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Chapter 6 - Aircraft Propulsion - Level 2

Chapter 6 - Aircraft Propulsion - Level 2 The Reciprocating Engine At the end of this

The Reciprocating Engine

At the end of this block of study, you should be able to:

  • Define energy, potential energy, and kinetic energy.

  • Explain the application of Boyle's and Charles' laws to the operation of a reciprocating engine.

  • Identify the seven major parts of a reciprocating engine.

  • Identify the actions in one complete cycle of a four-stroke reciprocating engine.

  • Describe the difference between a fixed-pitch and a variable-pitch propeller.

  • Explain how a propeller creates thrust.

  • Discuss the effect "feathering" has on a propeller.

Reciprocating engines power the conventional vehicles that we use for transportation, work, and pleasure. Reciprocating engines provide power for our automobiles, lawn mowers, tractors, motorcycles, boats, trains, airplanes, and a multitude of other devices used in today's modern lifestyle.

All reciprocating engines are basically the same. They have the same major parts; most of them use liquid fuel; and all of them require an ignition system, a cooling system, and a lubrication system. The term reciprocating is the common denominator; it means that certain parts move back and forth in a straight-line motion. This straight-line motion has to be changed to rotary motion in order to turn the wheels of automobiles and trains and the propellers of boats and airplanes. You will understand how this is done as you read and think about what is written and shown in this chapter.

Chapter 6 - Aircraft Propulsion - Level 2 The Reciprocating Engine At the end of this

AIRCRAFT TURBINE AND RAMJET ENGINES

At the end of this block of study, you should be able to:

  • Describe the operation of a turbojet engine.

  • List the advantages of the turbofan engine.

  • Describe the operation of a turboprop engine.

  • Explain the operation of the ramjet engine.

All modern, powered airplanes that do not use reciprocating engines as their source of thrust use some type of turbine engine. The word turbine means whirl and refers to any type of wheel device that has vanes attached to it in a manner that will cause the wheel to turn as the vanes are struck by the force of a moving fluid. Remember, air is a fluid. The turbine principle is also used to generate electricity by flowing water striking a turbine that is linked to a generator. Another method of generating electricity is to direct high-pressure steam against a turbine which is linked to a generator.

Turbine engines found in aircraft use the force of hot, flowing gases striking a turbine. Some of these engines are geared to propellers which are similar to the types of propellers used with reciprocating engines. The turbine engine has also found widespread use as the source of power for military and civilian helicopters. In helicopters, the turbine is linked by gears to the helicopter's rotors in a manner that can be compared to the turbine-driven propellers for airplanes. Remembering that all turbine engines operate according to the same principles, let's briefly discuss the different types: the turbojet, the turbofan, and the turboprop.

Sections in this Chapter:

SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES AND TERMS

<a href=Section 6.5 - TURBOFAN ENGINES Section 6.6 - TURBOPROP ENGINES Section 6.7 - RAMJET ENGINES Section 6.8 - REVIEW EXERCISE SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES AND TERMS Energy. Energy is the force behind the movement of all things. Animals (including humans) use food as their energy source for life and movement. Mechanical or inanimate objects use fuel energy to perform work. What is energy? Let's review what you probably have already learned in school. The word ENERGY as defined in physics, is "the capacity for doing work and overcoming resistance." Unless it is doing work, energy is known as potential energy (stored energy) . The fuel (usually gasoline) used to power reciprocating engines is potential energy up to the moment it is mixed with air (oxygen) and burned. When potential energy is released from its source and causes movement of an object, it becomes kinetic energy (active energy) . Thus. the movement of the parts of a reciprocating engine is an example of the potential energy of the fuel having been changed to kinetic energy. Potential and kinetic are broad classifications of energy. Energy is also given several other titles depending on the form it is in at a given moment. That is, energy can be changed from one form to another, so various titles are used to describe the forms. As examples: Heat energy can be changed into mechanical energy; mechanical energy can be changed into electrical energy; and electrical energy can be changed into heat, mechanical, or light energy. Boyle's and Charles' Laws. Boyle's law states that the volume of a gas varies inversely with the pressure on it (see figure 6-1 ). This means that any confined gas will double its pressure if its volume is decreased by one-half. If we have a cylinder in which ordinary air is present at 14.7 pounds per square inch (psi) and we rammed an airtight piston into the cylinder one-half the length of the cylinder, the pressure of the gas, or air, would " id="pdf-obj-2-24" src="pdf-obj-2-24.jpg">

Energy.

Energy is the force behind the movement of all things. Animals (including humans)

use food as their energy source for life and movement. Mechanical or inanimate objects use fuel energy to perform work. What is energy? Let's review what you probably have already learned in school. The word ENERGY as defined in physics, is "the capacity for doing work and overcoming resistance." Unless it is doing

work, energy is known as potential energy (stored energy). The fuel (usually gasoline) used to power reciprocating engines is potential energy up to the moment it is mixed with air (oxygen) and burned.

When potential energy is released from its source and causes movement of an

object, it becomes kinetic energy (active energy). Thus. the movement of the parts of a reciprocating engine is an example of the potential energy of the fuel having been changed to kinetic energy.

Potential and kinetic are broad classifications of energy. Energy is also given several other titles depending on the form it is in at a given moment. That is, energy can be changed from one form to another, so various titles are used to describe the forms. As examples: Heat energy can be changed into mechanical energy; mechanical energy can be changed into electrical energy; and electrical energy can be changed into heat, mechanical, or light energy.

Boyle's and Charles' Laws.

Boyle's law states that the volume of a gas varies inversely with the pressure on it (see figure 6-1 ). This means that any confined gas will double its pressure if its volume is decreased by one-half. If we have a cylinder in which ordinary air is present at 14.7 pounds per square inch (psi) and we rammed an airtight piston into the cylinder one-half the length of the cylinder, the pressure of the gas, or air, would

double to 29.4 psi. Then, if we were to ram the piston an additional one-half of the remaining distance in the cylinder, the pressure would increase to 58.8 psi.

double to 29.4 psi. Then, if we were to ram the piston an additional one-half of

What happens when the reverse is tried? Let's suppose that we begin with the piston in one-half the length of the cylinder. (The pressure within the cylinder is 14.7 psi.) If the piston were extracted quickly to the full length of the cylinder, what do you think would happen to the pressure within the cylinder? It would be reduced by one-half, to become 7.35 psi. We can say this another way. When the volume of a confined gas is doubled, its pressure is reduced by one-half.

As a general summary of Boyle's law, you should remember that a decrease in volume causes an increase in pressure. An increase in volume causes a decrease in pressure.

When the piston in a cylinder moves inward and outward, increasing and decreasing the pressure of a confined gas, what is happening to the temperature of the gas? Charles' law states, the pressure and temperature of a confined gas are directly proportional. Thus, when the piston in a cylinder moves inward and compresses the gas, the temperature of the gas increases. How much the temperature increases depends on how far the piston t ravels.

While an aircraft engine is operating, these two laws are being applied. It is through the understanding of these and related laws of physics that engineers have been able to improve the efficiency of engines.

Section 6.2

RECIPROCATING-ENGINE OPERATING PRINCIPLES

RECIPROCATING-ENGINE OPERATING PRINCIPLES The reciprocating engine is also known as an internal-combustion engine. This name ispropeller by the connecting rod and the crankshaft, just as in most automobiles. Note the crankshaft, connecting rod, and piston arrangement in Figure 6- and imagine how the movement of the piston is converted to the rotary motion of the crankshaft. Note particularly how the connecting rod is joined to the crankshaft in an offset manner. The valves at the top of the cylinder open and close to let in a mixture of fuel and air and to let out, or exhaust, burned gases from the combustion chamber. The opening " id="pdf-obj-4-4" src="pdf-obj-4-4.jpg">

The reciprocating engine is also known as an internal-combustion engine. This name is used because the fuel mixture is burned within the engine. To understand how a reciprocating engine works, we must first study its parts and the functions they perform.

The seven major parts are:

(1) The cylinders (2) The pistons (3) The connecting rods (4) The crankshaft (5) The valves (6) The spark plugs (7) A valve operating mechanism (cam). Refer to the relative location of these parts in Figure 6-2 .

Engine Operation.

RECIPROCATING-ENGINE OPERATING PRINCIPLES The reciprocating engine is also known as an internal-combustion engine. This name ispropeller by the connecting rod and the crankshaft, just as in most automobiles. Note the crankshaft, connecting rod, and piston arrangement in Figure 6- and imagine how the movement of the piston is converted to the rotary motion of the crankshaft. Note particularly how the connecting rod is joined to the crankshaft in an offset manner. The valves at the top of the cylinder open and close to let in a mixture of fuel and air and to let out, or exhaust, burned gases from the combustion chamber. The opening " id="pdf-obj-4-14" src="pdf-obj-4-14.jpg">

The cylinder is closed on one end (the cylinder head), and the piston fits snugly in the cylinder. The piston wall is grooved to accommodate rings which fit tightly against the cylinder wall and help seal the cylinder's open end so that gases cannot escape from the combustion chamber. The combustion chamber is the area between the top of the piston and the head of the cylinder when the piston is at its uppermost point of travel. The up-and-down movement of the piston is converted to rotary motion to turn the propeller by the connecting rod and the crankshaft, just as in most automobiles. Note the crankshaft, connecting rod, and piston arrangement in Figure 6- and imagine how the movement of the piston is converted to the rotary motion of the crankshaft. Note particularly how the connecting rod is joined to the crankshaft in an offset manner. The valves at the top of the cylinder open and close to let in a mixture of fuel and air and to let out, or exhaust, burned gases from the combustion chamber. The opening

and closing of a valve are done by a cam geared to the crankshaft. This gearing arrangement ensures that the two valves open and close at the proper times.

Now let's consider the movement of the piston (four strokes) and the five events of a cycle (see figure 6-3 ).

and closing of a valve are done by a cam geared to the crankshaft. This gearinghere. 1. The Intake Stroke The cycle begins with the piston at top center; as the crankshaft pulls the piston downward, a partial vacuum is created in the cylinder chamber. The cam arrangement has opened the intake valve, and the vacuum causes a mixture of fuel and air to be drawn into the cylinder. 2. & 3. Compression and Ignition Stroke As the crankshaft drives the piston upward in the cylinder, the fuel and air mixture is compressed. The intake valve has closed, of course, as this upward stroke begins. As the compression stroke is completed and just before the piston reaches its top position, the compressed mixture is ignited by the spark plug. " id="pdf-obj-5-6" src="pdf-obj-5-6.jpg">

To see the animation 6-3 press here.

and closing of a valve are done by a cam geared to the crankshaft. This gearinghere. 1. The Intake Stroke The cycle begins with the piston at top center; as the crankshaft pulls the piston downward, a partial vacuum is created in the cylinder chamber. The cam arrangement has opened the intake valve, and the vacuum causes a mixture of fuel and air to be drawn into the cylinder. 2. & 3. Compression and Ignition Stroke As the crankshaft drives the piston upward in the cylinder, the fuel and air mixture is compressed. The intake valve has closed, of course, as this upward stroke begins. As the compression stroke is completed and just before the piston reaches its top position, the compressed mixture is ignited by the spark plug. " id="pdf-obj-5-11" src="pdf-obj-5-11.jpg">

1. The Intake Stroke

The cycle begins with the piston at top center; as the crankshaft pulls the piston downward, a partial vacuum is created in the cylinder chamber. The cam arrangement has opened the intake valve, and the vacuum causes a mixture of fuel and air to be drawn into the cylinder.

2. & 3. Compression and Ignition Stroke

As the crankshaft drives the piston upward in the cylinder, the fuel and air mixture is compressed. The intake valve has closed, of course, as this upward stroke begins. As the compression stroke is completed and just before the piston reaches its top position, the compressed mixture is ignited by the spark plug.

4.

Power Stroke

The very hot gases expand with tremendous force, driving the piston down and turning the crankshaft. The valves are closed during this stroke also.

  • 5. Exhaust Stroke

On the second upward (or outward, according to the direction the unit is pointed) stroke, the exhaust valve is opened and the burned gases are forced out by the piston. At the moment the piston completes the exhaust stroke, the cycle is started again by the intake stroke. Each piston within the engine must make four strokes to complete one cycle, and this complete cycle occurs hundreds of times per minute as the engine runs.

The overall principles of reciprocating-engine operation are easy to understand if you remember what happens with each stroke that the piston makes. For this reason, you may find the chart in Table 6-3 helpful.

 

Table 6-3

 

Direction of

Event (what

Movement

happens)

  • 1. Inward (Down)

Intake

  • 2. Outward (Up)

Compression and Ignition

  • 3. Inward (Down)

Power

  • 4. Outward (Up)

Exhaust

Reciprocating-Engine Horsepower.

Most persons are acquainted with the term horsepower as applied to automobile and aircraft reciprocating engines. The term was coined by James Watt, the inventor of the steam engine, who wished to evaluate the power output of his steam engine.

Watt hitched a horse to an apparatus and determined that the horse could lift 550 pounds one foot in one second. Thus, one horsepower became the power to lift 550 pounds one foot per second, or 33,000 foot-pounds per minute (550 x 60).

If an aircraft reciprocating engine is rated at 150 horsepower, it means the engine is capable of producing this much power. However, the engine has to be running at a

certain speed before that much power is produced. The same is true for all other types of reciprocating engines.

Section 6.3 - PROPELLERS

certain speed before that much power is produced. The same is true for all other types

We can say that the propeller is the action end of an aircraft's reciprocating engine, because it converts the useful energy of the engine into thrust as it spins around and around. The propeller has the general shape of a wing, but the camber and chord (curvature and cross- sectional length) of each section of the propeller are different, as shown in Figure 6- 4 . The wing provides lift upward, while the propeller provides lift forward. The wing has only one motion which is forward, while the propeller has forward and rotary motion. The path of these two motions is like a corkscrew as the propeller goes through the air (see figure 6-5 ).

Like a wing, a propeller blade has a thick leading edge and a thin trailing edge. The blade back is the curved portion and is like the top of a wing. The blade face is comparatively flat and corresponds to the underside of a wing (see figure 6-6 for definitions of blade back and blade face). The blade shank is thick for strength and fits into a hub which is attached to the crankshaft directly or indirectly. The outer end of the blade is called the tip.

certain speed before that much power is produced. The same is true for all other types
certain speed before that much power is produced. The same is true for all other types

Blade pitch is loosely defined as the angle made by the chord of the blade and its plane of rotation, as shown in Figure 6-6 . When the angle is great, the propeller is said to have high pitch. A high-pitch propeller will take a bigger bit of air and move the aircraft farther forward in one rotation than will a low-pitch propeller.

Propellers may be classified as to whether the blade pitch is fixed or variable. The demands on the propeller differ according to circumstances. For example, in takeoffs and climbs more power is needed, and this can best be provided by low pitch. For speed at cruising altitude, high pitch will do the best job. A fixed- pitch propeller is a compromise.

Blade pitch is loosely defined as the angle made by the chord of the blade andg ardless of altitude or forward speed. Click here to see examples of early aviation propellers . The constant-speed propellers have a full-feathering capability. Feathering means to turn the blade approximately parallel with the line of flight, thus equalizing the pressure on the face and back of the blade and stopping the propeller. Feathering is necessary if for some reason the propeller is not being driven by the engine and is windmilling, a situation that can damage the engine and increase drag on the aircraft. Most controllable-pitch and constant-speed propellers also are capable of being reversed. This is done by rotating the blades to a negative or reverse pitch. Reversible propellers push air forward, reducing the required landing distance as well as reducing wear on tires and brakes. Section 6.4 - TURBOJET ENGINES " id="pdf-obj-8-9" src="pdf-obj-8-9.jpg">

There are two types of variable-pitch propellers adjustable and controllable. The adjustable propeller's pitch can be changed only by a mechanic to serve a particular purpose-speed or power. The controllable-pitch propeller permits pilots to change pitch to more ideally fit their requirements at the moment. In different aircraft, this is done by electrical or hydraulic means. In modern aircraft, it is done automatically, and the propellers are referred to as constant-speed propellers. As power requirements vary, the pitch automatically changes, keeping the engine and the propeller operating at a constant rpm. If the rpm rate increases, as in a dive, a governor on the hydraulic system changes the blade pitch to a higher angle. This acts as a brake on the crankshaft. If the rpm rate decreases, as in a climb, the blade pitch is lowered and the crankshaft rpm can increase. The constant-speed propeller thus ensures that the pitch is always set at the most efficient angle so that the engine can run at a desired constant rpm regardless of altitude or forward speed. Click here to see examples of early aviation propellers.

The constant-speed propellers have a full-feathering capability. Feathering means to turn the blade approximately parallel with the line of flight, thus equalizing the pressure on the face and back of the blade and stopping the propeller. Feathering is necessary if for some reason the propeller is not being driven by the engine and is windmilling, a situation that can damage the engine and increase drag on the aircraft.

Most controllable-pitch and constant-speed propellers also are capable of being reversed. This is done by rotating the blades to a negative or reverse pitch. Reversible propellers push air forward, reducing the required landing distance as well as reducing wear on tires and brakes.

Section 6.4 - TURBOJET ENGINES

The turbojet uses a series of fan-like compressor blades to bring air into the engine and

The turbojet uses a series of fan-like compressor blades to bring air into the engine and compress it. An entire section of the turbojet engine performs this function, which can be compared to the compression stroke of the reciprocating engine. In this section, there is a series of rotor and stator blades. Rotor blades perform somewhat like propellers in that they gather and push air backward into the engine. The stator blades serve to straighten the flow of this air as it passes from one set of rotor blades to the next (see figure 6-7 ).

The turbojet uses a series of fan-like compressor blades to bring air into the engine and

As the air continues to be forced further into the engine, it travels from the low- compression set of rotors and stators to the high-compression set. This last set puts what we might say is the final squeeze on the air.

The combustion chamber receives the high-pressure air, mixes fuel with it, and burns the mixture. The hot, very high-velocity gases produced strike the blades of the turbine and cause it to spin rapidly. The turbine is mounted on a shaft which is connected to the compressor. Thus, the spinning is what causes the compressor sections to function. After passing the turbine blades, the hot, highly accelerated gases go into the engine's exhaust section.

The exhaust section of the jet engine is designed to give additional acceleration to the gases and thereby increase thrust. The exhaust section also serves to straighten the flow of the gases as they come from the turbine. Basically, the exhaust section is a cone mounted in the exhaust duct. This duct is also referred to as the tailpipe. The

shape of the tailpipe varies, depending on the design operating temperatures and the speed-performance range of the engine.

With all the heat produced in the turbojet engine, you probably wonder how it is kept from overheating. Like most aircraft reciprocating engines, the jet is also air- cooled. Of all the air coming into the compressor section, only about 25 percent is used to produce thrust; the remaining 75 percent passes around the combustion chamber and turbine area to serve as a coolant.

Section 6.5 - TURBOFAN ENGINES

shape of the tailpipe varies, depending on the design operating temperatures and the speed-performance range of

The turbofan engine has gained popularity for a variety of reasons. As shown in Figure 6-8, one or more rows of compressor blades extend beyond the normal compressor blades. The result is that four times as much air is pulled into the turbofan engine as in the simple turbojet. However, most of this excess air is ducted through bypasses around the power section and out the rear with the exhaust gases. Also, a fan burner permits the burning of additional fuel in the fan airstream. With the burner off, this engine can operate economically and efficiently at low altitudes and low speeds. With the burner on, the thrust is doubled by the burning fuel, and it can operate on high speeds and high altitudes fairly efficiently. The turbofan has greater thrust for takeoff, climbing, and cruising on the same amount of fuel than the conventional turbojet engine.

shape of the tailpipe varies, depending on the design operating temperatures and the speed-performance range of

With better all-around performance at a lower ate of fuel consumption, plus less noise resulting from its operation, it is easy to understand why most new jet-powered airplanes are fitted with turbofan engines. This includes military and civilian types.

Jet Engine Thrust.

The force produced by a jet engine is expressed in terms of pounds of thrust. This is a measure of the mass or weight of air moved by an engine times the acceleration of the air as it goes through the engine. Technically, if the aircraft were to stand still and the pressure at the exit plane of the jet engine was the same as the atmospheric pressure, the formula for the jet engine thrust would be:

weight of air in pounds per second

X velocity

Thrust = -------------------------------------------------------------- 32.2 (normal acceleration due to gravity, in feet per second 2 )

Imagine an aircraft standing still, capable of handling 215 pounds of air per second. Assume the velocity of the exhaust gases to be 1,500 feet per second. The thrust would then be:

215 lbs of air per second Thrust = --------------------------- X 1,500 feet per second= 6.68 X 1,500 = 32.2 feet per second 2 Thrust = 10,020 lbs

If the pressure at the exit plane is not the same as the atmospheric pressure and the aircraft were not standing still, the formula would be somewhat different (See Level

3).

It is not very practical to try to compare jet engine output in terms of horsepower. As a rule of thumb, however, you might remember that at 375 miles per hour (mph), one pound of thrust equals one horsepower; at 750 mph, one pound of thrust equals two horsepower.

Section 6.6 - TURBOPROP ENGINES

With better all-around performance at a lower ate of fuel consumption, plus less noise resulting fromSee Level 3 ) . It is not very practical to try to compare jet engine output in terms of horsepower. As a rule of thumb, however, you might remember that at 375 miles per hour (mph), one pound of thrust equals one horsepower; at 750 mph, one pound of thrust equals two horsepower. Section 6.6 - TURBOPROP ENGINES The turboprop engine is an effort to combine the best features of turbojet and propeller aircraft . The first is more efficient at high speeds and high altitudes; the latter is more efficient at speeds under 400 mph and below 30,000 feet. The turboprop uses a gas turbine to turn a propeller. Its turbine uses almost all the engine's energy to turn its compressor and propeller, and it depends on the propeller for thrust, rather " id="pdf-obj-11-33" src="pdf-obj-11-33.jpg">

The turboprop engine is an effort to combine the best features of turbojet and

propeller aircraft. The first is more efficient at high speeds and high altitudes; the latter is more efficient at speeds under 400 mph and below 30,000 feet. The turboprop uses a gas turbine to turn a propeller. Its turbine uses almost all the engine's energy to turn its compressor and propeller, and it depends on the propeller for thrust, rather

than on the high-velocity gases going out of the exhaust. Strictly speaking, it is not a jet. Study Figure 6-9 and note how the turbine turns the compressors and the propeller.

The gas turbine can turn a propeller with twice the power of a reciprocating engine. Reduction gears slow the propeller below the turbine's rpm, and this must be done because of the limitations of propellers. That is, no propeller is capable of withstanding the forces generated when it is turned at the same rate as that of the gas turbine. Even so, the turboprop engine receives fairly extensive use in military and civilian aviation circles.

than on the high-velocity gases going out of the exhaust. Strictly speaking, it is not apropeller with twice the power of a reciprocating engine. Reduction gears slow the propeller below the turbine's rpm, and this must be done because of the limitations of propellers. That is, no propeller is capable of withstanding the forces generated when it is turned at the same rate as that of the gas turbine. Even so, the turboprop engine receives fairly extensive use in military and civilian aviation circles. In summary, aircraft turbine engines may be classified as turbojet, turbofan, or turboprop. As a group, the turbine engines have many advantages over reciprocating engines, the most obvious being the capability of higher-altitude and higher-speed performance. Vibration stress is relieved as a result of rotating rather than reciprocating parts. Control is simpler because one lever controls both speed and power. With the large airflow, cooling is less complicated. Spark plugs are used only for starting, and the continuous ignition system of reciprocating engines is not needed. A carburetor and mixture control are not needed. The major disadvantages have been the high fuel consumption and poor performance at low power setting, low speeds, and low altitudes. Turboprop and turbofan developments have greatly improved aircraft turbine engines in these areas. Section 6.7 - RAMJET ENGINES The ramjet engine is the simplest type of the all-jet engines because it has no moving parts. Figure 6-10 shows a typical arrangement of the parts of a ramjet engine. Note that it may have an internal body that serves to compress the air as it enters the intake. " id="pdf-obj-12-8" src="pdf-obj-12-8.jpg">

In summary, aircraft turbine engines may be classified as turbojet, turbofan, or turboprop. As a group, the turbine engines have many advantages over reciprocating engines, the most obvious being the capability of higher-altitude and higher-speed performance. Vibration stress is relieved as a result of rotating rather than reciprocating parts. Control is simpler because one lever controls both speed and power. With the large airflow, cooling is less complicated. Spark plugs are used only for starting, and the continuous ignition system of reciprocating engines is not needed. A carburetor and mixture control are not needed.

The major disadvantages have been the high fuel consumption and poor performance at low power setting, low speeds, and low altitudes. Turboprop and turbofan developments have greatly improved aircraft turbine engines in these areas.

Section 6.7 - RAMJET ENGINES

than on the high-velocity gases going out of the exhaust. Strictly speaking, it is not apropeller with twice the power of a reciprocating engine. Reduction gears slow the propeller below the turbine's rpm, and this must be done because of the limitations of propellers. That is, no propeller is capable of withstanding the forces generated when it is turned at the same rate as that of the gas turbine. Even so, the turboprop engine receives fairly extensive use in military and civilian aviation circles. In summary, aircraft turbine engines may be classified as turbojet, turbofan, or turboprop. As a group, the turbine engines have many advantages over reciprocating engines, the most obvious being the capability of higher-altitude and higher-speed performance. Vibration stress is relieved as a result of rotating rather than reciprocating parts. Control is simpler because one lever controls both speed and power. With the large airflow, cooling is less complicated. Spark plugs are used only for starting, and the continuous ignition system of reciprocating engines is not needed. A carburetor and mixture control are not needed. The major disadvantages have been the high fuel consumption and poor performance at low power setting, low speeds, and low altitudes. Turboprop and turbofan developments have greatly improved aircraft turbine engines in these areas. Section 6.7 - RAMJET ENGINES The ramjet engine is the simplest type of the all-jet engines because it has no moving parts. Figure 6-10 shows a typical arrangement of the parts of a ramjet engine. Note that it may have an internal body that serves to compress the air as it enters the intake. " id="pdf-obj-12-16" src="pdf-obj-12-16.jpg">

The ramjet engine is the simplest type of the all-jet engines because it has no moving parts. Figure 6-10 shows a typical arrangement of the parts of a ramjet engine. Note that it may have an internal body that serves to compress the air as it enters the intake.

The spray bar injects a mist of fuel into the airstream and the mixture is ignited

The spray bar injects a mist of fuel into the airstream and the mixture is ignited by a spark. The grill-type flame holder provides a type of barrier to the burning mixture while allowing hot, expanding gases to escape through the exhaust nozzle. The high- pressure air coming into the combustion chamber keeps the burning mixture from effectively reacting toward the intake end of the engine.

Ramjets will not function until enough air is coming through the intake to create a high-pressure flow. Otherwise, the expanding gases of the burning fuel-air mixture would be expelled from both ends of the engine. As you can see, this would amount to a single explosive reaction. Therefore, the ramjet has to be traveling through the air very fast before it is started. This means that it has to be boosted to the proper speed by some other type of engine.

In theory, the ramjet engine has no maximum speed; it can keep accelerating indefinitely as long as it stays within the atmosphere. In practice, the ramjet is limited, at this time, to low hypersonic speeds (five times the speed of sound) because atmospheric friction will melt it. The biggest drawback of the ramjet is its high rate of fuel consumption.

The spray bar injects a mist of fuel into the airstream and the mixture is ignited