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Chapter 5: Nucleic Acids, Gene Expression, and

Recombinant DNA Technology


Matching
A)

diploid

B)

phosphodiester

C)

probe

D)

pyrimidine

E)

introns

F)

cloning

G)

transformed

H)

exons

I)

ampicillin

J)

autoradiography

K)

chain-terminator

L)

purine

1. Cytosine, uracil, and thymine are structural derivatives of ______.


Ans: D
Section 5-1. Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids
Difficulty: Easy

2. Nucleotides are linked by a ______ bond.


Ans: B
Section 5-1. Nucelotides and Nucleic Acids
Difficulty: Easy

3. Experiments by Avery and colleagues proved that DNA was the substance that _____ a nonpathogenic pneumococcus strain to a virulent strain.
Ans: G
Section 5-2. DNA is the Carrier of Genetic Information
Difficulty: Easy

4. Experiments by Avery and colleagues proved that DNA was the substance that _____ a nonpathogenic pneumococcus strain to a virulent strain.
Ans: G
Section 5-5. Molecular Cloning
Difficulty: Easy

5. Certain plasmids contain genes for resistance to ______.


Ans: I
Section 5-5. Molecular Cloning
Difficulty: Easy

6. After hybridization, the fragment of interest can be detected by ______.


Ans: J
Section 5-3. Double Helical DNA
Difficulty: Easy

7. Eukaryotic genes often contain regions that are transcribed and later excised from the RNA,
called ______.
Ans: E
Section 5-4. Gene Expression and Replication: An Overview
Difficulty: Easy

Multiple Choice
8. What group is attached to the ring in thymine and is not found on uracil?
A) ribose

B) CH3
C) NH3
D) OCH3
E) none of the above

Ans: B
Section 5-1. Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids
Difficulty: Easy

9. Nucleotides contain phosphate groups bonded to the:


A) C3 or C5 atoms
B) C3 or C3 atoms
C) C5 or N9 atoms
D) C3 or N9 atoms
E) none of the above

Ans: A
Section 5-1. Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids
Difficulty: Easy

10. The most common tautomeric form of the purine and pyrimidine bases in nucleic acids is
the:
A) enol form
B) imino form
C) keto form
D) ester form
E) none of the above

Ans: C
Section 5-3. Double Helical DNA
Difficulty: Easy

11. Which of the following DNA sequences is (are) palindromic?


A) AGCT
B) AAGNCTT
C) AGGA
D) A and B
E) A and C

Ans: D
Section 5-5. Molecular Cloning
Difficulty: Difficult

12. In order to perform PCR, the following reagents must be included:


A) DNA fragment, primers flanking the region of interest, dNTPs, DNA Polymerase
B) DNA fragment, primers flanking the region of interest, dNTPs, ddNTPS, DNA Polymerase
C) DNA fragment, one primer, dNTPs, DNA Polymerase, DNA ligase
D) DNA fragment, primers flanking the region of interest, dNTPs, DNA Ligase
E) none of the above
Ans: A
Section 5-5. Molecular Cloning
Difficulty: Moderate

13. Which of the following statements about PCR is (are) true?


A) Small amounts of DNA can be easily amplified to millions of copies.

B) PCR is used in forensic and clinical diagnosis.


C) PCR reaction products can be used in cloning
D) A and B
E) A, B and C

Ans: E
Section 5-5. Molecular Cloning
Difficulty: Difficult

14. A gene knockout is:


A) a gene that has been inactivated or removed from an organism.
B) a dominant gene that knocks-out expression of other genes.
C) a gene inserted in place of another gene.
D) a particularly attractive gene.
E) none of the above

Ans: A
Section 5-5. Molecular Cloning
Difficulty: Moderate

15. AMP refers most directly to:


A) adenosine
B) adenylic acid
C) adenomethyl purine
D) adenine
E) all of the above

Answer: B
Section 5-1. Nucleotides and Nucleic Acid
Difficulty: Moderate

16. Free nucleotides are almost always associated with ______ in cells.
A) proteins
B) cholesterol
C) Cl- counterions
D) fatty acids
E) Mg2+ counterions

Answer: E
Section 5-1. Nucleotides and Nucleic Acid
Difficulty: Easy

17. By convention, the sequence of nucleotide residues in a nucleic acid is written ___________
starting with the ____ end.
A) left to right; 3
B) right to left; 3
C) left to right; 5
D) right to left; 3
E) top to bottom; 3

Answer: C
Section 5-1. Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids
Difficulty: Easy

18. Chartgraffs rules for DNA state that:

A) G+C = 39-46% in mammals


B) A=U and G=C
C) the minor groove is shallower than the major groove
D) A=T and G=C
E) the sense strand is a right-handed helix
Answer: D
Section 5-1. Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids
Difficulty: Easy

19. In a large part, Francis and Cricks proposal of a double-helical structure for DNA was based
on evidence from:
A) NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy
B) IR (infrared) spectroscopy
C) atomic force microscopy
D) electron microscopy
E) x-ray crystallography

Answer: E
Section 5-3. Double Helical DNA
Difficulty: Easy

20. RNA occurs primarily as single strands, often giving rise to _______ structures.
A) diploid
B) stem-loop
C) parallel
D) tautomeric
E) haploid

Answer: B
Section 5-4. Gene Expression and Replication: An Overview
Difficulty: Easy

21. Genomic DNA is ______, producing _________.


A) transcribed; mRNA
B) translated; tRNA
C) transcribed; protein
D) translated; protein
E) translated; rRNA

Answer: A
Section 5-4. Gene Expression and Replication: An Overview
Difficulty: Easy

22. Polynucleotides are cleaved at recognition sites within the strands by:
A) bacteriophages
B) DNA ligase
C) type III restriction endonucleases
D) reverse transcriptase
E) type II restriction endonucleases

Answer: E
Section 5-5. Molecular Cloning
Difficulty: Moderate

23. The production of multiple identical organisms from a single ancestor is called ________.

A) DNA ligation
B) phenotyping
C) cloning
D) transcription
E) sequencing

Answer: C
Section 5-5. Molecular Cloning
Difficulty: Easy

24. Small circular DNA molecules used to carry foreign DNA are called ________.
A) mRNAs
B) bacteriophage
C) clones
D) plasmids
E) nucleotides

Answer: D
Section 5-5. Molecular Cloning
Difficulty: Easy

25. In molecular cloning, transformed organisms must be identified. One common method for
accomplishing this involves the addition of a gene for ________.
A) transcription
B) X-gal
C) exonuclease activity
D) colony migration

E) antibiotic resistance

Answer: E
Section 5-5. Molecular Cloning
Difficulty: Moderate

26. A genomic library


A) is a storehouse of protein structures for a specific organism
B) contains all of an organisms DNA
C) contains only protein-coding DNA sequences
D) is best constructed from very short DNA fragments
E) is built from mRNA by reverse transcription

Answer: B
Section 5-5. Molecular Cloning
Difficulty: Moderate

27. In situ hybridization often uses radioactively labeled probes. When probing for a gene
containing the sequence AGCTAACGGG (standard notation), the probe should have a
sequence containing
A) just TT; in order to recognize all related genes
B) TGCCC, in order to bind selectively to the 3 end of the gene of interest
C) CCCGTTAGCT, in order to very selectively bind the target in an antiparallel fashion
D) a gene conferring antibiotic resistance
E) DNA ligase

Answer: C
Section 5-5. Molecular Cloning
Difficulty: Moderate

28. DNA polymerase from Thermus aquaticus is used in PCR because:


A) it is a soluble protein
B) the genes from Thermus aquaticus are readily distinguished from normal organisms
C) the enzyme is readily deactivated by heat, effectively halting the reaction
D) it is stable to PCR reaction conditions
E) it is not infectious

Answer: D
Section 5-5. Molecular Cloning
Difficulty: Easy

29. Recombinant DNA technology can be used for


A) constructing mutant proteins
B) the industrial production of useful proteins
C) producing transgenic organisms
D) correcting genetic defects
E) all of the above

Answer: E
Section 5-5. Molecular Cloning
Difficulty: Easy

30. Nucleoside triphosphates are useful for energy transfer in metabolic processes because the
triphosphate bonds are relatively ______.
A) stable
B) high energy

C) bio-compatible
D) large
E) low energy

Answer: B
Section 5.4. Gene Expression and Replication: An Overview
Difficulty: Easy

31. A new strand of DNA, produced using a given strand of DNA as a template, is :
A) an exact duplicate of the template.
B) a negative copy of the template.
C) a palindromic copy of the template.
D) an exact copy of the template but with the 3 and 5 ends reversed.
E) none of the above.

Answer: B
Section 5.2. DNA is the Carrier of Genetic Information
Difficulty: Moderate

32. It is impossible for RNA to store genetic information because:


A) RNA does not base pair and therefore cannot be replicated
B) Enzymes cannot process RNA as genetic information
C) RNA forms complex folded structures
D) RNA is very unstable
E) none of the above; RNA can store genetic information

Answer: E

Section 5.4. Gene Expression and Replication: An Overview


Difficulty: Difficult

33. Transfer RNA molecules are involved in:


A) transcription
B) translation
C) duplication
D) gene shuffling
E) recombination

Answer: B
Section 5.4. Gene Expression and Replication: An Overview
Difficulty: Easy

34. Cloning DNA is often necessary in order to sequence it because:


A) Plasmid DNA is a serious biohazard
B) uridine must be replaced by thymidine
C) the resulting antiparallel complementary strand can be readily sequenced
D) it is necessary to produce large amounts of RNA for sequencing to be accurate
E) the small amounts of DNA available from most organisms can not be easily sequenced

Answer: E
Section 5.5. Molecular Cloning
Difficulty: Moderate