication

The Garrett APU gas temperature indicator is labelled TGT; the Sundstrand indicator is
labelled EGT. For both APUs, the sensed temperature is exhaust gas temperature.
The RPM and EGT sensors signal the ECU or ESU.
The Sundstrand APU has a frequency to voltage converter, next to the ESU, to convert the
EGT and RPM signals from the ESU into a suitable form for the flight deck indicators.
The Garrett and Sundstrand gas temperature limitations are different and are indicated on
the placard.
Both APUs have an hour meter; the Sundstrand APU also has a start counter. The meter
and counter are on the APU.

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General Description

A schematic of the APU is shown in Figure 2.1. A three-dimensional section of each


engine is given for each APU: Figure 2.3 for the Garrett and Figure 2.4 for the Sundstrand.
Each APU has:

An aircraft air intake and an APU air inlet duct.

A centrifugal compressor.

A combustor.
A radial turbine connected by a shaft to the compressor.

An APU exhaust nozzle duct and an aircraft exhaust duct assembly.


An accessory gear box connected to the compressor by a shaft.

An APU air valve that bleeds air from the compressor to the aircraft air supply
system.

A surge valve that can bleed air from the compressor into the APU exhaust duct.

The accessory gearbox drives:


A generator that can power the aircraft busbars.

A fan which blows air through an oil cooler.

An oil pump to pressurize the APU oil system.

A fuel pump to supply the APU fuel system.

A DC electrically powered starter motor turns the APU through the accessory gearbox.

Principle of Operation
The aircraft air intake takes air from the left side of the rear fuselage and ducts it to the
APU air inlet. The APU air inlet directs the air evenly around the compressor inlet.
High pressure air from the compressor is directed to the combustor. Fuel is added to the
combustor where it is burnt in the high pressure air. The combustion process adds kinetic
energy to the air while maintaining almost constant pressure.
The high speed, high pressure air exits the combustor to the turbine. The air gives up
most of its energy to the turbine and leaves the APU via the exhaust dueling and an outlet
on the rear right fuselage.
The turbine uses the extracted energy to drive the compressor and the accessory gearbox.
The combined actions of the compressor, combustor and turbine constitute the power
producing part of the APU. This power producer is called the gas generator.
The fuel system maintains the APU speed constant: nominally 60 033 rpm for the Garrett
APU and 64 154 rpm for the Sundstrand APU.

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Volume 1

APU
Configuration

Chapter 5 Topic 2
Page 2

Figure 2.1 - APU Schematic

Mlln AC

Compn:::ssor

Intake

btccd a!r

lbust.na

alr

a:

I!

.!::

s
Cools

4
Exhaust

generator oil

c:

.....

:ii
:I

High pressure
and speed
combustor output

Combustor

Hill" pn n

Lift

CIO I IIP'C$$011
0\ltptn

Fuel systom
IV

j . Qf;.Q0QQ2

Power Off-takes
Power is taken from the APU as shaft power to drive the generator and as pneumatic
power to supply the air supply system.
As shaft load or bleed load is increased on the APU, more fuel has to be burnt to provide

the extra power; so the EGT increases.

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Volume 1

Chapt er 5 Topic 2
Page 3

APU
Configuration

Combustor

The Garrett APU and the Sundstrand APU have annular reverse flow combustors. The
output from the compressor is guided around and into the combustor. The direction of air
is reversed in the combustor . On leaving the combustor, the direction of the air is again
changed by 180"; the air then enters the turbine. The flow is shown schematically
in Figure 2.2.
Figure 2.2 - Reverse Flow Combustor Garrett and Sundstrand APU

Inlet -

-+/ '-

- --,.

Airflow direction

In let -

-t!'

Reverse flow
annular
combustor

Turbine

Igniter

The Garrett APU has one igniter plug powered by an ignition exciter.
The Sundstrand APU has two igniter plugs powered by one ignition exciter.
The ignition exciter is powered by a low DC voltage but produces a high voltage to power
the igniter plug(s).
The exciter is only powered during the start sequence.

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APU
Configuration

Chapter 5 Topic 2
Page4

Surge Valve General

The surge valve protects the APU from surge by bleeding air from the compressor into the
exhaust flow.
The surge valve is electrically controlled but requires compressor pressure to open.
Surge Valve Garrett APU

For the Garret APU, the surge valve is open during starting. When the APU is running:

The surge valve is open at and above 15 000 ft.

The surge valve is open when the APU AIR switch is at OFF.

The surge valve is closed when the APU AIR switch is at ON and the aircraft is
below 15 000 ft.

Surge Valve Sundstrand APU

For the Sundstrand APU, the surge valve is closed during starting. When the APU is
running:

The surge valve is open when the APU air valve is closed.

The surge valve is closed when the APU air valve is open.

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Volume 1

APU
Configuration

Chapter 5 Topic 2
Page 5

Figure 2.3 - Garrett APU Section


APU air valve

Centrifugal
compJ~essor

Starter
Accessory
gearbox

motor

~~a

Reverse
flow
annular
combustor

Exhaust
duct
Radial
turbine
Fuel pump

Mounting pad for generator adapter gearbox

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AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Configuration

Chapter 5 Topic 2
Page6

Figure 2.4 - Sundstrand APU Section

Exhaust
duct

A ir inlet
Centrifugal
compressor

Mounting pad

Fan

Radial
turbine

for generator

Mounting
pad for fan

Annular reverse

flow combustor

Accessory

geatbox

Fuel
control unit

Mounting pad
for starter motor

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Starter motor

Nov 01/09

General

The APU bay is a fireproof compartment at the rear of the aircraft: see Figure 3.1. The
APU b ay door forms the bottom of the fireproof compartment. The forward wall of the
fireproof compartment separates the APU bay from the air conditioning bay.
A view into the APU bay from beneath is shown in Figure 3.7 and Figure 3.8.
Figure 3.1 - APU Location

Fireproof
compartment

.. ~~
h

...........

/ 1

Alr cornfitlontng bay


rw.rrd of Uw box front

ECU
Ga!Tett APU

Rear Fuselage

The rear fuselage is shown in Figure 3.2.


The A PU items on the left side of the fuselage are:

The APU air intake. Ducting from the air intake directs air to the APU air inlet.

The fire extinguisher pressure relief indicator .

The air inlet for the oil cooler fan (forward left side of the door).
The outlet for the oil cooler air (Garrett APU only).

The APU exhaust is on the right side of the rear fuselage. The aircraft skin is protected by
a titanium shield. A ramp, ahead of the exhaust outlet, prevents airflow into the exhaust.
Dueling takes air from the APU exhaust duct to the fuselage exhaust outlet. The dueling
passes through the air conditioning bay.

A shroud surrounds the Garrett exhaust dueling; cooling air from the oil cooling fan is
directed between the dueling and the shrouding.
The Sundstrand exhaust dueling is not air cooled. It is made of stainless steel surrounded
by an insulating blanket.

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Volume 1

APU
APU Bay

Chapter 5 Topic 3
Page 2

Figure 3.2 - Rear Fuselage


View from the left
Intake

Air outlet fCK oil cooler


(Gamrtt only)

conditioning pack 1
air outlet

~-.lin1n

Extinguisher
.p ressure
relief
indicator

View from the right

Titanium shield

1- v1 0SOiiOOQ

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Volume 1

Chapt er 5 Topic 3
Page 3

APU
APU Bay

APU Bay Door


The Sundstrand and Garrett doors are shown in Figure 3.4.
The inlet for the oil cooler fan is on the left forward corner of the door.
The door has a fire access point for ground fire fighting equipment.
On the Sundstrand door, the fire entry point is permanently open and is the exit point for air
from the oil cooler fan.
On the Garrett only door, the fire access point is either:

A spring loaded door which blows out if bay pressure is excessive.

OR
A permanently open point similar to that on the Sundstrand door.

Drain.s

Drains are provided to drain fuel, oil and water away from the APU and water away from

parts of the inlet and exhaust dueling.


The drain outlets are at four points on the APU door; they are shown in Figure 3 .3.
Figure 3.3 - APU Drains

........ .
....
Bay Vent

'

Garrett exhaust
shroud O"ain

Drainfot:
, Fuef control U'1it &eal
,. Accessory gearbox breather.
,. Garrett only, adapter gearbox seal.

Crain for:
,
Corl'tlustor.
,. Tur'bine.
,.

Garrett aircraft exhaiJSt duel

,.

Sunclstrand APU exhaust duci.


l-v105-000 10

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Volume 1

APU
APU Bay

Chapter 5 Topic 3
Page 4

Figure 3-4 - APU Bay Door


Sundstrand APU Door

Air in let for oil cooler

Bay vent

Oil cooler fan ouUet


Also serves as fire
access point

Garret APU Door

Fire access point


Also serves as
blow out doo~r~---+
later doors have th.s
fire access point
It improves bay
ventilation

Inlet for oil cocler' ----til~

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Volume 1

APU
APU Bay

Chapt er 5 Topic 3
Page 5

Air Conditioning Bay


The air conditioning bay is just forward of the APU bay; the air conditioning bay contains
the following APU items of equipment:

The APU fire extinguisher.

The Garrett ECU.

The Sundstrand ESU and frequency to voltage converter.

An APU STOP switch .

The APU exhaust dueling.

The a.ir conditioning bay is shown in Figure 3.5 for the Garrett APU and in Figure 3.6 for a
Sundstrand APU.
Figure 3.5 - Air Conditioning Bay Looking Aft - Garrett APU

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Volume 1

APU
APU Bay

Chapter 5 Topic 3
Page6

Figure 3 -6 -Air Conditioning Bay Looking Aft- Sundstrand APU

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Volume 1

APU
APU Bay

Chapt er 5 Topic 3
Page 7

Figure 3.7 - Garrett APU from Below


Garrott 150 APU

Air

ECU

-..,____

Apu bay
door

~
_: - 't-

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Volume 1

APU
APU Bay

Chapter 5 Topic 3
Pages

Figure 3_8 - Sundstrand APU from Below


Generator

Fireproof
wall
Exhaust
ductlng

Air

A pu bay
door

---Forward

...

Figure 3_9 - Oil Cooler Inlet Duct (Both APUs)


Diagram shows
Garrett 150 but
cooling duct the
same on both APUs

011 ,.,....,,....

This outlet mates


with tho fan Inlet
when the door is.
c losed

HrHIS.OOOSl

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01/09

Garrett APU Generator Drive


There is no need for a constant speed drive because the APU runs at constant speed. The
arrangements are shown schematically in Figure 4.1.
The generator delivers 3-phase AC at 115/200 V and 400 Hz.
The APU drives an accessory gearbox.
The Garrett 150 APU accessory gearbox drives the generator through an adapter
gearbox. The adapter gearbox has a self contained oil system and is used to lubricate and
cool the generator.
When the ready to load (RTL) signal is given:
The APU PWR AVAILABLE annunciator illuminates.

The generator can be energised.

The APU GEN OFF LINE annunciator is enabled.

Garrett APU Generator Cooling


The system is shown in Figure 4.1.
Oil passes from the adapter gearbox to the generator and returns to the adapter gearbox
having cooled the generator. The oil then leaves the gearbox for an oil cooler in the APU
bay; t he oil returns from the cooler to the adapter gearbox. The oil is cooled by air. A fan,
driven by the accessory gearbox, draws air through an inlet on the left side of the APU
door; the air passes through the cooler and leaves the aircraft through an outlet above the
APU door on the left side of the aircraft.
Some of the cooling air from the fan is transferred to the exhaust dueling shroud to cool the
exhaust dueling.
Oil is circulated around the cooling circuit by pumps in the adapter gearbox.
The oil delivery for the generator is monitored for low pressure. The oil temperature in the
accessory gearbox is monitored for high temperature. If the RTL signal is present and a
low pressure or high temperature condition is sensed, an amber A PU DRIVE FAIL
annunciator, on the flight deck electric panel, will illuminate. On early aircraft, the
annunciator legend is APU GEN FAULT, but the meaning is the same.
If the cause of the APU DRIVE FAIL or APU GEN FAULT annunciator illuminating is oil
high temperature, then an APU GEN OIL HIT magnetic indicator (MI) is latched white.
The Ml is on the maintenance panel in the avionics bay.
On the ground, 20 seconds after an adapter gearbox oil fault is detected, an emergency
shut down will be initiated , and an APU EMERG SHUT DOWN Ml will latch white;
emergency shut down will not occur when the aircraft is airborne. The Ml is on the
maintenance panel. On some aircraft, the ground crew call horn will sound until the
START/ STOP switch is selected to STOP.
On shut down, the APU DRIVE FAIL annunciator will extinguish because the RTL signal is
lost.

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Volume 1

APU
Generator

Chapter 5 Topic 4
Page 2

Figure 4.1 - Garrett APU Generator

1-+
-+

APU door from the left

Direction of oil flow


Direction of airflow

Air
Airinlet

outlet

Oil cooler

Generator
cootactor

Generator ---eo"t;o3-~~

..

MalnAC
.. OIL
TEIIF

busbars.

LOOIL
PRESS
Contactor
post bon

< BOps

>177"C

APU G N
Oil HI l

GrOt.lld crew

uDR"r

20 second delay

~ hQrrl

..__ Optional

--.__,

Contact or

~~~

control

AtAomatlc
shutdoNnon
ground

ECU

RTL

APUFMFRG
5HIJTOOWN

--~-E~~-r----------------~----~-.

Generator
control unit

APUCE.N

ON

RTL:

OFF

97% 4 seconds for lhe Garrett150 APU.

UHE

e
e

OfFIRESET

=. .I is .__M'_F_!'ut_
_G
_l ~

.___u
F
_A!t.
_D__
R

FCOM:V1-002

on eariy arcraft (Amunciators on ELECTRIC panel)

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Hl1.()5.00058

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Generator

Chapt er 5 Topic 4
Page 3

Garrett Adapter Gearbox Oil Replenishment


The adapter gearbox has an oil replenishment point on its top surface. The location is
shown in Figure 4.2. The type and brand of oil to be used is shown on a label close to the
APU door; there may also be a label for the accessory gearbox. Only the type and brand
of oil specified on the label should be used.
The adapter gearbox replenishment point has a bayonet cap. The cap contains a dipstick
with an ADD and a FULL line.
Some adapter gearboxes have a pressure release button. If fitted, the button should be
pressed before the cap is removed: pressing the button de-pressurizes the gearbox. The
pressure release button is shown in Figure 4.3.
Figure 4.2 - Garrett APU Adapter Gearbox
Generator

Gravity fill
point

Adapter

gearbox

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Volume 1

APU
Generator

Chapter 5 Topic 4
Page 4

Figure 4_3 - Adapter Gearbox Pressure Release Button

Pressure release button

Generator

'

. .

'

Gravity fill
point

'
.

FCOM:V1-002

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AVRO 146-RJ Series

'

.
. --\

,--

Adapter
gearbox

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Generator

Chapter 5 Topic 4
Page 5

Sundstrand APU Generator Drive


There is no need for a constant speed drive because the APU runs at constant speed. The
arrangements are shown schematically in Figure 4.4.
The generator delivers 3 ~ phase AC at 115/200 V and 400 Hz.
The APU drives an accessory gearbox. The accessory gearbox drives the generator
directly.
Oil from the accessory gearbox cools and lubricates the generator.
When the ready to load (RTL) signal is given:

The APU PWR AVAILABLE annunciator illuminates.

The generator can be energised.

The APU GEN OFF LINE annunciator is enabled.

Sundstrand APU Generator Cooling


The generator is cooled by oil from the accessory gearbox. The system is shown in Figure
4.4.
Oil passes from the accessory gearbox to the generator and returns to the accessory
gearbox having cooled the generator. The oil then leaves the accessory gearbox for an oil
cooler in the APU bay; the oil retu rns from the cooler to the accessory gearbox. The oil is
cooled by air. A fan, driven by the accessory gearbox, draws air through an inlet on the left
side of the APU door; the air passes through the cooler. From the cooler, the air passes
over the hottest parts of the APU and then leaves the aircraft through an outlet on the
lower right side of the APU door. The outlet has an additional function; it is also the inlet
for the fire lance of a ground fire extinguisher.
Oil delivery to the generator is monitored for low pressure. Oil temperature in the
accessory gearbox is monitored for high temperature. If a low pressure or high
temperature is sensed, the APU will automatically shut down; an AUTO SHUTDOWN
annunciator on the flight deck APU panel will illuminate. Automatic shut down occurs both
on the ground and in flight.

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Volume 1

APU
Generator

Chapter 5 Topic 4
Page6

Figure 4-4 - Sundstrand APU Generator


APU door from the left

APU door from t he right

' '
Air Inlet

011 cooler

Air
olAiet

Generalor

...,.~ ~lor

I:

:e... -

. - -0

:I

Cootactor

1111

MainAC
busbars

position

ESU

I
Enable

I
:;;- 95% RPf./1

10 sE!C()fld delay
~

-+
-+

DiroctJon of oil now

Direction of alrflow

Automatfc shutdown on the

ground and In the al r.


IV105-000 20

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AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

General
The APU delivers air from its compressor to the aircraft air supply system via an APU air
valve.
An APU VLV NOT SHUT amber annunciator is below the switch.
The APU air valve cannot be opened until the RTL signal is available. The valve will close
if the RTL signal is lost.

Garrett APU Air Valve


The air valve on the Garret APU acts as:
A shut-off valve.

A flow limiter.

The flow limiting function ensures that the EGT stays within limits. The function effectively
gives priority to the generator. Because the APU AIR valve has a flow limiting function, it is
often referred to as the load control valve (LCV).
The valve is electrically controlled but pneumatically operated by compressor air pressure.
If the pneumatic supply or electrical supply to the valve is lost, a spring will drive the valve
closed.
The valve is selected by the APU AIR switch on the AIR SUPPLY panel. The switch
signals the APU electronic control unit (ECU) and the ECU controls the valve position.
The ECU controls the LCV function; the function limits the flow to ensure that the EGT
remains below a nominal 690 C for the Garrett 150 APU.

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Volume 1

APU
Air

Chapter 5 Topic 5
Page 2

Figure 5.1 -Garrett APU Air Valve

j
Alr supply system+ --! APU Air Valve

14---.;.,

I!

I:L

Gatrett APU a1r valve:


,. Shut off valve.
,.

Pressure regulator.

,. Flow hmiter or load


control valve (LCV).

[A'::~ I

Pos1tion
cootii'OI

---------------.

LCV limits flow to ensure that the EGT


remains below the cootlnuoos limit.

ECU

APUAIR

oN
OFF

EGT

l
RTL

Openlshulf command

Enable
A'tfvalve

RTL:
,.

;:{PM

97% + 4 seconds for the Garrett 150 APU

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AVRO 146-RJ Series

modulebon

Nov 01 / 09

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Volume 1

APU
Air

Chapter 5 Topic 5
Page3

Sundstrand APU Air Valve

The Sundstrand APU air valve is:

A shut-off valve.

A pressure

regulator~

There is no LCV function. A flow limiting venturi is placed downstream of the APU air
valve. The venturi limits the flow so that the maximum continuous EGT is not exceeded.
The valve is selected by the APU AIR switch on the AIR SUPPLY panel. The switch
signals the valve via a relay that is closed by the RTL signal. The valve is automatically
signalled to close when the APU is shut down.
The valve is electrically controlled but pneumatically operated by compressor air pressure.
Pneumatic power is required to both open and close the valve.
If electrical power is lost, the valve will close if pneumatic power is available.
When the APU is shut down, the compressor air pressure decays rapidly. Therefore if the
APU is shut down with the APU AIR switch at ON, the valve may not completely close.

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Volume 1

APU
Air

Chapter 5 Topic 5
Page 4

Figure 5.2 - Sund strand APU Air Valve


Venturi
(flow restrictor)
.........__.... r - - - - - - - - ,

Air supply sys tem

APU Air Valve

Sundstrand APU air valve:


:;.. Shut-off valve.
:;..

~----1

Open/shut
command

Pressure regulator.
APUPWR
AVAILABLE

Venturi limits flow to ensure that the


EGT remains below the continuous limit.

RPM

l+ - - ' - - - - - - r - - 1 95% RPM


Ai r enable
relay

APUAJR

ON

4seconds
E SU

OFF..____,
i-v1-05-00022

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Volume 1

APU
Air

Chapter 5 Topic 5
Page 5

APU VLV NOT SHUT Annunciator

The APU VLV NOT SHUT annunciator indicates that the APU air valve is not shut when it
is signalled to shut. It is signalled to shut when either the START/STOP switch is at STOP
or the APU AIR switch is at OFF.
The APU VLV NOT SHUT annunciator illuminates if:

The START/STOP switch is at STOP or the APU AIR switch is at OFF.

AND

The APU air valve is not fully closed.

APU NRV LEAK Annunciator

The aircraft air supply system is supplied by the engines and the APU. The air supply
system is divided into two parts: the left and the right. Normally the right wing engines
supply the right side and the left wing engines supply the left. The APU supplies both
sides. The engine and APU supply ducting is shown schematically in Figure 5.3.
The engine and APU supplies converge at three non-return valves (NRVs): A, Band C.
NRV A prevents the right engines feeding the left side. NRV B prevents the left engines
feeding the right side.
If either NRV A or NRV B fails, engine air will enter the ducting between the three NRVs. A
subsequent failure of NRV C would allow engine air to feed the APU.
There is a pressure switch between NRV C and the other two NRVs. It is normal for
pressure to be sensed when the APU is supplying air.
If the switch senses pressure when the APU air valve is closed, then engine air is leaking
past either NRV A or NRV B.
Failure of either NRV A or NRV B is indicated by an APU NRV LEAK annunciator on the
APU panel.
The APU NRV LEAK annunciator illuminates if:

The START/STOP switch is at STOP or the APU AIR switch is at OFF.

AND

The APU air valve is closed.

AND

The pressure switch senses high pressure.

A small vent in the APU supply duct bleeds any air away from the duct due to normal
leakage through the NRVs to prevent spurious warnings.
Once the APU air valve is closed, it takes a short time for the pressure in the duct to
dissipate through the small vent. It is normal for the APU NRV LEAK annunciator to
illuminate for a few seconds after the APU air valve is closed.

FCOM:V1-002

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Volume 1

APU
Air

Chapter 5 Topic 5
Page6

Figure 5_3 - APU Air Valve and NRV Leak Annunciators


Supply from
right wing
engines
Right air
supply
services

I~

1
A t

Non-return valve

Position
control
Pressure
switch

Small
vent

Left air
supply
services

...

...
...0

t 1+-- r-

en

APU Air 1+--t


Valve
~

c.
E
0

I
Valve
position

- '-

()

T
Indication logic

Supply from
left wing
engines

APU NRV
LEAK

APU NRV LEAK


Warns that air from t he engines has leaked
past either NRV A or NRV B.
Illuminates if:
: START/STOP switch is at OFF or APU
AIR switch is OFF.
AND
> APU air valve is closed.
AND
> Pressure switch senses high pressure.

FCOM:V1-002

STOP

APU VLV NOT SHUT

Warns that the APl!J air valve has not


closed when it is signalled to close.
Illuminates if:
: START/STOP switch is at OFF or APU
AIR switch is OFF
AND
J;> APU air valve is not fully closed

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

Aircraft Fuel Supply


The APU fuel system is supplied from the cross feed line via an APU fuel low pressure
(LP) valve. The supply is shown schematically in Figure 6.1.
The fuel is fed from between the left common feed valve and the cross feed valve. The left
inner pump normally feeds the APU but any inner or outer pump can feed the APU if
suitable selections of the cross and common feed valves are made.
The APU LP valve is an electrically motorised valve. The motor is powered from the
EMERG BATT busbar. If power is lost to the valve, it remains in its position at the time of
loss of power.
The valve is signalled by the APU START/STOP switch and the aircraft APU emergency
shut down circuit. It is not signalled by the ECU or ESU automatic shut down signal.
The APU LP valve is demanded shut when:
The START/STOP switch is at STOP.
OR

An APU emergency shut down occurs.


The APU LP valve is demanded open when:

The START/STOP switch is at START.

AND

There is no APU emergency shut down signal.

There are two amber fuel system annunciators on the APU panel: APU FUEL VALVE and
APU FUEL LO PRESS.
The APU FUEL VALVE annunciator indicates that the APU LP valve is not in the
demanded position.
The APU FUEL LO PRESS annunciator indicates that the pressure is low at the APU fuel
system inlet. The annunciator is signalled by a pressure switch downstream of the LP
valve. Electrical power for the annunciator is only available when the START/STOP switch
is at START.
If the APU is not supported by an inner or outer pump (suction feed), the
APU FUEL LO PRESS annunciator will illuminate provided the START/STOP switch is at
START.
The APU can be started on suction feed. An inner or outer pump should support the APU
fuel system when the APU is running. This prevents vapour lock, especially at low fuel
states.

FCOM:V1-002

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Volume 1

APU

Chapter 5 Topic 6
Page 2

Fuel System
Figure 6 .1 - Aircraft Fuel Supply

Outer feed tank

II

Inner feed tank

Pressure switch

Cross feed valve

Left common feed valve

Pump

Right common feed valve

-o

START

Position

demand ---~

APU LP fuel valve

NRV

Switch
position

Valve
position

STOP

Shut
APU FUEL LO PRESS annunciator
indicates low pressure at the APU
fuel system inlet provided that the
START/STOP switch is at START.

Emergency
shutdown

Valve not in
demanded position

APU LP valve:
J> Electrically motorised valve.
J> Signalled by APU START/STOP switch and aircraft emergency slhutdown circuit.
The valve is demanded shut if:
> The START/STOP switch is at STOP

OR
An emergency shutdown occurs
The valve is not shut by the ECU or ESU automatic shutdown signal.
The valve is demanded open if :
J>

>

The START/STOP switch is at START.


AND
J> There is no emergency shutdown signal.

APU F'UEL VALVE annunciator illuminates if the valve is not in the demanded position.

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AVRO 146-RJ Series

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Volume 1

APU
Fuel System

Chapter 5 Topic 6
Page3

Garrett 150 APU Fuel System

The Garrett 150 APU fuel system is electronically controlled. The system is shown
schematically in Figure 6.2.
The fuel from the aircraft fuel system passes through a filter to the APU driven fuel pump.
From the fuel pump, the fuel passes through a metering valve to a fuel shut-off valve.
From the shut-off valve, the fuel passes to the combustor via a flow divider.
The flow divider divides the flow into primary and secondary flows. The primary flow path
is always open; the secondary flow path opens at a point in the starting cycle where a
higher fuel flow rate is required to continue to accelerate the engine. The secondary path
remains open while the APU runs at constant speed.
The ECU controls the metering valve and the shut-off valve.
When electrical power is lost, both valves close.
The ECU opens the shut-off valve at 10% RPM during the start cycle. The shut-off valve is
closed in response to:

A normal STOP command from the START/STOP switch.

An emergency stop command from the aircraft emergency APU stop circuit.

An automatic shut down command from the ECU fault monitoring circuit.

The shut-off valve closes in response to the emergency and normal STOP commands
because power is removed from the ECU.
The ECU controls the metering valve to:

Maintain the required acceleration during starting.

Keep the EGT within limits during starting.

Maintain APU RPM at the governed speed during running.

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Volume 1

APU
Fuel System

Chapter 5 Topic 6
Page 4

Figure 6.2 - Garrett Fuel System


START

Shut---+

Switch position

Logic

--1

STOP

Valvo
position

Position
demand

APU FUB.
Valve not in
VALVE ~demanded
position

APU LP fuel valve

APU FUEl.

Pressure switch

LO

fSI

Filter

Secondary

now

EGT

~-

'

RPM

i l I

Speed
&

starting

---Start & run


Fuel metering
valve

control

ECU
"u1omstic I

r.huldown

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Fuel shutoH
valve

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Fuel System

Chapter 5 Topic 6
Page 5

Sundstrand APU Fuel System

The Sundstrand fuel system is shown schematically in Figure 6.3.


Starting is controlled hydro-mechanically and electronically.
A hydro-mechanical governor controls APU speed once the start is complete.
The fuel from the aircraft fuel system passes through a filter to the APU driven fuel pump.
From the governor the fuel flow splits into two paths: one through an acceleration control
and one through a start valve.
The fuel pump, governor and acceleration control are contained within a fuel control unit.
The flow from the acceleration control passes to the combustor via a main valve.
The flow from the start valve passes directly to the combustor.
The ESU controls the start valve and the main valve.
When electrical power is lost, both valves close.
The ESU opens the start valve at 3% RPM during the start cycle and closes it when 85%
RPM is achieved. The start valve is closed when the APU is running at governed speed.
The main valve is opened during the start cycle when RPM is above 14% and light up is
achieved. Between 14'% and 50'% RPM, the ESU opens and closes the valve to prevent
excessive EGT. Above 50% RPM the main valve is open.
The acceleration control senses compressor pressure. As compressor pressure increases,
the acceleration control allows more fuel to be passed to the combustor. The acceleration
control is fully open once the APU reaches governed speed.
The governor remains fully open until 90% RPM. It then meters fuel to maintain the
governed speed.
The main valve is closed in response to:

A normal STOP command from the START/STOP switch.

An emergency stop command from the aircraft emergency APU stop circuit.

An automatic shut down command from the ESU fault monitoring circuit.

The main valve closes in response to the emergency and normal STOP commands
because power is removed from the ESU.
On some aircraft power is not removed from the ESU until 60 seconds after the
START/STOP switch is selected to STOP; on these aircraft the ESU shuts the main valve
when the START/STOP switch is selected to STOP.

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AVRO 146-RJ Series

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Volume 1

APU
Fuel System

Chapter 5 Topic 6
Page6

Figure 6.3 - Sundstrand Fuel System


START

Shut-

Logte

-+!

STOP

Valve
position
Position
demand

Valve not in
-demanded
L----__..J
poslt.lon

rI lO
AI'Ufua I
..,.E$11

Pressure switch

Filter

~ Combustor

Fuel

control
I

RPM
AccoleraUon

EGT

control

-4--- l --+-f- --L- !.+-- - - - -1- - - - - Start & run


Starting fuel
control

_j

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AVRO 146-RJ Series

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Garrett 150 APU Oil System

The Garrett 150 APU oil syst-em is shown schematically in Figure 7.1 .
Oil is contained in a sump at the bottom of the accessory gearbox.
A pump draws oil from the sump and pressurizes the oil to a nominal 45 psi.
From the pump the oil passes to a filter.
From the filter the oil passes to:
The engine bearings.
The accessory gearbox bearings and gears.
Oil return is by graveity to the sump.
The oil is cooled by APU inlet air passing over fins attached to the accessory gearbox.
A pressure switch is downstream of the filter. If pressure drops below 31 psi, a low
pressure signal is sent to the ECU. The ECU passes this signal directly to the amber
APU OIL LO PRESS annunciator on the APU panel. If the APU RPM is above 97%, the
ECU shuts down the APU after a delay of 10 seconds.
The APU OIL LO PRESS annunciator is inhibited when the START/STOP switch is at
STOP.
Automatic shutdown is achieved by closing the APU fuel shut off valve. The aircraft APU
fuel valve remains open until the START/ STOP switch is selected to STOP.
The Garrett 150 ECU is installed with fault code M Is. They display an appropriate code
when the ECU initiates shutdown for high oil pressure.
A high oil temperature switch on the gearbox sump is used to shut down the APU if the oil
temperature rises above 140C. There is a one second delay before automatic shutdown.
A combined drain valve and chip detector is fitted to the gearbox sump.

FCOM:Vt -002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

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Volume 1

APU
Oil System

Chapter 5 Topic 7
Page 2

Figure 7.1 -Garrett Oil System

o~--------------~
APUOIL
LO PRESS

ECU

10 second delay --'--

+'

RPM
> 97% 150APU

LEnable-+

~PCJOII.

~second

Lo.voll

pressure

t.O~sa l

011 ptassure < 31 psi

Pump output
regulated to 45 P6l
i

Oil pump

delay

t
High oil temperature
Ott ten pwature > 140"C

Pressum switch

Filter

--

Drain and chip

J Inlet 1111, flowing over fms


t

...

Tempef'ature switch

detector

OIL LO PRESS am\Jnci ator illuminates if oil pressure less than 31 psi and the START/STOP'
switch is at START
Automatic shutdown given for low oil pressure if:

,.

RPM geater than 97%

AND

Oil pressure less lhan 31 psi for more than 10 seconds.

Automatic shutdown given for t-tgh oil tefll)erature it oil temperature greater than 140"C for
more than 1 second
1 11'1 - 05- 00060

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

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Volume 1

APU
Oil System

Chapter 5 Topic 7
Page3

Sundstrand APU Oil System

The Sundstrand APU oil system is shown schematically in Figure 7.2.


Oil is contained in a sump at the bottom of the accessory gearbox. A gearbox pump draws
oil from the sump and passes pressurized oil to a supply filter via an oil ~cooler. The
nominal pressure is 60 psi.
A fan, driven by the accessory gearbox, blows air through the oil-cooler. The fan takes air
from an inlet on the APU door. The air from the oil-cooler passes over the hotter parts of
the APU and then exhausts through a hole on the APU door.
From the supply filter the oil passes to:

The engine bearings.

The accessory gearbox bearings and gears.

The APU generator via a generator supply pump. The nominal pressure is 270 psi.

Oil from the gearbox and engine is returned by gravity to the sump.
Oil from the generator is returned to the sump by a generator scavenge pump via a
generator scavenge fi lter.
A pressure switch is downstream of the generator supply pump. If pressure drops below
210 psi, a low pressure signal is sent to the ESU. If the APU RPM is above 95%, the ESU
shuts down the APU after a delay of 1o seconds.
A temperature switch is downstream of the supply filter. If oil temperature rises above
135C, a high oil temperature signal is sent to the ESU. If the APU RPM is above 95%, the
ESU shuts down the APU after a delay of 10 seconds.
Automatic shutdown is achieved by closing the APU main fuel valve. The aircraft APU LP
fuel valve remains open until the START/STOP switch is selected to STOP.
The ESU is fitted with fault code Mls. They display a code showing which fault caused the
APU to automatically shutdown.
An oil de-prime valve is fitted to the inlet of the gearbox oil pump. When the valve is open,
the pump cannot pump oil into the system.
The de-prime valve is opened:

During the early stages of the start to reduce the torque required to start the engine.

During an automatic shutdown.

During a normal shutdown if the aircraft is fitted with the modification that holds
power on the ESU for 60 seconds after the START/STOP switch is selected to
STOP.

The de-prime valve is opened on shutdown to reduce the chance of APU oil entering the
air conditioning system.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

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Volume 1

APU
Oil System

Chapter 5 Topic 7
Page 4

Both the supply filter and the generator scavenge filter include a bypass and an impending
bypass indicator.
A combined drain valve and chip detector is fitted to the gearbox sump.
Figure 7.2 - Sundstrand Oil System

Pressure switch

Pump

Temperature switch

Filter impending bypass pop- out indicator

Main fuel valve

ESU
De-prime

valve control

Oil cooler
Supply

Oil temperature > 135C

filter

Oilrpressure < 210 psi

Generator
supply

Gearbox
Gearbox
pump

De-prime
va lve

Engine
bearings

bearings
& gears

Accessory

Gearbox

Generator
Generator
scavenge pump

Generator
scavenge filter
Drain & chip detector

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

Starter Motor

The APU has a DC powered electric starter motor; the motor rotates the APU through the
APU accessory gearbox. The motor is used for ground and airborne starts.
Power is applied to the motor via a starter contactor at the beginning of the start
sequence. The contactor is opened when the starter cut-out speed is achieved.
Starter cut-out is 50% RPM for the Garrett 150 APU and the Sundstrand APU.
The motor is connected to the gearbox by a clutch . The clutch automatically disengages
when electrical power is removed from the starter motor.
Starting Supplies

The starting supplies are shown schematically in Figure 8.1 . The APU and engine starter
motors are supplied by a DC start busbar. The busbar can be supplied by:

The Transformer Rectifier (TR) starting supplies via a start select contactor for each
TR. Two TRs are used for main engine starting; only TR 1 is used for APU starting.

The batteri es via an A PU battery contactor.

An external DC power unit (EXT DC) via an external DC contactor.

However, only one of these three supplies can be connected to the start busbar at a time.
Whenever the start busbar is powered, a white START PWR ON annunciator illuminates;
the annunciator is on the flight deck engines panel (Figure 8.3).
EXT DC is connected to the aircraft on the right side of the fuselage just forward of the
hydraulic bay (Figure 8.4).

The APU battery contactor i.s used to power the st art busbar during APU starts from the
battery.
Some aircraft have an engine battery start facility; in this case, the start busbar is powered
from the battery via the APU battery contactor.
For main engine starting and APU starts from EXT DC, a START MASTER switch on the
ENGINES panel must be ON. With the START MASTER at ON, the source to power the
start busbar depends on the position of a START PWR switch on the ENGINES panel; the
switch has three positions: NORM, COLD and EXT DC.
With the START MASTER at ON, the start busbar will be powered by:

Two of the three TRs if the START PWR switch is at NORM or COLD; the voltage
will be 28 Vat NORM and 36 Vat COLD. At COLD, the TRs will be disconnected
from the main DC busbars.

EXT DC if the START PWR switch is at EXT DC. If the main AC busbars are
powered, the TRs will supply the main DC busbars. The voltage of the EXT DC
supply can be displayed on the DC voltmeter once EXT DC is plugged in.

FCOM:V1 -002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

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Volume 1

APU

Chapter 5 Topic 8
Page 2

Starting
Figure 8.1 - Starting Supplies Schematic

TR 1

TR2

TR 3

EXT DC

DC 1

DC 2

Start
select
> contactors

BATT1

DC voHs

BATT2
optional

DC 2
TR 3
opt iona I

EXT DC
contactor

~.?......................J
)

lr

BATI2

APU battery
contactor

START BUS BAR

START l lllum1nates whenever there

PVI.R ON

is power on the start busbar.

To engme
starter motors.

ToAPU
starter motor.

The voltage of EXT DC can be displayed on the DC voltmeter once EXT DC is plugged in.
One of the following can be connected to the start busbar at a time:
);> The batteries.
);>
);>

The TR starting supplies.


EXT DC.

With the START MASTER at ON, the sta rt busbar will be supplied by:
);>
);>

Two of the TRs if the START PWR switch is at NORM or COLD.


EXT DC if the START PWR switch is at EXT DC.

Only start the APU with the START MASTER at ON if the START PWR switch is at EXT DC..
Starting the APU with the START MASTE R OFF:
);> Power to the start busbar is automatically connected and disconnected during the start
sequence.
);> Either TR 1 or t he BATT(S) are used; TR 1 preferred to the BATT(S).

:.> The BATT(S) are chosen if both main AC busbars are not powered. The APU cannot
be started from the BATI(S) if TR 1 fails and at least one of the main AC busbars is
powered; a start can be made from EXT DC.
i-v1 -05-000B2

FCOM:V1-002

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Volume 1

APU
Starting

Chapter 5 Topic 8
Page3

Starting from EXT DC

If the APU is to be started from EXT DC, the START MASTER must be ON and the
START PWR switch at EXT DC. The START PWR ON annunciator will remain illuminated
throughout the start; it will not extinguish until the START MASTER is selected OFF.
External DC can be the start source regardless of the state of the main AC busbars.
START PWR Switch

The APU must not be started with the START MASTER at ON and the START PWR switch
at COLD; starting in this condition will damage the starter motor as 36 V will be applied to
the motor.
The APU should not be started with the START MASTER at ON and the START PWR
switch at NORM ; starting in this condition will apply a higher torque than normal to the
starter and gearbox as two TRs would be used.
Starting from the Batteries or TR 1

To start the APU from the batteries or TR 1, the START MASTER must be OFF. Power is
connected to the start busbar when the START/STOP switch is selected to START; power
is disconnected from the START busbar when the starter cut-out RPM is achieved. The
START PWR annunciator illuminates when the START/STOP switch is selected to START
and extinguishes at starter cut-out RPM.
To use TR 1, EXT AC or an engine generator must be available.
TR 1 is automatically preferred to the batteries.
The preference logic depends on the modification state of the aircraft.
The battery can be the start source only if both AC1 and AC2 are not energised. If just one
of the two main AC busbars is not energised and TR 1 fails, the APU cannot be started.
An APU start is not possible with DC BUS 1 failed and DC 2 powered because at least one
main AC must be powered if DC 2 is powered.

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Volume 1

APU
Starting

Chapter 5 Topic 8
Page 4

Start Contactor
The start contactor and its logic is summarised in Figure 8.2.
When the START/STOP switch is selected to START, the APU fuel valve is signalled to
open. Once the valve is open, the start contactor closes. At starter cut-out RPM. the
contactor opens.
On some early aircraft, the contactor cannot be closed if the START MASTER is at ON.
Figure 8.2 - Starter Contactor
TR 1

TR2

TR3

DC 2

DC 1
Start
select
~ contactors

EXT DC

BATT2
optional

TR 3
optiona I

p.. . . ... . ... . ..f)


,
)

APU battery
contactor

START
PV'.R ON

Illu minates w henever there


is power on the start busbar..

To eng ine
starter motors.

START BUSBAR

I)) contactor
EXT DC

BATT 2

DC volts

DC 2
)

BATT 1

)I

)I

Starter
contactor

APU
starter
APU starter contactor closes if:
)>
The START/STOP switch is at START
AND
The APU fuel valve is open.
AND
)>
RPM is less than starter cut-out RPM .
J.>.

i-v1 -05-00063

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Volume 1

APU
Starting

Chapt er 5 Topic 8
Page 5

Figure 8.3 - Starting Portion of Engines Panel

STARTPWR

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Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Starting

Chapter 5 Topic 8
Page6

Figure 8.4 - External DC Connection


Right Side of Aircraft

External connection point door closod

IUC1'IIICM.
Claii-'I'IOiii

-D.C.

FCOM:V1-002

External connection point door open

....

CGII.CTIOIII

avD.C.

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01/09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Starting

Chapter 5 Topic 8
Page 7

Garrett 150 APU Start Sequence

When the START/STOP switch is selected to START:

The ECU is powered.

The APU fuel valve is signalled to

open ~

When the fuel valve is open, the start contactor closes and the APU starts to rotate.
At 10% RPM:

The igniter is powered.

The fuel shut off valve is opened.

The surge valve is signalled to open.

Light up occurs shortly after fuel and ignition are applied.


acceleration by varying the position of the metering valve.

The ECU controls the

At starter cut-out RPM, the starter contactor is opened. Starter cut-out is 50% for the
Garrett 150.
The igniter is switched off at 97% RPM for the Garrett 150.
At ready to load (RTL), the APU PWR AVAILABLE annunciator illuminates.
97% + 4 seconds for the Garrett 150.

RTL is

The ECU controls the metering valve to maintain governed speed.


If the start is from the battery or TR 1, the START PWR ON annunciator will illuminate
when START is selected and extinguish at starter cut-out.
For a start from EXT DC, the START PWR ON annunciator will be illuminated throughout
the start; it will not extinguish until the START MASTER is selected OFF.

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Volume 1

APU
Starting

Chapter 5 Topic 8
Page8

Sundstrand APU Start Sequence

When the START/STOP switch is selected to START:

The ESU is powered.

The oil de-prime is opened.

The surge valve is closed.

The APU fuel valve is signalled to open.

When the fuel valve is open, the start contactor closes and the APU starts to rotate.
At 3% RPM:

The igniter is powered.

The start fuel valve is opened.

At 14% RPM and an EGT rise:

The main fuel valve is opened.

The ESU will open and shut the main valve as necessary to prevent excessive
EGT.

At 50% RPM:

The main fuel valve is held fully open.

The start contactor opens.

The de-prime valve is closed.

At 85% RPM:

The start fuel valve is closed.

The igniter is turned off.

At 95% + 3 seconds:

The APU PWR AVAILABLE annunciator illuminates.

The surge valve opens.

The hydro-mechanical governor maintains governed speed.

If the start is from the battery or TR 1, the START PWR ON annunciator will illuminate
when START is selected and extinguish at starter cut-out.
For a start from EXT DC, the START PWR ON annunciator will be illuminated throughout
the start; it will not extinguish until the START MASTER is selected OFF.

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AVRO 146-RJ Series

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General
The APU is contained within a fireproof box behind the air conditioning bay. The inner
surface of the APU bay door forms the lower surface of the box. A fire detector is fitted
within the fireproof box. The detector is a gas-filled wire. It is wound around the four inner
vertical surfaces of the firebox as shown in Figure 9_1.
A fire extinguisher is fitted in the air conditioning bay. The extinguisher is mounted on the
forward outer vertical surface of the fireproof box. The extinguisher discharges into the

fireproof box. The extinguisher position is shown in Figure 9.2.


A FIRE EXT switch is provided on the APU paneL A fire bell and warnings on the APU
panel and CWP give warning of fire.
Fire Detection
The detector is connected to an electronic circuit. The circuit has two functions:

Fire detection.
Monitoring.

Together, the detector and electronic circuit are called the APU fire loop. The APU fire
loop is shown schematically in Figure 9.3.
If the detector detects a fire, a fire warning is given. The fire warning is removed once the
fire wire cools below the overheat threshold.
If the monitoring circuit detects a failure of the fire wire:

The amber APU t collector caption illuminates on the CWP.


A LOOP FAULT annunciator illuminates on the APU panel.
The amber alert lamps flash.

An APU FIRE test button is provided on the GRND TEST panel. When the button is
pressed, both the detection and the monitoring elements of the electronics are tested. If
the test is passed, the loop fault cautions and the fire warnings are given.
Figure 9.1 - APU Fir e Wire

Fireproof

compartment

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AVRO 146-RJ Series

Fire Wire

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Fire Protection

Chapter 5 Topic 9
Page 2

Figure 9-2 - APU Extinguisher Location


Fireproof
compartment

Fire extinguis her

!
Discharge pipe

Pressure relief pipe

Figure 9_3 - APU Fire Loop


APU FIRE LOOP
Electronics

Loop fault

APU
fi re-wire

monitor
I
I
L _ ___ l

Fire Warnings

APU FIRE
test button
LOOP FAULT given if:
}. Fault detected

OR
)

APU FIRE test button pressed


Fire warnings given if:
}. Fire detected

OR
}.

FCOM:V1-002

APU FIRE test button pressed

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Fire Protection

Chapter 5 Topic 9
Page3

Fire Extinguisher

The extinguisher and its controls and indicators are shown in Figure 9.4.
The extinguisher consists of a bottle and a head. The head is connected to a discharge
pipe. The discharge pipe connects the head to the fireproof compartment. A frangible disc
in the head prevents the extinguishant passing into the discharge pipe. The head includes
an explosive charge. When the charge is detonated, the frangible disc breaks and the
extinguish ant flows into the discharge pipe and thus into the fireproof compartment.
The explosive charge is detonated electrically when the FIRE EXT switch is selected to
DISCH. The switch is spring-loaded from DISCH to the normal position. A red guard must
be lifted before the switch can be operated. The guard is spring-loaded to the normal
position.
A white APU EXT USED annunciator is provided on the APU panel. An electronic circuit
detects whether or not the charge has been detonated. When the explosive charge has
been detonated, the APU EXT USED annunciator illuminates.
An ENG & APU EXTING button on the GRND TEST panel tests the electronic circuits.
When the button is pressed, the APU EXT USED annunciator should illuminate;
additionally, a similar annunciator for each of the engine extinguishers should illuminate. If
an annunciator does not illuminate when the button is pressed, the associated detector
circuit has failed the test.
The extinguisher has a pressure-relief pipe. The contents are prevented from entering the
pressure-relief pipe by a second frangible disc in the bottle. The pipe is connected to a
pressure-relief indicator. The pressure-relief indicator is on the left side of the fuselage just
above the forward end of the APU door hinge: see Topic 3, Figure 3.2.
When an overpressure condition occurs within the bottle, the frangible disc breaks; the
extinguishant then flows into a pressure-relief pipe and discharges through the
pressure-relief indicator.
The pressure-relief indicator is shown in Figure 9.5. It consists of a red conical bowl that is
normally covered by a green disc. The pressure-relief pipe is connected to an orifice in the
centre of the bowl. When the extinguishant enters the pressure-relief pipe, the green disc
is blown off the bowl; the red bowl is revealed and all the extinguish ant flows out through
the orifice in the centre of the bowl.
There are two types of pressure-relief indicator. One has an extra feature: a plug in the
orifice in the red bowl. If the green disc falls out but the plug remains in place, pressure
relief will not have taken place.
The green disc may discolour with age to become almost white. As long as the disc is in
place and the red bowl cannot be seen, pressure relief will not have taken place.
The pressure-relief indicator signals that extinguishant has been discharged through the
indicator because pressure has become too high in the bottle. The APU EXT USED
annunciator indicates that the bottle has been discharged into zone 1 because the
FIRE EXT switch has been operated.
Pressure relief does not cause the APU EXT USED annunciator to illuminate.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

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Volume 1

APU
Fire Protection

Chapter 5 Topic 9
Page 4

There are two types of fire bottle available to the aircraft. The pressure relief design is
slightly different. On one, the pressure-relief indicator will not blow out when the explosive
charge is detonated . On the other, there is a possibility that the pressure-relief indicator
will blow out when t he extinguisher is discharged using the FIRE EXT switch. However,
the amount of extinguishant lost through the pressure-relief indicator is small.
Figure 9.4- APU Fire Extinguisher

Discharge into
fi reproof box

APU EXT
USED

'

''

'

/ Electronic \
~
\ detector /

Extinguisher
head
FIRE EXT

DISCH

,,___.of ___/ ' '

APU
EXT

FIRE EXT switch


Electrically discharges the bottle

Extinguisher bottle

ENG & APU


EXTING
test button

Pressure-relief pipe
Pressure-relief indicator
Figure 9.5 - Pressure-Relief Indicator

Typical indicator

Indicator with Plug

Indicator with or without Plug

Green disc

Plug
Red bowl

Green disc
Green disc in place

Green d1sc oul


and plug in place

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Green disc out and plug


out or not fitted

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Fire Protection

Chapter 5 Topic 9
Page 5

Fire Warning

If a fire is detected:

The fire bell sounds.

A red APU FIRE t caption illuminates on the CWP.

A red APU FIRE annunciator illuminates on the APU panel.

The red alert lamps flash.

On the ground:

The APU is shutdown by the aircraft emergency shut down circuit.

The APU fuel valve is shut.

The APU AIR valve is shut.

The APU generator is taken off-line.

As an option, the ground crew call horn sounds until the APU START/STOP
switch is selected to STOP.

In the air, nothing is automatically shutdown.

The FIRE EXT switch discharges the fire extinguisher. In the air, the APU START/STOP
switch must be selected to STOP before the FIRE EXT switch is selected to DISCH. At
STOP, the fuel supply to the APU is cut off and the electrical and air supply from the APU
are shut down. On the ground, to back up the auto shut down system, the APU
START/STOP switch should be selected to STOP before the FIRE EXT switch is selected
to DISCH.

FCOM:V1-002

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Nov 01 /09

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Volume 1

APU
Fire Protection

Chapter 5 Topic 9
Page6

Page Intentionally Blank

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

General
The APU functions are supplied from BATT 1 and EMERG DC.
The ECU is supplied from BATT 1 busbar.
To start the APU, BATT 1 busbar and EMERG DC must be powered. However the APU
will continue to run with only the BATT 1 busbar powered.
If BATT 1 is selected OFF, BATT 1 will not be charged. Therefore if BATT 1 is selected
OFF when the APU is running, BATT 1 will gradually discharge.
There are two types of APU fault shut down : emergency shut down and automatic shut
down.
Emergency shut down is activated by the aircraft APU emergency shut down circuits.
Automatic shut down is commanded by the fault sensing circuits of the ECU.

Power Supply and Normal Shut Down


The ECU is supplied from BATT 1 busbar via the ST ART/STOP switch and an emergency
shut down relay. The power supply is shown schematically in Figure 10.1.
When the switch is selected to START, power is applied to the ECU and a start will be
initiated.
Power to the ECU is lost if the START/STOP switch is selected to STOP or an emergency
shut down is signalled.
When the ECU loses electrical power, the APU will shut down because power is lost to the
fuel shut off valve and the fuel metering valve. The TGT and RPM indicators will not be
powered.

Emergency Shut Down


Emergency shut down is achieved by breaking the power supply to the ECU. The APU
shuts down because power is removed from the ECU controlled fuel valves.
As the ECU is not powered, the flight deck RPM and TGT indicators are not powered.
Emergency shut down can only take place on the ground. Whenever an emergency shut
down takes place:
An APU EMERG SHUT DOWN Ml will latch white. The Ml is on the maintenance
panel.
On some aircraft, the ground crew call horn will sound until the START/STOP
switch is selected to STOP.

Automatic Shut Down


The ECU achieves automatic shut down by closing the fuel shut off valve.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01/09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Garrett Electronic Control

Chapter 5 Topic 10
Page 2

Figure 10.1 - Garrett APU Power Supply


RPMandTGT
indicators

t
TGT

RPM

L___e_c_u_ ___.l4

BATT1 BUS
Emergency
shut down relay
ECU power

START

Shutdown
STOP

When the switch is selected to START, powe.r is applied to the ECU and a start will be
initiated.
The APU will continue running until :

The switch i s sel ected to STOP.

OR

>

The aircraft circuits initiate an emergency shut down.

OR

The ECU initiates an automatic shut down.

If STOP is selected or an emergency shut down is made, the ECU is not powered; so the TGT
and RPM indicators will not be powered.
The ECU remains powered when an automatic shut down is made, so the TGT and RPM
indicators remain powered.
i-v1-05-00038

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Garrett Electronic Control

Chapter 5 Topic 1o
Page3

ECU Functions

The Garrett 150 APU ECU functions are shown schematically in Figure 10.2.
The Garrett 150 APU ECU:

Generates a ready to load (RTL) signal.

Controls the APU fuel system valves.

Controls the on/off function of the APU air valve.

Controls the surge valve.

Supplies the EGT and RPM signals for the flight deck indicators.

Automatically controls the start sequence.

Drives an hour meter.

Monitors for faults and will automatically shut down the APU when a fault is
detected.

Tests the over-speed shut down circuit, including shutting down the APU, when the
flight deck APU OVSPD button on the GRND TEST panel is pressed. The
over-speed test is inhibited in the air by a squat switch.

The Garrett 150 APU fuel system is completely controlled by the ECU. The start fuel shut
off valve turns the fuel on and off; the metering valve controls fuel flow to govern
acceleration during starting and then acts as a speed governor during running.
The APU air valve is controlled by the ECU. The APU AIR switch signals the demand for
air. The ECU allows the air valve to open once the RTL signal is generated. The ECU
then controls the air valve position to limit the EGT to below a nominal 690 "C.
The ECU opens the surge valve during starting. When the APU is running , the ECU:

Opens the surge valve when the aircraft is at and above 15 000 ft.

Opens the surge valve when the APU AIR switch is at OFF.

Closes the surge valve when the APU AIR switch is at ON and the aircraft is below
15 000 ft.

The flight deck TGT and RPM indicators are directly signalled by the ECU.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Garrett Electronic Control

Chapter 5 Topic 10
Page 4

Figure 10.2 - Garrett 150 APU ECU Functions


APU start oontactor

Start be....,

Electronic
control unlt
ECU

Squat s....;tch
0

( BATT1BUS
START

Startlng

APUOVSPD

.__ _ ECU power. :-::---i


slalt and stop

Automabc
slltJdown

RPMeeneor

EGT"71'I

Opcn'shut

~ STOP

RPM

Carfllete
fuel contrOl

.,

APU fuel
valve

lncicatlon

TGT

APUGl!N
ON

OFF
UNE

RTL

OFF/RESET

Combustor
Shutdown

I Enj~e
+

1- . - - - - ; Low oil praesure switch

Air VPiVe

mocU'atlon

Surge valve
conltrol

~------------.

1..

+-:l

~L
o AAI:-as

APUAIR

Ope!V'smrt

:N
O

Jcommand OR'

15 000 It
swttch

SurgoVMivo

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

IY1-<1500061

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Garrett Electronic Control

Chapter 5 Topic 1o
Page 5

Garrett 150 Fault Shut Down

Garrett 150 fault shut down is shown schematically in Figure 10.3.


There are two types of APU fault shut down : emergency shut down and automatic shut
down. Emergency shut down is activated by the aircraft APU emergency shut down
circuits. Automatic shut down is commanded by the fault sensing circuits of the ECU.
The Garret 150 emergency shut down circuits will be activated on the ground if:

An engine fire warning is given.

The refuel panel APU EMERG STOP switch is operated.

The air conditioning bay APU STOP switch is operated.

An adapter gearbox high oil temperature or low oil pressure is sensed. If a high oil
temperature is sensed, an APU GEN HI T Ml is latched white; the Ml is on the
maintenance panel.

The Garrett 150 ECU will automatically shut down the APU if:

An APU over-speed occurs: RPM above 110% or the OVSPD button pressed.

The RPM signal is lost.

The EGT rises above the limit: the start limit during starting and the maximum
continuous limit during running.

The EGT signal is lost ; the TGT gauge will be at full scale deflection.

High accessory gearbox oil temperature.

An over-current within the ECU or in some of the electrical devices driven by the
ECU.

The accessory gearbox oil pressure is low.

The low oil pressure shut down is only enabled above 97% RPM. There is a 10 second
delay before shut down occurs.
The reason for the automatic shut down is given by fault code Mls on the ECU.
All protective functions are reset when the START/STOP switch is selected to STOP.
The maintenance panel Mls are reset by a RESET switch on the maintenance panel.
The ECU Mls are reset when a start is initiated.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Garrett Electronic Control

Chapter 5 Topic 10
Page6

Figure 10.3 - Garrett 150 Fault Shut Down


Genef'ator adapter gear boll
High otl
temperature

,\PU GN
OIL HI T

STOP

Low oi
ptessure

SWtlCMS

Enabo

Emergency shut down

ECU

Squat switch
Air rO

Ground

0DilOnal

lJ:os.s of RPM '

hnk

RPMMnsor
APU lMlkG
SHUT DOWN

Ground crew
call hom

Fuel shut off valve

I R_P~,

~
Enable

Low oil
pressure
switch

low oil

pressure

ECU magnetic fault indicators:


Faults tndicated by the combination
of white lndlcatOI's.
All ECU automatic shut down
condw
tlons can be indicated.

00

FCOM:V1-002

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Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Garrett Electronic Control

Chapter 5 Topic 1o
Page 7

Page Intentionally Blank

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

General
The APU functions are supplied from BATT 1 and EM ERG DC.
The ESU and frequency converter are supplied from BATT 1 busbar.
To start the APU, BATT 1 busbar and EMERG DC must be powered. However the APU
will continue to run with just the BATT 1 busbar powered.
If BATT 1 is selected OFF, BATT 1 will not be charged. Therefore if BATT 1 is selected
OFF when the APU is running, BATT 1 will gradually discharge.
There are two types of APU fault shut down: emergency shut down and automatic shut
down.
Emergency shut dow n is activated by the aircraft APU emergency shut down circuits.
Automatic shut down is commanded by the fault sensing circuits of the ESU.
Emergency Shut Down
Emergency shut down is achieved by breaking the power supply to the ESU. The APU
shuts down because power is removed from the ESU controlled fuel valves.
As the ESU is not powered, the flight deck RPM and EGT indicators are not powered.
Emergency shut down can only take place on the ground. Whenever an emergency shut
down takes place:

An APU EMERG SHUT DOWN Ml will latch white. The Ml is on the maintenance
panel.

On some aircraft, the ground crew call hom will sound until the START/STOP
switch is selected to STOP.

Automatic Shut Down


The ESU achieves automatic shut down by closing the main fuel valve.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Sundstrand Electronic Control

Chapter 5 Topic 11
Page2

Power Supply and Normal Shut Down

There are two standards of power supply for the ESU: the basic standard and one that
holds power on the ESU and frequency to voltage converter for 60 seconds after the
START/STOP switch is selected to STOP. The two standards are shown schematically
in Figure 11 .1 and Figure 11 .2.
The ESU and the frequency to voltage converter are supplied from BATT 1 busbar via the
START/STOP switch and an emergency shut down relay for both standards.
The hold-on standard has two additional features:

A circuit which holds power at the emergency shut down relay for 60 seconds after
the START/STOP switch is selected to STOP.

A close signal to the ESU from the START/STOP switch.

For both standards, power will be lost at the ESU immediately an emergency shut down
signal is made; therefore:

The APU will shut down because the main fuel valve will close.

The EGT and RPM indicators will not be powered.

The oil de-prime valve will not be powered.

For the basic standard, the effect on the ESU of turning off the START/STOP switch is the
same as for an emergency shut down.
The hold-on circuit was introduced so that the oil de-prime valve would be opened during a
shut down using the START/STOP switch. Opening the de-prime valve during shut down
reduces the risk of oil entering the air conditioning system.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Sundstrand Electronic Control

Chapter 5 Topic 11
Page3

Figure 11.1 - Sundstrand Bas ic Power Supply


Frequency to
voltage
converter

r----..:1RPM and EGT indicators I

BATT 1 BUS
START

t
EGT

RPM

0
Shutdown

ESU

Emergency
shutdown relay
STOP

When the switch is selected to START, power is applied to the ESU and a start will be
Initiated.
The APU will continue running until:
l> The switch is selected to STOP.
OR
l> The aircraft circuits initiate an emergency shutdown.
OR
l> The ESU initiates an automatic shutdown .

If STOP is selected or an emergency shutdown is made, the ESU is not powered; the EGT
and RPM indicators will not be powered and the oil de-prime valve will not be opened.
The ESU remains powered when an automatic shutdown is made, the EGT and RPM
indicators remain powered and the oil de-prime valve will be opened.
i-v 1-05-0004 2

Figure 11 .2 - Sundstrand Power Supply with 60 Sec ond Hold-on


Frequency to 1---+: RPM and E GT indicators I
voltage
co nverter
Power
supply
0
Emergency

--<2.....o

Shutdown

shutdown relay

l.

BATT 1 BUS I

Ho lds pow er on
for 60 seconds
START
after STOP
~
+--selected.

STOP

When the switch is selected to START, power is applied to the ESU and a start will be
initiated.
The APU will continue running until the switch is selected to STOP.
At STOP, a stop signal commands the APU to stop but the ESU remains powered for
60 seconds, so:
l> The EGT and RPM indicators will indicatte for 60 seconds.
AND
.l> The oil de-prime valve will open during the shutdown cycle.
The behaviour on emergency and automatic shutdown is the same as the basic standard.
i-v 1-05-00043

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Sundstrand Electronic Control

Chapter 5 Topic 11
Page4

ESU Functions

The ESU functions are shown schematically in Figure 11.3. The ESU:

Generates a ready to load (RTL) signal.

Controls the APU fuel system valves ~

Controls the on/off function of the APU air valve.

Controls the surge valve.

Supplies the EGT and RPM signals for the flight deck indicators.

Automatically controls the start sequence.

Drives an hour meter.

Drives a start counter.

Monitors for faults and automatically shuts down the APU when a fault is detected.

Tests the over-speed shut down circuit, including shutting down the APU, when the
flight deck APU OVSPD button on the GRND TEST panel is pressed. The
over-speed test is inhibited in the air by a squat switch.

Controls the fuel during the starting sequence using both the start valve and the
main valve in conjunction with the fuel control unit acceleration control. The start
valve is closed during running.

Stops the APU by shutting the main valve.

A hydro-mechanical governor controls the APU speed during running.


The APU air valve is an on/off valve and pressure regulator. It does not have an EGT
limiting function. The ESU prevents the valve opening if the RTL signal is not present.
The ESU keeps the surge valve closed during starting. When running, the ESU closes the
surge valve when the air valve is open and opens the surge valve when the air valve is
closed.
The ESU supplies the EGT and RPM signals to the flight deck via a frequency to voltage
converter.
The ESU controls an oil pump de-prime valve. The valve is open:

During starting to offload the oil pump.

During automatic shut down, including shut down due to pressing the APU OVSPD
button.

During shut down when the START/STOP switch is selected to STOP provided that

the 60 second power hold-on modification is fitted.


The de-prime valve is opened during shut down to reduce the risk of oil entering the air
conditioning system.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Sundstrand Electronic Control

Chapter 5 Topic 11
Page 5

Figure 11 .3 - Sundstrand APU ESU Functions

n;n

APU start contactor

L_~
SUrt
~~
bu~s~bM
~_r--~~ ~ 0---

Startor motor

Electronic

sequencing unit
ESU

( Stan counter

"-

S tarting fuel

control and

I fuel shutoff

Frequency
to voltage

"- '

EGT

APU

~dlcatl~

converter
95% RPM

~---r----~--~

AVAII...ABL

STOP

shutdown

start & stop

Au tom abc

EGT thtrmoc;ouplt
RPM

l !4---ESU power._ __.

Starting

AI'UOVSPD

Fuel
control

3seconds

Generator
control unit
AI'UGEH
ON

OFF

LINE

f--

OfF!RESET

APtJ AIR

ON

Combustor

IV.r
OFF '----' en&ble
relay

High oil temperature switch


Low oil pressure switch

..,

~--------------~ LOPR51

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Sundstrand Electronic Control

Chapter 5 Topic 11
Page6

Fault Shut Down

There are two types of APU fault shut down: emergency shut down and automatic shut
down. Emergency shut down is activated by the aircraft APU emergency shut down
circuits. Automatic shut down is commanded by the fault sensing circuits of the ESU.
Sundstrand fault shut down is shown schematically in Figure 11.4.
The emergency shut down circuits will be activated on the ground if:

An engine fire warning is given.

The refuel panel APU EMERG STOP switch is operated.

The air conditioning bay APU STOP switch is operated.

The ESU will automatically shut down the APU if:

An APU over-speed occurs: RPM above 108% or the OVSPD button pressed.

An under-speed occurs: RPM less than 90% after RTL has been achieved.

The RPM signal is lost.

The EGT rises above the limit: the start limit during starting and the maximum
continuous limit during running.

The EGT input is open circuit.

There is a short circuit on the EGT input.

There is a short circuit in the oil low pressure switch.

There is a short circuit in some of the electrical devices driven by the ECU.

There is a failure in the digital processor.

There is a failure in the processor data conversion.

The APU fails to start. This fault is based on RPM achieved against time.

The APU fails to accelerate during start; the APU does not accelerate for two
consecutive seconds.

The APU fails to light. The APU fails to light within 8 seconds of start initiation or
there is a loss of combustion after light-up.

There is low accessory gearbox oil pressure.

There is a high accessory gearbox oil temperature.

The low oil pressure and high oil temperature shut downs are only enabled above
95% RPM. There is a 10 second delay before shut down occurs.
The reason for the automatic shut down is given by fault code Mls on the ESU.
All protective functions are reset when the START/STOP switch is selected to STOP.
The APU EMERG SHUT DOWN Ml is reset by a RESET switch at the maintenance panel.
The ESU Mls are reset when a start is initiated.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Sundstrand Electronic Control

Chapter 5 Topic 11
Page 7

Figure 11-4 - Sundstrand Fault Shut Down


ESU

~
~

AP\1 OVSPO

RPM sensor

Start Failures

switches

Emergency shutdown

Squat switch

Ground

Fail to accelerate

Based on EGT
APU

H1ghEGT

E!~ER G

S>iU T D OWN

Optional
link
Ground crew
call hom

~TT1 aus]

EGT thermocouple

ESU
LossofEGT
Short circuit
ESU Digital
Processor Failures

Open circuit

Memory and
sequencing

Processor failure

Data conversion

Sensor data fa1l

High oil
temperature switch

~.

~
Enable

po.var
Shutdcrwn 0
Emergency
shutdown relay

STOP

ESU magnetic indicators:

Indicate start phase and automatic


shutdown condition

w oil 1-----t-~L.:O
~I:_:H:au~l~tJ

ressure
witch

Oil pressure
switch shoo

[9999
FCOM:V1-002

Based on RPM
Based on RPM

STOP

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Code indicated by the combination


of wtute IndiCators

6 start phases Indicated


15 ESU automatic Shutdown
oonditions can be indicated

Nov 01 / 09

APU Panel

The APU panel is shown in Figure 12. 1; the panel is drawn with the Garrett standard of
annunciators and the Garrett 150 TGT and RPM indicators. The indicators for the two
APUs are compared in Figure 12.2.
The only difference between the annunciator configurations is that the Sundstrand APU
has an AUTO SHUTDOWN annunciator rather than an OIL LO PRESS annunciator.
The APU FIRE annunciator indicates that a fire has been detected in the APU bay;
automatic shut down will take place on the ground but not in the air. A repeat of the fire
warning is given on the CWP by the APU FIRE t caption: see Figure 12.3.
The LOOP FAULT annunciator indicates that a fault has been detected in the APU fire
loop.
When the APU FIRE TEST button on the GRND TEST panel is pressed, the APU fire loop
is tested; a successful test is indicated by all the fire warnings being given and the
LOOP FAULT annunciator illuminating. Part of the GRND TEST panel is shown in Figure
12.4.
The APU EXT USED annunciator indicates that the fire extinguisher has been discharged
by the FIRE EXT switch circuit.
The FIRE EXT switch discharges the fire extinguisher. Most aircraft have a flap guarding
the switch. On some early aircraft, the flap is not fitted; instead a baulk is fitted. This
arrangement is shown in Figure 12.1.
The APU PWR AVAILABLE annunciator indicates that the APU is ready to take loads from
the generator and the air supply system.
The APU OIL LO PRESS annunciator indicates that the Garrett accessory gearbox oil
pressure is less than 31 psi.
The AUTO SHUTDOWN annunciator indicates that the Sundstrand APU has been
automatically shut down by its ESU.
The APU FUEL LO PRESS annunciator indicates that pressure is low at the input to the
APU fuel system.
The APU FUEL VALVE annunciator indicates that the valve is not in the demanded
position. The valve is demanded closed if the START/STOP switch is at STOP or an
emergency shut down occurs. The valve is demanded open if the START/STOP switch is
at START and an emergency shut down signal is not present.
The APU NRV leak annunciator indicates that engine air is leaking into the APU air supply
duct.
Setting the START/STOP switch to START, powers the ECU or ESU and initiates the start
sequence. The switch remains at START during running. Selecting STOP will stop the
APU and removes power from the ECU or ESU. On some Sundstrand APUs, power
remains on the ESU for 60 seconds after STOP is selected.
A baulk prevents inadvertent selection of START.

FCOM:V1 -002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Flight Deck Summary

Chapter 5 Topic 12
Page 2

Figure 12_1 - APU Panel


Panel shown with Garrett 150 RPM & TGT indicators
Flap over FIRE EXT switch must be raised

to anow swllch to be selected to DISCH

Baulk must be moved to the right to allow


START/STOP sw1lch to be selected to START

If Sundstrand
APU fitted
APU OIL
LO PRESS

replaced with
AUTO
SHUTDOWN

Altornatlve fire extinguisher switch


arrangement on some early aircraft
Baulk must be moved to the I!IQht to allow
FIRE EXT switch to be selected to DISCH

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AV RO 146-RJ FCOM
Volume 1

APU
Flight Deck Summary

Chapter 5 Topic 12
Page 3

Figure 12.2- APU Indicators


Garret 150 indicators

Surndstrand indicators

Garrett RPM Indicators


The red radial is at the over-speed shutdown RPM - 110%.
The g reen arc is from RTL RPM to the maximum normanoperating RPM:
97% to 107% for the 150 APU.
The arrber arc is from the maximum nomnal operating RPM to the over-speed shutdown RPM.
Sundstrand RPM Indicator
The red radial is at the maximum allowed RPM - 106.5%.
The green arc on Sundstrand RPM indicator is the allowed operating range - from 91.5% to
106.5%; under-speed shutdown occurs at 90%; over-speed shutdown occurs at 108%.
Garrett TGT Indicator
The red radial i s at the maximum allowabl e temperature during running - 746C for the 150 APU.
f he g reen arc runs from zero to the maximum nomnal operating value - 110c for the 150 APU.
The arrber arc runs from the maximum normal operating value to the maximum allowed value.
Sundstrand EGT Indicator
The red dot is at the start limit- 1 oo2 c.
The red radial is at the maximum allowable temperature during running - 71sc.
The green arc runs from 2so c to the maximum allowable temperature during running.
i-v 1-05-000 55

FCOM:V 1-002

AV RO 146 -RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Flight Deck Summary

Chapter 5 Topic 12
Page 4

Figure 12.3 - Part of CWP


--

---

Fire in the
APU bay

APU

Fifth row
from the top

Amber annunciator illuminated


on the APU panel

Figure 12.4 - Part of Ground Test Panel

..
Third row
from top

The APU FIRE but1on tests the APU Ore loop.

The ENG & APU EXTING button tests the eKtlnguisher used circuits of all the extinguishers
The APU OVSPD buttoo tests the over-speed Circuit and ls used to shut down the APU on
the ground

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Flight Deck Summary

Chapter 5 Topic 12
Page 5

APU Circuit Breakers

The APU circuit breakers are divided between the APU & ENGINE START, FIRE and
FUEL circuit breaker panels.
The APU & ENGINE START circuit breaker panel is shown and described in Figure 12.5.
The FIRE circuit breaker panel is shown and described in Figure 12.6.
The FUEL circuit breaker panel is shown and described in Figure 12.7.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Flight Deck Summary

Chapter 5 Topic 12
Page6

Figure 12.5 - APU & Engine Start Circuit Breaker Panel


AP.'U & ENGINE

..

If a Sundstrand APU is fitted,

is replaced by

The circuit breakers applicable to the APU are A30 to A34 on the top row.
APU VALVE WARN (A30) supplies the :
J;> APU VLV NOT SHUT annunciator.
> APU NRV LEAK annunciator.

>

APU FUEL VALVE annunciator.


APU OIL+FUEL WARN (A31) supplies:
> The APU FUEL LO PRESS annunciator.
J;> On just the Garrett APU , the APU OIL LO PRESS annunciator.
APU CTRL (A32) supplies power via the START/STOP switch to:
> The APU OIL+FUEL WARN circuit breaker.
> The APU EMERG STOP circuit breaker.
> The Garrett ECU.
J;> The Sundstrand ESU and frequency to voltage converter.
APU START CTRL (A33) is fitted if a Garrett APU is fitted and supplies:
> The APU battery contactor (connects t he battery to the start busbar).
J;> TR 1 start select contactor (connects TR 1 to the start busbar).
The starter motor contactor.
APU START/AIR CTRL (A33) is fitted if a Sundstrand APU is fitted and supplies:
> The APU battery contactor (connects the battery to the start busbar).
J;> TR 1 start select contactor (connects TR 1 to the start busbar).
J;> The starter motor contactor.
> The APU air valve.
APU EMERG STOP (A34) supplies:
> The overspeed test circuit.
J;>

>

The emergency shutdown circuit.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Flight Deck Summary

Chapter 5 Topic 12
Page 7

Figure 12.6 - Fire Circuit Breaker Panel

BATt

BAT 1

BAT I

BAT 1

MDC

DATI

BATt

ENG 1

EHG2

E.HGA

EXU1

APU

EXT

APU

EXT

C.t.RGO

f.XT

EHG3
V(T

111

.,

!11

_,

EXT

Optional circuit breakers:

EXT 1

USf.O

AN'IUN

ftAH
5

DCl

C.t.RGO
FJCT 2

TOILET

~IDC

MDC

1110<:
5

rtDC

rQ;

MDC

MDC

ENG\

ENG 2.

EN04

exr.-a

EXT
1#2

EXT
112

ENGl
I:Xl

12

112

useo
AHNUN

I.IOC

r~oc

MDC

MDC

MDC

I!NG 1

ENG2

1
I!NG 3

LOOP
A

LOOP

LOOP A
\IIARH

APU
LOOP

LOOP 8
WARN

ARE

LOOP
A

ENG4
LOOP

TEST

t.IOC

IADC

PIOC

MDC

rADC

ENG 1

ENG2

LOOP

LOOP

!NG3
LOOf'

E.HG4
LOOP

16

17

Ill

EXT

,.

CARGO EXT 1 & 2

,.

TOLLET SMOKE WARN

,.

ENGLOOPB

,.

LOOP B WARN & TEST

An optiollal Olrcuit breaker


Is only fitted rf the
associated option Is fitted

iMOKIC
W.A.RN

MDC

BEll

TI;ST
r.tOC

..oc

MDC
1

llNG 1
PYLON

k'G2
PYlON

PYLON

OVHT

OVHT

ENG3
PV'l014
OVHT

21

12

23

[NG4

OVHT

FIRE

20

The IFlRE panol circuit breakers apphcable to the APU are:


,. EXT#1 +APU USED ANN UN (C20}: it supplies the APU EXT USED annunciator circuit.
,
APU EXT (C21): it supplies the APU fire extinguisher discharge circu1l
,. APU LOOP (E21 }; it supp~es the APU fire loop.
, FIRE BELL (E23): it supphes the fire bell; the same bell used for both engine and APU
nre warning.

FCOM:V1 -002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Flight Deck Summary

Chapter 5 Topic 12
Pages

Figure 12.7- Fuel Circuit Breaker Panel

MDC

MOC

XFEED

APU

VALVE

FUEL

BAERG

VALVE

MDC

MOC

The APU fuel valve circuit breaker supplies


power for the aircraft APU fuel valve

LCOMM RCOMM
FEED
FE.EO
VALVE VALVE

BAT

3
OTY

ALTN
PWR

FUEl
1

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

APU
Flight Deck Summary

Chapter 5 Topic 12
Page9

Page Intentionally Blank

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

Topic 1 - Overview
Scope ...................................... ................................. ........................ .............................
Overview Schematic ...... .. ................... .... ................... .. ........... ......... ... ......... .......... .. .....
CAU Channels ................................................................................. ........... .......... ... .....
Audio Warnings ............................................................................................ .................
Crew Call.......................................................................................................................
ASPs and Crew Call Panels...... ........... ................................. ..... ...... .............................
Static Dischargers ........................................................................................ .................
Video Surveillance ....................... .......... ........... ....................... .......... ............. ..............

2
4
4
4
4
4
4

Topic 2- Flight Deck


Flight Deck Speakers ......................................... ................... ........................................
Handwheel Transmit and Intercom Switch..... ............. ....................... ............. ........ ......
Hand Microphone ........................................... ....................... ............. ...........................
Audio Selector Panel Location .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .... . .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. ...
Headset Connections..................................... .... .............................. .............................
ASP with PA and Service Intercom Selectors...............................................................
ASP without PA and Service Intercom Selectors ........ .......... ........................................
Flight Deck Intercom ........................................................................ .. ...........................
Crew Call......................................................................................... ..............................
Overhead Panel Crew Call........ ........... ...................................... ...... .. .. .. . ... .. .. ... . .. .. .. .. .. .
Centre Console Crew Call. ............................................................................................
Radios..... ............................................ .......... ................................................................
ACARS..........................................................................................................................
SELCAL ....................................................................................................... .................
Cabin Radio Telephone ....................... .........................................................................
Video Surveillance ........................................................................... .............................
Emergency Locator Transmitter................................................................... .................
Litton EL T Switch ...................... ............................................... .......... ...........................
Fixed Kannad ELT Switch..................... ............. ...... ............................................ .........
Overhead Circuit Breaker Panel ... ....... ... ......... ... .......... ......... ... ....... ... ............ .......... ....

3
3
5
5
7

9
11

13
13
15
17

19
21
21
23
25
25
25
27

Topic 3 - Cabin
Cabin Handsets......................... ............. .......................................................................
Vesti bule Attendant's Panels ............... ..... ....................................... .............................
Roof Call Lamps. ................................. ............................................. ............ .................
Passenger Service Units and Toilets............... ................................ ............ .................
Service Intercom ............................. ............... .......................... ... ..... ........ ............ .........
Passenger Address................... ....................................................... ..... ...... ........... .......

FCOM:V1-002

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Nov 01/09

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AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
Contents

Chapter 6 TOC
Page2

Topic 4 - Crew Call

Purpose.........................................................................................................................
Ground Crew Call Switch..............................................................................................
Flight Deck Crew Call Panel..................................................... ....................................
Cabin Roof Call Lights...................................................................... ............................
Cabin Handset Call Switches and Annunciators...........................................................
Ground Crew Call Horn.................................................................................................
Calls to the Flight Deck.................................................................................................
PA Tones......................................................................................................................
Calls to the Cabin ..........................................................................................................
Inter-cabin Calls............................................................................................................
Passenger and Toilet Call.............................................................................................

1
1
1
3
3
5
7
7
8
8
9

Topic 5- VHF Radios

Architecture ...................... .......... ..... ..... ..... ...... .............................. .... ...... ... ....... .... ...... ..
Channel Spacing...........................................................................................................
RMP Frequency Windows.................................................................. ...........................
Channel Names for Receivers with 8.33 kHz spacing..................................................
VHF Antennas...............................................................................................................

1
1
1
3
5

Topic 6 - HF Radios

Architecture ...................... .......... ..... ..... ..... ...... .............................. .... ...... .... ...... .... ...... ..
HF Antennas.................................................................................................................
CollinsHFS-700............................................................................................................

1
3
5

Topic 7 - SELCAL

Operation ..... ..... ....... .... .... ... ....... ...... .... ...... .... .. ... ...... ..... ...... ..... ...... .. .... .. ... . ..... . .... ...... ..
SELCAL Codes.............................................................................................................
Architecture ...................... .......... ..... ..... ..... ...... ......................... ......... ...... .... ...... .... ...... ..
Test...............................................................................................................................

1
2
2
2

Topic 8 - Radio Telephones

Cabin Radio Telephones...............................................................................................

Topic 9 - Static Dischargers

Background...................................................................................................................
Purpose of Static Dischargers.......................................................................................
Static Discharger Construction......................................................................................
Static Discharger Location .. .. . .... .. .. ...... ... .. ........ ... .... .. ..... ...... ...... ... .. . ..... . .... ...... ..... ...... .
Types of Dischargers....................................................................................................

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

1
1
1
1
3

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
Contents

Chapter 6 TOC
Page3

Topic 10.1- ELT General

Types of ELT ................................................................................................................ .


Activation ...................................................................................................................... .
Transmission Frequencies .. ................................... .................................................. .... .

1
1

Topic 10.2- Litton ELT

Architecture........................................................................... ........................................
Visual and Aural Indications.................................................................................. ........
The Switch ... ..... .. .... ... .. ...... . .... ... ... ...... .. ...... . .. ... .. .. . ... ... .. ... ... . ..... ..... ...... ..... ...... ..... .... .. ..

1
1
1

Topic 10.3- Kannad Fixed ELT

Architecture...................................................................................................................
LED and Horn .. .. . .... ... ... ..... . ....... ... .... .. ........ . .. .... ... .... ... ... .. ... . ..... ..... ...... ...... ..... .... .. .. ... ..
The Switch ... ..... .. .... ... .. . ..... . .... ... ... .... .. .. ... ... . .. ... .. .. . ... ... .. ... ... . ..... ..... ...... ..... ...... ..... .... .. ..
Test...............................................................................................................................

1
1
1
1

Topic 10.4- Kannad Portable ELT

Stowage ........................................................................................................................
TheELT .... ....................................................................................................................

1
1

Topic 11 -Video Surveillance

Overview.......................................................................................................................
Viewing Screen .. . .... .. .... ..... . ....... .... ..... ........ . .. .... ... .... .. . ... .. ... . ..... ...... ..... ...... ..... .... .. .. ... ..
Cameras........................................................................................................................
Control Panel ... .. . .... ... ... ..... . ..... .. ... .... .. .. .... .. . .. .. .. .. .. ... ... ... .. ... . ..... ..... ...... ...... ..... .... .. ... .. ..

1
3
5

Topic 12- ACARS

Overview ...................................................................................................................... .
Architecture with a MIOU ............................................. ......... ......................... ...... .... .....
Architecture with Collins FMS .......................................................................................
Printer........................................................................... ......... ........................................
MIDU ............................................................................ .................................................
Collins MCDU....................................................................................................... .........
Triggers .. ... .. ...... .. .... ... ... ..... . .... ... ... ........ ...... . .. ..... .. . ... ... .. ... ... . .... . ..... ..... ...... ...... ..... .... .. ..
Pre-flight Menu..............................................................................................................
In-flight Menu ...... ................................................................... ......... ......................... .....
Post-flight Menu............................................................................................................
Miscellaneous Men u .....................................................................................................

FCOM:V1-002

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Nov 01/09

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Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
Contents

Chapter 6 TOC
Page4

Page Intentionally Blank

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

Scope
This chapter covers the following communications items fitted to the aircraft either as part
of the standard fit or as options:

VHF radios. The standard fit is two radios: VHF 1 and VHF 2. A third VHF radio
(VHF 3) may be added as an option. Each radio is in the avionics bay. The radios
are controlled from either of two radio management panels on the centre console.

HF radios. One or two HF radios are available as options: HF 1 and HF 2. Each

radio is in the avionics bay. The radios are controlled from either of two radio
management panels on the centre console.

Flight deck and cabin intercoms.

Passenger address (PA) system.

Navigation system audio identification signals.

Flight deck audio selector panels (ASPs). These allow the pilot to select receive
and transmit functions for the various communications devices.

The central audio unit (CAU). The CAU is the brain of the communication system.
Crew call system.

Emergency locator transmitter (ELT). The ELT is an option.

Selective calling (SELCAL) system. SELCAL is an option.

Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS). ACARS is


an option.

Cabin radio telephone.

Static discharge wicks.

Video Surveillance System.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
Overview

Chapter 6 Topic 1
Page2

Overview Schematic

The heart of the communications system is the central audio system (CAU). The CAU
controls and distributes all the audio signals. The CAU contains a flight deck intercom and
a service intercom.
The flight deck intercom is used for communication between the three flight deck
occupants and a ground crew member via a connection at the external AC connection
point.
The service intercom is used for communication between the flight deck and the cabin.
The ground crew can also connect to the service intercom via four connections points.
There is a ground crew connection point in the electrical bay, in the hydraulic bay, in the air
conditioning bay and at the refuel panel.
There is an audio selector panel (ASP) for each flight deck crew member. Each ASP
allows the associated crew member to select transmit functions and receive functions.
Each ASP communicates with the CAU.
Each flight deck crew member has a headset with ear pieces and a boom microphone.
Each headset is connected to the associated ASP.
On the outboard horn of each control wheel, there is a three position intercom and transmit
switch. The position of the left switch goes to the left seat ASP; the position of the right
switch goes to the rig ht seat ASP.
Each pilot has a hand microphone stowed on the associated control column. Each
microphone has a press to talk switch and is connected to the associated ASP.
Each crew member has an oxygen mask containing a microphone connected to the
associated ASP. A switch on each ASP is used to select the mask microphone.
There are two flight deck speakers on the roof panel: one on the left and one on the right.
They are driven by the CAU. Each speaker has an on/off switch.
All the radios communicate with the CAU. Each crew member selects the radio for
transmission on the associated ASP. Each crew member selects the radios for reception
on the associated ASP.
All navigation audio signals are sent to the CAU. Each crew member can individually
select any navigation facility on their ASP.
The audible warning system sends the audio warnings to the CAU. The CAU sends the
warnings to the headsets and the speakers.
A passenger address amplifier provides audio signals to speakers in the cabin. The audio
signals can be speech from any of the crew members or the output from a tape player.
There are up to three handsets in the cabin. They communicate with the CAU. Each
handset has a press to talk button, a set of push switches and a set of indicator lights.
Each handset can be connected to the service intercom or to the PAusing switches on the
associated control panel.
The three flight deck crew inputs to the CVR come from the CAU.
The CAU has two channels: channel A and channel B. Channel A is powered from
EMERG DC and channel B is powered from DC BUS 2.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
Overview

Chapter 6 Topic 1
Page 3

Figure L 1 - Overview Schematic


Hanclwheel intercom
and transm it sw itches

EMERG DC
I
Channel A

DC BUS 2

I
ChannelS

VHF 1

VHF 2
Central Audio Unit

VHF 3

HF1

HF 2
Fllghl Deck Intercom

ILS 1

--1 Audible Warning Unit


Tepe

LLS 2

Player

VOR 1
VOR2
Service Intercom

DME1
DME2

ADF1

IIID

ADF 2

Marker

..

1--~~-JJ-JL-il-JL-ll_j~==

[~F~w~e~gr~o~u~n~d~c~re~w~so~c~k~e~ts~~======~~

i-v1.()6.000S1

FCOM:Vl-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
Overview

Chapter 6 Topic 1
Page4

CAU Channels

Channel A drives all the audio functions except the right hand microphone and the right
speaker. Channel B drives all the audio functions except the left hand microphone and the
left speaker.
With a channel A failure, the left speaker and left hand microphone are lost. With a
channel B failure, the right speaker and right hand microphone are lost.
If EMERG DC fails, channel A will be lost; so the left hand microphone and the left speaker
will be lost. If DC BUS 2 fails, channel B will be lost; so the right hand microphone and the
right speaker will be lost.
Audio Warnings

The audible warning unit sends the audio warnings to the CAU. The CAU sends the
warnings to the flight deck speakers and the earphones of the three headsets. It is not
possible to select the audio warnings off.
Crew Call

A crew call system is fitted. The crew call system is used to attract the attention of a crew
member or the ground crew. The system uses switches, annunciators, lights, chimes and
a horn. The flight deck switches and annunciators are on a crew call panel. The panel is
either on the overhead panel or the centre console.
ASPs and Crew Call Panels

There are two standards of ASP:

One has transmit selectors for the PA and the service intercom. If this standard is
fitted, the crew call panel is on the roof panel; the crew call panel only contains
switches and annunciators associated with the crew call system.

The other does not have transmit selectors for the PA and the service intercom. If
this standard is fitted, the crew call panel is on the centre console; the crew call
panel contains the crew call switches and annunciators; the panel also contains the
PA and service intercom selectors.

Static Dischargers

Static dischargers are fitted to the aircraft to provide an easy path for electrical charge
accumulated on the airframe to discharge to the atmosphere.
Video Surveillance

A video surveillance system may be fitted. It allows part of the cabin to viewed from the
flight deck via two cameras and a video screen.

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Flight Deck Speakers

There are two flight deck speakers, they are on the roof panel: one on the left and one on
the right. They are shown in Figure 2.1.
Each .speaker has a two position switch. The positions are ON and OFF.
Regardless of the position of the switch, the audio warnings can be heard over both
speakers.
When the left switch is at ON, the audio functions selected on the left seat ASP can be
heard over the speaker. When the right switch is at ON, the audio functions selected on
the right seat ASP can be heard over the speaker.
A switch on each ASP is used to select the mask microphone: either MASK or BOOM.
When the left speaker switch is at OFF and the left ASP switch is at BOOM, the audio
functions selected on the left seat ASP cannot be heard over the left speaker.
When the right speaker switch is at OFF and the right ASP switch is at BOOM, the audio
functions selected on the right seat ASP cannot be heard over the right speaker.
The MASK position of the ASP microphone switch overrides the OFF position of the
associated speaker switch. If the left BOOM/MASK switch is at MASK, the left speaker is
turned on.
If the right BOOM/MASK .switch is at MASK, the right speaker is tuned on. The
BOOM/MASK switch on the third crew member's audio selector panel does not affect the
flight deck speakers.

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Figure 2.1 - Flight Deck Speakers

Lert Speaker

Right Speaker

ON

ON

SPKR

SPKR

Ot=r:

Off

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Handwheel Transmit and Intercom Switch


There is a handwheel transmit and intercom switch on each column. The right handwheel
transmit and intercom switch is shown in Figure 2.2. Each switch has three positions: INT,
R/T and centre neutral.
Each switch is spring loaded to the centre position. At R/T, transmission takes place over
the service selected for transmission on the associated ASP. At INT, the associated pilot's
microphone is connected to the flight deck intercom.
Figure 2.2 - Handwheel Transmit and Intercom Switch
Top Surface of Right Yoke

Switch at Neutral

Switch at INT

Switch at RIT

Hand Microphone
There is a hand microphone on each column. The left hand microphone is shown in Figure
2 .3 .
Each hand microphone has a lead with a jack pl ug, a stowage slot and press to talk
switch. The stowage slot allows the microphone to be mounted on a clip on the rear face
of the column. The jack plug is plugged into a socket on the front face of the column.
When the press to talk sw itch is pressed, transmission takes place over the service
selected for transmission on the associated ASP.

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Figure 2.3 - Left Hand Microphone

Jack connection point


Microphone

'''"

....u

t- J.A.

"'"

Y.,-1)

I.O(.:AI

Press to talk switch

Stowage s lot
Stowage clip
On tile column beh1111d the miCrophone
j ... ,

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Audio Selector Panel Location


There is an ASP for each flight deck crew member. The pilots' ASPs are on the side
consoles. The third crew member's ASP is on the sidewall just to the rear of the right C
screen. The ASP locations are shown in Figure 2.4 and Figure 2.5.
There are two standards of ASP:

One has transmit selectors for the PA and the service intercom. If this standard is
fitted, the crew call panel is on the roof panel; the crew call panel only contains
switches and annunciators associated with the crew call system.

The other does not have transmit selectors for the PA and the service intercom. If
this standard is fitted, the crew call panel is on the centre console; the crew call
panel contains the crew call switches and annunciators; the panel also contains the
PA and service intercom selectors.

Headset Connections
Each headset has two jack plugs: one for the microphone and one for the earphones. The
connection points are shown in Figure 2.4 and Figure 2.5. The connection points for the
left seat pilot are just inboard of the left oxygen mask stowage.
The connection points for the right seat pilot are just inboard of the right oxygen mask
stowage. The connection points for the third crew member are just below the third crew
member's oxygen mask stowage.
Figure 2.4 - Left Side ASP and Headset Connections

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Figure 2.5 - Right Side ASP and Headset Connections

Right seat ASP

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ASP with PA and Service Intercom Selectors

The ASP with PA and service intercom selectors is shown in Figure 2.6.
The square buttons on the top row are the transmit selectors. When a button is in, the
associated transmit facility is selected. Only one facility can be selected at a time. The
buttons are mechanically interlocked so that, when a button is pressed in, the previously
selected button pops out. There is a transmit selector for each radio, the service intercom
and the PA.
The service intercom and PA are transmit facilities. Care must be taken to ensure that
messages to the cabin crew or passengers are not transmitted over the radios and that
radio messages are not delivered to the cabin crew or passengers.
There are round combined receive and volume controls for the flight deck intercom, the
VORs, the ILSs, the DMEs, the ADFs, the marker receiver and all the transmit functions
apart from the PA. When a selector is pressed in, the associated audio is selected to the
headset earphones and speaker associated with the ASP. A black dot on each volume
control indicates its position against an arc around the control.
DME 1 and DME 2 are controlled from one volume control. ILS 1 and ILS 2 are controlled
from one volume control. VOR 1 and VOR 2 are controlled from one volume control.
These three volume controls have a number one sector and a number two sector. At the
centre position, the number one and number two volume is zero. Rotating the control to
the left increases the number one volume; rotating the control to the right increases the
number two volume.
All the other volume controls are rotated clockwise to increase the volume.
A three-position intercom and transmit switch is on the left side of the ASP. The switch
positions are INT, RIT and centre neutral. The switch is spring loaded to the centre
position. Some ASP's have the spring loading from INT to centre neutral deleted.
Transmission over the selected facility occurs when:

The associated column switch is at the R/T position.

OR
The associated ASP intercom and R/T switch is at the R/T switch.

OR

The press to talk button is pressed on the hand microphone.

The receive selector for a transmit facility is immediately beneath the transmit selector.
When a transmit facility is selected, the associated receive selection becomes active
regardless of the position of the receive switch and the volume cannot be reduced to zero.
A pilot's microphone is connected to the flight deck intercom if either the associated column
switch is selected to INT or the associated ASP switch is at INT. To receive speech over
the flight deck intercom, the associated INT receive selector must be pressed in.
A square VOICE switch is below the VOR and ADF selectors. When the switch is pushed
in, a filter is applied to the audio of the VORs and the ADFs. The filter reduces the volume
of the identification codes to improve the intelligibility of any voice audio.

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A three-position test switch is at the bottom right of the ASP. The positions are A, centre
neutral and B. The switch is spring loaded to the centre position . .At A, channel B is turned
off so that channel A can be tested. At B, channel A is turned off so that channel B can be
tested.
A rotary microphone selector switch is on the right side of the ASP. The switch has two
positions: BOOM and MASK. With a switch at BOOM:

The associated headset microphone is connected to the audio system.

The associated oxygen mask microphone is disconnected from the audio system.
With a switch at MASK:
The associated headset microphone is disconnected from the audio system.

The associated oxygen mask microphone is connected to the audio system.

If the left BOOM/MASK switch is at MASK, the left speaker is turned on. If the right
BOOM/MASK switch is at MASK, the right speaker is tuned on. The BOOM/MASK switch
on the third crew member's audio selector panel does not affect the flight deck speakers.
Figure 2.6 - ASP with PA and Service Intercom Selectors
Transmit a&lectors

Transmit faciUty
receive selectors

Transmit and
Intercom switch

lntarcom receive selector

Inoperative

Channel test switch

Audio Identification filter switch


Navigation aod lo a&lectors

Microphone select switch


lv1-0EHl0057

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ASP without PA and Service Intercom Selectors


The ASP without PA and service intercom selectors is shown in Figure 2.7.
The square buttons on the top row are the transmit selectors. When a button is in, the
associated transmit facility is selected. Only one facility can be selected at a time. The
buttons are mechanically interlocked so that, when a button is pressed in, the previously
selected button pops out. There is a transmit selector for each radio.
There are round combined receive and volume controls for the flight deck intercom, the
service intercom, the VORs, the ILSs, the DMEs, the ADFs, the marker receiver and all the
transmit functions. When a selector is pressed in, the associated audio is selected to the
headset earphones and speaker associated with the ASP. A black dot on each volume
control indicates its position against an arc around the control.
DME 1 and DME 2 are controlled from one volume control. ILS 1 and ILS 2 are controlled
from one volume control. VOR 1 and VOR 2 are controlled from one volume control.
These three volume controls have a number one sector and a number two sector. At the
centre position, the number one and number two volume is zero. Rotating the control to
the left increases the number one volume; rotating the control to the right increases the
number two volume.
All the other volume controls are rotated clockwise to increase the volume.
A three-position intercom and transmit switch is on the left side of the ASP. The switch
positions are INT, RIT and centre neutral. The switch is spring loaded to the centre
position.
Transmission over the selected facility occurs when:

The associated column switch is at the R/T position.

OR
The associated ASP intercom and RIT switch is at the RIT switch.

OR

The press to talk button is pressed on the hand microphone.

The receive selector for a transmit facility is immediately beneath the transmit selector.
When a transmit facility is selected, the associated receive selection becomes active
regardless of the position of the receive switch and the volume cannot be reduced to zero.
A pilot's microphone is connected to the flight deck intercom if either the associated column
switch is selected to INT or the associated ASP switch is at INT. To receive speech over
the flight deck intercom, the associated INT receive selector must be pressed in.
A square VOICE switch is below the VOR and ADF selectors. When the switch is pushed
in, a filter is applied to the audio of the VORs and the ADFs. The filter reduces the volume
of the identification codes to improve the intelligibility of any voice audio.
A three-position test switch is at the bottom right of the ASP. The positions are A, centre
neutral and B. The switch is spring loaded to the centre position. At A, channel B is turned
off so that channel A can be tested. At B, channel A is turned off so that channel B can be
tested.

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A rotary microphone selector switch is on the right side of the ASP. The switch has two
positions: BOOM and MASK. With a switch at BOOM:

The associated headset microphone is connected to the audio system.

The associated oxygen mask microphone is disconnected from the audio system.

With a switch at MASK:

The associated headset microphone is disconnected from the audio system.

The associated oxygen mask microphone is connected to the audio system.


If the left BOOM/MASK switch is at MASK, the left speaker is turned on. If the right
BOOM/MASK switch is at MASK, the right speaker is tuned on. The BOOM/MASK switch
on the third crew member's audio selector panel does not affect the flight deck speakers.
Figure 2.7 - ASP without PA and Service Intercom Selectors
Service intercom
volume control

Transmit selectors

Transmit facility
receive selectors

Transmit and
Inter com switch

Intercom reoelve selector

Audio Identification
filter switch
Channel test switch
Inoperative

Navigation audio selectors


Microphone Hlect switch
iV1-0000068

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Flight Deck Intercom

The flight deck intercom is shown schematically in Figure 2.8.


The users are the three flight deck crew members and a ground crew member. The
ground crew member plugs into a socket on the external AC panel.
To listen on the flight deck intercom, a flight deck crew member must press the associated
ASP INT button in.
Each pilot has two intercom and transmit switches: one on his handwheel and one on his
ASP. To talk through the flight deck intercom, a pilot must select INT on either switch.
To talk over the flight deck intercom, the third crew member must select intercom on his
ASP intercom and transmit switch.
There is no indication on the flight deck that a ground crew member is plugged into the
socket on the external AC panel.
The cabin crew cannot talk or listen on the flight deck intercom.
The flight deck intercom is in the CAU and has two channels. One powered by EMERG
DC and the other by DC BUS 2. The flight deck intercom should be available if just one of
the busbars is powered.

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Figure 2.8- Flight Deck Intercom


Left seat pilot's ASP

Right seat pilot' s ASP

Flight Deck
lnt.r~om

Ground crew connection point

Third crew member's ASP

Ground crew call button

External ac connection point

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Crew Call

There are two standards of crew call panel. One is on the overhead panel; the other is on
the centre console.
Overhead Panel Crew Call

The flight deck crew call panel is on the bottom left of the overhead panel. The crew call
panel is shown in Figure 2.9.
There are three square call switches in a row: emergency call, cabin call and ground call.
Each switch has an annunciator.
A call cancel push button is to the left of the call switches.
The emergency call switch has a red EMERG CALL annunciator. The annunciator
illuminates when an emergency call is made from the cabin to the flight deck or from the
flight deck to the cabin.
The cabin call switch has a blue CABIN CALL annunciator. The annunciator illuminates
when a normal call is made from the cabin to the flight deck or from the flight deck to the
cabin.
The ground call switch has a blue GRND CALL annunciator. The annunciator illuminates
when a call is made by a ground crew member to the flight deck. A ground to flight deck
call button is on the external AC panel. The panel is shown in Figure 2.8.
If a call is made to the flight deck, a single chime sounds and the associated annunciator
remains illuminated until the cancel call push button is pressed. The chime is generated in
the audible warning unit.
A momentary press of the EM ERG CALL button makes an emergency call to the cabin.
A momentary press of the CABIN CALL button makes a normal call to the cabin.
Calls to the cabin are accompanied by a double chime over the PA. The chime is
generated by the PA system. The visual indication in the cabin depends on the level of the
call.
Pressing and holding the GRND CALL button sounds a ground crew call horn in the nose
gear bay.

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COMMUNICATION
Right Deck
Figure 2.9 - Overhead Panel Crew Call

Cabin call annunciator


and switch
Ground call
Emergency cilll
annunciator
and switch
annuncliltor and ISWitch

STBY COMP 8i
EYE LOCATOR

Cancel call pu$hbutton

IVl-ll&-00060

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Centre Console Crew Call

The flight deck crew call panel is on the centre console. The crew call panel is shown in
Figure 2.1 0. The panel has crew call switches, PA selectors and service intercom
selectors.
There are three square call switches in a row: emergency call, cabin call and ground call.
Each switch has an annunciator. A call cancel push button is to the left of the call
switches.
The emergency call switch has a red EMERG CALL annunciator. The annunciator
illuminates when an emergency call is made from the cabin to the flight deck or from the
flight deck to the cabin.
The cabin call switch has a blue CABIN CALL annunciator. The annunciator illuminates
when a normal call is made from the cabin to the flight deck or from the flight deck to the
cabin.
The ground call switch has a blue GRND CALL annunciator. The annunciator illuminates
when a call is made by a ground crew member to the flight deck. A ground to flight deck
call button is on the external AC panel. The panel is shown in Figure 2.8.
If a call is made to the flight deck, a single chime sounds and the associated annunciator
remains illuminated until the cancel call push button is pressed. The chime is generated in
the audible warning unit. A momentary press of the EMERG CALL button makes an
emergency call to the cabin.
A momentary press of the CABIN CALL button makes a normal call to the cabin.
Calls to the cabin are accompanied by a double chime over the PA. The chime is
generated by the PA system. The visual indication in the cabin depends on the level of the
call.
Pressing and holding the GRND CALL button sounds a ground crew call horn in the nose
gear bay.
The call panel has the following PA and service intercom controls for each pilot:

A PA selector.

A Service intercom selector.

A press to talk switch.

Each pilot has a handset on the associated side console. Each handset has a press to talk
switch. Each handset can only be used for the PA and the service intercom. If the
handset is removed from its cradle, all the receive functions on the associated ASP are
automatically turned off. When a handset is replaced in its cradle, the centre console
selection is cancelled.

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The boom microphone can be used to talk over the PA or the service microphone by
selecting the PA or service intercom on the centre console and then pressing the
associated press to talk switch on the centre console.
When a handset or centre console press to talk switch is pressed, a selected transmit
function on the ASP is overridden but not deselected.
Figure 2.10- Centre Console Crew Call

PA

SER

PA

SER

INT

INT

,':,
~

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Radios

Two VHF radios are fitted to all aircraft: VHF COMM 1 and VHF COMM 2. A third VHF
radio may be fitted: VHF COMM 3. The radios are in the avionics bay.
One or two HF radios may be fitted: HF 1 and HF 2. The radios are in the avionics bay.
VHF COMM 1, VHF COMM 2, HF 1 and HF 2 are all controlled from two radio
management panels (RMPs) on the centre console: RMP 1 on the left and RMP 2 on the
right.
VHF COMM 3 may be fitted as a communications radio or just as the communications link
for AGARS. If VHF 3 is used just as a communications radio, it can be tuned from the
RMPs.
The RMPs are shown in Figure 2.11. Each RMP has:

An ACTIVE LCD display. This displays the radio and the frequency in use.

A PRE SELECT LCD display. This displays the radio in use and a pre selected
frequency.

A pair of concentric knobs for changing the frequency on the pre select display.
The frequency on the active display cannot be controlled directly.

A transfer switch. When the transfer switch is pressed, the frequency on the pre
select display is swapped with the frequency on the active display. To change the
frequency of the selected radio, set the frequency on the pre select display and
press the transfer button. The previous frequency can be returned to by a further
press on the transfer button .

Five radio select buttons, one for each radio. When a button is pressed, the
associated radio becomes the controlled radio. The associated legend is presented
on both displays.

A green AM mode indicator for the in-use HF radio. The HF radio can be toggled
between the AM and single side band modes by pressing the associated radio
select button.

The number one radios are normally associated with RMP 1; the number two radios are
normally associated with RMP 2. If a radio not normally associated with an RMP is
selected by pressing the associated radio select button for less than three seconds, the
radio legends flash on both the active and the pre select displays. If the button is
subsequently pressed for three seconds, the flashing will stop. If the radio select button is
held for 3 seconds on initial selection, the legends will initially flash and then stop flashing.
The LCD displays are tested by the ANNUNCIATORS TEST button on the left instrument
panel. The frequencies in the two displays are stored when electrical power is off. If the
selected radio is de activated, the display shows dashes. The displays also show PASS
and FAIL messages. On power up, a PASS message is displayed for five seconds after a
successful test. The FAIL message is displayed whenever BIT detects a failure.
The RMPs just tune the radios. The radio transmit and receive functions selected on the
ASPs are not affected by which radios are selected on the RMPs.

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Figure 2.11 - Radio Management Panels

Radio Management panel1

VHF

VHF
I

-,

' '-

Radio Management Panel 2

,-~

I 11

.1

I 1.1 -

I
I

11
I

Selected Radio

I ol
I 1.1

VHF
-,- -,,-,,,_ - _, ,_, -

Tran$fer Switch

VHF
-~ .-,

:
-,

nn

I C L l. I 1_1 1_1

Radio S&ltetor Switches

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,_

,_,

,_

HF Mode Light

Active Frequency Window

VHF
- -, ,-, ,1

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VHF
I
I

11-111 1-l rt
I - 1 -1 1_1 1_1

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A CARS
Some aircraft are fitted with an Aircraft Communications Addressing and R-eporting System
(ACARS). The ACARS has a management unit (MU) in the avionics bay. The MU uses
VHF 3 to transmit data to ground stations and to rec-eive data from ground stations.
The ACARS has a flight deck control and display unit. Aircraft fitted with Collins FMS use
the FMS multi purpose control and display unit (MCDU). Aircraft without Collins FMSs use
a control and display unit dedicated to ACARS. The dedicated control and display unit is a
multi i nput interactive display unit (MIDU). If MCDUs are fitted, they are on the forward
centre console. If a MIDU is fitted, it is either on the rear centre console or on an extension
of the left side console. The positions are shown in Figure 2.13.
An ACARS printer is on the flight deck. The printer is installed on the centre console or on
an extension to the right side console. The positions are shown in Figure 2 .12.
For some ACARS received messages, a double chime sounds. The chime is generated by
the audible warning unit.
Figure 2.12- ACARS Printer

.I

I ll

1:1

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Figure 2.13 - ACARS Control and Display Unit

If Collins FMSs are fitted, the MCOUs


ere on the forward centre console

If a MIDU is fitted, it is on the centre


console or the left side conso le

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SELCAL

Some aircraft have a selective calling (SELCAL) system. A SELCAL control panel is fitted
to the centre console. The panel is shown in Figure 2.14. It has an annunciator for each
radio.
SELCAL allows the crew to be called without maintaining a listening watch on a radio.
Each aircraft has a SELCAL code. When ATC transmits the aircraft's code, a double
chime is heard over the audio system and the associated annunciator illuminates on the
SELCAL panel. The chime is generated by the audible warning unit.
Cabin Radio Telephone

Some aircraft have a radio telephone. In these aircraft one or more of VHF COMM 3, HF 1
or HF 2 can be used as the radio element of the radio telephone. A cabin phone panel is
fitted to the centre console. A typical panel is shown in Figure 2.14.

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Figure 2.14- SELCAL and Radio Telephone

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Video Surveillance

An optional video surveillance system may be fitted. It consists of:

Two cameras in the forward vestibule.

A viewing screen on the flight deck ~

A small control panel on the centre instrument panel.

The flight deck arrangement is shown in Figure 2.15.


The video screen is behind the First Officer's seat. The screen has a brightness control
and a contrast control; a green LED is illuminated when the system is powered up.
The control panel has a power switch and a camera select switch.
The system allows either pilot to monitor activity in the forward vestibule.

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COMMUNICATION
Right Deck
Figure 2-1 5 - Video Surveillance

Power
Switch

Camera
Se lec1
Switch

Right C-screen

Power on LED
Bright neScs control
Contra$t control

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COMMUNICATION
Flight Deck

Chapter 6 Topic 2
Page 25

Emergency Locator Transmitter

Emergency locator transmitters (ELTs) may be fitted . They may be fixed or portable.
There are two fixed ELTs available: Litton and Kannad. There is one portable ELT
available: a Kannad ELT.
The fixed ELTs have a control panel on the centre console. There are two ELT control
panels: one for the Litton and one for the Kannad fixed ELT. The panels are shown in
Figure 2.16. Each panel has a three-position switch. The switch is used to:

Arm the ELT.

Force the ELT to transmit.

Test the ELT.

Reset the ELT to the armed state.

The Litton panel has an ELT ON annunciator. When the ELT is transmitting, the
annunciator flashes. Indication that the Kannad fixed ELT is transmitting is given by a
flashing amber LED.
The normal position for each switch is the centre position. At this position, the ELT will
automatically start transmitting if a set "g" threshold is exceeded.
If the Litton ELT is fitted, an ELT -L is fitted to the CWP.
Litton ELT Switch

The switch has three positions: ON/TEST, ARM and RESET. The switch is baulked at the
ARM and ON/TEST positions. The switch has to be lifted up to clear the baulk.
The switch is spring loaded from the RESET position to the arm position. The switch is
normally at the ARM position. The ON/TEST position allows the ELT to be tested and to
be forced to transmit. A momentary selection to RESET stops the ELT transmitting.
Fixed Kannad ELT Switch

The switch has three positions: ON, ARM and RESET/TEST. The switch is baulked at the
ARM and RESET/TEST positions. The switch has to be lifted up to clear the baulk. The
switch is spring loaded from the RESET position to the arm position.
The switch is normally at the ARM position. The ON position forces the ELT to transmit.
The RESET/TEST position is used to test the ELT and to reset it after an ON selection.

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COMMUNICATION
Right Deck

Chapter 6 Topic 2
Page 26

Figure 2.16 - ELT Controllers

Litton Panel

On annunciator

Switch guard

Kannad Panel

On LED

Switch guard

CWP Caption

IV106 00087

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COMMUNICATION
Flight Deck

Chapter 6 Topic 2
Page 27

Overhead Circuit Breaker Panel

The communications circuit breaker panel is shown in Figure 2.17.


The AVIONIC MASTER CTRL (A25) circuit breaker supplies power to the relays operated
by the avionics master switches.
The VHF COM 1 (A26) circuit breaker supplies power to the number 1 VHF radio.
The PAX ADDRESS (A27) circuit breaker supplies power to the passenger address
amplifier.
The AUDIO A (A28) circuit breaker supplies power to channel A of the CAU.
The AUDIO 8 (828) circuit breaker supplies power to channel 8 of the CAU.
The AURAL WARN A (A29) circuit breaker supplies power to channel A of the audible
warning unit.
The AURAL WARN 8 (829) circuit breaker supplies power to channel 8 of the audible
warning unit.
The COMM CTRL 1 (825) circuit breaker supplies power to the left radio management
panel.
The FLT DATA REC (826) supplies power to the flight data recorder.
The VOICE REC (827) supplies power to the cockpit voice recorder.

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COMMUNICATION
Right Deck

Chapter 6 Topic 2
Page 28

Figure 2-17 - Communications Circuit Breaker Panel

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Nov 01 / 09

Cabin Handsets

All aircraft have a handset in the forward vestibule and a handset in the rear vestibule.
Some aircraft have a third handset; the third handset is in the rear vestibule.
A handset is shown in Figure 3.1.
The handset has a set of integral pushbuttons:
A PA button selects the handset to the PA.

An INT button connects the handset to the service intercom.

An IC button makes a normal inter cabin crew call.


An amber EIC button makes an emergency crew call from the cabin to the flight
deck.

A PI button is used to make a normal cabin to flight deck crew call.


A RESET button resets the call system.
A press to talk button must be pressed to talk over either the PA or the service
intercom.

The handset cradle has a set of annunciators at the top. The backgrounds of the
annunciators illuminate. The annunciators are:
PA with a white background. When the annunciator is illuminated , the handset is
connected to the PA.

IC with a green background. The annunciator is illuminated when a normal crew


call is made from the front to the rear cabin or from the rear to the front cabin.
EIC with a red background. Illuminates when an emergency crew call is made from
the cabin to the flight deck or from the flight deck to the cabin.
PI with a blue background. Illuminates when a normal crew call is made from the
cabin to the flight deck or from the flight deck to the cabin.

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COMMUNICATION
Cabin

Chapter 6 Topic 3
Page 2

Figure 3_1 - Cabin Handset

PA selected

Inter-cabin call

Emergency call between the flight deck and the cabin


Nom~al

call between flight deck and cabin

Normal cabin to flight deek call button


Inter-cabin call button
PA select button

Service Intercom
select button

Call rasat button


Press-to-talk b1.1tton

Emergency cabin to flight deck call button


Wt-o&-00069

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COMMUNICATION
Cabin

Chapter 6 Topic 3
Page3

Vestibule Attendant's Panels


Two cabin attendant's panels are fitted:

A forward attendant's panel above the forward service door.

AND

A rear attendant's panel over the rear service door.

Each panel contains the following communications items:

A PA speaker.

A blue CABIN CALL annunciator.

An amber FWD TOILET call annunciator.

An amber REAR TOILET call annunciator.

The forward panel also contains:

Cabin lights switches and circuit breakers.

Ground power control and indication for the ground service busbar.

Door warning indicators.

Status annunciators for the set belt signs and the no smoking signs.

Indicators and circuit breakers for the toilet water heaters.

Indicators and circuit breakers for the pipe heaters.

Typical panels are shown in Figure 3.2. The forward panel is the top panel.

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COMMUNICATION
Cabin

Chapter 6 Topic 3
Page 4

Figure 3.2 -Typical Attendant' s Panel


~R

....,..._

. .. . . . ..... ..
. ... . .. .. ... ..
. . . . . . . .... ..

......
-
-... -....

,....,,........,"...

~
~

~m._._

<111--- Cabln Call Annunciator - -

I= 1.~---.

----

Roar Toilot Call


Annunciator

Forward Toilet Calli Annunciator

rr=l
L.::.l

PA
Speaker

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
. .. . . . . . . . . . .
. .... . .. . . . . .

f.v1.08-00070

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COMMUNICATION
Cabin

Chapter 6 Topic 3
Page 5

Roof Call Lamps


Green roof call lights are positioned at convenient intervals on the cabin roof together with
the aisle emergency lights.
A light unit is shown in Figure 3.3.
Figure 3.3 - Roof Call Lights
AJsle Emergency Lights

Roof Call Lamp

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COMMUNICATION
Cabin

Chapter 6 Topic 3
Page6

Passenger Service Units and Toilets


Each passenger ser vice unit (PSU) has a passenger combined call light and switch. A
combined call light and switch is in each toilet.
The cabin PA speak.ers are on the PSUs. A PA speaker is in each toilet.
Examples are shown in Figure 3.4.
Figure 3-4 - Passenger Service Units and Toilets

PSU PA Speaker

PSU CaU Switch and Light

Toilet PA Speaker

Toilet Call Swit ch and Light

;.v1 .Q6.00072

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COMMUNICATION
Cabin

Chapter 6 Topic 3
Page 7

Service Intercom

The service intercom is shown schematically in Figure 3.5.


The service intercom is used for communication :

Between the flight deck.

Between the forward and rear of the cabin.

Ground crew can also join the service intercom via:

A point in the electrical bay.

A point in the hydrau lic bay.

A point at the refuel panel.

A point in the air conditioning bay.

The ground crew connections are isolated when the aircraft becomes airborne by squat
switch 2.
A flight deck crew member:

Joins the service intercom by selecting the service intercom transmit facility on the
flight deck (on the ASP or centre console depending on the modification standard).

For ASPs with PA selectors, talks over the service intercom using the R/T selection
on his ASP intercom and transmit switch; the pilots can also use their handwheel
switches and hand microphones.

For ASPs without PA selectors, uses the headset and the PTT button on the centre
console or uses the handset.

Adjusts the service intercom volume to his headset using the service intercom
volume control on the ASP.

A cabin crew member joins the service intercom by pressing the INT switch on the
associated handset. To talk over the service intercom, the handset push to talk switch
must be pressed.
The service intercom is in the CAU and has two channels. One powered by EMERG DC
and the other by DC BUS 2. So the service intercom should be available if just one of the
busbars is powered. However, the service intercom is not available to the cabin crew if DC
BUS 2 is lost because the cabin handsets default to PA if DC BUS 2 is lost. The cabin
handset PA annunciator is also inoperative when DC BUS 2 is lost.

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COMMUNICATION
Cabin

Chapter 6 Topic 3
Pages

Figure 3 _5 - Service Intercom Schematic

l eft seat pilot's ASP

Right seat pilot's ASP

Third erew member' s ASP

Service Intercom

Squat Switch Ratay

Avionics Bay
Connectlon

Hydraulics Bay
Connection

Refuel Panel
Connection

Air Conditioning Bay


Connection

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COMMUNICATION
Cabin

Chapter 6 Topic 3
Page9

Passenger Address

The passenger address (PA) system is shown schematically in Figure 3.6. PA


announcements are made through a passenger address amplifier to speakers in the cabin,
vestibules and toilets. The noise level in the cabin is sensed and sent to the CAU. The
CAU controls the volume of the amplifier according to the noise level in the cabin.
The flight deck PA announcements are made through the CAU to the PA amplifier. The
cabin crew make their announcements directly to the PA amplifier. The PA
announcements come back from the amplifier to the CAU ; thus a flight deck crew member
can hear any PA announcements when PAis selected on the associated ASP. There is no
volume control to adjust the level of this sidetone.
A flight deck crew member:

Joins the PA by selecting the PA facility on the flight deck (on the ASP or centre
console depending on the modification standard).

For ASPs with PA selectors, talks over the service intercom using the R/T selection
on his ASP intercom and transmit switch ; the pilots can also use their handwheel
switches and hand microphones.

For ASPs without PA selectors, uses the headset and the PTT button on the centre
console or uses the handset.

A cabin crew member joins the PA system by pressing the PA switch on the associated
handset. To talk over the PA, the handset push to talk switch must be pressed.
The PA amplifier is powered from EMERG DC. This is the only power supply. If EMERG
DC is lost, the PA is lost. The PA is available at the essential and the emergency power
levels. However, the power for the cabin handset PA annunciators is from DC BUS 2.
Therefore, these annunciators will not function at the essential and emergency power
levels.
The PA amplifier also generates chimes and passes these to the cabin speakers. There
are three chimes: a single high tone chime, a single low tone chime and a double tone
chime composed of a high tone immediately followed by a low tone.
The double tone is given whenever a crew call is made from the flight deck to the cabin
and whenever an inter cabin call is made. A single low tone chime is given when the
status of the seat belt signs or no smoking signs is changed. A single high tone chime is
given when a PSU call button or toilet call button is pressed.
The PA amplifier applies the following priority to amplifier inputs, from highest to lowest:

Flight deck.

Cabin attendant.

Tape player.

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Chapter 6 Topic 3
Page 10

COMMUNICATION
Cabin

Figure 3_6 - Passenger Address Schematic


Left seat pilot's ASP

Third c:r&w m&mber's ASP

IRJght seat pilot' s ASP

Central Audio Unit

-,

ChannelS

ChannoiA

I
DC BUS2

PA
Sldetone

Flight
Deck PA

Tape Player

Automatic
Volume
control

PA Amplifier

Speakers In the cabin, vesti bules and toilets

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AVRO 146-RJ Series

Cabin Noise sensor

Nov 01 / 09

Purpose
The crew call system is used to attract the attention of a crew member or the ground crew.
The system uses annunciators. lights, chimes and a horn.
Ground Crew Call Switc h
A ground crew call push bunon is on the EXT AC connection panel. It is shown in Figure
4 .1.
Figure 4.1 - Ground Crew Call Button

Ground crew call button

Extomal ac connection point


1-\11.()6.00075

Flight Deck Crew Call Panel


The flight deck crew call panel is on the bottom left of the overhead panel or on the centre
console. The crew call switches and annunciators are the same on both panels. The
overhead panel is shown in Figure 4.2: the centre console panel is shown in Figure 4.3.
There are three push switches with combined annunciators: EMERG CALL, CABIN CALL
and GRND CALL.
The EMERG CALL annunciator indicates that an emergency call has been made from the
flight deck or from the cabin. The CABIN CALL annunciator indicates that a normal call
has been made from the flight deck or from the cabin. The GRND CALL annunciator
indicates that a call has been made from the EXT AC panel.
Pressing the EMERG CALL button makes an emergency call to the cabin. Pressing the
CABIN CALL button makes a normal call to the cabin. Pressing the GRND CALL button
sounds a ground crew call horn. The horn is in the nose gear bay.
There is one CNCL CALL button. It is used to cance'l a call.

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COMMUNICATION
Crew Call

Chapter 6 Topic 4
Page 2

Figure 4.2 - Overhead Crew Call Panel

Emergency call switch and annunciator

Ground call switch and annunciator

Normal cabin call switch and annunciator

iV1-06-00076

Figure 4.3 - Centre Console Crew Panel

Call cancel push button

Ground call switch and annunciator

Emergency call switch and annunciator


Normal cabin call switch and annunciator

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COMMUNICATION
Crew Call

Chapt er 6 Topic 4
Page 3

Cabin Roof Call Lights


Green roof call lights are positioned at convenient intervals on the cabin roof together with
the aisle emergency lights. A light unit is shown in Figure 4.4.
Figure 4.4 - Roof Call Lights
Aisle Emergency Ughts

Roof Call Lamp

I-Y1-oB-000711

Cabin Handset Call Switches and Annunciators


All aircraft have a handset in the forward vestibule and a handset in the rear vestibule.
Some aircraft have a third handset; the third handset is in the rear vestibule.
Crew call annunciators are on each handset cradle. Each handset has integral crew call
buttons. The annunciators and buttons are shown in Figure 4.5.
There are three call annunciators: IC, EIC and Pl. The annunciators are black legends.
When an annunciator is active, its background is illuminated by a coloured light: green for
the IC annunciator; red for the EIC annunciator and blue for the PI annunciator.
The IC annunciator indicates that an inter cabin call has been made. The EIC annunciator
indicates that an emergency call has been made from the flight deck to the cabin or from
the cabin to the flight deck. The PI annunciator indicates that a normal call has been made
from the flight deck to the cabin or from the cabin to the flight deck. The handset has four
call buttons: IC, PI, EIC and RESET. Pressing the IC button makes an inter cabin call.
Pressing the PI button makes a normal call to the flight deck. Pressing the EIC button
makes an emergency call to the flight deck.
The RESET switch is used to cancel a call.

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Chapter 6 Topic 4
Page 4

COMMUNICATION
Crew Call

Figure 4.5 - Cabin Handset Call Switches and Annunciators

Inter-cabin call annunciator


Emergency call annun ciator
Nonnal cabin calf annunciator

Normal cabin to ftlght deck calf button


fnter-<:abln call button

El EJ

1//1

Emorgoncy cabin to flight docft call button


J.y1.QI.00079

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Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
Crew Call

Chapter 6 Topic 4
Page 5

Ground Crew Call Horn

The ground call horn is in the nose undercarriage bay. The horn operation is shown
schematically in Figure 4.6.
Pressing and holding the GRND CALL button on the overhead panel sounds the ground
crew call horn. The horn sounds for as long as the button is held pressed.
On some aircraft with an emergency locator transmitter (ELT), the ground call horn sounds
if the ELT is transmitting and the engines are not running. If a Litton ELT is fitted, engine
N 1 is monitored. If a Kannad ELT is fitted, the position of the BEACON switch is
monitored.
On some aircraft, the horn sounds on the ground when the APU is shut down by the APU
emergency shutdown circuit.
There are two APU emergency stop switches. One is at the refuel panel and the other is in
the air conditioning bay.
The Garrett APU adaptor gearbox is attached to the APU accessory gearbox. The APU
generator is driven by the accessory gearbox through the adaptor gearbox. Oil in the
adaptor gearbox cools and lubricates the generator. When a high oil temperature or a low
oil pressure is sensed in the adaptor gearbox, an amber APU DRIVE FAIL annunciator
illuminates on the overhead ELECTRIC panel.
The emergency shutdown circuit automatically shuts down the APU on the ground:

If an APU fire warning is given.

OR
If either APU emergency stop switch is operated.

OR

On aircraft fitted with a Garrett APU, 20 seconds after a low oil pressure or a high
oil temperature is detected in the APU generator adaptor gearbox.

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Chapter 6 Topic 4
Page6

COMMUNICATION
Crew Call
Figure 4.6 - Ground Crew Call Horn

Gtound Crew
Call Hom

Refuel Panel
Stop Switch

Atr Conditioning

Bay Stop SWitch

Ground

Emergency shutdown I-- +---4Q""-::

Air

Garrett AP\1
G.neratOf' lldapter gear box

High Oil
tempera ture

Lowoll

"Engines not running" ~-~F

____,

pressure
20 second dolay
Emergency Locator
Trans.mltter
"1-06-00080

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AVRO 146-RJ Series

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Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
Crew Call

Chapter 6 Topic 4
Page 7

Calls to the Flight Deck

A call from the ground crew to the flight deck is made by pressing the CALL button at the
external AC panel. When the button is pressed:

A single chime sounds over the speakers and the headsets. The single chime is
generated by the audible warning unit.

The GRND CALL annunciator on the overhead panel illuminates. The light remains
illuminated until the call cancel push button is pressed.

Each cabin handset has PI call button and an EIC call button.
A normal call from the cabin to the flight deck is made by pressing a PI call button. When a
PI button is pressed:

A single chime sounds over the speakers and the headsets. The single chime is
generated by the audible warning unit.

The CABIN CALL annunciator on the overhead panel illuminates. The annunciator
remains illuminated until the call is cancelled. The call can be cancelled using the
flight deck cancel button.

An emergency call from the cabin to the flight deck is made by pressing an EIC call button.
When an EIC button is pressed:

A single chime sounds over the speakers and the headsets. The single chime is
generated by the audible warning unit.

The EMERG CALL annunciator on the crew call panel illuminates. The annunciator
is latched on. The annunciator remains illuminated until the call is cancelled. The
call can be cancelled using the flight deck cancel button.

PA Tones

The PA amplifier generates chimes and passes these to the cabin speakers. There are
three chimes: a single high tone chime, a single low tone chime and a double tone chime
composed of a high tone immediately followed by a low tone.
The double tone is given whenever a crew call is made from the flight deck to the cabin
and whenever an inter cabin call is made. A single low tone chime is given when the
status of the seat belt signs or no smoking signs is changed. A single high tone chime is
given when a PSU call button or toilet call button is pressed.

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Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
Crew Call

Chapter 6 Topic 4
Page a

Calls to the Cabin

A normal call to the cabin is made by pressing the CABIN CALL switch on the flight deck.
When the CABIN CALL button is pressed:

The flight deck CABIN CALL annunciator illuminates.

The PA dual tone chime sounds once.

The green roof call lights are latched on.

The blue PI annunciator illuminates at each cabin station.

A normal call to the cabin can be cancelled using the RESET button on the front cabin
handset or the flight deck cancel button.
An emergency call to the cabin is made by pressing the EMERG CALL switch on the flight
deck. When the EMERG CALL button is pressed:

The flight deck EMERG CALL annunciator flashes.

The PA dual tone chime sounds once.

The green roof call lights flash.

The red EIC annunciators flash at each cabin station.

An emergency call to the cabin can be cancelled using the RESET button on the front
cabin handset or the flight deck cancel button.
Inter-cabin Calls

A inter-cabin call is made by pressing a handset IC button. When an inter cabin switch is
pressed:

The PA dual tone chime sounds once.

The green roof call lights illuminate.

The green IC annunciator at each cabin station illuminates.

The inter cabin call can only be cancelled from the station at which the call was initiated.
The associated RESET button is used to cancel the call.

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COMMUNICATION
Crew Call

Chapter 6 Topic 4
Page9

Passenger and Toilet Call

The passenger and toilet call system is shown schematically in Figure 4.7.
There is a forward attendant's panel above the forward service door and a rear attendant's
panel over the rear service door.
Each panel contains the following call annunciators:

A blue CABIN CALL annunciator.

An amber FWD TOILET call annunciator.

An amber REAR TOILET call annunciator.

Each PSU has a call switch and a call light. When a switch is pressed to make a call:

The associated PSU call light illuminates.

The PA single high tone chime sounds.

When the PSU switch is pressed a second time, the associated PSU call light goes out.
When any PSU call light is illuminated, the vestibule CABIN CALL annunciators are
illuminated. The vestibule CABIN CALL annunciators remain illuminated until all the PSU
call lights are extinguished.
Each toilet has a call light and switch.
When a toilet call switch is pressed:

The call light is latched on.

The PA single high tone chime sounds.

The associated TOILET call annunciator illuminates in both vestibules.

Pressing a toilet switch a second time removes the latch and the call light goes out.
When the forward toilet call light is illuminated, the vestibule FWD TOILET annunciators
are illuminated. The vestibule FWD TOILET annunciators remain illuminated until the
forward toilet call light is extinguished.
When the rear toilet call light is illuminated, the vestibule REAR TOILET annunciators are
illuminated. The vestibule REAR TOILET annunciators remain illuminated until the rear
toilet call light is extinguished.

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COMMUNICATION
Crew Call

Chapter 6 Topic 4
Page 10

Figure 4-1 - Passenger and Toilet call


Forward Cabin
Attendant's Panel

b--t-"""T--1 Switc h
Forward Toilet

~-_;--+-~-~--~l ro~ ~

Call switch and


light

,. . . . . .:. -+=:-:.1""'" 1
TOILET

PSU call switches


and lights
PA
Single
High Tone

Combined switches and lights

OR
Touch sensitive switches and
separate lights

Rear Cabin
Attendant's Panel

Rear Toilet

L--+--llro~ I

Call switch and


light

i-v1-06-00081

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AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01/09

Archit ecture
The VHF radio architecture is shown in Figure 5.1 . Two VHF radios are fitted to all aircraft:
VHF COMM 1 and VHF COMM 2. A third VHF radio may be fitted: VHF COMM 3. The
radios are in the avionics bay. They are cooled by the avionics cooling fan.
VHF COMM 1 is powered from EMERG DC. VHF COMM 2 is powered from DC BUS 2.
VHF COMM 3 is powered from DC BUS 1.
The radios are switched through the Avionics Master switches: avionics master 1 for VHF
COMM 1 and avionics master 2 for VHF COMM 2 and VHF COMM 3. The avionics master
switches control relays. The power for the relays comes from DC BUS 2. The relays need
power to move them to the off position. If DC BUS 2 is lost, the relays move to the on
position. Thus, regardless of the position of the avionics master switches, VHF COMM 1
and VHF COMM 3 will remain powered if DC BUS 2 fails.
The radios are controlled from the radio management panels.
The third VHF may be used as a normal communications radio. In which case, it is
controlled from the radio management panels (RMPs). If ACARS is fitted, the third VHF
radio is fitted but it is controlled by the ACARS not the RMPs.
Some aircraft use the third VH F radio as a cabin radio telephone.
The VHF radios are tuned by the RMPs or the ACARS. Selection for transmission via a
radio or reception from a radio is made from the audio selector panels through the central
audio unit. The central audio unit has two channels: channel A and channel B. Channel A
is powered from EMERG DC ; channel B is powered from DC BUS 2. Either channel
supports transmission and reception through all three radios.
Each radio has an antenna.

Channel Spacing
The aircraft VHF communication frequency band has two standards of channel spacing:
8.33 kHz and 25.0 kHz. A few aircraft have radios that can only select channels at
intervals of 25 kHz ; most aircraft have radios that can select channels at 8.33 kHz and 25
kHz intervals.

RMP Frequency Windows


Each RMP has two frequency windows. Only one is active at a time. The frequency is
displayed in MHz. If the radio is configured for just 25 kHz channel spacing, there will be
only two digits after the decimal point. If the radio is configured for 25 kHz spacing and
8.33 kHz spacing, there will be three digits after the decimal place.

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Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
VHF Radios

Chapter 6 Topic 5
Page 2

Figure 5_1 -VHF Radio Architecture

DC BUS2

EMERG DC

DC BUS 1

0
0
Q

Antenna

Antenna

VHF 1

An tenna

VHF 3

VHf 2

Central Audio Unit

EMERGOC

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DC BUS 2

Nov 01/09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
VHF Radios

Chapter 6 Topic 5
Page3

Channel Names for Receivers with 8.33 kHz spacing

The tuning range of the receiver is 118.0000 to 136.9917 MHz in steps of 8.33 MHz.
There are only six digits on the display. So the channels have names. The name is set on
the controller.
Multiples of 25 kHz (3 times 8.33) are also included in the range of channels available to
ATC operating in the 8.33 kHz spacing environment. Multiples of 25 kHz are also available
to ATC operating in the 25 kHz spacing environment. However, the bandwidth of a
channel that is a multiple of 25 kHz in the 25 kHz spacing environment is wider than the
bandwidth of a channel that is a multiple of 25 kHz in the 8.33 kHz environment. So that
the correct bandwidth is chosen, the names of multiples of 25 kHz depend on the
environment (25 kHz spacing or 8.33 kHz spacing).
The channel names are illustrated in Table 5.1. The 25kHz spacing names should only be
used if they are specified by ATC.

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AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
VHF Radios

Chapter 6 Topic 5
Page 4

Table 5.1 -VHF Channels


Channel Name

Actual Frequenc y (MHz)

Ch annel Spacing (kHZ)

11 8.000
11 8.005
11 8.010
11 8.01 5
118.025
11 8.030
11 8.035
11 8.040
11 8.050
11 8.055
11 8.060
11 8.065

118.0000

25

118.0000

8.33

118.0083

8.33

118.0167

8.33

118.0250

25

118.0250

8.33

118.0333

8.33

118.0417

8.33

118.0500

25

118.0500

8.33

118.0583

8.33

118.0667

8.33

11 8.075
11 8.080
11 8.085
11 8.090
11 8.100
11 8.105
11 8.110

118.0750

25

118.0750

8.33

118.0833

8.33

118.0917

8.33

118.1000

25

118.1000

8.33

118.1083

8.33

11 8.11 5

118.1167

8.33

136.975
136.980
136.985

136.9750

25

136.9750

8.33

136.9833

8.33

136.990

136.9917

8.33

..
..
..

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Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
VHF Radios

Chapter 6 Topic 5
Page 5

VHF Antennas

The VHF antenna locations are shown in Figure 5.2.


The VHF 1 antenna is on the top of the centre fuselage.
The VHF 2 antenna is on the lower forward fuselage.
The VHF 3 antenna is on the top of the fin.

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Volume 1

Chapter 6 Topic 5
Page6

COMMUNICATION
VHF Radios
Figure 5_2 - VHF Antennas

0
0
0
0

0
0
0

c::
c::
CD
c::

...

o(

1.1.

J:

>

'J
IG

c:

c::
Cll

c:

o(

1.1.

J:

>

FCOM:V1-002

~
~

0
0
0
0

.,

AVRO 146-RJ Series

c::

c:
Cl
c:

o(
N
L&.

J:

>

Nov 01 / 09

Archit ect ure


Either one or two Collins HFS-700 radios may be fitted. The HF radio architecture is
shown in Figure 6.1. The HF radios are in the avionics bay. HF1 is powered from AC BUS
1. HF 2 is powered from AC BUS 2.
The radios are switched through the Avionics Master switches: avionics master 1 for HF 1
and avionics master 2 for HF 2. The avionics master switches control relays. The power
for the relays comes from DC BUS 2. The relays need power to move them to the off
position. If DC BUS 2 is lost, the relays move to the on position. Regardless of the
position of the avionics master switches, both radios will remain powered if DC BUS 2 fails.
Some aircraft use the HF radios as a cabin radio telephone.
The HF radios are tuned by the AMPs. Selection for transmission via a radio or reception
from a radio is made from the audio selector panels through the central audio unit. The
central audio unit has two channels: channel A and channel B. Channel A is powered from
EMERG DC; channel B is powered from DC BUS 2. Either channel supports transmission
and reception through both radios.
Each radio is coupled to its antenna by an antenna coupler. The purpose of the coupler is
to match the impedance of the radio transmitter to the impedance at the antenna. The
impedance depends on the frequency in use. The antenna coupler is tuned for
transmission by:

Selecting the frequency for transmission.


Selecting the associated HF transmit function on an ASP.

Selecting R/T momentarily on either associated INT RIT switch.

A steady tone is heard while the coupler is being tuned. The coupler must be tuned
whenever a new frequency is selected.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

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AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
HF Radios

Chapter 6 Topic 6
Page 2

Figure 6.1 - HF Radio Architecture

EMERGDC ~~~------------~--------------~l
Central Audio Unit

DC 9US2
Tx

A C BUS 1

If a shunl antenna es filled,


it IS sharod by the couplets
Wire antenna

Tx

AC BUS2

Wire an ten na

Rx

Rx
Antenna
Coupler

Antenna
Coupler

HF2

HF 1

DC BUS 2

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AVRO 146-RJ Series

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Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
HF Radios

Chapter 6 Topic 6
Page 3

HF Antennas
There are three possible antenna configurations:
A single long wire antenna for aircraft with just one HF radio.

Two long wire antennas for aircraft with two HF radios.

A single shunt antenna for aircraft with one or two HF radios.

The shunt antenna location is shown are in Figure 6.2. The wire antennas are shown in
Figure 6.3.
The forward end of a long wire antenna is attached to a post on the top of the centre
fuselage; the aft end of the antenna is attached to either the fin or the underside of the
tailplane. HF 1 antenna is on the left and HF 2 antenna is on the right. A coupler for each
antenna is in the cabin roof.
The shunt antenna is a strip of metal inside a cavity in the fin leading edge. The antenna
couplers are in the base of the fin. If two radios are fitted, the couplers share the one shunt
antenna.
If two HF radios are fitted, there is an interlock circuit between the couplers. The interlock
only allows transmission on one HF radio at a lime. When transmission is taking place on
one HF radio, transmission and reception are inhibited on the other radio. If neither radio
is transmitting, reception is available on both HF radios.
Figure 6.2 - Shunt Antenna Location

HF shunt antenna

..'

,f

~~----~~--~~~~r-l.~~L-----~
The antenna couplel"5 are in the base ofthe fin
v1.06-00085

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

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AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
HF Radios

Chapter 6 Topic 6
Page 4

Figure 6.3 - HF Wire Antennas

The anltenna couplers are in the cabin roof

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Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
HF Radios

Chapter 6 Topic 6
Page 5

Collins HFS-700

The Collins HFS-700 transceiver operates in the frequency range 2.0 to 26.999 MHz. The
frequency can be changed in 1 kHz steps on the RMPs. The controller is shown in Figure
6.4.
The RMP HF frequency display has five places. The units of the display are MHZ. A
decimal point is between the second and third place from the left. The outer frequency
selector changes the three left places. The inner frequency selector changes the three
right places.
The HF has two modes: USB and AM.
At USB, the radio is set for operation on the upper sideband.
At AM, the radio is set to operate using both sidebands.
A green light on the MCP illuminates when the selected HF is in the AM mode. The HF
radio can be toggled between the AM and single side band modes by pressing the
associated radio select button.

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Volume 1

Chapter 6 Topic 6
Page6

COMMUNICATION
HF Radios
Figure 6.4- Collins HFS-700
Transfer
HF
Switch Mode light

Selected Radio

Preselected
Window
Frequ

HF

13
-.9n .
I .C W

HF

11 9LII-

I I.

I i:L

-------

Radio Selector Switches

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Frequency Selector

i-v1-06-001 06

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COMMUNICATION
HF Radios

Chapter 6 Topic 6
Page 7

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Nov 01 /09

Operation

SELCAL stands for selective calling. The SELCAL system alerts the flight crew that there
is an incoming transmission from ATC without the crew maintaining a listening radio
watch. The associated radio must be tuned to the required frequency, but the radio's
receive function on the audio selector panel may be deselected. The SELCAL alert is
available on all the radios fitted to the aircraft.
A SELCAL panel is on the centre console. It is shown in Figure 7.1 . The panel has a push
switch for each radio connected to the SELCAL system. Each switch contains a white
annunciator. The an nunciators are normally extinguished. An annunciator illuminates to
alert the crew that a ground radio operator wishes to communicate with the aircraft.
Each aircraft has a SELCAL code. The code is normally written on a placard on one of the
instrument panels.
When ATC makes a transmission containing the aircraft's code:

A double chime sounds over the speakers and headsets.

The associated annunciator illuminates on the SELCAL panel. The annunciator


extinguishes when its switch is pressed.

When the SELCAL chime is heard, the radio is identified by the illuminated annunciator.
The annunciator is reset to off by pressing its switch. The associated radio is selected on
one of the ASPs and communication is established with the ground station.
The double chime will sound through the loud speakers and headsets regardless of the
position of the speaker switches and the position of the INT selectors on the audio selector
panels.
Before going on SELCAL watch, the crew pass the aircraft's SELCAL code to ATC ; ATC
then make a test transmission of the code.
Figure 7.1- SELCAL Panel

iV10600087

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Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
SELCAL

Chapter 6 Topic 7
Page2

SELCAL Codes

A SELCAL code is a four letter code. Each code consists of two pairs of letters: for
example: MQ-AC. The letters from A to S inclusive are used except I, Nand 0.
Each letter corresponds to an audio frequency. A corresponds to the lowest frequency.
The frequencies increase from A to S. The second letter in each pair must correspond to a
higher frequency than the first. Neither of the letters used in the first pair can be used in
the second pair.
The code is transmitted as two pairs of tones. The transmission time for each pair is one
second; there is a pause of 0.2 seconds between the two pairs of tones.
There are not enough codes available to ensure that a unique code is assigned to each
aircraft. Duplicate codes are normally assigned to aircraft operating in widely separated
parts of the world. If two aircraft with the same code are operating in the same area, ATC
will endeavour to assign separate frequencies to the aircraft.
Architecture

The SELCAL system consists of the flight deck panel, a SELCAL decoder and a SELCAL
double chime. The decoder is in the avionics bay. The SELCAL chime is generated by the
audible warning unit. The system is shown schematically in Figure 7.2.
The decoder monitors all the radio receivers. If the aircraft's code is detected on one of the
rece1vers:

The decoder illuminates the associated annunciator on the flight deck SELCAL
panel.

The decoder activates the SELCAL chime in the audible warning unit.

The audible warning unit sends the SELCAL chime to the central audio unit.

The central audio unit sounds the chime over the speakers and the headsets.

The illuminated annunciator is extinguished when its switch is pressed.


The decoder is powered from DC BUS 1 via the AVIONICS MASTER 2 switch. The
avionics master switches control relays. The power for the relays comes from DC BUS 2.
The relays need power to move them to the off position. If DC BUS 2 is lost, the relays
move to the on position. Therefore, regardless of the position of the avionics master
switches, the decoder will remain powered if DC BUS 2 fails.
Test

The test is initiated by pressing and releasing the TEST button. The button must be
pressed for less than one second. A few seconds after the button is released, the SELCAL
annunciators illuminate in sequence from left to right. Once all the annunciators have
illuminated, they all remain lit for a further 3 seconds. The SELCAL double chime sounds
as the annunciators ripple from left to right.

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Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
SELCAL

Chapter 6 Topic 7
Page3

Figure 7 -2 - SELCAL Schematic

A udible Warning Unit


Central A udio Unit

SELCAL double chime

DC BUS 1

Reset

Reset

Reset

Reset

Reset

SELCA L Decoder

VHF 1
Tranaceiver

VHF2
Tranacelver

FCOM:V1-002

VHF 3
Tranaceiver

AVRO 146-RJ Series

HF 2
Tran sceiver

Nov 01 / 09

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Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
SELCAL

Chapter 6 Topic 7
Page4

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Nov 01 /09

Cabin Radio Telephones

Some aircraft may be equipped with a cabin radio telephone. This provides passengers
with an air to ground radio telephone link which can be patched into ground based
telephone networks. For further information consult the manufacturers operating
instructions.

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Background

During flight, the aircraft can accumulate a static charge of electricity due to its motion
relative to the air and any particles contained in the air. The aircraft electrical charge can
become so great that a discharge occurs from the aircraft back to the air. The discharge is
more likely to occur from the more pointed parts of the aircraft: for example,
communications antennas. Discharge through a communications antenna causes noise in
the transmitted and the received signals.

Purpose of Static Dischargers


Static dischargers are also known as static wicks. They are designed to provide an easy
discharge path from the aircraft so that the charge on the antennas does not build up to a
level that causes discharge from the antennas.
The static dischargers also supply a path for a lighting strike to be conducted through the
aircraft skin to the atmosphere.
Static Discharger Construction

Each static discharger is composed of many carbon fi bres wrapped in a cylinder. Each
fibre ends in a sharp point. The points at the ends of the static dischargers are much
sharper than any points on the antennas. This allows the discharge from the aircraft to
occur at a much lower level of charge than is required for discharge through the antennas.
Static Discharger Location

There are 29 static dischargers fitted to the aircraft. The positions of the dischargers are
shown in Figure 9.1.
Each elevator and aileron has four trailing edge static dischargers and two tip dischargers.

Thus, each control surface has six dischargers.


There are two static dischargers on the rudder trailing edge and one on the trailing edge of
the fin. There are two static dischargers on the top of the fin. The fin and rudder have a
total of five dischargers.
The dischargers are checked in the external checks.

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Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
Static Disc hargers

Chapter 6 Topic 9
Page 2

Figure 9.1 - Static Discharger Location

4 trnill ng edge
dischargers

2 tip discllargers
2 tip dischargers / '

.__ 2 lip dlscnargars

3 tralllng edge
dischargers

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Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
Static Dischargers

Chapt er 6 Topic 9
Page 3

Types of Dischargers
There are two types of discharger: tip and trailing edge.
Typical tip and trailing edge dischargers are shown in Figure 9.2.
Figure 9.2 - Tip and Trailing Edge Dischargers

2 lip dischargers

4 trailing edge dischargers


1-vHI600090

FCOM:Vl-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

Types of ELT
There are three types of ELT available:

Litton fixed ELT.

Kannad fixed ELT.


Kannad portable ELT.

The fixed units:

Are fixed to the aircraft.

Have an antenna on the top of the rear fuselage.

Have a control panel on the flight deck.

The Kannad portable unit:

Is stowed in on of the cabin stowages.


Has its own antenna.

Does not have an external antenna.

Does not have a control panel on the flight deck.

Activation

The fixed ELTs are automatically activated by a "g" switch. Deceleration is measured
along all three aircraft axes: longitudinal, lateral and normal. The magnitude of a
deceleration that activates the switch depends on the time that the deceleration is applied.
The higher the deceleration the shorter the time required to activate the switch.

Transmission Frequencies
All the ELTs transmit on three frequencies:

121.5 MHz.

243.0 MHz.

406.025 MHz.

Homing signals are transmitted on 121.5 and 243 MHz to guide rescue services to the
aircraft in the event of an accident.
The frequency of 406 MHz is required for t ransmission to satellites. The transmitted data
contains the identification of the aircraft. The distress signal is normally relayed to the
ground stations within five minutes. The satellites can determine the position of the aircraft
to within less than two nautical miles; the position is normally determined within two hours.
Once the ELT is activated, an internal battery will maintain transmission on 406.025 MHz
for 24 hours and on 121 .5 and 243 MHz for 48 hours .

FCOM:V1-002

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Nov 01 / 09

Architecture
The Litton ELT is shown schematically in Figure 10.2.1 .
The ELT is in the roof of the rear cabin. The ELT is connected to an antenna on top of the
rear fuselage.
A control panel is in the flight deck on the centre console. The panel has an ELT ON
amber annunciator and a control switch.
The amber annunciator is driven by a circuit external to the ELT . This circuit requires
power from EXT DC. The external circuit also drives the ground crew call horn and an
ELTJ, caption on the CWP.
The switch is connected directly to the ELT.
The power supply for the ELT is provided by its own internal battery. The battery is not
charged by the aircraft supply. The battery is changed every five years.

Visual and Aural Indications


The ELT annunciator flashes whenever the ELT is transmitting. The ELTJ- caption
illuminates steadily when the ELT is transmitting. The ELT.J, caption is a low category
amber caption; so the associated attention getting does not include the single chime.
The ground crew call horn is pulsed on and off when the N1 of all engines is 20% or less
and the ELT is transmitting. If the N1 of any engine is greater than 20% and the ELT is
transmitting, the horn remai ns off but the ELT ON annunciator flashes and the ELT.J,
caption illuminates steadily.
The 20% N 1 signal comes from the PEDs via the flight data acquisition unit (FDAU).

The Switch
The switch has three positions: ON/TEST, ARM and RESET. The switch is baulked at the
ARM and ON/TEST positions. The switch has to b& lifted up to clear the baulk. The switch
is spring loaded from the RESET position to the arm position.
The switch is normally at the ARM position. The ON/TEST position allows the ELT to be
tested and to be forced to transmit. A momentary selection to RESET stops the ELT
transmitting.
If the switch is put to ON/TEST or the switch is at ARM and the "g" switch is activated:
In the first 17 seconds, the ELT ON annunciator flashes ten times.

After 17 s&eonds, transmission begins. The annunciator then flashes every


2.7 seconds; the ground crew call horn is pulsed at 2. 7 second intervals if the
BEACON switch is at OFF.

When the switch is put to RESET and then back to ARM, transmission ceases, the
ELT reverts to the armed state, the annunciator goes out and the horn stops
sounding.

FCOM:V1-002

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Volume 1

Chapter 6 Topic 10.2


Page 2

COMMUNICATION
Litton ELT
Figure 10.2.1 - litton ElT Schematic

Ground Crew
Call Hom

ELT

Steady

Flash
[

ESS DC

On

Rntt

.....__ Pulsed
output

LPED

RPED

ILJ

All engines
s hutdown

ELTon for
annunciatolf
and caption

0
)

Flight Data A cquisition Unit


ELTon
for hom

Flight data Recorder

Antenna

Emergency Locator Transmitter

Battery

FCOM:V1-002

G' Switch

AVRO 146-RJ Series

'I

Nov 01 / 09

Architecture
The Kannad fixed ELT is shown schematically in Figure 10.3.1 .
The ELT is in the roof of the rear cabin. The ELT is connected to an antenna on top of the
rear fuselage.
A control panel is in the flight deck on the centre console. The panel has an amber LED
and a control switch.
The amber LED is driven by the ELT.
The switch is connected directly to the ELT.
An external circuit drives the ground crew call horn. The circuit is powered from ESS DC.
The power supply for the ELT is provided by its own internal battery. The battery is not
charged by the aircraft supply. The battery is changed every six years.
LED and Horn
The LED flashes whenever the ELT is transmitting.
The ground crew call horn sounds continuously when:

The BEACON switch on the LIGHTS & NOTICES panel is at OFF.

AND
The ELT is transmitting.
If the BEACON switch is at ON and the ELT is transmitting, the horn remains off but the
LED flashes.

The Switch
The switch has three positions: RESET/TEST, ARM and ON. The switch is baulked at the
ARM and ON positions. The switch has to be lifted up to clear the baulk. The switch is
spring loaded from the RESET/TEST position to the arm position.
The switch is normally at the ARM position. At the ARM position, the ELT will be
automatically activated by the "g" switch.
The ELT transmits when the switch is put to ON. It remains transmitting when the switch is
selected from the ON position to the ARM position.
If the ELT is transmitting, it can be reset to off by momentarily selecting the switch to
RESET/TEST and then releasing the switch to the ARM position.

Test
The ELT is tested by selecting the ELT panel switch to RESET/TEST. The test lasts for a
maximum of five seconds. A successful test is indicated by one long flash of the LED. If
the test fails, the LED will make a series of flashes. The number of flashes indicates the
cause of the failure.

FCOM:V1-002

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AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

COMMU NICATI ON
Kannad Fixed ELT

Chapter 6 Topic 10.3


Page 2

Figure 1 0.3.1 - Kan nad EL T Schematic

Ground Crew
Call Hom
ESSDC

Fl<~sh

On

External clreult

Reset

'
' .

0. I

BEACON OFF

c::1l
ELTon
for horn
Antenna

1, .,

\V

Emergency Locator Transmitter

Battery

FCOM:V1-002

' G' Switch

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 / 09

Stowage
The Kannad portable ELT is normally secured in a stowage in the rear cabin. A typical
stowage is shown in Figure 10.4.1. The exact position must be found from the Company
Operations Manual.
The ELT is held in the stowage by a Velcro strap; the strap can be quickly undone.
The ELT
A lanyard with a fastening clip is attached to the ELT.
The power supply for the ELT is provided by its own internal battery. The battery is not
charged by the aircraft supply. The battery is changed every six years.
The ELT has a control panel on its top surface. The panel is shown in Figure 10.4.3. The
panel has an antenna socket, a three position switch and a red LED. The panel also has a
connector socket. The socket is used to program the ELT.
A small whip antenna is connected to the antenna socket on the control panel.
The red LED and a beeper indicate that the ELT is transmitting.
The sw itch positions are ARM, OFF and ON. If the switch is at the ARM position, the EL T
will be automatically activated by its "g" switch. At OFF, the ELT does not transmit. When
the EL T switch is moved to ON, the ELT makes a self test. A continuous beep is made
during the test. If the test passes, the LED makes one long flash. If the test fails, the LED
makes a series of short flashes. When the ELT is tr ansmitting on 121 .5 and 243 MHz, the
LED flashes and the beeper sounds intermittently. When the ELT makes a transmission
on 406 MHz, the LED makes one flash but the beeper does not sound.
To use the ELT as a portable ELT, remove it from its stowage and select ON. The ELT
should be kept in the verticaL The ELT is shown in the vertical position in Figure 10.4.2.

FCOM:V1 -002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
Kannad Portable ELT

Chapter 6 Topic 10.4


Page 2

Figure 10-4-1- Kannad ELT Stowage


Stowage door closed

Whip antenna

FCOM:V1-002

Lanyard

Stowage door open

Velcro strap

AVRO 146-RJ Series

E:LT

ELT

IV1~00093

Nov 01/09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
Kannad Portable ELT

Chapter 6 Topic 10.4


Page 3

Figure 10.4.2- Kannad ELT in the Vertical Position

FCOM:V1 -002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
Kannad Portable ELT

Chapter 6 Topic 10.4


Page 4

Figure 1 0.4.3 - Kannad ELT Top Surface


LED

Ant

Antenna

FCOM:V1-002

Switch

Connector
(not used)

AVRO 146-RJ Series

i-YI06-00095

Nov 01 / 09

Overview
The video surveillance system allows either pilot to monitor activity in the forward
vestibule. The system allows the flight crew:

To identify persons requesting entry to the flight deck.

To detect suspicious activity and to detect a potential threat.

The video surveillance system consists of:

Two cameras in the forward vestibule. The cameras are fixed at a predetermined
viewing angle.
A viewing screen behind the First Officer's seat.
A small control panel on the centre instrument panel.

Viewing Screen
The viewing screen is above and behind the First Officer's seat. It is shown in Figure 11.1 .
The screen is a monochrome LCD.
The screen has a brightness control and a contrast control. A light sensor above the LED
automatically adjusts the brightness of the screen according to the ambient lighting
conditions.
An LED above the brightness control illuminates steadily in green when the system is
powered. If the system detects a fault, the green LED flashes.

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Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
Video Surveillance

Chapter 6 Topic 11
Page 2

Figure 11-1 - Viewing Screen

RJght C-screen

Pow~ron

+--

LED

Brightness cont rol


Contrast control

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Video Surveillance

Chapter 6 Topic 11
Page 3

Cameras

Both cameras are in the forward vestibule. They are shown in Figure 11 .2. Camera 1 is
above the flight deck entrance; camera 2 is above the forward attendant's panel.
The field of view of camera 1 includes the vestibule area immediately aft of the flight deck
door and the forward cabin aisle. The field of view of camera 2 includes the complete
vestibule area. The field of view of the cameras is shown in Figure 11 .3.
Each camera has an infrared function and so can detect an image in darkness.
Figure 11 .2 - Cameras

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Video Surveillance

Chapter 6 Topic 11
Page 4

Figure 11-3 - Field of View of the Cameras

Front Service Door

Flight Deck Door

Front Passenger Door

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Page 5

COMMUNICATION
Video Surveillance

Control Panel
The control panel is above the engine instruments. The panel is shown in Figure 11 .4.
The panel has two switches: a power switch and a camera select switch.
The power switch is labelled POWER and has two positions: ON and OFF. The switch is a
lock toggle switch. It has to be pulled out before its position can be changed. The system
is powered from DC BUS 2.
The camera select switch is labelled VIEW SELECT. The switch is spring-loaded to the up
position. The viewing screen can only display a picture from one camera at a time.
Moving the switch momentarily to the down position toggles the screen from one camera to
the other.
When the POWER switch is selected ON, camera 1 is automatically selected. If the V IEW
SELECT switch is not moved for more than five minutes, the display automatically powers
down, but the LED stays green to indicate that the system is still powered. A momentary
selection of the VIEW SELECT switch to down reactivates the display to the camera in use
when the screen powered down.
Figure 11 .4 - Control Panel

Power S&l&eted ON

Power

Came.ra

Switch

SeJect Sw itch

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Video Surveillance

Chapter 6 Topic 11
Page6

Page Intentionally Blank

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Overview
Some aircraft are fitted with an Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System
(ACARS). The ACARS has a management unit (MU) in the avionics bay. The MU uses
VHF 3 to transmit data to ground stations and to receive data from ground stations.
The ACARS has a flight deck control and display unit. Aircraft fitted with Collins FMS use
the FMS multi purpose control and display unit (MCDU). Aircraft without Collins FMSs use
a control and display unit dedicated to ACARS. The dedicated control and display unit is a
multi i nput interactive display unit (MIDU). If MCDUs are fitted, they are on the forward
centre console. If a MIDU is fitted, it is either on the rear centre console or on an extension
of the left side console. The positions are shown in Figure 12.2.
An ACARS printer is on the flight deck. The printer is installed on the centre console or on
an extension to the right side console. The positions are shown in Figure 12. 1.
For some ACARS received messages, a double chime sounds. The chime is generated by
the audible warning unit.
Figure 12.1 - ACARS Printer Locations

The printer Is on the centre


console or the right side. console

~V1~100

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A CARS

Chapter 6 Topic 12
Page 2

Figure 12.2- ACARS Contr ol and Display Unit Locations

If Collins FMSs are fitted, I he MCOUs


are on the forward cen tre console

If a MIDU Is fitted, It ls on the centre


console or the left !Side console

i-v1-C60010 1

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COMMUNICATION
A CARS

Chapter 6 Topic 12
Page3

Architecture with a MIDU

The AGARS architecture with a MIDU fitted is shown in Figure 12.3. The heart of the
AGARS is the management unit (MU). The MU communicates with the MIDU and the
printer. The MU transmits and receives data via VHF 3. VHF 3 can be set to either a data
mode or a voice mode via the MIDU. In the data mode:

The MU automatically tunes the VHF according to the aircraft position and the
ground station locations.

The MU transmits and receives messages.

VHF 3 cannot be tuned from the RMPs or used for voice communication ; an RMP
will display "AGARS" if VHF 3 is selected.

In the voice mode:

VHF 3 can be tuned using the RMPs and used as a normal communication radio.

The MU cannot transmit or receive messages.

The MU receives the following data from both GNS-X navigation management units:

Altitude .

Date and time.

Distance and time to destination .

Present position .

True airspeed .

Wind velocity .

Static air temperature .

The MU receives groundspeed from IRS 2.


The PEDs send engine N2 and fuel quantity to the MU.
The engine life computer sends trend messages, exceedance messages, incident alert
messages and low cycle fatigue messages to the MU. The ELC receives the flight number
and the zero fuel weight from the MU.
The MU gets ground air status from the squat switch system .
The MU gets status of the cabin doors, all closed or not, from the door warning system.
The MU receives the parking brake position.
The AGARS gives a double chime for some received messages. The chime comes from
the aural warning unit.
An identification unit sends the aircraft identifier and an airline identifier to the MU. The
identification unit is in the avionics bay. The identifiers are used by the ground to identify
the source of a message and by the aircraft to recognise messages intended for the
aircraft.

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Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
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Chapter 6 Topic 12
Page 4

Figure 12.3- Architec ture with a MIDU


Antenna
VHF 3

Engine Life Computer


IRS 2
GNS 1
GNS 2

AC BUS 1
Identification Circuit
,A.CARS

II

Squat switch

Audible Warn ing Unit

i v106.00102

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Volume 1

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A CARS

Chapter 6 Topic 12
Page 5

Architecture with Collins FMS

The AGARS architecture with Collins FMSs fitted is shown in Figure 12.4. The heart of the
AGARS is the management unit (MU). The MU communicates with FMS 2 and the printer.
The MU transmits and receives data via VHF 3. VHF 3 can be set to either a data mode or
a voice mode via a MCDU.
In the data mode:

The MU automatically tunes the VHF according to the aircraft position and the
ground station locations.

The AGARS transmits and receives messages.

VHF 3 cannot be tuned from the RMPs or used for voice communication; an RMP
will display "AGARS" if VHF 3 is selected.

In the voice mode:

VHF 3 can be tuned using the RMPs and used as a normal communication radio.

The AGARS cannot transmit or receive messages.

The MU receives the following data from FMS 2:

Altitude.

Date and time.

Distance and time to destination.

Present position.

True airspeed.

Wind velocity.

Static air temperature.

The MU receives groundspeed from IRS 2.


The PEDs send engine N2 and fuel quantity to the MU.
The engine life computer sends trend messages, exceedance messages, incident alert
messages and low cycle fatigue messages to the MU. The ELC receives the flight number
and the zero fuel weight from the MU.
The MU gets ground air status from the squat switch system.
The MU gets status of the cabin doors, all closed or not, from the door warning system.
The MU receives the parking brake position.
The AGARS gives a double chime for some received messages. The chime comes from
the aural warning unit.
An identification unit sends the aircraft identifier and an airline identifier to the MU. The
identification unit is in the avionics bay. The identifiers are used by the ground to identify
the source of a message and by the aircraft to recognise messages intended for the
aircraft.

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Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
A CARS

Chapter 6 Topic 12
Page6

Figure 12.4- Archit~H:ture with a Collins FMS

FMS2

Antenna
VHF3

IRS2

ldentifietion Circuit
Squ:~t

switch

ACARS
I

Engine Life Computer

t"AH [lt_;lR

NOT SILT

Audible Warning Unit

IV1-0000103

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COMMUNICATION
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Chapter 6 Topic 12
Page 7

Printer

The printer is shown in Figure 12.5.


There is a row of switches and annunciators on the top of the printer.
There are three push switches on the top of the printer: SLEW, RESET and TEST. There
are three annunciators to the right of the switches: MSG, PAPER and FAIL.
The printer contains a roll of paper. A paper quantity indicator is on the top of the printer.
The PAPER annunciator illuminates when the printer is out of paper.
The printer can print text and solid black graphics. Each line of text contains up to 40
characters. When a message is received, the MSG annunciator illuminates; the printer
then prints the message; the paper containing the message is automatically passed
through an outlet on top of the printer.
If the printer fails, the FAIL annunciator illuminates.
The SLEW switch advances paper through the outlet.
The RESET switch is used to reset the MSG annunciator.
When the TEST button is pressed, a test sequence is initiated. The three annunciators
illuminate and a test pattern is printed.

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Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
A CARS

Chapter 6 Topic 12
Pages

Figure 12.5 - Printer


Printer out of paper annunciator

Reset switch
Slew switch

Message received
annunciator

Printer fail
annunciator

Test swit.ch

FAIL

Paper quantity indicator

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COMMUNICATION
A CARS

Chapter 6 Topic 12
Page9

MIDU

The MIDU is shown in Figure 12.6.


The MIDU has the following elements:

A colour liquid crystal display (LCD) with six line select keys on each side.

A DIM and a BRT key. Pressing the DIM key reduces the brilliance of the display.
Pressing the BRT key increases the brilliance of the display.

An alphabetic QWERTY keyboard. The keyboard includes an SP key for entering a


space.

A numeric keyboard. The keyboard has numerals from 0 to 9, a stroke key, a


decimal point key and a plus or minus key.

A DEL key and a CLR key are at the bottom right of the display. The DEL key is
inoperative. The CLR key is used to clear or delete entries.

Four control keys: MENU, PREV, NEXT and VHF.

A memory cartridge access door.

Four annunciators on the right side. MENU, DATA, VOICE and FAIL.

Pressing the MENU key takes the display back to the main menu. Pressing the PREV key
takes the display to the previous page. The NEXT key takes the display to the next page.
The VHF key is not operational.
The MENU, DATA and VOICE annunciators are not used. However, they illuminate when
the ANNUNCIATORS TEST button on the left instrument panel is pressed. The FAIL
annunciator indicates that there is a fault within the MIDU.
The MIDU is menu driven. Data is entered using a scratchpad. The line select keys are
used to enter data into a field of data. After power up, the MIDU displays two options: the
AGARS menu and the MAINT menu. MAINT selects the maintenance area. AGARS
selects the AGARS menus. There are three AGARS menus:

Pre-flight menu.

In-flight menu.

Post flight menu.

Miscellaneous menu.

The pre-flight, in-flight and post-flight menus are presented automatically.


miscellaneous menu can be accessed from each of the other three A CARS menus.

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The

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
A CARS

Chapter 6 Topic 12
Page 10

Figure 12-6 - MIDU


Numeric keys - - - - - - - .

Main menu
select key

Next page key

Previous page key

Stroke, point and


plus or minus keys

Display brilliance keys

EID

Space key
Memory cartridge access door

i-v1-06-00105

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Volume 1

COMMUNICATION
A CARS

Chapter 6 Topic 12
Page 11

Collins MCDU

The Collins MCDU is described in FCOM, Volume 1, Chapter 19, Navigation.


With AGARS fitted, either MCDU can be logged on to the AGARS MU. However, only one
MCDU can be logged on to the AGARS at a time. AGARS operation is activated by
selecting the ACARS menu on the MCDU main MENU page. There are three ACARS
menus:

Pre-flight menu.

In-flight menu.

Post -light menu.

Miscellaneous menu.

The pre-flight, in-flight and post-flight menus are presented automatically.


miscellaneous menu can be accessed from each of the other three A CARS menus.

The

Triggers

The AGARS uses the following triggers to determine the phase of operation. The triggers
are: OUT, OFF, ON, IN and RETURN IN (0001 triggers).
The OUT trigger indicates the first movement of the aircraft. The OFF trigger indicates that
the aircraft is airborne. The ON trigger indicates that the aircraft has landed. The IN
trigger indicates that the aircraft is back on the ramp. The RETURN IN trigger is used to
indicate that the aircraft has returned to the ramp without taking off.
The ON and OFF triggers are activated by the squat switch. The OUT, IN and RETURN
triggers are determined by groundspeed, cabin door status and parking brake position.
The actual logic is defined by the operator.
Pre-flight Menu

The pre-flight menu becomes available on power up. The pre-flight menu provides the
following facilities:

Flight initialisation .

Flight plan data report.

Refuelling report .

Telex .

Received message management.

Voice contact request.

VHF 3 control .

Weather request.

ATIS request.

Passenger information list request.

Miscellaneous menu selection .

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Chapter 6 Topic 12
Page 12

In-flight Menu

The in-flight menu becomes available just after take off. The in-flight menu provides the
following facilities:

Telex.

Received message management.

Voice contact request.

VHF 3 control.

Weather request.

ATIS request

Crew rotation request.

Connecting gate request.

Passenger information list request.

Miscellaneous menu selection.

Post-flight Menu

The post-flight menu becomes available just after landing. The post-flight menu provides
the following facilities:

Telex.

Received message management.

Voice contact request.

VHF 3 control.

Weather request.

ATIS request.

Crew rotation request.

Connecting gate request.

Miscellaneous menu selection.

When an IN trigger occurs, the ACARS menu automatically changes from the post flight
menu to the pre-flight menu.

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Chapter 6 Topic 12
Page 13

Miscellaneous Menu

The miscellaneous menu can be reached from each of the other three AGARS menus.
The following facilities are available from the miscellaneous menu:

Data frequency check.

0001status.

Maintenance menu selection.

Parameter display.

Satellite statistics.

VHF statistics.

The last four items are for engineering use.

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Topic 1 - Overview

Scope ...................................... ......................................................... .............................


Lower Doors..................................................................................................................
CWP Captions...............................................................................................................
Airstairs .. ........... .. .......... ............. ......... ....................... .. ........... ......... ... ......... ......... ........
Flight Deck Door .. ... ...... ... .......... ............. ......... ............. ......... .......... ... ......... ............. ....

1
2
2
2

Topic 2- Passenger and Service Doors

Overview.................... ........................................................................... ........................


Concept of Door Operation .............................................................. .................. ...........
Inside of the Door................................ ..........................................................................
Outside of the Door............................................ .................. ............ .............................
Shoot Bolts...... .......................... ........ .... ......... ....................... ........ ... .. ........ .... ...............
Shoot Bolt Viewers.................... ..................... .................................. .. .... .. .... ... .. .. .... .. ....
Lugs and Abutments .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .... . .. .. .. .... .
Hinges ....... .............................. ...................................... ....... .........................................
Raising the Door ...........................................................................................................
Guide Block and Spigot............................................ ............................................ .........
Plunger and Ramp.................... ......................................................... ...........................
Baulk Blade ......................................... ............................................ ..............................
Damper..... .............................. ...................................... ....... .........................................
Door not Closed Indicators................... ............................................ ............ .................
Cabin Door Warnings........ .................. ......................................................... .................
Emergency Evacuation Slides ......................................................... .............................
Slide Arming Mechanism ............ ............ ...................... ............ ....... ... ......... ............. ....
Girt Bar Indications........................................................................................................
Passenger and Service Door Locks ........................................... ...... .............................
Lock Operation ................................................................................ ..............................

1
3
5
6
7
9
10
11
13
15
17
19
20
21
23
25
27
29
31
31

Topic 3 - Lower Doors

Overview ...................... .............................................. ...................................................


Bay Lighting ..................................................................................... .............................
Door Handles ... ............. ... .......... ................................ ............. ......... ... ........ .......... ... .....
Avionics Bay Door ..................... ......................................................... ...........................
Hydraulic Bay Door ................................... .......................... ............. ..... ........................
Cargo Bay Doors................................. ......................................................... .................
Cargo Bay Door Protectors.................. ............................................ .............................
APU Bay Door .... ............................................ .................................. .................... .........
Air Conditioning Bay Door ................................................................ .. ..................... ......
Lower Door Warning ........................... ......................................................... .................

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1
3
5
7
9
11
13
14
15

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

DOORS AND STAIRS


Contents

Chapter 7 TOC
Page2

Topic 4 - Ai rstairs

Overview.......................................................................................................................
Lighting..........................................................................................................................
Control............................................ ..................... ..........................................................
Airstairs Accumulator........................................................................ ............................
Airstairs Schematic .. ..... ... ... ... ... . .. .. ...... ... .. ..... . ..... ..... ...... ...... ..... ... ... . .... .. .... ..... . ..... ...... .

1
1
1
5
7

Topic 5 - Flight Deck Door

Basic Door.....................................................................................................................
Enhanced Security Door Construction............................................... ...........................
Enhanced Security Door Latch .. .... .. .. .. ...... ...... .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .... .. .. .
Enhanced Security Door Latch and Lock......................................................................
Enhanced Security Door Emergency Opening ......................... ......... ...........................
Enhanced Security Door Viewing Window....................................................................
Enhanced Security Door Pull Strap...............................................................................

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1
3
6
7
9
13
14

Scope
This chapter covers :

The passenger and service doors.

The lower bay doors.


The airstairs.

The flight deck door.

There are four cabin doors; two passenger doors on the left and two smaller service doors
on the right.
All four cabin doors are also emergency exits. Each door has an emergency escape slide.
On some aircraft the escape slide is also a life raft.
Warning of an unlocked door is given by a CABIN DOOR NOT SHUT amber caption on the
CWP and LEDs on a panel in the forward vestibule above the forward service door.
If there is a fault in the door warning system, a CABIN DOOR FA ULT caption illuminates
on the CWP.

Lower Doors
There are doors for the following fuselage bays:

The avionics bay.


The hydraulic bay.

The forward -cargo bay.

The aft cargo bay.

The air conditioning bay.

The APU bay.

The avionics bay, the hydraulic bay and the cargo bays are pressurised. If any one of
these doors is not closed and locked, a LOWER DOOR NOT SHUT amber caption
illuminates on the CWP.
The air conditioning bay and the APU bay are not pressurised. There are no door
warnings for these bays.

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Volume 1

DOORS AND STAIRS


Overview

Chapt er 7 Topic 1
Page 2

CWP Captions
The CWP door captions are shown in Figure 1.1.
Figure 1.1 - CWP captions

i-v1 -07 -00064

Airstairs
Airstairs are available as an option. They can be fitted at the rear passenger door or the
forward passenger door.
The airstairs are hydraulically retracted but deploy under their own weight. Hydraulic
power comes from the yellow system.
Flight Deck Door
A simple folding flight deck door is available as a basic fit. However, most aircraft have an
enhanced security flight deck door.
The enhanced security door opens into the forward vestibule. The door has to equalise
pressure between the flight deck and the cabin in the case of a rapid decompression.
There are two standards. The basic standard has fixed decompression cages. A
modification introduces foldable decompression panels. The foldable panels reduce the
size of the door when it is opened into the forward vestibule.
Both standards of enhanced security door can be locked remotely from a switch on the
centre console. There is a NOT LOCKED annuncia1or beneath the switch. The switch and
annunciator are shown in Figure 1.2.

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AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

DOORS AND STAIRS


Overview

Chapter 7 Topic 1
Page3

Figure 1.2 - Enhanced Security Door Locking Switch and Annunciator

Switch guard

Not locked a nn unciator


Locking switch

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Nov 01 / 09

Overv iew
There are two passenger doors on the left and two smaller service doors on the right. The
doors open outwards. The front doors open forwards; the rear doors open rearwards. In
all other respects, the four doors function identically. The service doors are shown fully
open in Figure 2.1 . Figure 2.2 shows an overview.
When a door is fully open, it is parallel to the fuselage; the door is held open by a catch.
The catch is on the outside of the door and engages with a fuselage mounted latch. A
door release handle, on the door, is pulled to release the catch.
When the door reaches the frame on closing, it drops down behind abutments;
pressurisation loads on the abutments prevent the door from being opened. Shoot bolts on
the door engage in the door frame to prevent the door rising.
There is an internal and external door operating handle; either handle operates the shoot
bolts and raises/lowers the door. The external handle fits into a recess so that it is flush to
the door skin when the door is closed and locked.
Each door contains an evacuation slide; on some aircraft the slide also functions as a life
raft. The slide is armed by an arming handle on the door. When armed, the slide will
automatically deploy when the door is opened from the inside. If the slide is armed, it is
automatically disarmed when the external door handle is pulled out of its recess.
A door warning system monitors the position of the operating handles and the shoot bolts.
Unsafe conditions are indicated on the CWP and the Forward Cabin Attendant's Panel.
Fig ure 2.1 - Service Door s Fully Open

Front door fully open

The doors are parallel to the fuselage and held to the fuselage by a catctll .,,..1 -07-0000S

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AVRO 146-RJ Series

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AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

DOORS AND STAIRS


Passenger and Service Doors

Chapter 7 Topic 2
Page 2

Figure 2.2 - Overview

There are four doors:


, Two full sJ:z.ed passenger cloo(s on the left
, Two smaller service doors on ltle right.
Rear left
passengeJ" door

FOIWard right

service door

Tho dOQ(S can be oponed from the inside or ltie outsido.


,. The shoot bolts am removod to unlock tho door.
,. The door IS ra1sed in the frame and then opened outwards.
,. When fully open, the door is parallel to the fuselage.
:,.. A catch llolds door against tho fuS&Iago
,. The catch 1s rnloas9d by a releaso handlo on ltto door.
, The front d()()(S opoo forwards.
; The mar doors open rearwards.
There is an evacuation shde in ~ch door:
,.. The shde Is armed by an arming handle.
, When ltle slide is armed. 11 deploys automatically when the door is opened from the inside.

IA door warning system monttors lhe shoot bolts and the handles.

FCOM:V1-002

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1-\'107-110006

Nov 01 / 09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

DOORS AND STAIRS


Passenger and Service Doors

Chapter 7 Topic 2
Page3

Concept of Door Operation

The concept of door operation is shown in Figure 2.3.


The motion is swing and drop to close and rise and swing to open. Special hinges which
extend outwards from the fuselage allow the combined vertical and swinging motion. The
hinge line has to be extended beyond the door frame because the fuselage and door
surfaces are both curved.
When the door is open, it lies against the side of the fuselage ; a catch holds the door in
position. The catch automatically engages as the door is swung to the fully open position.
To close the door:

The catch is released by pulling the door release handle.

The door is then swung towards the aperture of the door frame.

Once in the frame the door is lowered. Lugs on the door drop behind abutments on
the door frame. The door is thus prevented from moving outward.

Shoot bolts in the door engage in the door frame to prevent the door rising. The
door is now closed and locked.

To open the door:

The shoot bolts are withdrawn from the frame.

The door is raised so that the lugs are above the abutments.

The door is swung outwards. When fully open, the catch engages in the fuselage
latch.

FCOM:V1-002

AVRO 146-RJ Series

Nov 01 /09

AVRO 146-RJ FCOM


Volume 1

DOORS AND STAIRS


Passenger and Service Doors

Chapter 7 Topic 2
Page 4

Figure 2.3 - Door Concept


Tho door lugs oro fixod to tho door
The abutments are f ixed to the door frame
The shoot bolts:
l. Arfl on the door
~
Slide into holes in tho door frarno
When the door lugs are behind the door
frame abutments. pll'essurisation loads _
prevent the door rising

V iew from Inside

J ......

At low pressurisation levels, the shoot


bolts prevent the door rising

Closing the door;


Door
, The door is swung in
frame
And then:
,. The d oor Is dropped down- the door lugs are now behind the abutments
And then:
,. The shoot bolts are engaged In the door frame
View from Outside
looking Forward
Op9nln11 the door

, The $hoot boiK are romovad from door 'rame


And then
,. Tho door It llftod 110 that door lugs o abovoe lhtl abulmofl
And then
,. Th doe

Door In transit

Door swings in
and drops down

Door open
Door

Fus.lago
skin

Fuselage skin

C..

--Catch

r
Door
closed
Door lugs lu 1
behind abutmen
1-\1107.()()007

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Volume 1

DOORS AND STAIRS


Passenger and Service Doors

Chapt er 7 Topic 2
Page 5

Inside of the Door


The inside of the forward passenger door is shown in Figure 2.4.
A wide angle viewer allows the area outside the door to be viewed before the door is
opened. Shoot bolt viewers allow the engagement status of the shoot bolts to be checked.
To open the door, the door handle is rotated anticlockwise to remove the shoot bolts, to
extend the hinges and to raise the door; the door can then be swung open so that the
catch engages in the fuselage latch.
The door release handle is used to release the catch; the handle is then pulled to initiate
movement of the door into the door frame. Once the door is inside the frame, the door
handle is rotated clockwise to lower the door, retract the hinges and engage the shoot
bolts.
The evacuation slide is held in a stowage at the bottom of the door. An arming handle is
above the stowage. The handle is pushed in to arm the slide and pulled out to disarm the
slide.

Figure 2.4- Forward Passenger Door Closed from the Inside

Shoot bolt viewers

Release haoolo

Door handle - - -

+--- Evacuation slide


arming handle

Evacuation slide stowage

,.vl-01-00008

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Volume 1

DOORS AND STAIRS


Passenger and Service Doors

Chapter 7 Topic 2
Page6

Outside of the Door


The forward service door is shown closed from the outside in Figure 2.5.
The external door handle is recessed. The handle must be pulled out of its recess before it
can be turned. If the escape slide is armed, it is automatically disarmed when the handle is
pulled out of its recess.
When the door is closed, the hinges are covered by plates.

The door open catch is flush to the door when the door is closed. The catch extends from
its recess as the door is raised. When the door is fully open, the catch engages in a latch
on the side of the fuselage.
To open the door, the handle is pulled out of its recess; then, the door handle is rotated
clockwise to remove the shoot bolts, to extend the hinges and to raise the door; the door
can then be swung open so that the catch engages in the fuselage latch.
The door release handle is used to release the catch; the door is then swung into the
doorframe. Once the door is inside the frame, the door handle is rotated anticlockwise to

lower the door, retract the hinges and engage the shoot bolts. The handle is then pushed
back into its recess.
Figure 2-5 - Forward Service Door Closed from the Outside

Hinge plates - - - - - - - i -

Door handle

-----+----

Door open catch

The catch engages here

w1.0Hl0009

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Volume 1

DOORS AND STAIRS


Passenger and Service Doors

Chapt er 7 Topic 2
Page 7

Shoot Bolts
There are two shoot bolts: one on the opening side of the door and one on the hinge side
of the door. The shoot bolts are fully engaged in retainers in the door frame when the
handle is at the CLOSED position. The shoot bolts are fully out of the retainers by the time
the handle has been rotated 110 away from the CLOSED position.
The shoot bolt and retainers for the forward passenger door are shown in Figures Figure
2.6 and Figure 2.7.
Figure 2.6 - Forward Passenger Door Opening Side Shoot Bolt

Shoot bolt

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Shoot bolt retainer

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Volume 1

DOORS AND STAIRS


Passenger and Service Doors

Chapter 7 Topic 2
Pages

Figure 2-7 - Forward Passenger Door Hinge Side Shoot Bolt

Shoot bolt retajner

Shoot bolt

iv1.07.00Q11

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DOORS AND STAIRS


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Chapt er 7 Topic 2
Page9

Shoot Bolt Viewers


There is a viewing pane for each shoot bolt at the top of the door. The viewers are shown
in Figure 2.8.
When a shoot bolt is not fully in its retainer, a groove is visible through the viewing pane.
The groove is painted red.
The fully engaged and partially engaged states are shown in Figure 2.8.
Figure 2.8 - Shoot Bolt Viewers
Shoot bolt v iew-&rs

Shoot Bolt Fully Engaged

Shoot Bolt Not Fully Engaged

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Volume 1

DOORS AND STAIRS


Passenger and Service Doors

Chapter 7 Topic 2
Page 10

Lugs and Abutments

There are lugs on the door and abU1ments on the door frame. When the door is lowered in
the frame, the lugs are behind the abutments and pressurisation loads will prevent the door
from rising and opening.
The lugs and abutments are shown in Figure 2.9.
On the passenger doors, there are five abutments and five lugs on each side. On the
service doors, there are four abutments and four lugs on each side.
Figure 2.9 - Lugs and Abutments

Lugs

Abutments
11~00013

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DOORS AND STAIRS


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Chapt er 7 Topic 2
Page 11

Hinges
Each door has two hinges. The hinges are retractable. When the door is closed, they are
retracted into the side of the door and covered by pl ates. The hinges have to be extended
from their stowage before the door can be raised and opened. Each hinge has a ball joint
to allow the door to be raised and opened.
The top hinge of the forward service door is shown in Figure 2.10. The hinge behaviour as
the door is opened is shown in Figure 2.11 .
The hinges extend outwards through 90 as the door handle is turned through the first
11 0. Further rotation of the handle raises the door. When the handle has been rotated
through 200, the door is fully raised.
Figure 2 .10- Forward Service Door Top Hinge
The door rotates about li'lere to open and close
Door Partially Open

Hinge rotates about here and here to l'&tract and extend


Ooorframe

Edge ofthe door

BaU joint

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Volume 1

DOORS AND STAIRS


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Chapter 7 Topic 2
Page 12

Figure 2.11 - Hinge Behaviour as the Door is Opened


Door CloM<t

Handle Rotated Through 110"

Hinges
stowed

Hinges
extended

The door is not raised

Handle Rotated Through 200

BalljoEnt /

The door
is raised

The ball joint allow'S the door to be raised


and to be swung In and out of the frame
1-Vl -07-00015

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DOORS AND STAIRS


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Chapter 7 Topic 2
Page 13

Raising the Door


It is easy to rotate the handle through the first 110<>. Thereafter, the door has to be raised
and the force to operate the handle markedly increases.
The door is too heavy to be raised by manual effort alone. A counterbalance spring helps
raise 1he door. The spring is shown in Figure 2.12. The spring pushes on a lever that
pushes down on the tread plate on the bottom of the door frame. The lever is shown in
Figure 2.12 and Figure 2.13.
Figure 2.12- Counterbalance Spring
Door Lowered

Counter balance Spring

Tread pl:ate

Lever
Door Raised

The counterbalance spring


applies forco to the lever

The lever pushes down


on the tread plate

--'
1-v1 07 00018

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DOORS AND STAIRS


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Chapter 7 Topic 2
Page 14

Figure 2.13 - Door Raised from the Outside

The lever pushing down on the tread plate

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DOORS AND STAIRS


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Chapt er 7 Topic 2
Page 15

Guide Block and Spigot


The door must be moved up before it is moved outwards. The door must be in the door
frame when it is lowered and must remain in the door frame while the door is lowered.
A spigot on the door and a guide block on the door frame, guide the door in its vertical
path.
The spigot and guide block are shown in Figure 2.14. The function of the guide block and
spigot is shown in Figure 2.15.

Figure 2.14 - Spigot and Guide Block

- ...

Spigot

Guido Block

t-YHJ7~018

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Volume 1

DOORS AND STAIRS


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Chapter 7 Topic 2
Page 16

Figure 2 -15- Function of the Guide Block and Spigot

Guide block

The spigot moves In the guide block

---------J

When the spigot t$ In this part,


the door can only move up and down

--------------------J

When the spigot Is In this part,


the door can only move in and out

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DOORS AND STAIRS


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Chapter 7 Topic 2
Page 17

Plunger and Ramp


There is a ramp on the door frame above the guide block. A plunger on the door rides
along the ramp as the spigot moves through the guide block. The plunger is above the
spigot. The plunger is shown in Figure 2.16. The function of the plunger and ramp is
shown in Figure 2.17.
The ramp has two parts: a vertical ramp and a horizontal ramp. The two ramps slope away
from the door. The plunger is spring-loaded out of the door. As the plunger moves
outwards, it operates on mechanisms within the door. When the plunger is at the top of the
vertical ramp, the slide arming lever is baulked. Thus the slide cannot be armed once the
door has been opened. As the plunger moves along the horizontal ramp, the catch that
holds the door to the fuselage is released and the door opening handle is locked at OPEN.
When the door is closed, the plunger is pressed back into the door; the catch is re-stowed,
and the door opening handle is unlocked as the plunger moves back along the horizontal
ramp. As the plunger moves down the vertical ramp, the slide arming lever is freed.
Figure 2.16- Plunger

Plunger
The plunger is spring-loaded out of the door

Spigot

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Chapter 7 Topic 2
Page 18

Figure 2.17 - Function of the Ramp and Plunger

Guide block
The plunger rides up I he vertical ramp as the door is raised and the
plunger moves out of the door.
The plunger ndes atong the horizontal ramp as the door Is moved out of the frame
and the plunger moves further away from the door

i-vl-07..00021

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DOORS AND STAIRS


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Chapt er 7 Topic 2
Page 19

Baulk Blade
A baulk blade is on the door between the spigot and the plunger. The baulk blade is
shown in Figure 2. 18.
The blade is mechanically operated by the door opening handle. When the handle is at
OPEN or CLOSED, the blade is flush to the door edge. When the handle is between
OPEN and CLOSED, the blade is away from the door edge. When the blade is away from
the door edge, the blade will hit the door abutments if an attempt is made to move the door

out of the door frame.


The blade ensures that the handle is OPEN when the door is swung out of the frame so
that the handle lock engages when the door is swung out. Thus the door cannot be
lowered when it is open.
Figure 2.18 - Baulk Blade

-----+-

Spigot
Baulk blade

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Chapter 7 Topic 2
Page 20

Damper
The door has a damper. The damper is shown in Figure 2.19.
The damper prevents rapid movement of the door in gusty conditions.
When the door is being opened:

The door is not damped over the first 90.

The door is damped over the last 90.

When the door is being closed:

The front doors are damped over the first 135 but not damped over the last 45.

The rear doors are damped over the first 125 but not damped over the last 55.
Figure 2.19 - The Damper

Damper
f.vl-47-00023

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Volume 1

DOORS AND STAIRS


Passenger and Service Doors

Chapter 7 Topic 2
Page 21

Door not Closed Indicators

A cabin attendant's panel is above the forward service door. There are DOOR NOT
CLOSED LEOs in the bottom left corner of the panel. The LEOs are shown in Figure 2.20.
There are a pair of LEOs for each door, one above the other. The top LED is for the shoot
bolts; the bottom LED is for the door handle.
A SHOOT BOLT LED illuminates if either shoot bolt of the associated door is not fully
engaged in its retainer.
A DOOR HANDLE LED illuminates if the door handle is not in the CLOSED position.
The CABIN DOOR NOT SHUT caption illuminates if one or more of the DOOR NOT
CLOSED LEOs illuminates.

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DOORS AND STAIRS


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Chapter 7 Topic 2
Page 22

Figure 2.20- Vestibule Door not Closed Indicato rs

...

...

..

...

_,

......

POWER

D DD
...-
.... - - ~
- - -- =- 13
......

. . . MMe..

OOOIIIIJfCi.OIG'*DC:IlQIII

"''

..... ...,.

""'

...

...

_....:::::._

0.

""

DDDDD
---- .....

.. ... . .... .. .
.. . . . . ..... .
. . ... . .... .. .
.. ... . ... . ' ..
.. .. . . .. .... .

...

'

01111

ecM
_.,

......
-

J ........, ....

@]
~

...-uma

,_,

..... .....

DOOR NOT CLOSED INOICATORS

FRONT

LEFT

FRONT
RIGHT

REAR

LEFT

FCOM:V1-002

SHOOT
BOLT

RAR
RIGHT

DOOR
HANDLE

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DOORS A ND STAIRS
Passenger and Service Doors

Chapter 7 Topic 2
Page 23

Cabi n Door Warnings

The handle position and the two shoot bolt positions are monitored by micro switches. The
micro switches signal a logic circuit. The logic circuits signal:

The CAB DOOR NOT SHUT caption.

The CAB DOOR FAULT caption.

The door not closed LEOs in the forward vestibule: one for each door handle and
one for each door's pair of shoot bolts.

There is an A and a B micro switch circuit for each shoot bolt and for the handle.
If either the A or the B circuit detects that a shoot bolt is not in the closed position, the
shoot bolt LED and the CABIN DOOR NOT SHUT caption illuminate.
If either the A or the B circuit detects that the handle is not in the closed position, the
handle LED and the CABIN DOOR NOT SHUT caption illuminate.
If the A & B circuits for either shoot bolt of a door are in different positions (one closed and
the other not closed), the following illuminate:

The CAB DOOR FAULT caption, because the circuits are in different positions.

The associated shoot bolt LED indicator because one circuit is in the not closed
state.

The CAB DOOR NOT SHUT caption because one circuit is in the not closed state.

If the A & B circuits for a handle are in different positions (one closed and the other not
closed), the following illuminate:

The CAB DOOR FAULT caption because the circuits are in different positions.

The associated handle LED indicator because one circuit is in the not closed state.

The CAB DOOR NOT SHUT caption because one circuit is in the not closed state.

If the logic circuit for any door loses power, the CAB DOOR FAULT caption will illuminate;
the LEOs will not illuminate; and the CAB DOOR NOT SHUT caption will not illuminate.
Therefore, a CABIN DOOR FAULT caption on its own means that the door warnings have
been lost for a door; it does not imply that the door is not closed.

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Volume 1

DOORS AND STAIRS


Passenger and Service Doors

Chapter 7 Topic 2
Page 24

Figure 2.21 - Cabin Door Warnings


Logic Power supply

Power Supply B

Power Supply A

Switches shown In th e
not c losed position

Aft shoot
bolt switctl

Handle

Fwd shoot

switch

bOll swllcll

l ogic for one door

SHOOT

BOLT

___
~cu

'----t.__O
CAB DOOR
FAULT

CAB DOOR

NOT SHUT

_.

A or B circuit of either shoot boll


swlloh In tile not closed poslllon

A or B circuit or handle switcf1


in the no1 closed position

A & 8 droult of any mlcfo switch disagree


OR
Logic power supply lost

A or B circuli ot any micro SWllctl In the (IOl clOsed position


wt-07-<l0066

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DOORS AND STAIRS


Passenger and Service Doors

Chapt er 7 Topic 2
Page 25

Emergency Evacuation Slides


The evacuation slide is shown in Figures Figure 2.22 and Figure 2.23.
Each door has an emergency evacuation slide. The slide is stored in a stowage at the
bottom of the door. A slide arming handle is on the door above the slide stowage. The
handle is pushed in to arm the slide and pulled out to disarm the slide.

If the door is opened from the inside wit h the handle at the arm position, the slide is
automatically withdrawn from its stowage; the slide falls below the door sill and is then
automatically inflated by a gas cylinder. The pressure in the cylinder is displayed on a
gauge that can be seen through a window on the slide stowage. A green arc on the gauge
indicates that the pressure is satisfactory.
The slide is inflated with gas from the gas cylinder and ambient air drawn through an
aspirator on the side of the slide. The aspirator is shown in Figure 2.23.
The slide has a self contained lighting system: a battery and a set of halogen lights. The
lights automatically illuminate when the slide is fully inflated.

Figure 2.22 - Slide Handle and Pressure Gauge


Slide Arming Handle

Dlsarm&d posit ion

Evacuation slide stowage


1-1 -07-00026

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DOORS AND STAIRS


Passenger and Service Doors

Chapter 7 Topic 2
Page 26

Figure 2-23 - Evacuation Slide


Door Opening

Slide Deployed

Slide light.s
Slide falling out as the door Is opened

Aspirator
l-vl-0700027

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Chapt er 7 Topic 2
Page 27

Slide Arming Mechanism


The slide is attached to a girt bar. The girt bar is shown in Figure 2.24. When the slide
arming handle is at the ARM position. the girt bar expands into two floor brackets. The
brackets are shown in Figure 2.25.
The floor brackets are attached to the door sill. So, if the door is opened with the arming
handle at ARM, the girt bar remains on the door sill. A cable attached to the girt bar
releases the slide from its stowage; the slide falls downwards and the cable opens a valve
on the gas cylinder. The cylinder discharges into the aspirator assembly. The slide inflates
within three seconds with gas from the cylinder and air drawn in through the aspirator.
A handle on the girt bar can be used to manually open the valve on the cylinder if the valve
does not automatically operate.
When the slide is armed, it w ill deploy if the door is opened from the inside. If the door is
opened from the outside with the lever at ARM, the slide/raft should not deploy because
pulling the external handle out of its stowage moves the ARM/DISARM lever to DISARM.
Figure 2.24 - Girt Bar
Slide Stowage

Manutll valve opert1tlng handle

Girt bar

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Chapter 7 Topic 2
Page 28

Figure 2.25 - Floor Brackets

Door sill

Floo1r b rackets

IV1 0700029

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DOORS AND STAIRS


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Chapter 7 Topic 2
Page 29

Girt Bar Indications

The ARM/DISARM lever arms the emergency escape slide. The slide is armed when the
ARM/DISARM lever is pushed into its recess. At ARM, the slide is attached to its door sill
by the girt bar; the bar extends to engage with floor brackets on either side of the door sill.
Correct engagement is indicated by the yellow ends of the girt bar protruding through the
collars and red witness slots on the girt bar being hidden by the collars. Springs on the girt
bar should pass over a retaining lip on the inboard face of each collar when the girt bar is
fully engaged.
The girt bar indications are shown in Figure 2.26.

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DOORS AND STAIRS


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Chapter 7 Topic 2
Page 30

Figure 2 -26 - Girt Bar Indications

- - - - - Girt bar ends

Girt bar dlsenga~d

Girt bar partially engaged

Girt bar proporly engaged

i-vl-07-00030

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DOORS AND STAIRS


Passenger and Service Doors

Chapter 7 Topic 2
Page 31

Passenger and Service Door Locks

An external door lock may be installed into each of the passenger and service door
handles. The locks are introduced to improve aircraft security. The lock is key operated.
With the door in the closed position and handle stowed, the door handle can be locked
externally. The lock is a cam operated device located in the end of the door handle
assembly. When rotated, the key operates a cam which engages into a machined keep
attached to the door structure. In the locked position the handle is prevented from being
withdrawn from the door handle recess. Even when locked externally, the door handle can
be unlocked internally.
Lock Operation

To lock the door:


Insert key into lock and rotate 90 degrees clockwise until the lock mechanism
clicks.
Rotate key a further 180 degrees clockwise to lock the handle.
Rotate key 90 degrees anticlockwise and withdraw the key from the lock.
To unlock the door:
Insert key into lock and rotate 90 degrees clockwise until the lock mechanism
clicks.
Rotate key a further 180 degrees clockwise to unlock the handle.
Rotate key 90 degrees anticlockwise and withdraw key from the lock.
All Passenger and Service Doors with external door handle security locks must have the
locks in the open/unlocked position before operation of the aircraft.

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DOORS AND STAIRS


Passenger and Service Doors

Chapter 7 Topic 2
Page 32

Figure 2.27 - Forward Service Door Lock Position

Door handle

External door lock- - -1-

Door open cat ch - - -+--

i-123..00018

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Overview

The location of the lower doors is shown in Figure 3.1 .


There are doors for the following fuselage bays:

The avionics bay.

The hydraulic bay.


The forward cargo bay.

The aft cargo bay.


The air conditioning bay.

The APU bay.

Access to the avionics bay is also available through a hatch in the floor of the access aisle
to the flight deck. The hatch entrance is shown in Figure 3.2. A handle on the hatch
allows the hatch to be lifted up and be completely removed from the bay entrance. The
hatch entrance with the hatch removed is shown in Figure 3.3.
The avionics bay, the hydraulic bay and the cargo bays are pressurised. If any one of
these doors is not closed and locked, a LOWER DOOR NOT SHUT amber