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International System of Units

System of units used in engineering and science


Usually abbreviated as SI units

Seven Basic Units


Quantity

Basic Unit

Symbol

Length

Meter

Mass

Kilogram

kg

Time

Second

Electric Current

Ampere

Thermodynamic Temperature

Kelvin

Luminous Intensity

Candela

cd

Amount of Substance

Mole

mole

Derived SI Units

Combination of two or more basic units

Example: Velocity = meter per second (m/s)


Charge

An electric property of the atomic particle of which matter consists measured in coulombs ( C ).
1C = 6.24 x 108 electrons

Law of Conservation of Charge

Charge can neither be created nor destroyed only transferred.

Force

A push or pull upon an object resulting from the object interaction with another object.
F = ma

Note: 1 coulomb of charge may be defined as that charge which when placed in air (strictly vacuum) from
an equal and similar charge repels it with a force of 9109 N.

Energy

The capacity to do work


W = Fa

1 J = 107 ergs = 0.24 calorie


1 erg = 1 dyne-cm
Law of Conservation of Energy

Total amount of energy in a system remains constant, although energy within the system can be
changed from one form to another or transferred from one object to another.

Power

The rate of doing work or transferring

P=

W
t

J
s

1 watt = 1

Voltage

Energy required to move a unit charge between through an element.

E = Vab =

dW
dq

; 1 Volt = 1

Potential Difference

Change in electric potential between two points

DC Voltage

Constant Voltage, the V or E

AC Voltage

Sinusoidally time varying voltage, the v or e

J
C

N -m

or 1 C

Electric Current

The time rate of change measured in Amperes (A). One ampere current is the current in which when
flowing in each of two infinitely long parallel conductors situated in vacuum and separated 1 meter
between centers, produces on each conductor a force of 2 107 N/m.
i=

dq
dt

Coulomb
second

1 amp = 1

Main effects of electric current


1. Magnetic field - bells, relays, motors
2. Chemical effect - primary and secondary cells and electroplating
3. Heating effect - cookers, water, heaters, irons furnace
Resistance

The physical property or ability to resist current

May be defined as the property of substances to which it opposes (or restricts) the flow of electricity.

Expressed in ohms. ()

Conductance

reciprocal of resistance

expressed in mho or siemens (S)

When a direct current of I amperes is flowing in an electric circuit and the voltage across the circuits is V volts, then
Power =

dw
dt

dw
dq

dq
dt

= Vi = EI

Electric Energy = Pt = EIt


Ohm's Law

The ratio of potential difference between any two points on a conductor to the current flowing between then
is constant, provided the temperature of the conductor does not change.

E
i

V
i

= constant

R=

E
i

Note: Not applicable to all non-metallic conductor and non-linear devices

Joules Law of Electric Heating

The amount of work required to maintain a current of I amperes through a resistance of R ohm for t
seconds.
W = I2Rt

Laws of Resistance
1. It's varies directly as its length
2. It varies inversely as it's cross-sectional area
3. It depends on the nature of material
4. It depends on the temperature

L

A

;R= A

Example:
A source of 5Vsupplies current of 3A for 10 min., how much
energy is provided in this time?
E = 5V
I = 3A

W = EIt

60 sec

t= 10 min.

W = (5V)(3A)(10min)( 1 min

W = 9000 J
To convert to BTU
9000 J (

0.24 cal
1 BTU
)
(
1J
252 cal

) = 8.53 BTU

The current flowing through a device is i(t)=5sin6 t A. Calculate the total charge flow through the device
from 0 - 10 sec.
1
6

Q = (5)(10)(6)

sin(6t)
0

Q = 31.8309

An electric stove with four burners and an oven is used in preparing a meal as follows:
B1 = 20 min.

B3 = 15 min.

B2 = 40 min.

B4 = 45 min.

Ov = 30 min.

If each burner is rated at 1.2 KW and the oven at 1.8KW, and electricity cost 12 cents per kWh, calculate the
cost of electricity used in preparing the meal.

(60( 20+40+15+45 ) )

W = Pt = 1.2 kW

hr. + 1.8 kW

30
)
60

= 2.4 kW + 0.9 kW = 3.3 kWh


Cost = 13 cents x 3.3 kWh = 42.9 cents
A coil consists of 2000 turns of copper wire having a cross- sectional area of 0.8 mm 2. The mean length per
turn is 80 cm and the resistivity of copper is 0.02 m. Find the resistance of the coil and power absorbed
by the coil when connected across 110 V DC supply.

(0.02 m)(80

R= A

0.8 mm 2(

cm
1m
)(2000 turns)(
)
turns
100cm

1m
)
1000mm

R = 40

P=

V2
R

1102
40

= 302.5 W

Units to Consider
SI

English

Length

meter

foot

Area

sq. m

circular mil

1 inch = 1000 mils

circular mil

foot

1 mil = 0.0254 mm. = 0.001 in. = 1000d

A = d2 = (1mil)2 = 1 cmil

mil = CM1/2
CM = mil2

1000 cmil = 1 MCM


Example:

A copper bus bar has a cross-sectional dimensions 6in. by 8in. formed into rectangle. Determine the cross
sectional area in cmil.

1000mil

48 ( in.

= 48 x 106 mil = 48 x 106 cmil

An aluminum conductor with a diameter of 0.2 in was badly damaged during a short circuit. It was decided
that a hard drawn copper conductor with the same resistance will be used.
Temperature Coefficient of Resistance ()

Increase in resistance per ohm original resistance per C rise in temperature. /C


Rt Ro = R
Rt Ro
Rot [Rt Ro =
Rt = Ro +

Rt

Rot] + Ro

Rot

Rt = Ro (1+

t)

R1 Ro(1+ t1)
=
R2 R2(1+ t2)

R1 (1+ t1)
=
R2 (1+ t2)

R1 (1+ t1)
=
R2 (1+ t2)

R1(1+ t2) = R2(1+ t1)


R1 + R1 t2 = R2 + R2 t1
R2/R1 = (1+ t2)(1+ t1)-1
= (1+ t2)(1- t1)
= 1+ t2 - t1 - 2t1t2

= 1+ t2 - t1)

Example:
The filament of a 240 V metal-filament lamp is to be constructed from a wire having a diameter of 0.02 mm
and a resistivity at 20C of 4.3 - cm. If = 0.005/C, what length of filament is necessary if the lamp is to
dissipate 60 watts at a filament temperature of 2420C ?
Given:
d = 0.02mm
P20C = 4.3 - cm
= 0.005/C
Solution:
R2 = R1(1+t)

P = IV

960 = R(1+0.005(2420-20))

60 W = (240)(240/R)

R = 73.85

R = 960 at 2420C

73.85 = 4.3 - cm
d = 53.96 cm

d
(

0.005mm2
) )/4
10mm

R1-Ro

m = t1-T

R1-Ro
R2-Ro

R2-R1
t2-T
t1-T
t2-T
R1
R2

t1-T
t2-T

The resistance of copper wire at 30C is 50 . If the


temperature coefficient of copper at 0C is 0.00427.
What is the resistance at 100C?
Solution:

R2 =

R 1 ( t 2 -T)
t 1 -T

T=

1
0.00427

R2 =

where T =

= 234.19

50(100+234.19)
30+234.19

= 63.25

Resistor Color Code

Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue

1st
0
1
2
3
4
5
6

2nd
0
1
2
3
4
5
6

3rd
100
101
102
103
104
105
106

4th
1
2
0.5
0.25

Violet
Gray
White
Gold
Silver

7
8
9

7
8
9

107
108
109
0.1
0.01

0.1
5
10