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(i) - Taxis and kinesis allows individuals to associate their

environments with a
stimulus such as light, temperature, pH, etc.
- The environment may create conditions that the individual
would rather spend more time in finding shelter rather than
practicing courtship.
(ii) Taxis and kinesis increases an individuals alertness of their
surroundings and will initiate a faster
response against predators, towards food sources, etc.
(b) Curve A depicts the population density of a large herbivore. This
is relatively stable as these animals would be in the center of
the food chain. They will have enough food and the strength to
combat some predators. Curve B reflects a small herbivore
whose population starts out very large (many eggs) but quickly
decreases due to being overcome by predators. Curve C shows
a carnivore these animals are born in smaller amounts but are
closer to the top of the food chain. Their longer lives allow them
to die off after old age as a new wave comes in.


- Bacteria can be a producer as it converts carbon into O 2

during photosynthesis. This allows energy for the
rest of the ecosystem.
- Bacteria can also act as a parasite inflicting upon its host
through disease (aka pathogen), causing a +/- relationship.
This means that population size can be regulated, balancing
the entire ecosystem.
- Bacteria is a decomposer as it clears out dead waste.
Otherwise these nutrients wouldnt be recycled and our
ecosystem would be polluted.

As the forest evolves, conditions will become more suitable for

more species and more habitats will be created. There will also
be more food sources available and the consumers will be able
to establish more of a diverse diet.
(b) The soil will become much richer with organic matter, allowing a
larger retaining of water. Light and temperature will decrease
due to shading, so certain species can live within the cooler


environment. Humidity will also increase due to more

transpiration the evaporation of plants.
Volcano: In the short term, no soil will exist. In the long term,
the lava will dry up and allow fungi to form. Light will eventually
attract organisms to live there.
- Deforestation: In the short term, soil will exist and not every
life will be killed. In the long term, there may be erosion but
species will return once the succession of plants grows.


Energy flows through the ecosystem by a process called

photosynthesis. During this process, sunlight is converted into
cellular energy to be used by individuals. When smaller
individuals are eaten by larger ones, the energy transfers
through all trophic levels.
(b) Deforestation: More CO2 will be released into the atmosphere
because trees will not be there to absorb the excess. These
trees are also primary producers, and will not be able to act as
food for higher levels of individuals. This will disrupt the
ecosystem. Habitats will be destructed not only for those who
live in the trees, but also those who lived in the trees shade or
cooler temperatures.
- Global climate change: The number of producers will change,
as will the amount energy and respiration. Ecosystems will be
replaced with less productive ones, as individuals attempt to
survive meanwhile adjusting to the new environments.

Species C is experiencing exponential growth because are very

well fit for survival in their environment. They have no
predators, lots of food, and beat out their competitors.
(b) Species C may have overpowered species B. According to the
Competitive Exclusion Principle, two similar species using the
same resources will not be able to live together. One must gain
dominance and eliminate the other. Species C seems to not
have affected species A because they are not battling for the
same foods and shelters. Their environment requirements are
completely different and do not interact with each other much.


In 2014, the population may stabilize itself. The area should hit
its carrying capacity and there will only be enough resources for
a certain number of individuals.
(d) Invasive species are successful in colonizing in new places
because they have no predators. They may have an abundant
food source and not much competition for it. They have strong
successes with finding mates and reproducing more individuals
to join their thriving community.
During Phase A, the population is going through exponential
growth. Their numbers are rapidly rising. They could be successful
in a new habitat with no predators or lots of food.
Phase B has fluctuations because it is now beginning to reach
its carrying capacity. When the population goes over, it is affected
by the repercussions of crowdedness or lack of food left. It may
also suffer from natural disasters including fire, flood, etc.
R-traits are when an animal gives birth to many offspring but
many die soon after birth. K-traits are when an animal gives birth
to a few offspring but they survive a long life. R traits appear to be
less stable in the overall population due its lack to defend of
predators or lack of strength to find food. K-traits are much more
stable and can provide for themselves for a longer amount of