Criteria for selecting analytical wavelengths for multicomponent analysis

© All Rights Reserved

42 vues

Criteria for selecting analytical wavelengths for multicomponent analysis

© All Rights Reserved

- 3. Acid & base
- World's Steel Guide
- Exam Three Practice Test Answers.pdf
- Lambert-Beer's Law UV-Visible Spectroscopy
- Stainless Studs
- Niobium: A discussion on mining, production and applications
- A Simple and Rapid Method for Colorimetric Determination of Histamine in Fish Flesh
- third_sem
- M6_1.6a Sample Analysis Report
- Vu Simultaneous Eqn
- Japanese Nonferrous Producers
- syllabous
- Lab 3
- AAS Manual 2002
- syllabus biomedical
- Conversion Cho to Phe
- Kristen-Thesis Optimization Tecnuqies
- PDF2
- marblestatuelab
- kineti

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 9

145

Printed

in The Netherlands

CRITERIA

FOR SELECTING

ANALYTICAL

WAVELENGTHS

FOR MULTICOMPONENT

MIXTURES

BY THE CPA MATRIX

METHOD

AND SIMULTANEOUS

SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC

DETERMINATION

OF NIOBIUM

AND TANTALUM

ZHENQING

WANG, JIANJUN

(Received 4th May 1987)

SUMMARY

The reversed matrix representation

of the Lambert-Beer

law (CPA matrix method) is applied

in simultaneous spectrophotometric

determinations.

Restrictions

on the selection of analytical

wavelengths in applying the CPA matrix method are investigated experimentally

and theoretically. Four criteria for selecting suitable wavelengths are described. A spectrophotometric

procedure for niobium and tantalum with salicylfluorone and cetyltrimethylammonium

bromide in the

presence of tartaric acid was developed and used for the simultaneous determination

of niobium

and tantalum by the CPA matrix method. The absorption maxima were at 520 and 513 nm, respectively. Measurements

at six wavelengths in the range 500-530 nm provided data from which

niobium (0.04-0.4 B ml-) and tantalum (0.08-0.8 pg ml-) were evaluated, with relative standard deviations of < 2%.

Spectrophotometric

determinations

of metal ions which have very similar

chemical properties always require preliminary

separation procedures, which

are usually lengthy and inconvenient

for routine analysis. In recent years, several studies have been reported on rapid methods for the simultaneous analysis

of multicomponent

mixtures [l-7]. Brown et al. [ 31 proposed the CPA matrix

method and applied it to the infrared spectrometric

analysis of two-component

organic mixtures. Later, Wang and Yan [8] expanded part of the CPA matrix

method to give a procedure for the simultaneous determination

of niobium and

tantalum but numerous experiments

and calculations were needed to select

analytical wavelengths, and the relative errors were large (some > 10% ).

In order to broaden the range of applications of the CPA matrix method in

inorganic analysis, the key problem is the selection of suitable analytical wavelengths, which is discussed in some detail in this paper. Four criteria for selecting the analytical w,avelengths are proposed and the concepts of correlated

wavelengths

and correlated

components

are used. The analytical wavelengths could then be selected rapidly and precisely, and the error caused by

poor selection of analytical wavelengths could be minimized. The reaction behavior and spectrophotometric

properties of niobium and tantalum with sali-

0003-2670/88/$03.50

B.V.

146

bromide, and the optimum reaction conditions for the simultaneous

spectrophotometric

determination

of niobium and tantalum are also described. After

the absorbances of the mixed ternary complex solutions of niobium and tantalum had been input to a computer, the amounts of niobium and tantalum

were obtained rapidly by calculations based on the CPA matrix method.

THEORY

Spectrophotometric

determinations

are based on the Lambert-Beer

law A

= abc, where A is the absorbance, a the absorptivity,

b the pathlength, and c

the concentration.

For a multicomponent

system, if the absorption spectra of

the components overlap and the absorbances of each of the components at each

of the analytical wavelengths are additive, the Lambert-Beer

law can be expressed, assuming constant pathlength, as

A, = i

K,C,

(i=1,2,.

. . m)

(1)

J=l

jth component at the ith wavelength, and C, is the concentration

of the jth

component. This provides a matrix A = KC [31.

In spectrophotometry,

the absorption spectra of a chromogenic reagent and

its metal complex usually overlap. Because the chromogenic reagent is usually

present in large excess, the absorbance provided by the reagent at the relevant

ith wavelength can usually be regarded as a constant.

Brown et al. [ 31 considered the absorbance as the independent variable and

reversed the usual Lambert-Beer

equation to e = PA (in matrix notation);

here, C is the concentration

of a component, P is the proportionality

between

A and C and A is the absorbance, If there is a deviation from the LambertBeer law, the curved relationship

between absorbance and concentration

can

be approximated

to a straight line over a limited region of interest by adding a

non-zero intercept [ 31. The system c = Pii can be solved for P by the usual

least-squares procedure [ 31.

Criteria for selecting analytical wavelengths

The key problem in applying the CPA matrix method to the determination

of several components

is the selection of a set of suitable analytical wavelengths. According to the theoretical analysis and experimental

results, it was

concluded that four criteria can be used for this selection.

Criterion 1. In a region in which the spectra of the components overlap, the

selected wavelengths should be distributed over the spectral range of larger

absorptivities

for each of the components

such that higher sensitivities

are

obtained for each component at that wavelength. This will provide higher sensitivities for each of the components.

147

Criterion 2. The absorptivities for each component at all the selected wavelengths should be neither equal nor proportional to one another; similarly, the

total absorptivities of the components at each selected wavelength should not

be the same. Obviously, the larger the better with regard to the difference between the ratios of the absorptivities of each of the components at each selected

wavelength.

The matrix representation of Eqn. 1 is as follows:

A,

AL?

.

.

.

.A,

Ii

Cl

G?

.

.

.

.G .

(2)

To determine the concentrations of each of the components in a multicomponent system, it is necessary to solve for column C when column A and the

proportionality K matrix are known. If m = n, then C = K-A. If m > n, K is

not square, hence c = PA, where P = (RET) -lRT.

Obviously, only if Rank (K ) = n, and the K matrix and RTii are non-singular, can their inverse be obtained. If Rank(K) < n, Eqn. 2 becomes indeterminant and column C cannot be solved. If some of the analytical wavelengths

selected are inappropriate, the rank of the K matrix may be decreased. This

decrease will happen in two cases. If the absorptivities of any two components

of the system at all the selected wavelengths are equal, or proportional, to each

other, two columns of the K matrix will be linearly correlated, so that Rank(K)

will decrease by one. Conversely, if the absorptivities of all the components at

any two selected wavelengths are equal, or proportional, to each other, two

rows of the K matrix will be linearly correlated, and if m= n, Rank(K) will

again decrease by one. In the first case, the two components are defined as

correlated components, in the second case, the two wavelengths are called correlated wavelengths.

Not all the correlated wavelengths will cause failure of the determination,

but if there are two correlated wavelengths, one of these wavelengths is actually

useless, which will introduce an error in the absorbance, and this error will be

transferred to the final results by the matrix calculations. If more correlated

wavelengths are used for the determination, Rank(K) may be decreased so

much as to cause failure of the determination. Therefore, the absorbances

should not be measured at correlated wavelengths.

Criterion 3. At the selected wavelengths, the relationship between the absorbances A and the concentration of each of the components must be linear

and the absorbances for each of the components must be additive, if the absorbance data are to be processed accurately with the present method.

148

Criterion 4. The number of the selected wavelengths must be larger than the

number of components. This is necessary because selecting more analytical

wavelengths can decrease the errors resulting from any careless selection of

correlated wavelengths. Experiments have shown that more than five analytical wavelengths should be selected for the determination of a two- or threecomponent system.

For the simultaneous determination of niobium and tantalum by means of

the colored Nb (Ta) /salicylfluorone/cetyltrimethylammonium

bromide complex system and the CPA matrix method, six analytical wavelengths (505,510,

513,516,520,525 nm) were selected in the range 500-530 nm. Fifteen standard

mixtures of niobium and tantalum were used to solve for the P matrix, and

satisfactory results were obtained for synthetic solutions of niobium and

tantalum.

EXPERIMENTAL

A Model UV-240 recording spectrophotometer (Shimadzu, Japan) and a

Model PC-1500 pocket computer (accessory CE-161, 16K RAM; Sharp, Japan) were used.

Standard solutions of niobium and tantalum (A). Transfer an accurately

weighed portion of Specpure Nb,O, (0.1430 g) or TazO, (0.1221 g) to a porcelain crucible. Add 5 g of potassium pyrosulfate, heat gently to evaporate any

water and then heat more strongly for about 30 min, until the melt is clear.

After cooling, leach the solid cake with 1 M tartaric acid. Transfer the solution

to a l-l volumetric flask and dilute to the mark with 1 M tartaric acid. A standard solution with 0.100 mg ml- Nb (Ta) is obtained. Dilute suitable aliquots

of the Nb (Ta) solution with 0.5 M tartaric acid to give working solutions (2.0

pg ml- Nb or 4.0 pg ml- Ta).

Standard solutions of niobium and tantalum (B). Transfer accurately weighed

Specpure Nbz05 (0.1430 g) or Ta205 (0.1221 g) to a porcelain crucible containing sodium carbonate (4.0 g) and heat at 950 C for 30 min. After cooling,

leach the solid cake with 0.5 M potassium hydroxide. Transfer to a l-l volumetric flask and dilute to 1 1 with the same solution. The solution contains

0.100 mg ml-l Nb (Ta). Dilute suitable aliquots with 0.5 M potassium hydroxide to give working solutions (2.0 hg ml-l Nb or 4.0 ,ug ml- Ta).

Prepare an ethanolic 1 x 10B3 M salicylfluorone (SaF) solution [9,10] from

the pure reagent in ethanol containing 0.1 M hydrochloric acid. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB) was dissolved in water. All other reagents

were prepared from analytical-grade reagents dissolved in distilled water.

149

tantalum

To a 25ml volumetric flask, transfer an aliquot of sample solution mixed by

standard solutions (A) containing niobium (O-10 pug) and tantalum

(O-20

pg). Add 2 ml of 2 M hydrochloric acid, 2.5 ml of 1.0~ 10m3 M salicylfluorone

and 3.0 ml of 1.0 x lo- M CTMAB. Dilute to the mark with distilled water

and mix well. After about 30 min, measure the absorbances in a l-cm glass cell

against the reagent blank at the selected wavelengths of 505,510,513,516,520

and 525 nm. Input the absorbance data to the PC-1500; then the concentrations of niobium and tantalum are calculated.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In order to investigate the effect of auxiliary complexing agents on the

Nb (Ta) /SaF/CTMAB

system, tartaric acid, citric acid, oxalic acid or sodium

fluoride was added to the standard KNb03 (KTa03) solution, and then the

recommended procedure was applied. The absorbance of the complex was measured at its absorption maximum (520 nm for Nb and 513 nm for Ta). The

results are shown in Fig. 1. As can be seen, in the absence of the auxiliary

complexing agent, the sensitivity for niobium or tantalum complex was low,

but changed significantly when the auxiliary complexing agent was added. Of

the four ligands tested, citric acid, oxalic acid and sodium fluoride had different

effects on the absorbances of the niobium and tantalum complexes, and so

could not be used as the auxiliary complexing agent for the simultaneous determination.

In contrast, tartaric acid provided similar moderate increases in

sensitivity for both the niobium and tantalum complexes, and could be used

over a wide range of concentration

in which the absorbances remained constant. Therefore, 0.08 M tartaric acid was chosen as the reaction medium for

further studies.

06-

1

Volume

added

(ml 1

12

14

(bl

10

Volume

added

(ml)

12

14

Fig. 1. Effect of auxiliary complexing agents on the absorbances of the niobium and tantalum

complexes: (a) niobium complex; (b ) tantalum complex. Auxiliary complexing agent: ( 1) 0.1 M

oxalic acid, (2) 0.1 M sodium fluoride; (3) 0.1 M citric acid, (4) 0.1 M tartaric acid.

150

sensitivity in hydrochloric acid solution than in other acid solutions. The optimum acidities for the niobium and tantalum complexes were found to be

0.08-0.2 M and 0.08-0.5 M hydrochloric acid, respectively. For the simultaneous determivrition of niobium and tantalum, the acidity chosen was 0.16 M

hydrochloric acid.

Absorption spectra of the reagent and complexes

The absorption spectra of the reagents and complexes of niobium and tantalum in the absence and in the presence of CTMAB are shown in Fig. 2. Niobium and tantalum did not react with SaF in the absence of CTMAB (curves 1

and 2 coincided), but when CTMAB was added to the systems, niobium and

08-

0.6 -

I-

a

04-

0.2 -

420

460

500

540

580

A (rim)

Fig 2. Absorption spectra: (1) 2.0 x 10e5 M SaF, (2) 2.0~ 10m5 M SaF with 4.0x 10e5 M Nb or

Ta; (3) 2.0x lOA M &F/1.2x

low3 M CTMAB; (4) 1.0x 10m4 M &F/1.2x

lop3 M CTMAB

with5.0x10-6MNb;

(5) 1.Ox10-4MSaF/1.2x10-3MCTMABwith5.Ox10~sMTa.Spectra

l-3 measured vs. water blank; spectra 4 and 5 measured vs. reagent blank.

Fig. 3. Absorption spectra of different concentrations of the niobium and tantalum complexes:

(l-10) 1,2 ,... 9,lO pgNb/25 ml); l-10) 2,4 ,... l&20 ,ugTa/25ml.

151

tantalum reacted to form orange complexes. The maximum absorption wavelengths for Nb/SaF/CTMAB

and Ta/SaF/CTMAB

are at 520 and 513 nm,

respectively

(curves 4 and 5). In the presence of CTMAB, the maximum absorption wavelengths of the reagent lies at 465 nm, so that ;1maxfor the niobium

and tantalum complexes are separated by 55 and 48 nm, respectively.

As calculated from the absorption spectra, the molar absorptivities

for the

niobium and tantalum complexes were 2.0 x lo5 (513 nm) and 2.1 x lo5 1 mol-

cm- (520 nm) respectively, and therefore provide very sensitive methods for

determining niobium and tantalum. From curves 4 and 5 (Fig. 2), it is evident

that the absorption spectra of the two complexes overlap, so that the mutual

interference

will be severe. In order to determine the concentrations

of niobium and tantalum simultaneously

in a solution by the CPA matrix method, it

is necessary to prove the linearity between the concentrations

and the absorbances of the components and to select the proper analytical wavelengths. The

absorption spectra of different concentrations

of Nb (Ta) complex are shown

in Fig. 3. From these spectra, it is clear that good sensitivity was provided over

the wavelength range 500-530 nm. Moreover, the relations between the absorbances and concentrations

showed good linearity for the ranges 0.04-0.4 ,ug

ml- niobium and 0.08-0.8 lug ml- tantalum and the absorbance were strictly

additive. Therefore, the analytical wavelengths were selected over the range

500-530 nm.

Effects of reagent concentrations, temperature and time

The absorbances of the niobium and tantalum complexes were found to reach

constant values when 1.5-3.0 ml of 1.0~ 10m3 M SaF was used, 2.5 ml was

chosen for the determination.

With more than 1.0 and 2.0 ml of 1.0 x 10e2 M

CTMAB, respectively, the niobium and tantalum complexes reached constant

absorbance values, therefore, 3.0 ml of 1.0 x 10V2 M CTMAB was chosen for

the simultaneous

determination

of the two elements.

At room temperature, the Nb/SaF/CTMAB

ternary complex formed slowly;

about 2 h was required to give a stable absorbance. In contrast, the Ta/SaF/

CTMAB complex developed very quickly, requiring only a few minutes. It was

found that when niobium and tantalum were present together, the color development was fast; only 30 min was needed for the niobium and tantalum

complexes to exhibit their highest absorbances,

i.e., the tantalum

system

speeded up the formation of the niobium complex. The absorbances of both

complexes were stable for at least 4 h.

Calibration of the P matrix

Fifteen standard mixtures containing various proportions

of niobium and

tantalum were used to calibrate the P matrix. The absorbances of the complexes were measured by the recommended procedure and these data were used

152

TABLE 1

The P matrix

-0.101

4.099

41.712

- 103.509

- 19.030

93.405

61.263

- 135.336

- 158.988

303.684

55.514

- 106.035

44.737

- 80.177

TABLE 2

Amounts of niobium and tantalum added in the synthetic sample mixtures (&25

ml)

Sample

10

Nb

Ta

9.0

1.0

8.5

2.0

7.0

6.0

6.0

8.0

5.5

9.0

4.5

11.0

3.0

14.0

2.0

16.0

2.5

18.0

0.5

19.0

TABLE 3

Amounts of niobium and tantalum found in the synthetic sample mixtures

Sample 1

Absorb. data

Sample 3

Absorb. data

Sample 5

Absorb. data

Sample 7

Absorb. data

Sample 9

Absorb. data

Al

A2

A3

A4

A5

A6

Al

A2

A3

A4

A5

A6

Al

A2

A3

A4

A5

A6

Al

A2

A3

A4

A5

A6

Al

A2

A3

A4

A5

A6

0.511

0.618

0.684

0.738

0.769

0.723

0.575

0.683

0.735

0.764

0.759

0.679

0.609

0.712

0.752

0.766

0.738

0.636

0.638

0.738

0.762

0.754

0.693

0.564

0.678

0.782

0.798

0.777

0.694

0.543

Calc. cont.

Cl

9.058

c2

0.970

Calc. cont.

Cl

6.958

c2

5.999

Calc. cont.

Cl

5.458

c2

9.169

Calc. cont.

Cl

2.974

c2

14.142

Calc. cont.

Cl

1.470

c2

17.802

Sample 2

Absorb. data

Sample 4

Absorb. data

Sample 6

Absorb. data

Sample 8

Absorb. data

Sample 10

Absorb. data

Al

A2

A3

A4

A5

A6

A 1

A2

A 3

A 4

A 5

A6

A

A

A

A

A

A

A 1

A 2

A 3

A4

A5

A 6

A

A

A

A

A

A

0.525

0.631

0.695

0.745

0.768

0.716

Calc. cont.

Cl

8.587

c2

2.040

0.587

0.691

0.736

0.756

0.737

0.645

Calc. cont.

C1

5.897

C2

7.998

1

2

3

4

5

6

0.610

0.712

0.745

0.751

0.711

0.601

Calc. cont.

Cl

4.391

C2

11.127

0.636

0.735

0.754

0.739

0.668

0.530

Calc. cont.

c 1

1.934

C2

15.974

1

2

3

4

5

6

0.675

0.781

0.796

0.770

0.679

0.520

Calc. cont.

Cl

0.493

c 2

19.599

*AI-& are the absorbances of the mixture solution measured at six analytical wavelengths; C, and

C, are the amounts of niobium and tantalum found in the synthetic sample mixture (pg/25 ml),

respectively.

153

1500 computer.

as printed

by the PC-

Ten sample mixtures containing arbitrary proportions of niobium and tantalum (see Table 2 ) were used to examine the proposed method. The amounts

of niobium and tantalum found are presented in Table 3 (as printed out). The

results are in good agreement with the added amounts. Statistical analysis

showed that the mean relative standard deviations were 1.78% for niobium

and 1.66% for tantalum.

The standard deviations show clearly that the CPA matrix method with the

Nb(Ta)/SaF/CTMAB

systems provides an effective method for the simultaneous determination

of niobium and tantalum which should find many applications. Moreover, the CPA matrix method should be applicable to the

simultaneous determination

of a larger number of components with very close

absorption maxima.

REFERENCES

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

C. Jochum, P. Jochum and B.R. Kowalski, Anal. Chem., 53 (1981) 85.

C.W. Brown, P.F. Lynch, R.J. Obremski andD.S. Lavery, Anal. Chem., 54 (1982) 1472.

M.A. Maris, C.W. Brown and D.S. Lavery, Anal. Chem., 55 (1983) 1694.

I.E. Frank, J.H. Kalivas and B.R. Kowalski, Anal. Chem., 55 (1983) 1800.

M.A. Korany, A.M. Wahbi, 5. Mandour and M.A. Elsayed, Anal. Lett., 18(Bl) (1985) 21.

G.R. Ramos, M.C.G. Alvarez-Coque, R.M.V. Camanas and C.M. Fernandez, Spectrochim.

Acta, Part A, 42 (1986) 771.

B. Wang and T. Yan, Fenxi Huaxue, 14 (1986) 182.

G.S. Petrova, D.M. Lukin andE.E. Balkevich, Zh. Prikl. Khim. (Leningrad), 43 (1970) 1644.

H. Sano, Bull. Chem. Sot. Jpn., 31 (1958) 974.

- 3. Acid & baseTransféré parFaisal Mohad Al Sakhen
- World's Steel GuideTransféré parValerio Russo
- Exam Three Practice Test Answers.pdfTransféré parBUCH203
- Lambert-Beer's Law UV-Visible SpectroscopyTransféré parSharanya Srinivasan
- Stainless StudsTransféré parNestrami
- Niobium: A discussion on mining, production and applicationsTransféré parNiels Cautaerts
- A Simple and Rapid Method for Colorimetric Determination of Histamine in Fish FleshTransféré parmuratout3447
- third_semTransféré parRizwan Islam
- M6_1.6a Sample Analysis ReportTransféré parDarwin E Purba
- Vu Simultaneous EqnTransféré paryathishm
- Japanese Nonferrous ProducersTransféré parsemihsunkar
- syllabousTransféré parNitin Grover
- Lab 3Transféré parRahul Goel
- AAS Manual 2002Transféré parAllif Rahman
- syllabus biomedicalTransféré parS Shruti Shekhar
- Conversion Cho to PheTransféré parJuan Zarazua
- Kristen-Thesis Optimization TecnuqiesTransféré paruqurx
- PDF2Transféré parboom_ittipat
- marblestatuelabTransféré parapi-287235370
- kinetiTransféré paranungdroid
- 00139245Transféré parskh_1987
- 00502327.pdfTransféré parJoyce George
- Ti,Crco,Su316lTransféré parAbdul Aziz Nasution
- Beer-Lambert Law.docxTransféré parRen Galimba
- 12 Mathematics EMTransféré parselbal
- Role of Vanadium in Microalloyed Steels--Lagneborg.pdfTransféré parYogi173
- Lecture19 With ExamplesTransféré parAF Iut
- Simbologia Tratamientos y VariosTransféré paragustin
- Chemistry Dictionary.pdfTransféré parMuhammad Younus
- Analysis of DNA Content of Wild and Cultured Labeo Calbasu Hamilton, 1822 Using NanophotometerTransféré parEditor IJTSRD

- Advertisement Guidelines Services Edited Mab 6 2011Transféré pariabureid7460
- Novel Spectrophotometric Methods for Simultaneous DeterminationTransféré pariabureid7460
- ch04.pdfTransféré pariabureid7460
- Liquid LiquidTransféré parjoiyya
- Toolkit on Standard Operating Procedures March 2013Transféré pariabureid7460
- gmp-trainers-manual.pdfTransféré pariabureid7460
- Multilevel Multifactor Designs for MultivariateCalibrationTransféré pariabureid7460
- Analytical Chemistry Volume 59 Issue 17 1987 [Doi 10.1021_ac00144a725] Beebe, Kenneth R.; Kowalski, Bruce R. -- An Introduction to Multivariate Calibration and AnalysisTransféré pariabureid7460
- A Review on Uv Spectrophotometric Methods for SimultaneousTransféré pariabureid7460
- 1CLEANING VALIDATION EDDY EDDY.pdfTransféré parEddy Teran
- Design Spaces for Analytical MethodsTransféré pariabureid7460
- Quality by Design (Qbd) a Comprehensive Understanding of ImplementationTransféré pariabureid7460
- determination-of-thiomersal-lidocaine-and-phenylepherine-in-their-ternary-mixture.2157-7064.1000199.pdfTransféré pariabureid7460
- Determination of Amlodipine Using TerbiumTransféré pariabureid7460
- Shah Nov 2009Transféré pariabureid7460
- 01 How to Identify CQA CPPTransféré par刘朝阳
- Session4 Monge Karem PresTransféré pariabureid7460
- Amer Gamal Pres Session11Transféré pariabureid7460
- Case_Study_RMWG-05_-_Packaging_Line_Optimization.pdfTransféré pariabureid7460
- Effective Implementation of a Risk Management Program Jan 29, 2013.pdfTransféré parAjay Kumar
- White Paper on UNIDO’s GMP Roadmap ConceptTransféré pariabureid7460
- Training BookTransféré pariabureid7460
- The Use of Redox Reactions in the AnalysisTransféré pariabureid7460
- Utility of Oxidation–Reduction ReactionTransféré pariabureid7460
- Application of oxidants to the spectrophotometric determination.pdfTransféré pariabureid7460
- A Simple Method for Spectrophotometric DeterminationTransféré pariabureid7460
- Alternative Graphical Methods for the SpectrophotometricTransféré pariabureid7460

- MSDS_MOBIL TEMP 78Transféré pardanish007
- Dr.-AK-Mittal.pdfTransféré parDinko Novak
- Surge Control Considerations in Centrifugal CompressorsTransféré par586301
- NGW-1 Conversion List Issue 2.199Transféré parbrain72
- Complete Chemical Analysis of portland cementTransféré parHazem Diab
- BlueprintingTransféré parandycapo123
- Sea Floor SpreadingTransféré parLindsey LL
- C4e 3 'Group 7 [the Halogens]' HW SheetTransféré parNeen Naaz
- Probability of Symbol Error of OFDM System With 3D Signal ConstellationsTransféré parkhajarasool_sk
- Reservoir Rock and Fluid Properties IITransféré parMuhammad Nursalam
- SH 07 12 as Service ManualTransféré paranon_329876928
- Photo DegradationTransféré parMaica Caguiat
- Beer s Law POGILTransféré parPushpanjali Verma
- 1512724342Module 14 Typesofmatrices1(2Transféré parVishal Sharma
- Acid CuringTransféré parBlecet Kusdinar Davinci
- Unit 1 Lect-5Material Science SRM 1st year Unit 1 LECTURE NOTES-6Transféré parECE A SRM VDP
- Katalog Maxbrio Vibroripper v1.0 EngTransféré parFlorin Hangan
- Methane.pdfTransféré parBiswajit Mohanty
- Chapter 22 InstructorSolutionsManualTransféré parNg Swee Loong Steven
- BPJV08I01P103-106Transféré parsha3107
- Edexcel GCE Physcis 2008 Unit 4 mock exam 15_16 with mark schemeTransféré parPaul Burgess
- 5 - HVAC Handbook - New Edition - Part.5 - Water ConditioningTransféré parIsak Tao
- plate tectonics web quest studentTransféré parapi-264220584
- Mott - Applied Strength Materials 5th (Solutions Manual) - DocumentsTransféré parParmar Bhavin
- George Novac - The Construction Types Evolution of Internal Combustion Marine EnginesTransféré parGeorge Novac
- Specification for Transmission Electron MicroscopeTransféré parRaigond
- 3ME5568-Chapter 2_Lecture WINDTransféré parArmando Rodríguez Cevallos
- Water Shift Gas Rx in HysysTransféré parriloadd
- 300SMRevCTransféré parRodrigo Rivera
- Articulo de Restauradora IITransféré parKatherine Chuchuca

## Bien plus que des documents.

Découvrez tout ce que Scribd a à offrir, dont les livres et les livres audio des principaux éditeurs.

Annulez à tout moment.