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Spatial Analysis

called network data. Besides spatial operations, several

methods of spatial analysis are applicable to network data.

6. Spatial Analysis

6. Spatial Analysis

6.7.1 Introduction

Analysis in Geography, Edward Arnold.

network, while others consider metric properties of the

network.

The former is called 'topological analysis' while the latter

is 'metric analysis'.

6. Spatial Analysis

Topological analysis

regarded as equivalent if they can be transformed with

each other by the rubber sheeting operation without

changing their spatial structure. Equivalent objects are

called isomorphic objects.

6. Spatial Analysis

of a network; whether two nodes are directly connected,

how many links a node is connected to, etc.. Consequently,

analysis of isomorphic networks yields the same result.

6. Spatial Analysis

because it regards the network as a 'graph'.

The term 'graph' refers to a representation of the

topological structure of a network, which neglects the

length, shape, and other attributes of links.

6. Spatial Analysis

6. Spatial Analysis

Metric analysis

Terminology

topological but also geometric properties of a network,

say, the length, direction, and curvature of links.

Graph

A graph is a set of nodes and their connecting links.

Subgraph:

A subgraph is a part of a graph. It consists of a subset of

nodes and links of the original graph.

6. Spatial Analysis

Connected graph

A connected graph is a graph whose nodes are connected

directly or indirectly with each other.

Disconnected graph

A disconnected graph is a graph in which some nodes are

not connected either directly or indirectly with each other.

A disconnected graph consists of a set of connected graphs,

which are called connected elements.

Figure: A graph and its subgraphs

6. Spatial Analysis

Planar graph

A planar graph is a graph in which links intersect only at

nodes.

Non-planar graph

A non-planar graph is a graph in which some links

intersect at points between nodes.

6. Spatial Analysis

by an isomorphic transformation into a planar graph.

6. Spatial Analysis

Complete graph

A complete graph is a graph in which every pair of nodes

is connected directly by one link.

6. Spatial Analysis

Circuit

A circuit is a set of links that starts from a node, visits

several nodes, and returns to the starting node. If a circuit

visits every node only once, the circuit is called a simple

circuit.

Loop

A loop is a link whose ends are the same node.

6. Spatial Analysis

Tree graph

A tree graph is a graph that does not contain a circuit.

Figure: Loops

6. Spatial Analysis

connected directly by more than one link. Loops can also

exist in graph theory.

6. Spatial Analysis

6. Spatial Analysis

directly by only one link. Loops are not permitted.

network in terms of the connectivity among nodes,

whether links are dense enough to provide a certain level

of accessibility among nodes.

Network analysis is important in transportation planning,

because the accessibility of residents to urban facilities is

evaluated on a road network.

6. Spatial Analysis

they represent traffic networks.

Consequently, we evaluate the connectivity among nodes

by measuring the density of links.

6. Spatial Analysis

6. Spatial Analysis

1) index

n: Number of nodes

l: Number of links

c: Number of connected elements

A network is well-connected if l is relatively larger than n.

Connectivity measures thus evaluate l in comparison with

n.

index is defined by

=ln+c

A dense network has a large , which implies that nodes

are well connected.

Among connected graphs (c=1) a tree graph has the

smallest . This indicates that, given a set of nodes, tree

graphs are the most efficient graphs to connect all the

nodes.

6. Spatial Analysis

6. Spatial Analysis

2) index

maximum number of links. It is given by the complete graph,

that is, n(n-1)/2.

If we consider only planar graphs, the maximum number of

links is 3n-6, which gives the maximum , 2n-5. The domain

of is

0 2n 5

Dividing by its maximum 2n-5, we obtain

2n 5

ln+c

2n 5

graphs.

0 1

6. Spatial Analysis

6. Spatial Analysis

3) index

4) index

index is defined by

l

=

n

The domain of for planar graphs is

3n 6

n

l

3n 6

3n 6

0

n

0 1

6. Spatial Analysis

6. Spatial Analysis

connected by links. They provide a simple and efficient

way of evaluating accessibility among nodes.

0.00

0.00

3.00

5.00

0.00

0.00

0.60

1.00

0.80

0.80

1.40

1.80

0.44

0.44

0.78

1.00

and connected elements. They drop detailed information

about network connection, so they often cannot

distinguish different graphs.

6. Spatial Analysis

connectivity among nodes. In this sense they are global

measures.

Accessibility measures, on the other hand, are local

measures because they are defined for every node.

Accessibility measures evaluate the accessibility from a

node to the other nodes.

6. Spatial Analysis

Terminology

3

3

In graph theory, the distance between two nodes is

defined as the minimum distance on the network.

3

2

Topological distance between two nodes is defined as the

minimum distance on the network, where the length of all

the links is set to one. Consequently, topological distance

between two nodes is the minimum number of links that

connect the nodes.

6. Spatial Analysis

1) Knig number

4

4

farthest node. Any node is located within the topological

distance given by the Knig number.

4

3

4

2

6. Spatial Analysis

accessibility in the network, that is, it is located at the

'center' of the network. In transportation network, nodes

of small Knig numbers are convenient locations in terms

of accessibility to other nodes.

6. Spatial Analysis

diameter of a network. The diameter of a network is the

distance between the farthest pair of nodes, that is, the

maximum Knig number.

If a graph has a round shape, its diameter is relatively

small. A graph of an elongated shape has a large diameter.

6. Spatial Analysis

2) Simbel number

distances to the other nodes.

describes the accessibility of a node to other nodes, and

consequently, evaluates the locational convenience of the

node.

6. Spatial Analysis

18

18

17

12

25

18

20

13

topological structure of networks. Connectivity measures

are defined by only the number of nodes, links, and

connected elements. Accessibility measures are calculated

from topological distance between nodes.

13

In metric analysis, on the other hand, we consider not

only topological but also metric properties of a network,

say, the length, curvature, and shape of links and the flow

on the network.

6. Spatial Analysis

6. Spatial Analysis

Terminology

Notation

Length of a link

In topological analysis, the length of a link is always set to

one because it is the topological distance between adjacent

two nodes. In metric analysis, on the other hand, the

length of a link is defined by a metric measure such as the

Euclidean distance, network distance, or time distance.

n:

l:

d i:

Dij:

D:

fi:

The number of links

The length of link i

The distance between nodes i and j

The diameter of a network (D = max Dij )

i, j

The flow on link i

6. Spatial Analysis

6. Spatial Analysis

1) index

diameter of the network. Mathematically it is defined as

The domain of is

1

If a graph is disconnected, we calculate for each

connected element separately and average the indices.

are well-connected and that the network is conveniently

structured.

6. Spatial Analysis

6. Spatial Analysis

2) index

connectivity measure while the latter an accessibility

measure.

1 =

the nodes are closely related with each other. A large 1,

consequently, which reflects a large flow on the network,

suggests that the nodes are well connected.

6. Spatial Analysis

6. Spatial Analysis

1) index

the accessibility of nodes on a network.

value, which implies high accessibility among nodes.

6. Spatial Analysis

6. Spatial Analysis

2) index

3) Degree of circuity

2 =

(l e )

links, and consequently, high accessibility among nodes.

link i. If links are close to straight lines, this index shows a

small value, which indicates that high accessibility among

nodes.

6. Spatial Analysis

6.7.6 Application

1. to evaluate existing transportation networks,

2. to analyze transportation networks in relation to

landuse patterns, and

3. to analyze urban development process.

10

6. Spatial Analysis

Homework Q.6.5

expressways, and evaluate its connectivity by using

quantitative measures.

11

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