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Introduction to Criminology

Criminology - the scientific study of crime and criminal behavior and law enforcement.
3 Main School of Thought
1. Classical school
2. Positivist school
3. Chicago school
Classical school - based on utilitarian philosophy developed in the 18th century. This school of
1. That people have free will to choose how to act.

2. Deterrence is based upon the notion of the human being as a hedonist who seeks pleasur

3. Punishment of sufficient severity can deter people from crime as the cost (penalties) outw

4. The more swift and certain the punishment, the more effective it is in deterring criminal b
Prominent Philosophers of Classical school
1. Cesare Becarria - author of crimes and punishment.

2. Jeremy Bentham - inventor of the panopticon - type of institutional building designed to

Positivist school - presumes that criminal behavior is caused by internal and external factor

Positivism can be broken in 3 segments which include:

1. Biological
2. Psychological
3. Social - - one of the largest contributors
to biological positivism and founder of
the Italian school of criminology is Cesare

Italian School

Cesare Lombroso - an Italian doctor and sometimes regarded as the father of criminolog

Enrico Ferri - a student of Lombroso, believe that social as well as biological factors play

Sociological positivism - suggest that societal factors such as poverty, membership of

1. Adolphe Quetelet - made use of data and statistical analysis to gain insight into relation

2. Rawson W. Rawson - utilized crime statistics to suggest a link between population dens

3. Joseph Fletcher and John Glyde - also presented papers to the statistical society of Lon

4. Henry Mayhew - used empirical methods and an ethnographic approach to address soci

5. Emile Durkheim - viewed crime as an inevitable aspect of society with uneven distributi

Chicago school - arose in the early 20th century, through the work of Robert Park, Ernest Burge

Edwin Sutherland - suggested that people learn criminal behavior from older, more exp

2 Main difference between the classical and positivist schools of criminology

Classical school
Positivist school
1.Free will
1. Determinism
2. Philosophy
2. Scientific methods

De minimis - is an addition to a general harm principle. The general harm principle fails to cons
Thanatos - a death wish.

Tagging - like labeling, the process whereby an individual is negatively defined by agencies of j
Criminology Consists of 3 Principal Divisions
1. Sociology of Law - which is an attempt at scientific
analysis of the conditions under which criminal law
influences society.
2. Criminal Etiology - which is an attempt at scientific
analysis of the study of causes or reasons for
3. Penology - concerned with control crime by
repressing criminal activities through the fear of
Crime - is a wrong doing classified by the state as a felony or misdemeanor.
Felony - is a serious crime punishable by at least one year in prison.

Misdemeanor - is a crime for which the punishment is usually a fine and/or up to one year in ja
*Crimes are defined and punished by statutes and by
the common law.
Etiology - study of causes and reasons for crime.

Atavism - the view that crime is due to a genetic throwback to a more primitive and aggressive

Elements Necessary For A Crime To Occur

1. Desire or motivation on the part of the criminal.
2. The skills and tools needed to commit the crime.
3. Opportunity.
Spree killer - is someone who embarks on a murderous assault on 2 or more victims in a short
Spree killing - killings at two or more locations with almost no time break between murders.

Spree murder - two or more murders committed by an offender/offenders without a cooling off

Serial murder - two or more murders committed by an offender/offenders with a cooling off pe

Mass murderer - are defined by one incident with no distinctive time period between the murd

Thrill killing - a premeditated murder committed by a person who is not necessarily suffering f
Victimology -studies the nature and cause of victimization.
Psychology - the scientific study of the human mind and its functions.

Psychiatry - the branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorde
Ecology - the environment as it relates to living organisms.
Demography - the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations.

Epidemiology - the branch of medical science dealing with the transmission and control of dise
Anthropology - the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of humans.
Impulse - a sudden strong urge or desire to act.
Kleptomania - is an irresistible impulse to steal in the absence of economic motive.
Prototype - is a standard or typical example.
Pathological - is caused by or evidencing a mentally disturbed condition.

Introduction To Criminology Reviewer 1

1. The field of criminology is a multi-disciplinary science. One of its
aspect is the study of crime focused on the group of people and
society which is known today as:
A. Criminal Psychology
B. Criminal Sociology
C. Criminal Psychiatry
D. Criminal Etiology
2. Macho means
A. assertive
B. angry
C. heroic
D. stubborn
3. Bilious means
A. wealthy
B. puffed out
C. bad tempered
D. irritable
4. Hypothetical means
A. Temporary
B. Exaggerated
C. Provable
D. Assumed
5. The theory in which reformation is based upon, on the ground
that the criminal is a sick person.
A. Positivist Theory
B. Classical Theory
C. Neo Classical School
D. Sociological Theory
6. It is defined as a crime where a person of respectability and
high social status in the course of his or her occupation commits
the criminal act.
A. Labor Crimes
B. Organized Crimes
C. High Collar crimes
D. White collar crime
7. The strict code of conduct that governs the behavior of the Mafia
members is called ___.
A. Omerta

B. Triad
C. Silencer
D. Mafioso
8. The groups of crimes categorized as violent crimes (Index crimes)
and property crimes (Non Index crimes) are called ___.
A. Conventional crimes
B. Non-conventional Crimes
C. Felony
D. Offense
9. What is the literal meaning of the term Cosa Nostra?
A. This thing of ours
B. Omerta
C. Two Things
D. 5th estate
10. The criminal activity by an enduring structure or organization
developed and devoted primarily to the pursuit of profits through
illegal means commonly known as ___.
A. Organized crime
B. Professional Organization
C. White collar crime
D. Blue collar crime
11. One of the following represents the earliest codification of the
Roman law, which was incorporated into the Justinian Code.
A. 12 Tables
B. Burgundian Code
C. Hammurabic Code
D. Code of Draco
12. The generic term that includes all government agencies,
facilities,programs, procedures, personnel, and techniques
concerned with the investigation, intake, custody, confinement,
supervision, or treatment of alleged offenders refers to:
A. Correction
B. Penology
C. Criminal Justice
D. the base pillar
13. The Italian leader of the positivist school of criminology, who was
criticized for his methodology and his attention to the biological
characteristics of offenders, was:
A. C Lombroso
B. C Beccaria
C. C Darwin

D. C Goring
14.The theory in criminology, which maintains that a person commits
crime or behaves criminally mainly because he or she is being
possessed by evil spirits or something of natural force that
his/her behavior is called:
A. Devine Will Theory
B. Demonological Theory
C. Classical Theory
D. All of these
15. Criminology changes as social condition changes. This means
the progress of criminology is concordant with the advancement
of other sciences that has been applied to it. This means that
criminology is _____.
A. Dynamic
B. Excellent
C. Progressive
D. None of these
16. In as much as crime is a societal creation and that it exist in a
society, its study must be considered a part of social science.
This means that criminology is __.
A. Applied science
B. Social Science
C. Natural Science
D. All of these
17. The term white- collar crime was coined by
A. E. Sutherland
B. R. Quinney
C. E. Durkheim
D. C. Darwin
18. What is means of "R" in the criminal formula?
A. Total Situation
B. Criminal Tendency
C. Temperament
D. none of these
19. His key ideas are concentrated on the principle of "Survival
of the Fittest" as a behavioral science. He advocated the
"Somatotyping Theory".
A. W Sheldon
B. R Merton
C. E Sutherland

D. Ivan Nye
20. When someone is tagged as criminal, he or she may reject it or
accept it and go on to commit crime.
A. Rational Choice Theory
B. Control Theories
C. Labelling Theory
D. Social Disorganization Theory

Answers: Introduction to Criminology