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Copyright

Service Manual
580T / 580ST
590ST / 695ST

580T
580ST
590ST
695ST

Backhoe Loaders

Backhoe Loaders
Print No. 84428671A

Service Manual

Print No. 84428671A

Copyright

TO THE READER
This manual has been printed for a skilful engineer to supply necessary technical information to
carry out service operations on this machine.
Carefully read this manual to collect correct information relevant to repair procedures.

CNH ITALIA S.p.A.


Technical Information
Viale delle Nazioni, 55
41100 MODENA - Italy

For any question or remark, or in case of any


error relevant the contents of this manual, please
contact:

REFERENCES
Beyond this Service Manual, also refer to the
documents listed below:
- Operators Manual
- Service Parts Catalogue

SERVICE MANUAL
The Service Manual consists of two volumes:
- 580T - 580ST - 590ST - 695ST
Service Manual for Backhoe loader
- 580T - 580ST - 590ST - 695ST
Service Manual for Engine

The Service Manuals for Backhoe loader and


Engine contain the necessary technical information to carry out service and repair on machine
and on engine, necessary tools to carry out those
operations and information on service standard,
on procedures for connection, disconnection, disassembly and assembly of parts.
The Service Manual which covers the backhoe
loader models 580T - 580ST - 590ST - 695ST
consists of the following volumes, which can be
identified through their print number as stated
below:

VOLUME

MACHINE TYPE

PRINT NUMBER

Service Manual - Backhoe loader

580T - 580ST - 590ST - 695ST

84428671A

Service Manual - Engine

580T - 580ST - 590ST - 695ST

87659057A

Copyright

PREVENT ACCIDENTS
The majority of accidents and injuries which occur in the workshop, at the worksite or on the road, are caused
by the failure of some individual to follow simple and fundamental safety rules or precautions. For this reason
most accidents can be prevented by recognizing the real cause and taking the necessary precautions, before
the accident occurs.

Regardless of the care used in design and construction of any type of equipment, there may be conditions
that cannot be completely safeguarded against, without interfering with reasonable accessibility and efficient
operation.

A careful operator and / or technician is the best insurance against accidents.


The careful observance of this single safety rule would be sufficient to prevent serious injuries:

Never attempt to clean, lubricate or adjust a machine while it is in motion.

WARNING
Before carrying out any maintenance operation, adjustment and or repair on machines equipped with attachments, controlled hydraulically or mechanically, make sure that the attachment is lowered and safely set on
the ground. If it is necessary to have the equipment partially or fully raised to gain access to certain items, be
sure the equipment is suitably supported by means other than the hydraulic lift cylinders, cable and /or
mechanical device used for controlling the equipment.

CNH ITALIA S.p.A.


Technical Information
Viale delle Nazioni, 55
41100 MODENA - Italy

All rights reserved. Reproduction of text or illustrations, in whole or in part, is strictly prohibited.

Copyright

BACKHOE LOADER MODELS


The complete range of Backhoe Loader models described in this manual are identified below:
580T
Powershift

580ST

590ST

695ST

Powershuttle

Sideshift stabilizers
Center pivot stabilizers

Rops

2WD

/
/

Cab

4WD
4WS

Pilot control
Mechanical control
Engine Iveco 72 kW - 97 HP model
F4GE9484C*601 (mechanical)
Engine Iveco 72 kW - 97 HP model
F4HE0484G*J102 (electronic)

Engine Iveco 82 kW - 110 HP model


F4HE9484C*J102 (electronic)

Engine Iveco 82 kW - 110 HP (4WS) model


F4HE9484C*J103 (electronic)

Short backhoe dipper

Long backhoe dipper

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INDEX
SECTION 00 - SAFETY RULES
FOREWORD..................................................................................................................................................... 4
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS ................................................................................................................................ 6
PREVENTION OF FIRE OR EXPLOSIONS..................................................................................................... 8
PREVENTION OF BURNS ............................................................................................................................... 9
PRECAUTIONS FOR WASTE DISPOSAL..................................................................................................... 10

SECTION 01 - MAINTENANCE

SECTION 02 - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS


MODELS........................................................................................................................................................... 3
IDENTIFICATION OF MAIN COMPONENTS................................................................................................... 4
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS....................................................................................................................... 6
DIESEL ENGINE ......................................................................................................................................... 6
TRANSMISSION.......................................................................................................................................... 9
AXLES ....................................................................................................................................................... 10
BRAKES .................................................................................................................................................... 11
STEERING................................................................................................................................................. 11
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM .............................................................................................................................. 12
FRONT COUNTERWEIGHT ..................................................................................................................... 12
NOISE AND VIBRATION LEVELS ............................................................................................................ 13
BUCKETS .................................................................................................................................................. 13
TYRES ....................................................................................................................................................... 14
DIMENSIONS AND PERFORMANCE............................................................................................................ 15
DIMENSIONS - 2WS SIDESHIFT ............................................................................................................. 15
DIMENSIONS - 4WS SIDESHIFT ............................................................................................................. 16
DIMENSIONS - 4WS CENTER PIVOT...................................................................................................... 17
LOADER ATTACHMENT PERFORMANCE.............................................................................................. 18
PERFORMANCE OF LOADER BUCKET WITH FORKS .......................................................................... 20
BACKHOE ATTACHMENT PERFORMANCE........................................................................................... 21
MAXIMUM LIFTING LOADS........................................................................................................................... 24
LOADER ATTACHMENT MAXIMUM LIFTING LOAD TABLE .................................................................. 24
BACKHOE ATTACHMENT MAXIMUM LIFTING LOAD TABLE ............................................................... 25
SUPPLY SUMMARY TABLE .......................................................................................................................... 26

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INDEX
SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
POWERSHUTTLE TRANSMISSION ................................................................................................................ 3
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS.................................................................................................................. 4
CONTROLS ................................................................................................................................................. 9
LUBRICATION ........................................................................................................................................... 13
GREASING ................................................................................................................................................ 16
REMOVAL FROM MACHINE .................................................................................................................... 18
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY............................................................................................................. 19
TROUBLESHOOTING ............................................................................................................................. 144
REPAIR TIMES........................................................................................................................................ 148
SPECIAL TOOLS..................................................................................................................................... 149
POWERSHIFT TRANSMISSION .................................................................................................................. 150
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS.............................................................................................................. 150
CONTROLS ............................................................................................................................................. 161
LUBRICATION ......................................................................................................................................... 163
GREASING .............................................................................................................................................. 165
REMOVAL FROM MACHINE .................................................................................................................. 166
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY........................................................................................................... 167
TROUBLESHOOTING ............................................................................................................................. 331
REPAIR TIMES........................................................................................................................................ 335
SPECIAL TOOLS..................................................................................................................................... 336

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE


2WD - 2WS FRONT AXLE................................................................................................................................ 3
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS.................................................................................................................. 3
LUBRICATION AND GREASING ................................................................................................................ 4
REMOVAL FROM MACHINE ...................................................................................................................... 6
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY............................................................................................................... 7
TROUBLESHOOTING ................................................................................................................................. 7
4WD - 2WS FRONT AXLE.............................................................................................................................. 10
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................................................ 10
LUBRICATION AND GREASING .............................................................................................................. 11
REMOVAL FROM MACHINE .................................................................................................................... 13
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY............................................................................................................. 14
TROUBLESHOOTING ............................................................................................................................... 57
SPECIAL TOOLS....................................................................................................................................... 61
4WS FRONT AXLE ......................................................................................................................................... 62
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................................................ 62
LUBRICATION AND GREASING .............................................................................................................. 63
REMOVAL FROM MACHINE .................................................................................................................... 65

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INDEX
SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
2WS REAR AXLE (580T - 580ST).................................................................................................................... 3
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS.................................................................................................................. 3
LUBRICATION AND GREASING ................................................................................................................ 5
REMOVAL FROM MACHINE ...................................................................................................................... 7
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY............................................................................................................... 8
TROUBLESHOOTING............................................................................................................................... 61
REPAIR TIMES.......................................................................................................................................... 67
SPECIAL TOOLS....................................................................................................................................... 68
2WS REAR AXLE (590ST) ............................................................................................................................. 69
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................................................ 69
LUBRICATION AND GREASING .............................................................................................................. 71
REMOVAL FROM MACHINE .................................................................................................................... 73
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY............................................................................................................. 74
TROUBLESHOOTING............................................................................................................................. 127
REPAIR TIMES........................................................................................................................................ 133
SPECIAL TOOLS..................................................................................................................................... 134
4WS REAR AXLE (695ST) ........................................................................................................................... 135
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS.............................................................................................................. 135
LUBRICATION AND GREASING ............................................................................................................ 138
REMOVAL FROM MACHINE .................................................................................................................. 140
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY........................................................................................................... 141
TROUBLESHOOTING............................................................................................................................. 219
REPAIR TIMES........................................................................................................................................ 225
SPECIAL TOOLS..................................................................................................................................... 227

SECTION 33 - BRAKE SYSTEM


PARKING BRAKE............................................................................................................................................. 3
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS.................................................................................................................. 3
OPERATION................................................................................................................................................ 3
ADJUSTMENT............................................................................................................................................. 4
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY............................................................................................................... 5
SERVICE BRAKE ........................................................................................................................................... 14
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................................................ 14
OPERATION.............................................................................................................................................. 14

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INDEX
SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
HYDRAULIC DIAGRAMS ................................................................................................................................. 3
HYDRAULIC DIAGRAM - 2WS SIDESHIFT MECHANICAL MODELS ....................................................... 3
HYDRAULIC DIAGRAM - 2WS SIDESHIFT PILOT MODELS .................................................................... 9
HYDRAULIC DIAGRAM - 4WS SIDESHIFT MECHANICAL MODELS ..................................................... 13
HYDRAULIC DIAGRAM - 4WS SIDESHIFT PILOT MODELS .................................................................. 15
HYDRAULIC DIAGRAM - 4WS CENTER PIVOT PILOT MODELS .......................................................... 17
HYDRAULIC PUMP ........................................................................................................................................ 19
HYDRAULIC FIXED-FLOW-RATE GEAR PUMP...................................................................................... 19
HYDRAULIC VARIABLE-FLOW-RATE PISTON PUMP............................................................................ 30
CONTROL VALVES........................................................................................................................................ 44
LOADER CONTROL VALVE ..................................................................................................................... 53
BACKHOE ATTACHMENT CONTROL VALVE......................................................................................... 57
RELIEF VALVES........................................................................................................................................ 69
BACKHOE ATTACHMENT CONTROL VALVE PILOT SOLENOID VALVE .................................................. 78
ACCUMULATOR GLIDE RIDE PARKER ..................................................................................................... 81
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................................................ 81
MAINTENANCE ......................................................................................................................................... 81
SAFETY ..................................................................................................................................................... 81
CHECKING AND ADJUSTING THE PRECHARGE PRESSURE ............................................................. 82
HYDRAULIC SWING SYSTEM ...................................................................................................................... 84
OPERATION .............................................................................................................................................. 84
HYDRAULIC CYLINDERS.............................................................................................................................. 87
LOADER ATTACHMENT BOOM CYLINDER............................................................................................ 88
LOADER BUCKET CYLINDER.................................................................................................................. 93
4X1 LOADER BUCKET CYLINDER .......................................................................................................... 97
BACKHOE BOOM CYLINDER ................................................................................................................ 100
BACKHOE ATTACHMENT DIPPER CYLINDER .................................................................................... 104
BACKHOE BUCKET CYLINDER............................................................................................................. 108
TELESCOPIC CYLINDER ....................................................................................................................... 112
STABILIZER CYLINDER - CENTER PIVOT (695ST).............................................................................. 115
STABILIZER CYLINDER - SIDESHIFT ................................................................................................... 119
SWING CYLINDER.................................................................................................................................. 123
BACKHOE ATTACHMENT LOCK CYLINDER - SIDESHIFT .................................................................. 127
SPECIAL TOOLS..................................................................................................................................... 128
HYDRAULIC CONTROL LEVERS................................................................................................................ 129
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS.............................................................................................................. 129
CONTROLS AND OPERATION .............................................................................................................. 130
COMPONENTS ....................................................................................................................................... 131
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY........................................................................................................... 133
CONTROL LEVER VALVE ...................................................................................................................... 136
TROUBLESHOOTING .................................................................................................................................. 138
PRELIMINARY CHECKS......................................................................................................................... 138
TROUBLESHOOTING (WITH REXROTH CONTROL VALVES).......................................................... 139
SWING ..................................................................................................................................................... 141
HYDRAULIC PUMP ................................................................................................................................. 142

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INDEX
SECTION 39 - CHASSIS
DESCRIPTION ................................................................................................................................................. 3
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF COMPONENTS .................................................................................... 5
COMPONENTS WITHIN THE CHASSIS .................................................................................................... 5
COMPONENTS OF THE LOWER PART OF THE CHASSIS ..................................................................... 6
COMPONENTS ATTACHED OUTSIDE THE CHASSIS........................................................................... 10
COMPONENTS OF THE UPPER PART ................................................................................................... 11

SECTION 41 - STEERING SYSTEM


DESCRIPTION ................................................................................................................................................. 3
2WS STEERING SYSTEM ............................................................................................................................... 4
4WS STEERING SYSTEM ............................................................................................................................... 7
POWER STEERING ....................................................................................................................................... 11
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................................................ 11
COMPONENTS ......................................................................................................................................... 13
DISASSEMBLY.......................................................................................................................................... 15
ASSEMBLY................................................................................................................................................ 18

SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING


TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS....................................................................................................................... 3
GENERAL.................................................................................................................................................... 3
CAB HEATING.................................................................................................................................................. 5
CONTROLS ................................................................................................................................................. 5
OPERATION................................................................................................................................................ 6
AIR FLOW DIFFUSERS .............................................................................................................................. 7
OVERHAUL ................................................................................................................................................. 9
TROUBLESHOOTING............................................................................................................................... 11
AIR CONDITIONING ...................................................................................................................................... 12
PRINCIPLES OF AIR CONDITIONING ..................................................................................................... 12
CONTROLS ............................................................................................................................................... 17
OPERATION.............................................................................................................................................. 18
TROUBLESHOOTING AND TESTING...................................................................................................... 25
FLUSHING THE SYSTEM......................................................................................................................... 43
DRAINING THE SYSTEM ......................................................................................................................... 45
CHARGING THE SYSTEM........................................................................................................................ 46
OVERHAUL ............................................................................................................................................... 47
COMPRESSOR .............................................................................................................................................. 52
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................................................ 52
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION .............................................................................................................. 53
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY............................................................................................................. 56
TROUBLESHOOTING............................................................................................................................... 65

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INDEX
SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM
ELECTRIC DIAGRAMS .................................................................................................................................... 3
ELECTRIC DIAGRAMS - POWERSHUTTLE ROPS (580T mechanical engine) ........................................ 3
ELECTRIC DIAGRAMS - POWERSHUTTLE CAB (580T mechanical engine) ......................................... 18
ELECTRIC DIAGRAMS - POWERSHUTTLE CAB (580ST - 590ST electronic engine)............................ 36
ELECTRIC DIAGRAMS - POWERSHIFT CAB (2WS) .............................................................................. 54
ELECTRIC DIAGRAMS - POWERSHIFT CAB (4WS) .............................................................................. 73
CONTROLS AND INSTRUMENTS................................................................................................................. 92
FRONT CONTROL PANELS (580T - 580ST - 590ST).............................................................................. 92
FRONT CONTROL PANELS (695ST) ....................................................................................................... 94
CONTROL PANEL AND SIDE INSTRUMENT CLUSTER (580T mechanical engine).............................. 96
CONTROL PANEL AND SIDE INSTRUMENT CLUSTER (580ST - 590ST - 695ST electronic engine) ..........98
SIDE INSTRUMENT CLUSTER (580T)................................................................................................... 100
SIDE INSTRUMENT CLUSTER (580ST - 590ST - 695ST)..................................................................... 102
ANTI-START SYSTEM ............................................................................................................................ 104
DIAGNOSTIC DISPLAY (580ST - 590ST - 695ST) ...................................................................................... 105
SYMBOLS................................................................................................................................................ 107
SETUP MENU.......................................................................................................................................... 108
PROCEDURE ABOUT SELF TEST......................................................................................................... 109
ON BOARD ERROR CODE RETRIEVAL................................................................................................ 110
BACKLIGHTING AND DIMMING............................................................................................................. 111
WORK HOURS ........................................................................................................................................ 112
OPERATION ............................................................................................................................................ 113
WARNING SYSTEM ................................................................................................................................ 117
MAINTENANCE ....................................................................................................................................... 118
WARNING MESSAGES........................................................................................................................... 119
STARTING SYSTEM .................................................................................................................................... 125
OPERATION ............................................................................................................................................ 125
STARTER MOTOR .................................................................................................................................. 128
TROUBLESHOOTING ............................................................................................................................. 133
ALTERNATOR .............................................................................................................................................. 135
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS.............................................................................................................. 135
OPERATION ............................................................................................................................................ 136
TROUBLESHOOTING ............................................................................................................................. 137
BATTERY...................................................................................................................................................... 138
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS.............................................................................................................. 138
OPERATION ............................................................................................................................................ 138
REPLACEMENT ...................................................................................................................................... 139
CHARGE AND ELECTROLYTE LEVEL CHECK .................................................................................... 140
CONNECTING A BOOSTER BATTERY ................................................................................................. 141
BATTERY MASTER SWITCH ................................................................................................................. 141
TROUBLESHOOTING .................................................................................................................................. 142

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INDEX
SECTION 82 - LOADER ATTACHMENT
LOADER ATTACHMENT CONTROLS............................................................................................................. 3
LOADER ATTACHMENT OPERATION ...................................................................................................... 3
4x1 LOADER BUCKET CONTROL (Optional) ............................................................................................ 6
LOADER ATTACHMENT CONTROL LOCK (Specific to certain countries)................................................ 7
BUCKET SELF-LEVELLING............................................................................................................................. 8
LOADER ATTACHMENT SAFETY STRUT...................................................................................................... 9
LOADER ATTACHMENT SAFETY STRUT (2WS) ..................................................................................... 9
LOADER ATTACHMENT SAFETY STRUT (4WS) ................................................................................... 10
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF LOADER BUCKET.............................................................................. 11
STANDARD LOADER BUCKET................................................................................................................ 11
LOADER BUCKET WITH FORKS (Optional) ............................................................................................ 12
BUCKET TEETH REPLACEMENT............................................................................................................ 13
LOADER REMOVAL....................................................................................................................................... 14

SECTION 84 - BACKHOE ATTACHMENT


DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION................................................................................................................... 3
BACKHOE ATTACHMENT CONTROLS .......................................................................................................... 6
BACKHOE ATTACHMENT MECHANICAL CONTROLS ............................................................................ 7
BACKHOE ATTACHMENT HYDRAULIC CONTROLS ............................................................................. 18
BACKHOE ATTACHMENT SIDESHIFT (Sideshift version) ...................................................................... 24
BACKHOE ATTACHMENT DISASSEMBLY .................................................................................................. 26
BACKHOE BUCKET REPLACEMENT...................................................................................................... 28
BACKHOE BUCKET.................................................................................................................................. 29
BACKHOE ATTACHMENT HYDRAULIC HANDLING ................................................................................... 30
CONTROLS ............................................................................................................................................... 30
HYDRAULIC DIAGRAM ............................................................................................................................ 31
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY............................................................................................................. 32

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INDEX

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580T
580ST
590ST
695ST

SECTION 00 - SAFETY RULES

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2

SECTION 00 - SAFETY RULES

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SECTION 00 - SAFETY RULES

SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
WARNING
This warning symbol points out important messages involving your safety.
Carefully read the safety rules contained herein
and follow advised precautions to avoid potential
hazards and to safeguard your safety and personal
integrity.
In this manual you will find this symbol together
with the following keywords:

WARNING
This symbol warns about the possibility of potential
damages to the machine that can involve the operators safety.

WARNING
With specific warnings about potential dangers for
the operators or other persons integrity directly or
indirectly involved.
The non-compliance with the warnings preceded by
the above-mentioned keywords (WARNING and
DANGER) can cause serious accidents or even the
death of the persons involved.
Moreover, in the present Manual, some instructions
are given with text in italics, preceded by the words
NOTE and CAUTION.
NOTE: it emphasizes and underlines to the operator
the correct technique or correct procedure to follow.

WARNING
This symbol warns about the possibility of potential
damages to the machine that can involve the operators safety.

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4

SECTION 00 - SAFETY RULES

FOREWORD
Backhoe loaders 580T - 580ST - 590ST - 695ST
have been designed to perform most earth-moving
operations.
If you use this machine for duties involving the use
of attachments, accessories, or special tools, consult your Dealer to make sure that the adaptations or
modifications carried out are in conformity with the
machines technical specifications and with current
regulations on safety.
Any modifications or adaptations which are not
approved by the manufacturer may invalidate the
machines original conformity with safety requirements.
The machine must be used according to its intended
use, respecting the safety and precautionary rules
and strictly following the operating instructions.
Any functional disorders, especially those affecting
the safety of the machine, should therefore be rectified immediately.

DANGER
A different use of the excavator or of its working
equipment:
- for lifting or transporting persons;
- as a working platform;
- for lifting loads without the attachment being
approved for this purpose;
- for pulling loads;
- is considered unintended use.
Unintended use may cause injury or life-threatening
risks for the operator and for other persons.
The manufacturer/supplier cannot be held responsible for any damage resulting from unintended use.
The risk involved in such misuse lies entirely with
the user.

DANGER
It is absolutely forbidden to tamper with and/or
change the setting of any of the hydraulic system
valves to avoid damaging machine components,
with a consequent risk for personal safety.
The current Operators Manual is the users guide
for correct run-in, use and maintenance of the
machine.

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SECTION 00 - SAFETY RULES
Carefully read this Operators Manual and store it in
the cab for quick location and reference.
Instructions concerning safety, operation and maintenance have been developed to permit safe service and repair of this machine without any risk.
In the event of queries or suggestions relevant to
your machine do not hesitate to address to your
Dealer.
Dealers have qualified and trained personnel at disposal as well as Original Spares, means and equipment suitable to carry out all necessary
maintenance.
Any modifications or adaptations which are not approved by the manufacturer may invalidate the machines original conformity with safety requirements.
IMPORTANT: the engine and fuel system on your
machine are designed and built to government
emissions standards. Tampering by dealers, customers, operators and users is strictly prohibited by
law. Failure to comply with this prohibition could
result in government fines, rework charges, invalid
warranty, legal action and possible confiscation of
the machine until rework to original condition is
completed. Engine service and/or repairs must be
carried out by a certified technician only.
NOTE: each machine is supplied complete with a
copy of this Manual. Descriptions and illustrations
provided herein are not binding. The Manufacturer,
provided that the basic characteristics of machine
types described and shown in this Manual remain
the same, reserves the right to change components, parts and accessories supplied without any
commitment to timely update this publication; and
this any time it deems it convenient for improvement purposes or due to commercial or manufacturing requirements. For exact information, please
consult your Dealer or contact the Manufacturers
Branch Offices, who remain at your disposal for further help.

SPARE PARTS
The non-genuine spare parts have not been
checked and authorized by the Manufacturer.
The assembly and/or use of such products may
have negative effects on the machine design features and could impair its operation safety.
The Manufacturer is not liable for any damage
caused by non-genuine spare parts or accessories.

WARRANTY
This machine is under warranty according to the
regulations in force in Your Country and in compliance with the sales agreement drawn up with the
Dealer.
The warranty, however, expires if the operation and
maintenance instruction for this machine and contained in this manual, have not been followed.

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6

SECTION 00 - SAFETY RULES

SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
Carefully read the safety rules contained herein and
follow advised precautions to avoid potential hazards and to safeguard your safety and personal
integrity.
Your safety and that of the people around you
depends on you.
It is essential that you understand this manual for a
correct inspection, lubrication and repair of this
machine.
Read this manual carefully and check that:
- you understand fully the symbols on the controls
and the safety signs used in this manual and on
the machine;
- you understand fully the speed, stability, braking
and steering characteristics of the machine. If you
are in any doubt, consult your Dealer.
The safety messages in this section concern situations which may arise during normal machine operation, servicing and repair. These safety messages
also indicate the different ways of coping with these
situations. Other safety messages are used
throughout the manual to indicate specific dangers.
The information given in this chapter is a summary
of the basic rules to respect at all times and does
not exempt you from observing traffic regulations or
the requirements of insurance companies.
The presence of grease, oil, mud or (in winter) ice
on the steps and access handles can cause accidents. Make sure they are always clean.
When mounting or dismounting from the machine
always face the machine and use the steps and
access handles on the left-hand side of the
machine.

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SECTION 00 - SAFETY RULES
Wear close fitting clothing and safety equipment
appropriate for the job:
- safety helmet;
- safety shoes;
- heavy gloves;
- reflective clothing;
- wet weather clothing.
If the environment conditions make it necessary, the
following personal safety equipment should be at
hand:
- respirators (or dustproof masks);
- ear plugs or acoustic ears protections;
- goggles with lateral shield or masks for eyes protection.
Do not wear rings, wristwatches, jewels, unbuttoned
or flapping clothing such as ties, torn clothes,
scarves, open jackets or shirts with open zips which
could get caught into moving parts.
Any functional disorders, especially those affecting
the safety of the machine, should therefore be rectified immediately.
Make sure that you fully understand the symbols of
the safety decals applied on the machine. Make
sure that they are always clean and perfectly legible.
Be prepared for emergencies.
Always keep a first aid kit and a fire extinguisher
close at hand on the machine.
Make sure that the fire extinguisher is serviced in
accordance with the manufacturers instructions.

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SECTION 00 - SAFETY RULES

PREVENTION OF FIRE OR EXPLOSIONS


The engine fuel can originate an explosion or a fire.
Never refuel when the engine is running.
Do not smoke during refuelling.
Take all the necessary safety measures when welding, grinding or when working near a naked flame.
Use a non-inflammable product for cleaning parts.

A spark or a flame can cause the electrolyte of the


battery to explode.
To prevent any risk of explosion, observe the following instructions:
- when disconnecting the battery cables, always
disconnect the negative (-) cable first;
- to reconnect the battery cables, always connect
the negative (-) cable last;
- never short-circuit the battery clamps with metal
objects;
- do not weld, grind or smoke near a battery.
The engine exhaust may produce sparks.
Before using the machine in an area which may contain inflammable vapours, ensure that there is good
ventilation.
Always keep a fire extinguisher available on the machine.
Make sure that it is properly maintained in conformity
with the manufacturers instructions.

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SECTION 00 - SAFETY RULES

PREVENTION OF BURNS
The battery electrolyte generates severe burns.
The battery contains sulphuric acid.
Avoid any contact with the skin, eyes or clothing.
Antidote:
- EXTERNAL: rinse well with water, removing any
soiled clothing.
- INTERNAL: avoid vomiting. Drink water to rinse
your mouth. Consult a doctor.
- EYES: rinse thoroughly with water for 15 minutes
and get prompt medical attention.
When the electrolyte of a battery is frozen, it can
explode if you attempt to charge the battery or if you
try to start the engine using a booster battery.
Always keep the battery charged to prevent the electrolyte freezing.
Batteries generate explosive gases.
Keep all flames, sparks and cigarettes away.
Provide good ventilation when changing a battery or
using a battery in an enclosed space.
Always protect your eyes when working near a battery.
Never touch the battery terminals with your hands.
This can induce a state of electrolysis and impair the
main organs of the body.

Hot coolant could spray out if the radiator cap is


removed while the system is still hot.
To remove the cap: allow the system to cool down,
turn the cap to the first notch and wait until there is
no more pressure.
Then remove the cap.

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SECTION 00 - SAFETY RULES

PRECAUTIONS FOR WASTE DISPOSAL


Improperly disposing of waste can threaten the environment.
Each country has its own Regulations on this subject. It is therefore advisable to prepare suitable containers to collect and store momentarily all solid and
fluid materials that must not be scattered in the environment to avoid pollution.
At preset intervals these products will be delivered
to disposal stations legally recognized and present
in this Country.
Here below is a list of the products in the machine
which require disposal:
- hydraulic oil;
- brake system oil;
- coolant mixture, condensation residue and pure
anti-freeze;
- diesel oil;
- oil and diesel oil filter elements;
- engine and air conditioning air filter elements;
- battery.
Also polluting rags, paper, sawdust and gloves must
be disposed in compliance with the same procedures.
Do not use food or beverage containers that may
mislead someone into drinking from them.
Do not pour waste onto the ground, down a drain, or
into any water source.
Air conditioning coolant escaping into the air can
damage the Earths atmosphere.
Government regulations may require a certified air
conditioning service centre to recover and recycle
used air conditioning coolant.
Obtain information on the proper way to recycle or
dispose of waste from your local environmental or
recycling centre, or from your Dealer.

Copyright

580T
580ST
590ST
695ST

SECTION 01 - MAINTENANCE

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2

SECTION 01 - MAINTENANCE

Copyright
SECTION 01 - MAINTENANCE
Do not carry out any service operation until you
have read and understood the instructions and
warnings given in this manual.
Observe the adjusting, maintenance and inspection
activities and intervals set out in the operating
instructions, including information on the replacement of parts and equipment as this service concerns exclusively the qualified personnel.
Wear safety equipment and suitable clothing to perform maintenance operations on the machine.
During maintenance operations, apply a warning
plate.
Always wear eye protection when using a tool which
might project metal particles. Use a hammer with a
soft face, such as copper, for pin assembly.
Incorrectly performed maintenance or adjustments
can cause serious injury. If you do not understand a
maintenance or adjustment procedure, consult your
Dealer.
Before performing any maintenance operation on
this machine, make sure it is in a safety condition.

Move the machine to a level and firm ground, away


from any soft ground, excavations and poorly
shored cavity.
Rest the loader attachment on the ground if no
maintenance operation is to be performed on it. Otherwise, raise the attachment and block the support
strut.
Place the backhoe attachment in road travel position if no maintenance operation is to be performed
on it. Otherwise, rest it on the ground.
Place the direction-of-travel lever and gearshift lever
in neutral position.
Immobilize the machine by means of the parking
brake.
Completely raise the stabilizers and lock them
mechanically.
Stop the engine and remove the starter key.
Open the oil tank plug.
Release the hydraulic pressure by operating the
control levers in all directions. On hydraulically controlled machines, turn the key to ON and release the
pressure by moving the hydraulic control levers in
all directions.
Disconnect the electric system by disconnecting the
battery master switch.

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4

SECTION 01 - MAINTENANCE

Place some wedges under the wheels so as to prevent the machine from moving.
Unauthorized modifications of the machine can
cause serious injuries.
Do not carry out any modification on this machine
without obtaining prior authorization from your
Dealer.
Any modification carried out must be in conformity
with the machines technical specifications and must
conform to current safety regulations.
Do not carry out any welding operation on the
machine without prior authorization from your
Dealer.
Some of the machines components are subject to
type approvals. It is mandatory when replacing
those components to ensure that they are in conformity with regulations.
Hydraulic fluid or grease under pressure which penetrates the skin can cause serious injury.
Take the necessary safety precautions (protective
clothing and face and hand protection) to prevent all
such risks.
In addition, before handling these products, read the
manufacturers specific instructions for their use.
If hydraulic fluid penetrates the skin a doctor must
be called immediately.
When carrying out a welding operation on the
machine, as authorized by the manufacturer and in
accordance with his specifications, disconnect the
electric system by means of the battery master
switch, connect the welding set earth lead to the
component on which the welding is to be carried out
(never connect the ground lead to a hydraulic system component) and disconnect the electric cables
of the motor control unit (in case of electronic
motors).
A burst tyre can cause serious injury.
Regularly check the condition of tyres and always
observe the inflation pressures defined in accordance with the type of tyre and ground conditions.

Copyright
SECTION 01 - MAINTENANCE
When checking the tyre pressure or during an inflation operation, never stay in front of the tyre but
always keep to the tread side.
Always use an inflation cage when the wheel is
removed from the machine.
Keep all other persons away from the area.
Never weld near a tyre. It is essential to remove the
tyre before any welding operation.
Take the necessary safety measures to protect your
face when using compressed air.
The machines structure is in conformity with the
FOPS and ROPS protection standards.
Any modification (drilling, welding, etc.) may cause
that conformity to be invalidated.

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6

NOTE:

SECTION 01 - MAINTENANCE

Copyright

580T
580ST
590ST
695ST

SECTION 02 - TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATIONS
MODELS........................................................................................................................................................... 3
IDENTIFICATION OF MAIN COMPONENTS................................................................................................... 4
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS....................................................................................................................... 6
DIESEL ENGINE ......................................................................................................................................... 6
TRANSMISSION.......................................................................................................................................... 9
AXLES ....................................................................................................................................................... 10
BRAKES .................................................................................................................................................... 11
STEERING................................................................................................................................................. 11
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM .............................................................................................................................. 12
FRONT COUNTERWEIGHT ..................................................................................................................... 12
NOISE AND VIBRATION LEVELS ............................................................................................................ 13
BUCKETS .................................................................................................................................................. 13
TYRES ....................................................................................................................................................... 14
DIMENSIONS AND PERFORMANCE............................................................................................................ 15
DIMENSIONS - 2WS SIDESHIFT ............................................................................................................. 15
DIMENSIONS - 4WS SIDESHIFT ............................................................................................................. 16
DIMENSIONS - 4WS CENTER PIVOT...................................................................................................... 17
LOADER ATTACHMENT PERFORMANCE.............................................................................................. 18
PERFORMANCE OF LOADER BUCKET WITH FORKS .......................................................................... 20
BACKHOE ATTACHMENT PERFORMANCE........................................................................................... 21
MAXIMUM LIFTING LOADS........................................................................................................................... 24
LOADER ATTACHMENT MAXIMUM LIFTING LOAD TABLE .................................................................. 24
BACKHOE ATTACHMENT MAXIMUM LIFTING LOAD TABLE ............................................................... 25
SUPPLY SUMMARY TABLE .......................................................................................................................... 26

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2

1.

SECTION 02 - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

Copyright
SECTION 02 - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

MODELS
580T
Powershift

580ST

590ST

695ST

Powershuttle

Stabilizer sideshift
Stabilizer center pivot

Rops

2WD

/
/

Cab

4WD
4WS

Pilot control
Mechanical control
Engine Iveco 72 kW - 97 HP model
F4GE9484C*601 (mechanical)
Engine Iveco 72 kW - 97 HP model
F4HE0484G*J102 (electronic)

Engine Iveco 82 kW - 110 HP model


F4HE9484C*J102 (electronic)

Engine Iveco 82 kW - 110 HP (4WS) model


F4HE9484C*J103 (electronic)

Short backhoe dipper

Long backhoe dipper

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4

SECTION 02 - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

IDENTIFICATION OF MAIN COMPONENTS


2WS

1. Loader bucket
2. Loader attachment

9. Dipper / telescopic dipper of backhoe


attachment

3. Front axle

10. Backhoe bucket

4. Fuel tank

11. Backhoe attachment sideshift carriage

5. Rear axle

12. Stabilizers

6. Cab

13. Battery box

7. Engine guard

14. Hydraulic oil tank

8. Backhoe attachment boom

Copyright
SECTION 02 - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
4WS

1. Loader bucket
2. Loader attachment

9. Dipper / telescopic dipper of backhoe


attachment

3. Front axle

10. Backhoe bucket

4. Fuel tank

11. Backhoe attachment sideshift carriage

5. Rear axle

12. Stabilizers

6. Cab

13. Battery box

7. Engine guard

14. Hydraulic oil tank

8. Backhoe attachment boom

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6

SECTION 02 - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
DIESEL ENGINE
72 kW - 97 HP ENGINE (580T)
Specifications (EEC 88/195) .................................................................................. 72 kW - 97 HP @ 2200 rpm
Model ...................................................................................................................................... F4GE9484C*601
Type ......................................................................................................................................diesel, mechanical
No. of cylinders ................................................................................................................................................ 4
Valves per cylinder ........................................................................................................................................... 2
Bore.............................................................................................................................................. 104 mm (4 in)
Stroke ........................................................................................................................................ 132 mm (5.2 in)
Displacement .................................................................................................................. 4485 cm3 (237.69 in3)
Compression ratio .................................................................................................................................... 17.5:1
Maximum torque (EC) ......................................................................................420 Nm (309 lbfft) @ 1250 rpm
Low idle speed at no load ........................................................................................................... 1000 50 rpm
High idle speed at no load (engine not installed) ........................................................................ 2430 50 rpm
High idle speed at no load (engine not installed on the vehicle) ................................................. 2380 60 rpm
Maximum speed at full load ................................................................................................................ 2200 rpm
Air intake ....................................................................................................TAA (turbocharged with aftercooler)

Supply
Type ............................................................................................................................................ direct injection
Injection pump ............................................................................................. BOSCH ROTARY VE 4/12 F1100L
Injection sequence ..................................................................................................................................1-3-4-2
Cold-start device .............................................................................................................grid heater (optional)

Cooling
Pump type ......................................................................................................................................... H2O pump
Pump drive ...........................................................................................................................................belt drive
Temperature switch (opening start) .......................................................................... 81 2 C (177.8 35.6 F)

Copyright
SECTION 02 - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

72 kW - 97 HP ENGINE (580ST)
Specifications (EEC 88/195) .................................................................................. 72 kW - 97 HP @ 2200 rpm
Model .................................................................................................................................... F4HE0484G*J102
Type .........................................................................................................................................diesel, electronic
No. of cylinders ................................................................................................................................................ 4
Valves per cylinder ........................................................................................................................................... 4
Bore ............................................................................................................................................. 104 mm (4 in)
Stroke........................................................................................................................................ 132 mm (5.2 in)
Displacement .................................................................................................................. 4485 cm3 (237.69 in3)
Compression ratio.................................................................................................................................... 17.5:1
Maximum torque (EC) ...................................................................................... 453 Nm (334 lbfft) @ 1400 rpm
Low idle speed at no load ........................................................................................................... 1000 50 rpm
High idle speed at no load (engine not installed) ........................................................................ 2430 50 rpm
High idle speed at no load (engine not installed on the vehicle) ................................................. 2380 60 rpm
Maximum speed at full load ................................................................................................................ 2200 rpm
Air intake ....................................................................................................TAA (turbocharged with aftercooler)

Supply
Type ........................................................................................................................high-pressure, common rail
Injection pump............................................................................................................ CP3 high-pressure pump
Control unit................................................................................................................................................EDC7
Injection sequence ..................................................................................................................................1-3-4-2
Cold-start device .............................................................................................................grid heater (optional)

Cooling
Pump type ......................................................................................................................................... H2O pump
Pump drive ...........................................................................................................................................belt drive
Temperature switch (opening start)......................................................................... 81 2 C (177.8 35.6 F)

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8

SECTION 02 - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

82 kW - 110 HP ENGINE (590ST / 695ST)


Specifications (EEC 88/195) ................................................................................. 82 kW - 110 HP @ 2200 rpm
Model (590ST) ....................................................................................................................... F4HE9484C*J102
Model (695ST) ....................................................................................................................... F4HE9484C*J103
Type ......................................................................................................................................... diesel, electronic
No. of cylinders ................................................................................................................................................. 4
Valves per cylinder ............................................................................................................................................ 4
Bore............................................................................................................................................... 104 mm (4 in)
Stroke ......................................................................................................................................... 132 mm (5.2 in)
Displacement ................................................................................................................... 4485 cm3 (237.69 in3)
Compression ratio ..................................................................................................................................... 17.5:1
Maximum torque (EC) ..................................................................................516 Nm (380.58 lbfft) @ 1400 rpm
Low idle speed at no load ............................................................................................................ 1000 50 rpm
High idle speed at no load (engine not installed) ......................................................................... 2430 50 rpm
High idle speed at no load (engine not installed on the vehicle) .................................................. 2380 60 rpm
Maximum speed at full load ................................................................................................................. 2200 rpm
Air intake .....................................................................................................TAA (turbocharged with aftercooler)

Supply
Type .........................................................................................................................high-pressure, common rail
Injection pump ............................................................................................................. CP3 high-pressure pump
Control unit.................................................................................................................................................EDC7
Injection sequence ...................................................................................................................................1-3-4-2
Cold-start device ..............................................................................................................grid heater (optional)

Cooling
Pump type .......................................................................................................................................... H2O pump
Pump drive ............................................................................................................................................belt drive
Temperature switch (opening start) .......................................................................... 81 2 C (177.8 35.6 F)

Copyright
SECTION 02 - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

TRANSMISSION
2WD/2WS TRANSMISSION - POWERSHUTTLE (580T)
Model ..................................................................................................................... CARRARO TLB1 MPB 2WD
Type (4x4) ..................................................................................................4 forward and 4 reverse travel gears
Torque converter ratio .................................................................................................................................. 2.38
Transmission ratios:
1st gear ......................................................................... forward travel 5.603:1

reverse travel 4.643:1

2nd gear........................................................................forward travel 3.481:1

reverse travel 2.884:1

3rd gear ........................................................................forward travel 1.585:1

reverse travel 1.313:1

4th gear......................................................................... forward travel 0.793:1

reverse travel 0.657:1

4WD/2WS TRANSMISSION - POWERSHUTTLE (580ST - 590ST)


Model ..................................................................................................................... CARRARO TLB1 MPB 4WD
Type (4x4) ..................................................................................................4 forward and 4 reverse travel gears
Torque converter ratio .................................................................................................................................. 2.38
Transmission ratios:
1st gear ......................................................................... forward travel 5.603:1

reverse travel 4.643:1

2nd gear........................................................................forward travel 3.481:1

reverse travel 2.884:1

3rd gear ........................................................................forward travel 1.585:1

reverse travel 1.313:1

4th gear......................................................................... forward travel 0.793:1

reverse travel 0.657:1

4WD/2WS TRANSMISSION - POWERSHIFT (580ST - 590ST)


Model ..................................................................................................................... CARRARO TLB2 MPB 4WD
Type (4x4) ..................................................................................................4 forward and 4 reverse travel gears
Torque converter ratio .................................................................................................................................. 2.38
Transmission ratios:
1st gear ......................................................................... forward travel 5.533:1

reverse travel 4.549:1

2nd gear........................................................................forward travel 3.359:1

reverse travel 2.762:1

3rd gear ........................................................................forward travel 1.553:1

reverse travel 1.260:1

4th gear......................................................................... forward travel 0.811:1

reverse travel 0.677:1

4WD/4WS TRANSMISSION - POWERSHIFT (695ST)


Model ..................................................................................................................... CARRARO TLB2 MPB 4WS
Type (4x4) ..................................................................................................4 forward and 4 reverse travel gears
Torque converter ratio .................................................................................................................................. 2.38
Transmission ratios:
1st gear ......................................................................... forward travel 4.468:1

reverse travel 3.657:1

2nd gear........................................................................forward travel 2.700:1

reverse travel 2.220:1

3rd gear ........................................................................forward travel 1.232:1

reverse travel 1.013:1

4th gear......................................................................... forward travel 0.652:1

reverse travel 0.536:1

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10

SECTION 02 - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

AXLES
FRONT AXLES
2WD/2WS front axle (580T)
Model .......................................................................................................................................................... CNH
Type ....................................................................................................................................................... steering
4WD/2WS front axle (580ST - 590ST)
Model .......................................................................................................................................................... CNH
Type ....................................................................................................................................................... steering
4WD/4WS front axle (695ST)
Model ...................................................................................................................................... CARRARO 26.32
Type ....................................................................................................................................................... steering
REAR AXLES
2WS rear axle
Model (580T - 580ST) ............................................................................................................. CARRARO 28.44
Model (590ST) ........................................................................................................................ CARRARO 28.50
Type ............................................................................................................................................................. rigid
4WS rear axle (695ST)
Model ................................................................................................................................... CARRARO 26.32M
Type ....................................................................................................................................................... steering
Differential lock......................................................................................................................................... electric

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SECTION 02 - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

11

BRAKES
SERVICE BRAKES
2WS
Type .......................................................................................................wet multi-discs, 4 x axle (2 x half axle)
Braking surface ..................................................................................................................... 1236 cm2 (191 in2)
4WS
Type .......................................................................................................wet multi-discs, 6 x axle (3 x half axle)
Braking surface .................................................................................................................... 1092 cm2 (169 in2)
PARKING BRAKE
Type ....................................................................................................................................... manual, with lever
Maximum lever pull ....................................................................................................................1650 N (371 lbf)
Lever stroke ............................................................................................................................... 21 mm (0.87 in)
Maximum torque - POWERSHUTTLE ...............................................................................2000 Nm (1475 lbfft)
Maximum torque - POWERSHIFT ..................................................................................... 1500 Nm (1106 lbfft)

STEERING
2WS ............................................................................................................................................... 2 wheel steer
4WS ............................................................................................................................................... 4 wheel steer
System pressure .............................................................................................. 170 175 bar (2465 2538 psi)
POWER STEERING
2WS (with variable-flow-rate pump)
Model ......................................................................................................................... EATON P/N 403 -8754-04
Displacement ............................................................................................................. 160 cm3/rev (9.76 in3/rev)
Shock valve adjustment ......................................................................................................... 235 bar (3408 psi)
Load-sensing pressure relief valve adjustment...................................................................... 175 bar (2538 psi)
2WS (with gear pump)
Model ......................................................................................................................... EATON P/N 403 -8754-08
Displacement ............................................................................................................. 160 cm3/rev (9.76 in3/rev)
Shock valve adjustment ......................................................................................................... 235 bar (3408 psi)
Load-sensing pressure relief valve adjustment............................................................................................... No
4WS
Model ......................................................................................................................... EATON P/N 403 -7754-04
Displacement ............................................................................................................. 160 cm3/rev (9.76 in3/rev)
Shock valve adjustment ......................................................................................................... 235 bar (3408 psi)
Load-sensing pressure relief valve adjustment...................................................................... 175 bar (2538 psi)

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12

SECTION 02 - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
GEAR PUMP
Pump 72 kW - 97 HP (580T - 580ST)
Model ...........................................................................................................CASAPPA KP 30.34 - 05 S6 - LMF
Type ....................................................................................................................................... double gear pump
Flow rate ..................................................................................... 35.427 + 35.427 cm3/rev (2.16 + 2.16 in3/rev)
Pump 82 kW - 110 HP (590ST - 695ST)
Model ...........................................................................................................CASAPPA KP 30.38 - 05 S6 - LMF
Type ....................................................................................................................................... double gear pump
Flow rate ..................................................................................... 40.258 + 35.427 cm3/rev (2.45 + 2.16 in3/rev)
VARIABLE-FLOW-RATE PUMP
Pump 72 kW - 97 HP (580ST)
Model ....................................................................................................................... DANFOSS J71C Series 45
Type ......................................................................................................................................... with axial pistons
Flow rate ...................................................................................................................... 71 cm3/rev (4.33 in3/rev)
Pump 82 kW - 110 HP (590ST - 695ST)
Model ....................................................................................................................... DANFOSS J75C Series 45
Type ......................................................................................................................................... with axial pistons
Flow rate ...................................................................................................................... 75 cm3/rev (4.57 in3/rev)

FRONT COUNTERWEIGHT
COUNTERWEIGHT - 2WS
Standard ...................................................................................................................................... 159 kg (350 lb)
Medium ....................................................................................................................................... 330 kg (727 lb)
COUNTERWEIGHT - 4WS
Standard ...................................................................................................................................... 160 kg (352 lb)

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SECTION 02 - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

13

NOISE AND VIBRATION LEVELS


NOISE LEVEL
Certified by the Manufacturer.
In compliance with European Directive 2000/14/EC - Stage II.
Internal noise level (LpA) ........................................................................................................................... 77 db
External noise level (LwA) (580T - 580ST) .............................................................................................. 102 db
External noise level (LwA) (590ST - 695ST)............................................................................................ 103 db
VIBRATION LEVEL INSIDE THE CAB
Upper limbs ................................................................................................ level lower than 2.5 m/s2 (8.20 ft/s2)
Abdomen.................................................................................................... level lower than 0.5 m/s2 (1.64 ft/s2)

BUCKETS
LOADER BUCKETS
2WS

4WS

Type

1 m3 (35.3 ft3)
standard

4x1

6x1 (with forks)

Heaped capacity

1.0 m3 (35.3 ft3)

1.0 m3 (35.3 ft3)

1.0 m3 (35.3 ft3)

Width

2250 mm (88.58 in)

2250 mm (88.58 in)

2250 mm (88.58 in)

Weight

410 kg (902 lb)

800 kg (1760 lb)

960 kg (2112 lb)

Heaped capacity

1.15 m3 (40.61 ft3)

1.15 m3 (40.61 ft3)

1.15 m3 (40.61 ft3)

Width

2400 mm (94.4 in)

2400 mm (94.4 in)

2400 mm (94.4 in)

Weight

426 kg (937 lb)

830 kg (1826 lb)

990 kg (2178 lb)

BACKHOE BUCKETS
Type

Width [mm (in)]

Weight [kg (lb)]

300 (11.81)

89 (196)

400 (15.75)

104 (229)

450 (17.71)

112 (247)

600 (23.62)

130 (286)

750 (29.53)

151 (333)

900 (35.43)

171 (377)

406 (15.98)

139 (306)

457 (17.9)

149 (328)

610 (24)

176 (388)

914 (35.9)

228 (503)

Normal operation

Heavy Duty

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14

SECTION 02 - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

TYRES
TYRE TYPES
Tyres - 2WS
Front tyres

Rear tyres

11L-16 F3 12PR

18.4-26 R4 12PR

11L-16 F3 12PR

16.9-28 R4 12PR

12.5/80 - 18 L3 10PR

18.4-26 R4 10PR

12.5/80 - 18 L3 10PR

16.9-28 R4 10PR

320/80 R18 IT 520

480/80 R26 IT520

2WD

4WD

Tyres - 4WS
Front and rear tyres
16.9/24 R4 12PR
16.9/28 R4 12PR
440/80 R28 IT520
440/80 R28 IT530

NUT TORQUES
Front nuts (2WS) ....................................................................................................................330 Nm (243 lbfft)
Rear nuts (2WS) ....................................................................................................................540 Nm (398 lbfft)
Front and rear nuts (4WS) .....................................................................................................700 Nm (516 lbfft)

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SECTION 02 - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

15

DIMENSIONS AND PERFORMANCE


DIMENSIONS - 2WS SIDESHIFT

Front tyres ..................................................................................................................................... 12.5/80-18 I3


Rear tyres ..........................................................................................................................................18.4-26 R4
Standard loader bucket ................................................................................................................. 1 m3 (35.3 ft3)
Standard backhoe bucket ...................................................................................................... 914 mm (35.98 in)
A

Overall machine length

5865 mm (230.90 in)

Loader bucket reach

2060 mm (81.10 in)

Wheel base

2175 mm (85.62 in)

Backhoe bucket dimensions

1630 mm (64.17 in)

Rear wheel base - backhoe attachment swing axis

1325 mm (52.16 in)

Machine maximum height (upper part of backhoe attachment boom)

3680 mm (144.88 in)

Stabilizer width

2430 mm (95.66 in)

Cab height

2950 mm (116.14 in)

Loader bucket width

2250 mm (88.58 in)

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16

SECTION 02 - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

DIMENSIONS - 4WS SIDESHIFT

Front and rear tyres................................................................................................................ 440/80-R28 IT530


Standard loader bucket .......................................................................................................... 1.15 m3 (40.61 ft3)
Standard backhoe bucket....................................................................................................... 914 mm (35.98 in)
A

Overall machine length

5785 mm (227.76 in)

Loader bucket reach

1975 mm (77.75 in)

Wheel base

2200 mm (86.61 in)

Backhoe bucket dimensions

1630 mm (64.17 in)

Rear wheel base - backhoe attachment swing axis

1325 mm (52.16 in)

Machine maximum height (upper part of backhoe attachment boom)

3650 mm (143.70 in)

Stabilizer width

2480 mm (97.63 in)

Cab height

2900 mm (114.17 in)

Loader bucket width

2400 mm (94.48 in)

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SECTION 02 - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

17

DIMENSIONS - 4WS CENTER PIVOT

Front and rear tyres ...............................................................................................................440/80 R28 IT530


Standard loader bucket .......................................................................................................... 1.15 m3 (40.61 ft3)
Standard backhoe bucket ...................................................................................................... 914 mm (35.98 in)
A

Overall machine length

7295 mm (287.20 in)

Loader bucket reach

1975 mm (77.75 in)

Wheel base

2200 mm (86.61 in)

Backhoe bucket dimensions

3120 mm (122.83 in)

Rear wheel base - backhoe attachment swing axis

1325 mm (52.16 in)

Machine maximum height (with standard dipper)

3712 mm (146.14 in)

Standard stabilizer width - reversible

2380 mm - 2580 mm
(93.70 in - 101.57 in)

Cab height

2900 mm (114.17 in)

Loader bucket width

2400 mm (94.48 in)

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18

SECTION 02 - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

LOADER ATTACHMENT PERFORMANCE


580T - 580ST - 590ST

Front tyres ..................................................................................................................................... 12.5/80-18 I3


Rear tyres.......................................................................................................................................... 18.4-26 R4
Standard loader bucket .................................................................................................................1 m3 (35.3 ft3)
A

Maximum height/dimensions

4255 mm (167.52 in)

Maximum height of loader bucket pin/pivot

3460 mm (136.22 in)

Maximum dumping height

Digging depth

120 mm (4.72 in)

Loader attachment reach when raised in dumping position (according to


front counterweight)

830 mm (32.68 in)

2625 mm (103.35)

Angle of lowered closed bucket

45

Dumping angle

45

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SECTION 02 - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

19

695ST

Front and rear tyres ...............................................................................................................440/80 R28 IT530


Standard loader bucket .......................................................................................................... 1.15 m3 (40.61 ft3)
A

Maximum height/dimensions

4350 mm (171.26 in)

Maximum height of loader bucket pin/pivot

3490 mm (137.40 in)

Maximum dumping height

2715 mm (106.89 in)

Digging depth

Loader attachment reach when raised in dumping position (according to


front counterweight)

113 mm (4.44 in)


745 mm (29.33 in)

Angle of lowered closed bucket

45

Dumping angle

45

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20

SECTION 02 - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

PERFORMANCE OF LOADER BUCKET WITH FORKS


580T - 580ST - 590ST

Maximum height of loader bucket pin/pivot with lifted forks

4245 mm (167.13 in)

Fork maximum height

3460 mm (136.22 in)

Height of loader bucket pin/pivot of loader bucket with lowered forks

Fork reach when raised

2320 mm (91.34 in)

Fork reach when lowered

3185 mm (125.39 in)

Maximum height of loader bucket pin/pivot with lifted forks

3520 mm (138.58 in)

Fork maximum height

3060 mm (120.47 in)

Height of loader bucket pin/pivot of loader bucket with lowered forks

Fork reach when raised

2195 mm (86.42 in)

Fork reach when lowered

3185 mm (125.39 in)

460 mm (18.11 in)

695ST

460 mm (18.11 in)

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SECTION 02 - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

21

BACKHOE ATTACHMENT PERFORMANCE


580T - 580ST - 590ST

Front tyres ..................................................................................................................................... 12.5/80-18 I3


Rear tyres ..........................................................................................................................................18.4-26 R4
Standard backhoe bucket ...................................................................................................... 314 mm (12.36 in)
Standard dipper

Telescopic dipper
extended

Maximum digging height

5875 mm (231.30 in)

6790 mm (267.32 in)

Maximum height at full load

3925 mm (154.53 in)

4835 mm (190.35 in)

Maximum digging depth

4370 mm (172.05 in)

5435 mm (213.98 in)

Maximum digging reach with lowered bucket

5230 mm (205.90 in)

6240 mm (245.67 in)

Maximum reach when loaded

870 mm (34.25 in)

1425 mm (56.10 in)

200

195

Bucket digging angle

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22

SECTION 02 - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

695ST SIDESHIFT

Front and rear tyres ............................................................................................................... 440/80 R28 IT530


Standard backhoe bucket....................................................................................................... 914 mm (35.98 in)
Standard dipper

Telescopic dipper
extended

Maximum digging height

6190 mm (243.70 in)

7215 mm (284.05 in)

Maximum height at full load

4250 mm (167.32 in)

5270 mm (207.48 in)

Maximum digging depth

4595 mm (180.90 in)

5810 mm (228.74 in)

Maximum digging reach with lowered bucket

5185 mm (204.13 in)

6645 mm (261.61 in)

Maximum reach when loaded

1065 mm (41.93 in)

1735 mm (68.31 in)

198

195

Bucket digging angle

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SECTION 02 - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

23

695ST CENTER PIVOT

Front and rear tyres ...............................................................................................................440/80 R28 IT530


Standard backhoe bucket ...................................................................................................... 914 mm (35.98 in)
Standard dipper

Telescopic dipper
extended

Maximum digging height

6190 mm (243.70 in)

7215 mm (284.05 in)

Maximum height at full load

4250 mm (167.32 in)

5270 mm (207.48 in)

Maximum digging depth

4595 mm (180.90 in)

5810 mm (228.74 in)

Maximum digging reach with lowered bucket

5185 mm (204.13 in)

6645 mm (261.61 in)

Maximum reach when loaded

1065 mm (41.93 in)

1735 mm (68.31 in)

198

195

Angle of lowered closed bucket

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24

SECTION 02 - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

MAXIMUM LIFTING LOADS


LOADER ATTACHMENT MAXIMUM LIFTING LOAD TABLE
2WS

4WS

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SECTION 02 - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
BACKHOE ATTACHMENT MAXIMUM LIFTING LOAD TABLE
2WS (580T - 580ST)

2WS (590ST)

4WS (695ST)

25

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26

SECTION 02 - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

SUPPLY SUMMARY TABLE


RECOMMENDED FLUIDS AND
APPLICATION
ENGINE - OIL
Akcela No 1 Engine oil

CASE
Specifications

INTERNATIONAL
Specifications

MODELS

QUANTITY
Litres

Gal

2WS - with filter


4WS - with filter

14
12.8

3.70
3.40

MS 1121

API CH-4, ACEA E5,


15W40

MS 1710

ASTM D6210

ALL

24

6.30

MAT 3525

API GL4 ISO VG 32/46


10W-30

2WS
4WS

140
118

36.90
31.10

Akcela Hydraulic Excavator Fluid Bio MS 1230

ISO VG 46
DIN 51524 - part II

2WS
4WS

140
118

36.90
31.10

POWERSHUTTLE
TRANSMISSION
Akcela Hy-tran Ultra

API GL4, 80W - 140

2WD
4WD

18.5
20.8

4.07
4.57

ALL

20.8

4.57

2WD

0.2

0.10

Differential

6.5

1.70

Wheel
reduction
gear (each)

0.7

0.20

Differential

10.5

2.80

Wheel reduction gear


(each)

1.3

0.34

15.5

3.41

17

3.74

Differential

11

2.90

Wheel reduction gear


(each)

1.3

0.34

2WS
4WS

145
124

38.20
32.70

COOLING SYSTEM
Akcela Premium Anti-freeze
antifreeze 50% water 50%
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Akcela Nexplore

MS1209

POWERSHIFT TRANSMISSION
Akcela Hy-tran Ultra
FRONT AXLE (2WS)
Akcela Transaxle fluid 80W -140

MS1317
4WD

FRONT AXLE (4WS)


Akcela Transaxle fluid 80W -140
REAR AXLE (2WS)
Akcela Transaxle fluid 80W -140

Differential 580T-580ST
590ST

REAR AXLE (4WS)


Akcela Transaxle fluid 80W -140
FUEL
Decanted and filtered diesel fuel
VARIOUS JOINTS
Akcela Multi-purpose grease

251H EP

NLGI 2

ALL

As required

TELESCOPIC DIPPER
Akcela Moly Grease

251 H EP-M

NLGI 2

ALL

As required

ALL

240

AIR CONDITIONING
COMPRESSOR
PAG SP 20 oil

cm

14.6
in 3

Copyright

580T
580ST
590ST
695ST

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
POWERSHUTTLE TRANSMISSION................................................................................................................ 3
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS.................................................................................................................. 4
CONTROLS ................................................................................................................................................. 9
LUBRICATION........................................................................................................................................... 13
GREASING ................................................................................................................................................ 16
REMOVAL FROM MACHINE .................................................................................................................... 18
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY............................................................................................................. 19
TROUBLESHOOTING............................................................................................................................. 144
REPAIR TIMES........................................................................................................................................ 148
SPECIAL TOOLS..................................................................................................................................... 149
POWERSHIFT TRANSMISSION.................................................................................................................. 150
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS.............................................................................................................. 150
CONTROLS ............................................................................................................................................. 161
LUBRICATION......................................................................................................................................... 163
GREASING .............................................................................................................................................. 165
REMOVAL FROM MACHINE .................................................................................................................. 166
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY........................................................................................................... 167
TROUBLESHOOTING............................................................................................................................. 331
REPAIR TIMES........................................................................................................................................ 335
SPECIAL TOOLS..................................................................................................................................... 336

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2

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

POWERSHUTTLE TRANSMISSION
This transmission is used on powershuttle backhoe
loader models 580T - 580ST - 590ST.

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4

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
2WD/2WS TRANSMISSION - POWERSHUTTLE (580T)
Model ..................................................................................................................... CARRARO TLB1 MPB 2WD
Type (4x4) ................................................................................................. 4 forward and 4 reverse travel gears
Torque converter ratio .................................................................................................................................. 2.38
Transmission ratios:
1st gear .........................................................................forward travel 5.603:1

reverse travel 4.643:1

2nd gear ........................................................................forward travel 3.481:1

reverse travel 2.884:1

3rd gear.........................................................................forward travel 1.585:1

reverse travel 1.313:1

4th gear .........................................................................forward travel 0.793:1

reverse travel 0.657:1

4WD/2WS TRANSMISSION - POWERSHUTTLE (580ST - 590ST)


Model ..................................................................................................................... CARRARO TLB1 MPB 4WD
Type (4x4) ................................................................................................. 4 forward and 4 reverse travel gears
Torque converter ratio .................................................................................................................................. 2.38
Transmission ratios:
1st gear .........................................................................forward travel 5.603:1

reverse travel 4.643:1

2nd gear ........................................................................forward travel 3.481:1

reverse travel 2.884:1

3rd gear.........................................................................forward travel 1.585:1

reverse travel 1.313:1

4th gear .........................................................................forward travel 0.793:1

reverse travel 0.657:1

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
DIMENSIONS
2WD

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6
4WD

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

PORTS
2WD

Ref.
Dimension
1 7/8 - 14 UNF
2 7/8 - 14 UNF
3 1/2 - 14 UNF
4
5

Use
Oil inlet from cooler
Oil outlet to cooler
Transmission temperature switch
Oil drain plug

1/8 - 28 BSP ISO 228 Oil cooler return

Notes - Miscellaneous

0.5 + 3.5 bar (7.3 + 50 psi) ON forward /


reverse travel position
0.5 + 3.5 bar (7.3 + 50 psi) ON neutral position
11 + 13 bar (159 + 188 psi)

8
9
10
11
12
13

1/8 - 28 BSP ISO 228 Forward gear pressure check port 0.3 bar (4.3 psi) = maximum pressure in neutral
position
11 + 13 bar (159 + 188 psi)
1/8 - 28 BSP ISO 228 Reverse gear pressure check port 0.3 bar (4.3 psi) (4.3 psi) = maximum pressure
in neutral position
11 + 13 bar (159 + 188 psi)
Forward / reverse gear clutch
1/8 - 28 BSP ISO 228
0.3 bar (4.3 psi) = maximum pressure in neutral
pressure check port
position
1/8 - 28 BSP ISO 228 Converter pressure check port
0.5 + 0.9 bar (7.3 + 13 psi)
9/16 - 18 UNF
Oil inlet / outlet for differential lock
13 bar (188 psi) at 900 rpm
9/16 - 18 UNF
Brake oil outlet / inlet
14.5 bar (210 psi) at 2200 rpm
9/16 - 18 UNF
Oil inlet from the brake
Oil inlet from service pump to
9/16 - 18 UNF
Brake pressure switch = 10 1 bar (145 14 psi)
brake release

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8

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

4WD

Ref.
Dimension
1 7/8 - 14 UNF
2 7/8 - 14 UNF
3 1/2 - 14 UNF
4
5

Use
Oil inlet from cooler
Oil outlet to cooler
Transmission temperature switch
Oil drain plug

1/8 - 28 BSP ISO 228 Oil cooler return

Notes - Miscellaneous

0.5 + 3.5 bar (7.3 + 50 psi) ON forward /


reverse travel position
0.5 + 3.5 bar (7.3 + 50 psi) ON neutral position
11 + 13 bar (159 + 188 psi)

8
9
10
11
12
13
14

1/8 - 28 BSP ISO 228 Forward gear pressure check port 0.3 bar (4.3 psi) = maximum pressure in neutral
position
11 + 13 bar (159 + 188 psi)
1/8 - 28 BSP ISO 228 Reverse gear pressure check port 0.3 bar (4.3 psi) = maximum pressure in neutral
position
11 + 13 bar (159 + 188 psi)
Forward / reverse gear pressure
1/8 - 28 BSP ISO 228
0.3 bar (4.3 psi) = maximum pressure in neutral
check port
position
1/8 - 28 BSP ISO 228 Converter pressure check port
0.5 + 0.9 bar (7.3 + 13 psi)
9/16 - 18 UNF
Oil inlet / outlet for differential lock
13 bar (188 psi) at 900 rpm
9/16 - 18 UNF
Brake oil outlet / inlet
14.5 bar (210 psi) at 2200 rpm
9/16 - 18 UNF
Oil inlet from the brake
Oil inlet from service pump to
9/16 - 18 UNF
Brake pressure switch = 10 1 bar (145 14 psi)
brake release
13 + 14 bar (188 + 203 psi) at 900 rpm
4WD pressure check port
13 + 15.5 bar (188 + 225 psi) at 2200 rpm

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
CONTROLS

1. GEARSHIFT LEVER: it is possible to select


four forward and four rearward travel gears.
2. TRANSMISSION DISCONNECT BUTTON (on
gearshift lever): prior to gearshifting, press and
hold this switch; select the desired gear with the
gearshift lever and release the switch to reengage transmission.
3. REVERSE TRAVEL LEVER: the movement of
this lever from the neutral position will engage
the forward or reverse travel.
4. the warning horn activates in reverse travel.
5. HORN BUTTON
6. TRANSMISSION DISCONNECT BUTTON (on
loader attachment control lever).

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10

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

The transmission provides 4 forward and 4 reverse


speeds. A torque converter is used to couple the
engine with the transmission.
The reverse travel lever (3) allows shifting between
forward and reverse travel without disengaging the
gear ratios.
A device for transmission disconnection is activated
by pushing button (2), placed on the gearshift lever
(1) or by pushing button (5), placed on the loader
attachment (3) control lever.

WARNING
Always apply the parking brake whenever the
machine is parked as the machine is free to roll
even though the transmission gearshift lever and
power reversing lever may be In Gear and the
engine is turned OFF.

GEARSHIFT LEVER
The gearshift lever (1) is used to select any of the 4
gear ratios.
The transmission disconnect button (2) is
depressed and held as the lever is shifted from one
gear to another. The button is then released to reestablish the power of transmission drive.

FORWARD/REVERSE POWERSHUTTLE LEVER


(TRAVEL DIRECTION CHANGE)
To select the forward travel, engage the required
gear ratio with the gearshift lever.
With the engine idling, lift the powershuttle lever
from the neutral lock position (1) and move it to the
forward position (2).
Use the accelerator pedal to control the engine rpm
and the ground speed.
To reverse the direction of travel, reduce engine
speed and move the power reversing from neutral
lock position (1) and rearwards (3) for reverse travel
(audible alarm device sounds).
IMPORTANT: the powershuttle lever is equipped
with a neutral lock to prevent an accidental engagement of the transmission. With this design, the powershuttle lever moves through a T slot to the
forward or reverse positions.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
IMPORTANT: when operating at low environmental
temperatures with cold transmission oil, allow the oil
to warm up before attempting to shift the powershuttle lever. The transmission can be shifted normally
after the oil warms up.
IMPORTANT: the horn will sound if the powershuttle
lever is operated with the parking brake engaged.
IMPORTANT: The powershuttle lever can be activated with any engine speed.
As a safety and precautionary measure, the engine
must run at approximately 1200 rpm.
This action is easily controlled by means of the foot
accelerator to control engine and ground speed.

TRANSMISSION DISCONNECTION
The 4x4 transmission provides for easy upward and
downward gear ratio changes on the move.
However, as a clutch is not used between the
engine and transmission, the power flow from the
engine to the transmission must be interrupted to
shift from one gear ratio to another. This is accomplished by means of a transmission disconnect
(dump) button.
The finger operated button (2) on the main gearshift
lever knob (1) is easy to operate.

WARNING
Do not use the disconnect switch control down hill,
because excessive speed may cause loss of control, personal injury or the failure of transmission.
To make upward gear ratio changes, simply depress
and hold button (2) on the gearshift lever (1), while
shifting the same from one gear ratio to another.
When the desired gear ratio has been selected
release the button and allow the unit to gain engine
speed and ground speed. If another higher ratio is
required repeat the procedure.

11

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

IMPORTANT: to prevent possible damages to the


transmission hydraulic clutches, never use the disconnect switch for inching the machine forward,
because this will cause the clutches to slip excessively and to overheat.
To make downward gear ratio changes or reduce
ground speed, simply lower the engine speed,
depress and hold the gearshift lever button and
downshift the transmission.
When the desired gear ratio has been selected
release the button and adjust the engine speed to
suit ground speed required.
Operating the machine in a too high gear or under a
too heavy load will cause the torque converter to slip
excessively and overheat. If the machine is overloaded, the engine speed will not exceed a range of
1800-2200 rpm at maximum accelerator and the
torque converter will stall bringing the machine to a
complete stop.
If stall does occur, there is still sufficient engine
power to operate the loader attachment; however, to
prevent the transmission from overheating, either
reduce the load on the machine or select a lower
gear ratio.
IMPORTANT: operating at a stall for more than 20
seconds can cause the transmission to overheat
and can possibly damage the transmission. If the
transmission overheats, the needle (3) reaches the
red field. Shift both the powershuttle lever and the
gearshift lever to neutral. Let the engine run idle
(1000 rpm) until transmission oil cools down enough
to have the needle (3) return to correct position.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
LUBRICATION
2WD

4WD

1. Oil filler tube interface


2. Oil drain plug
3. Breather

13

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14

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

LEVEL CHECK
The oil level check should be carried out with the
engine running at low speed and at normal operating temperature.
Move the machine to a level and firm ground.
Raise the loader attachment and assemble the
safety support strut.
Place the backhoe attachment in the road travel
position.
Place the direction-of-travel lever and gearshift
lever in neutral position.
Immobilize the machine by means of the parking
brake.
Open and raise the engine guard and lock it in
opened position by means of the safety lock on the
left-hand gas spring.
Extract the dipstick (1), clean it with a clean cloth
and completely insert it into the tube, then take it out
again.
If the oil level is below the mini mark, top up.
Stop the engine.
Unlock the safety lock and close the engine guard.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
OIL CHANGE
Move the machine to a level and firm ground.
Raise the loader attachment and assemble the
safety support strut.
Place the backhoe attachment in the road travel
position.
Place the direction-of-travel lever and gearshift lever
in neutral position.
Immobilize the machine by means of the parking
brake.
Stop the engine and remove the starter key.
Open and raise the engine guard and lock it in
opened position by means of the safety lock on the
left-hand gas spring.
Remove the dipstick (1).
NOTE: change the oil while the transmission is still
warm; the oil will flow more easily.
Place a container with suitable capacity under the
drain plug (2).
Unscrew and remove the drain plug.
Let the transmission oil drain.

Re-install the drain plug (2).


Fill with new oil of specified type through the dipstick
hole.
NOTE: transmission oil capacity 18.5 litres
(4.07 gal) (2WD) and 20.8 litres (4.57 gal) (4WD).
Reassemble the dipstick (1).
Check the oil level by means of the dipstick and, if
necessary, add more oil.
Drive the machine for a few minutes in first and second gear, then stop the engine.
Check the oil level again by means of the dipstick
and, if necessary, add more oil.

15

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16

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

GREASING
Tecnolube POLYMER 400 grease
Transmission oil
2WD - 4WD

*: no grease, no oil

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
ONLY 4WD

17

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18

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

REMOVAL FROM MACHINE

1. Transmission

12. Dipstick tube

2. Anti-vibration

13. Dipstick

3. Left transmission support


4. Right transmission support

14. M10 x 30 hex screw


[tightening torque 52 57 Nm (38 42 lbfft)]

5. Washer

15. Washer

6. M12 x 35 hex screw


[tightening torque 90 110 Nm (66 81 lbfft)]

16. Torque converter

7. Washer

18. Plate

8. M12 x 90 hex screw


[tightening torque 90 110 Nm (66 81 lbfft)]

19. Snap ring

9. Washer

21. M10 x 20 hex screw


[tightening torque 52 57 Nm (38 42 lbfft)]

10. M12 nut


11. Fitting (apply Loctite 577)

17. Plate

20. Washer

22. M10 x 30 hex screw


[tightening torque 52 57 Nm (38 42 lbfft)]

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
Some of the following pictures could not exactly
show your transmission, but the procedure is correct.
TIGHTENING TORQUES AND APPLICATION OF SEALANTS / ADHESIVES
A. Loctite 510
B. Loctite 518

C. Loctite 638
D. Loctite 542

19

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20

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Only 4WD

21

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22

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

PLUGS AND FILTERS

Disassembly
Remove the oil drain plug (5) and drain the oil from
the transmission.

Loosen and remove the 2 screws (1).


Remove the cap (2).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Remove the oil filter (4) and the O-ring (3).

Unscrew and remove the oil filter (6).

Remove fitting (7).

Remove the spool (8).

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24

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Remove the spring (9).

Use a puller to remove the pressure relief valve


(10).
NOTE: the pressure relief valve is adjusted by the
Manufacturer. Never disassemble nor adjust it. If
any of its parts are damaged, replace the valve with
a new one.

Do not remove the plug unless there are leaks.


The plug is sealed with Loctite 542 and is difficult to
remove.
If the removal is necessary, clean it and apply Loctite 542 prior to assembly.

If necessary, remove the plugs (13) or the breather


(11).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Assembly
Assemble the plugs (13) and the breather (11).

Assemble valve (10).

Assemble the spring (9).

Assemble the spool (8).

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26

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Assemble fitting (7).


Tighten to the prescribed torque of 80 Nm (59 lbfft).

Assemble a new oil filter (6).


Lubricate the gasket.
Tighten clockwise until the gasket makes contact
with its seat, then tighten further 2/3 of a turn.

Assemble the oil filter (4) and the O-ring (3).

Assemble the cover (2).


Screw in and tighten the screws (1) to a tightening
torque of 23 Nm (17 lbfft).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Assemble the plug (5).
Tighten to the prescribed torque of 30 Nm (22 lbfft).

27

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28

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

OIL PUMP

Disassembly
Loosen and remove the screws (1).
Mark the oil pump position with respect to the bell
housing before loosening the screws.

Use two levers (A) to pull out the oil pump (2).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Remove the oil pump (2).
The pump seal ring can be damaged during this
operation.

If necessary, remove the O-ring (3).

WARNING
Do not disassemble the pump or its operation may
be compromised.

If necessary, remove the seal ring (4).

29

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30

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Assembly
Assemble the seal ring (4) onto the oil pump (2).
Use tool 380200218.
Lubricate the seal ring.

Assemble the O-ring (3).

Before pump assembly (if new), check that the oil


passage holes (between pump and half box) or the
visual marks coincide.

Lubricate the seal ring (4) to keep it centred, in


order to facilitate its introduction onto the oil pump.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Lubricate the matching seat with the front half box.
Assemble the oil pump (2).

Screw in and tighten the screws (1) to a tightening


torque of 23 Nm (17 lbfft).
Check that the mark on the oil pump and on the bell
housing coincide.

31

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32

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

TUBES

Disassembly
Drain transmission oil.
Loosen and remove the screws (1) and (2).
Remove the tube (3).
Collect the gaskets (4).

Assembly
Assemble the tube (3) with the gaskets (4).
Screw in and tighten the screws (1) and (2) to the
prescribed torque of 40 Nm (30 lbfft).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE

Disassembly
Disconnect all electric connections.
Drain the transmission oil.
Loosen and remove the screws (13).
Remove the hydraulic control valve (53).

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34

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Remove the gasket (49).

Remove the screws (48), and the plate (50).

Remove the gasket (51).

Lock the hydraulic control valve with a clamp.


Remove the plug (1) and the O-ring (2).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Push piston (4) downwards and remove the snap
ring (3).

Remove the piston (4) and the spring (5).

Verify the wear condition of the piston (4) and of the


spring (5).

Do not disassemble the piston (8) from the control


valve body.
If the piston is to be disassembled (8), the control
valve body must be replaced (47).
If the piston (8) is to be replaced, also order the
control valve body (47).

35

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36

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Remove the plug (6) and the O-ring (7).

Remove the spring (9).

Remove the washer (10).

Loosen and remove the screws (33).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Remove the valve cover (34).

Remove the gasket (35).

Remove the plate (36).

Remove the outer piston (38), the springs (39), (40)


and (41), the pin (42) and the inner piston (43).

37

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38

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Verify the wear condition of the springs (39), (40)


and (41) and of the pin (42).

Remove the gasket (37).

Remove the ball (26).

Remove the spring (25).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Remove the plug (32) and the O-ring (31).

Remove the solenoid valve coil (30) and the O-ring


(29).

Remove the solenoid valve coil (28) and the O-ring


(27).

Unscrew the solenoid tube (24).

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40

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Remove the solenoid tube (24) with the piston (21).

Disassemble the piston (21) and the solenoid tube


(24).

Remove the spring (23) and the washer (22).


Verify the wear condition of the piston (21) and of
the solenoid tube (24).

Unscrew and remove the nut (20).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Remove the O-ring (19).
Remove the solenoid valve coil (18) and the O-ring
(17).

Unscrew the solenoid tube (18).

Remove the O-rings (17).

Verify the wear condition of the solenoid tube (18),


of the O-ring (19) and of the nut (20).

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42

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Assembly
Assemble the O-rings (17).

Assemble the solenoid tube (18).


Tighten to the prescribed torque of 25 30 Nm
(18 22 lbfft).

Assemble the O-ring (17).


Assemble the solenoid coil (18).
Assemble the O-ring (19).

Screw in and tighten the nut (20) to the tightening


torque of 5 7 Nm (3.6 5 lbfft).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Assemble the solenoid tube (24), the spring (23),
the piston (21) and the washer (22).

Assemble the solenoid tube (24) and the piston


(21).

Screw in and tighten the solenoid tube (24) to a


tightening torque of 21.5 24.5 Nm (15.9 18 lbfft).

Assemble the O-ring (27).


Assemble the solenoid coil (28).

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44

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Assemble the O-ring (29).


Assemble the solenoid coil (30).

Assemble the O-ring (31) on the plug (32).


Assemble the plug (32).
Tighten to the prescribed torque of 7 10 Nm
(5 7.4 lbfft).

Insert the spring (25).

Insert the ball (26).

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Position the gasket (37).

Pre-assemble the springs (39), (40) and (41) and


the pin (42) with the pistons (38) and (43).

Assemble the outer piston (38), the springs (39),


(40) and (41), the pin (42) and the inner piston (43).

Position the plate (36).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Position and lubricate the gasket (35).

Assemble the valve cover (34).

Screw in and tighten the screws (33) to a tightening


torque of 9.8 11.8 Nm (7 8.7 lbfft).

Turn the hydraulic control valve (47).


Assemble the washer (10).

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Assemble the spring (9).

Assemble the O-ring (7) on the plug (6).


Screw in and tighten the plug (6) to the tightening
torque of 80 Nm (59 lbfft).

Assemble the piston (4) and the spring (5).

Push piston (4) downwards and assemble the snap


ring (3).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Assemble the O-ring (2) on the plug (1).


Screw in and tighten the plug (1) to the tightening
torque of 80 Nm (59 lbfft).

Position and lubricate the gasket (51).

Assemble the plate (50).


Screw in and tighten the screws (40) to a tightening
torque of 50 Nm (37 lbfft).

Position and lubricate the gasket (49).


Lubricate the gasket (49).

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Assemble the hydraulic control valve (53).
Screw in and tighten the screws (13) to a tightening
torque of 15 24.2 Nm (11 17.9 lbfft).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

4WD SOLENOID VALVE

Disassembly
Prior to disassembling the 4WD solenoid valve, disconnect all electric connections.
Drain the transmission oil.
Loosen and remove the screws (1).
Remove the solenoid body (2).

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Remove the nut (8).
Remove the solenoid valve coil (7).

Remove the shaft (6).


Remove the O-rings (5).

Remove the gasket (4).

If necessary, remove the valve (3).


Do not disassemble the valve (3).
There are no serviceable parts.
If there is a problem, use a new valve.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Assembly
Assemble valve (3).

Assemble the O-rings (5) on the shaft (6).

Assemble the 4WD solenoid coil (7).


Screw in and tighten the nut (8) to the tightening
torque of 5 8 Nm (3.6 5.9 lbfft).

Position the gasket (4).

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Remove the solenoid body (2).
Screw in and tighten the screws (1) to a tightening
torque of 23 Nm (17 lbfft).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

PARKING HANDBRAKE

Disassembly
Drain the transmission oil.

Unscrew the screw (1).


Use a screwdriver and 2 screws to lock the flange.
Remove the screw (1) and the washer (2).
Remove the flange (4) and the O-ring (3).

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Loosen and remove the screws (5), (6) and (7).
Remove the brake (8) assembly.
Remove the O-ring (9) from the brake (8).

Remove the seal ring (15).


Remove the plug (16).

WARNING
The seal ring can be damaged.

Remove the rings (10), the 5 brake discs (11) and


the 5 counterdiscs (12).

Remove the hub (13).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Assembly
Assemble the hub (13).

Use a gauge to check that each counterdisc (12)


and each brake disc (11) is flat.
If necessary, replace them.
If the brake discs (11) are nearly smooth, replace
them.
If the friction material is damaged or appears
burned, replace it.
Check the grooves for wear.
Check counterdiscs (12) for pitting, scoring, or other
damage.
If necessary, replace them.
If you will be using new brake discs, soak them in oil
for at least an hour before assembly.
If you are using the old friction discs, make sure that
the contact surfaces are coated with oil before
assembly, check the wear condition.
If this is 50% compared to the nominal value, we
suggest its replacement.

Brake disc kit


Brake disc number

Counterdisc number

Nominal brake disc


thickness

3.6 0.05 mm
(0.14 0.002 in)

Brake disc kit nominal


thickness [with 163 kg
(359.34 lbs) of load]
Brake disc maximum wear
(each side)

37.40 37.60 mm
(1.47 1.48 in)
0.65 mm
(0.02 in)

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Assemble the counterdisc (12), the brake disc (11)
and the ring (10).
Repeat this operation until the brake disc kit is complete.

Assemble the plug (16).


Assemble the seal ring (15) onto the brake (8), use
tool 380200226.

Insert the O-ring (9) on the brake (8).


Assemble the brake assy (8) on transmission.
Screw in and tighten the screws (5), (6) and (7) to a
tightening torque of 50 Nm (37 lbfft).

Assemble the flange (4) and the O-ring (3).


Lubricate the O-ring (3).
Assemble the washer (2) and the screw (1).
Use a screwdriver and 2 screws to lock the flange (A).
Tighten the screw (1) to a tightening torque of 139 Nm
(102.5 lbfft).

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2WD - TRANSMISSION BOX

Disassembly
Remove the snap ring (1).

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

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Loosen and remove the screws (2).
Remove the gearshift control assy (3) and the O-ring
(4).

Loosen and remove the screws (5).


Remove flange (6).

Loosen and remove the screws (7).


By means of a lever loosen the cover.
Remove the rear cover (8).

Remove the O-ring (9).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Remove the pins (10) by means of a punch.

Remove the retainers (12).

Loosen and remove the 2 screws (13).

Remove the plate (14).

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Remove the 2 balls (15).

Loosen and remove the screws (16) and the washers (17).

Remove the springs (18).

Remove the balls (19).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Pull the secondary shaft to the rear so that there is


backlash between the snap ring and the rear housing.
Remove the snap ring (20).

Remove transmission shaft PTO (21) by pushing


lightly on the opposite side.

If necessary, replace the seal ring (22) by cutting it.

Remove the snap ring (23).

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Take out the bearing (24) with tool 380200190.

Loosen and remove the screws (25).

Use lever (A) to remove the front half box (26).

The outer rings of the bearings (27) and (28) can


either stay on the shafts or on the front box seat.
Remove the 2 bearings (27) and (28).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

If necessary, remove the O-rings (29).

Assembly
Push the secondary shaft toward the back of the
rear box, so that there is backlash between the
snap ring seat and the rear box.
Assemble the snap ring (20).

Assemble the O-rings (29).


Do not apply any grease/oil on O-rings.

Apply a thin film of sealant on the edge of the rear


half box.

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Lubricate and assemble the bearings (27) and (28).

Assemble the front half box (26).


Make sure that the bearings of the shafts go straight
into the bores in the front box.

Screw in and tighten the screws (25) to a tightening


torque of 50 Nm (37 lbfft).

Assemble the snap ring (1).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Insert the ball (19).


NOTE: previously, the parts of the 1st and 2nd gear
lower control have been installed. It is necessary to
install both the upper control parts for 3rd and 4th
speed and the lower ones for 1st and 2nd speed,
according to the instructions given by the procedure. Make sure that you start with both shift rods in
the neutral position.

Insert the spring (18).

Assemble the washer (17) and the screw (16).


Tighten the screw (16) to a tightening torque of 80 Nm
(59 lbfft).

Insert the ball (19) and the spring (18).


Assemble the screw (16) and the washer (17).
Tighten the screw (16) to a tightening torque of 80 Nm
(59 lbfft).

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Assemble the bearing (24) on the transmission
shaft PTO (21).

Assemble the snap ring (23).

To assemble the seal ring (22) perform following


operations by means of the listed tools in sequence:
380200257;
380200225;
380200214.

Insert transmission shaft PTO (21) to stroke end.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Grease the balls.


Insert the 2 balls (15).

Assemble the plate (14).

Apply sealant on the threads of the 2 screws.


Screw in the 2 screws (13) to fasten the plate correctly and tighten them to the prescribed torque of
50 Nm (37 lbfft).

Assemble the retainers (12) on the gearbox pins.

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Assemble the pins (10) to fasten retainers on the
gearbox pins and the dowel pins (11).

Apply a thin film of sealant on the edge of the rear


cover (8).
Assemble the O-ring (9).
Do not grease the O-ring.

Place the rear cover (8).


Make sure that the pin (11) is correctly installed both
in the rear box and in the hole of the rear cover.
Tighten the screws (7) to fasten the cover on the rear
half box at the tightening torque of 50 Nm (37 lbfft).
If necessary, tap the rear cover with a soft faced
hammer to close the gap between the rear half
housing and the rear cover to tighten the cap
screws.

Apply a thin film of sealant on the edge of the flange


(6).
Place the flange (6).
Screw in and tighten the screws (5) to a tightening
torque of 50 Nm (37 lbfft).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Assemble a new O-ring (4) on the gearshift control


assy (3).
Use clean oil to lubricate the ring and assembly it
on the rear box.
Screw in the 3 screws (2) fastening the gearshift
control assy to the rear cover and tighten to the prescribed torque of 23 Nm (17 lbfft).

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4WD - TRANSMISSION BOX

Disassembly
Remove the snap ring (1).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Loosen and remove flange retaining screw (2).


Use a screwdriver and 2 screws to prevent the
flange rotation.

Remove the washer (3).

Remove the flange (5) and the O-ring (4).

Loosen and remove the 3 screws (6).

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Remove cover (7).

Remove the O-ring (8) from the cover (7).

Remove the seal ring (9) from rear cover (7).

Loosen and remove the 3 screws (10).


Remove the gearshift control assy (11) and the O-ring
(12).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Loosen and remove the 7 screws (13) and the


flange (14).

Loosen and remove the screws (15) fastening the


cover (16).
Use a prybar to loosen the rear cover from the
housing.
Remove the rear cover (16).

Remove the O-ring (17).

Remove the pins (18) by means of a punch.

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Remove the retainers (20).

Loosen and remove the 2 screws (21).

Remove the plate (22).

Remove the 2 balls (23).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Loosen and remove the screws (24) and the washers (25).

Remove the springs (26).

Remove the balls (27).

Pull the secondary shaft to the rear so that there is


backlash between the snap ring and the rear housing.
Remove the snap ring (28).

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Remove transmission shaft PTO (29) by pushing
lightly on the opposite side.

If necessary, replace the seal ring (30) by cutting it.

Remove the snap ring (31).

Take out the bearing (32) with tool 380200190.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Loosen and remove the screws (33).

Loosen and remove the screws (34).

Use a lever to remove the front half box (35).


Raise the front half box.

The outer rings of the bearings on the primary shaft


(36) and on the secondary shaft (37) can either stay
on the shafts or on the front box seat.
Remove the 2 bearings (36) and (37).

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Remove the bearing (38).

If necessary, replace the O-rings (39).

Assembly
Push the secondary shaft toward the back of the
rear box, so that there is backlash between the
snap ring seat and the rear box.
Assemble the snap ring (28).

Assemble the O-rings (39).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Apply a thin film of sealant on the edge of the rear


half box.

Lubricate the primary shaft bearing (36) and the


secondary shaft bearing (37).
Assemble the 2 bearings (36) and (37).

Assemble the front half box (35) on the rear one.


Make sure that the bearings of the shafts go straight
into the bores in the front box.
Push the front half box onto the rear one.

Screw in and tighten the screws (34) to a tightening


torque of 50 Nm (37 lbfft).

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Screw in and tighten the screws (33) to a tightening
torque of 50 Nm (37 lbfft).

Lubricate the bearing of the 4WD shaft.


Assemble the bearing (38) on 4WD shaft by means
of tool 380200230.

By means of tool 380200213 assemble the seal ring


(9) on the cover (7).
Push just until the seal ring stops moving.
Do not use excessive force.
Fill the cavity under the lip with grease.

Assemble the O-ring (8).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Assemble the cover (7).

Screw in the 3 screws (6) fastening the cover to the


front box and tighten them to a tightening torque of
23 Nm (17 lbfft).

Assemble and lubricate the O-ring (4) in the 4WD


flange.

Assemble the 4WD flange (5).

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Assemble the washer (3).

Screw in the screw (2).


Use a screwdriver to prevent the flange rotation.
Tighten the screw (2) to a tightening torque of 139 Nm
(102.5 lbfft).

Assemble the snap ring (1).

Insert the ball (27).


NOTE: later on the parts of the 1st and 2nd gearshift lower control will be installed. It is necessary to
install both the upper control parts for 3rd and 4th
speed and the lower ones for 1st and 2nd speed,
according to the instructions given by the procedure. Make sure that you start with both shift rods in
the neutral position.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Insert the spring (26).

Assemble the washer (25) and the screw (24).


Tighten the screw (24) to a tightening torque of 80 Nm
(59 lbfft).

Insert the ball (27) and the spring (26).


Assemble the screw (24) and the washer (25).
Tighten the screw (24) to a tightening torque of 80 Nm
(59 lbfft).

Assemble the bearing (32) on the transmission


shaft PTO (29).

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Assemble the snap ring (31).

To assemble the teflon seal ring (30) perform following operations by means of the listed tools in
sequence:
380200257 (without shim);
380200225;
380200214.

Insert transmission shaft PTO (29) to stroke end.

Grease the balls.


Insert the 2 balls (23).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Assemble the plate (22).

Apply sealant on the threads of the 2 screws.


Screw in the 2 screws (21) to fasten the plate correctly and tighten them to the prescribed torque of
50 Nm (37 lbfft).

Assemble the retainers (20) on the gearbox pins.

Assemble the pins (18) to fasten the retainers on


the gearshift pins.

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Apply a thin film of sealant on the edge of the rear
cover (16).
Assemble the O-ring (17).
Do not grease the O-ring.

Place the rear cover (16).


Make sure that the pin (19) is correctly installed
both in the rear box and in the hole of the rear
cover.
Tighten the screws (15), to fasten the cover on
the rear half box at the tightening torque of 80 Nm
(59 lbfft).
If necessary, tap the rear cover with a soft faced
hammer to close the gap between the rear half
housing and the rear cover to tighten the cap
screws.

Apply a thin film of sealant on the edge of the flange


(14).
Place the flange (14).
Screw in and tighten the screws (13) to a tightening
torque of 50 Nm (37 lbfft).

Assemble a new O-ring (12) on the gearshift control


assy (11).
Use clean oil to lubricate the ring and assembly it
on the rear box.
Screw in the 3 screws (10) fastening the gearshift
control assy to the rear cover and tighten to the prescribed torque of 23 Nm (17 lbfft).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

SHAFTS A, D

Disassembly
Grab the shaft with the (A) pliers and pull out the
shaft assy (D).

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Shaft (A)
If necessary, remove the seal ring (1).

Remove the snap ring (2).

Assemble a bearing separator under the gear (do


not assemble the bearing separator between the
gear and the bearing).
Use a puller on the bearing separator and insert a
shaft protector between the puller and the end of
the input shaft.
By means of puller which operates between separator and shaft protection, pull only until the bearing is
free, otherwise the parts can be damaged.

Remove the bearing (3).

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Remove the spacer (4).

Remove the gear (6).

Remove the roller retainer (7).

Remove the thrust washer (8).

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

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Remove the pin (9).

Remove the snap ring (10).

Lift and remove the snap ring (11).

Remove the discs (18) and the counterdiscs (17).

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Place a mark below the groove on the clutch bell.

Mark the snap ring (11), the discs (18) and the
counterdiscs (17).
These marks will be used as a reference during
assembly.

Lower the cover (13) by means of tool 380200215.

Remove the snap ring (14).

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Loosen the knobs of the threaded bars to clear the
spring tension.
Remove the upper part of tool 380200215.

Remove the cover (13) and the spring (15).

Remove the sleeve (5).

Remove the clutch piston (19) by blowing in compressed air through the delivery hole.

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If necessary, remove the seal ring (20) with the


inner O-ring from the outside seat of the piston and
the seal ring (21) with the relevant O-ring from the
inner seat of the piston.
To remove the rings it is necessary to cut them.

Turn the shaft.


If necessary, remove the seal rings (22).

Remove the snap ring (23).

Use a puller to remove the bearing (24).

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Remove the bearing (24) and the thrust washer
(25).

Remove the gear (26) and the roller retainer (12).

For the disassembly of other parts, repeat the operations described previously.

Check the seal ring grooves (large and small) for


wear or damage.
Check if the output shaft is worn or damaged.
Check oil passages in the output shaft to be sure
that they are open and free of foreign material.
Check the ball bearings and the needle bearings for
flat areas, pitting or other damage.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

If you are to re-use the clutch discs, observe the


assembly order.

Use a gauge to check that each counterdisc (17)


and each clutch disc (18) is flat.
If they are not flat, replace them with new ones.
If the clutch discs (18) are nearly smooth, or if their
friction faces are damaged or burnt, they must be
replaced.
Check the grooves for wear.
Check counterdiscs (17) for pitting, scoring, or other
damage.
If you will be using new clutch discs, soak them in
oil for at least an hour before assembly.
If you are using the old clutch discs, make sure that
the contact surfaces are coated with transmission
oil before assembly, check their wear condition (see
chart below).
If the wear exceeds the 50% of the rated value,
replace them.

Verify the bore and the housing of the input shaft for
damage that will cause leakage during the assembly
of the clutch.
Check if the slots in the housing of the input shaft
are damaged by the tangs of the counterdiscs.

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97

Forward - reverse gear clutch


Disc number (each side)

Counterdisc number (each side)

Counterdisc rated thickness

2.5 0.05 mm (0.10 0.002 in)

Rated thickness of disc

1.75 0.05 mm (0.07 0.002 in)

Disc maximum wear (each side)

0.2 mm (0.009 in)

Disc number (each side)

Counterdisc number (each side)

Rated thickness of disc


Disc kit nominal thickness [with 163 kg (359.34 lbs) of load]
Disc maximum wear (each side)

Shaft (D)
Remove the bearing (16) from the shaft (D) by
means of a puller.

Remove the bearing (37) from the shaft (D) by


means of a puller.

2.4 0.05 mm (0.09 0.002 in)


29.00 29.20 mm (1.14 1.15 in)
0.35 mm (0.01 in)

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Assembly
Shaft (A)
Assemble the seal ring (20) with the relevant O-ring
and the seal ring (21) with the relevant inner O-ring,
respectively in the outer and inner seat of the piston.

Apply a thin film of oil on the seal rings.

Insert the piston (19) with tool (T) 380001926.

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Assemble the sleeve (5).

Assemble the spring (15) and the cover (13).

Lower the cover (13) and insert the snap ring (14)
by means of tool 380200215.

Remove the 380200215 tool and fit the pin (9).

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Insert the thrust washer (8).

Insert the roller retainer (7).

To assemble the clutch discs start with the gear (6)


on the bench.
Assemble the thrust washer (11) so that the reference mark on top of the plate, made during disassembly, is facing towards the gear.

Assemble the discs (18) and the counterdiscs (17)


on the gear (6).
The assembled clutch disc kit must contain 6
counterdiscs and 6 friction discs.

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Use 2 screwdrivers to position the disc kit.

Assemble the snap ring (10).

Assemble the spacer (4).

Heat the bearing (3) to 80 100 C (176 212 F).


Assemble the bearing (3) with tool 380200190.

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Assemble the snap ring (2).

NOTE: for clarity of the seal ring installation procedure, the following photos do not show the disc kit,
gear, spacer, bearing, and snap ring installed on the
input shaft.
Insert the seal ring (1).

Assemble the 380200224 tool onto the input shaft


with the chamfered end facing inwards.

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Let tool 380200224 slide on the input shaft and
above the spacer.
The tool will stop in the correct position to install the
seal ring in the groove.

Heat the seal ring to 60 80 C (140 176 F) for 5


minutes.
Assemble the seal ring on tool 380200224.

Assemble tool 380200225 over tool 380200224 and


slide the seal ring until it reaches the groove in the
shaft.
Remove tools 380200224 and 380200225, the
expander/protector and the spacer from the shaft.

Assemble the end of seal compressor 380200214


with the deep chamfer onto the shaft and over the
seal ring.
Use a back and forth twisting motion to allow the
seal compressor to slip over the top of the seal ring
and seat this latter into the groove.
Be careful not to damage the seal ring.
After the seal ring is seated in the groove, remove
the seal compressor from the shaft.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Turn the seal compressor around and slide the end


with the narrow chamfer over the shaft and over the
seal ring.
Leave the seal compressor in place for 15 minutes
until the seal ring has cooled and is properly seated
in the groove.
After the seal ring has cooled, remove the seal
compressor from the shaft.

Turn the shaft upside down to carry out the operations described previously.
Lubricate the thrust washer (25).
Assemble the thrust washer so that the notch in the
inner edge fits over the pin.
Make sure that the side with the oil grooves is
down.

Heat the bearing (24) to 80 100 C (176 212 F).


By means of tool 380200197 place the bearing (24)
onto the input shaft until it makes contact with the
thrust washer.

Assemble the snap ring (23).

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Assemble the snap rings and place the spacer in
the protection (tool 380001933).

Place tool 380001933 and the spacer on the shaft.


The tool will stop in the correct position to install the
seal ring in the groove.

Heat the seal ring to 60 80 C (140 176 F) for 5


minutes.
Assemble the seal ring on tool 380001933.

Assemble tool 380001928 over tool 380001933 and


slide the seal ring until it reaches the groove in the
shaft.
Remove tools 380001928 and 380001933.

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Assemble the end of seal compressor 380001927


with the deep chamfer onto the shaft and over the
seal ring.
Use a back and forth twisting motion to allow the
seal compressor to slip over the top of the seal ring
and seat this latter into the groove.
Be careful not to damage the seal ring.
After the seal ring is seated in the groove, remove
the seal compressor from the shaft.

Turn the seal compressor around and slide the end


with the narrow chamfer over the shaft and over the
seal ring.
Leave the seal compressor in place for 15 minutes
until the seal ring has cooled and is properly seated
in the groove.
After the seal ring has cooled, remove the seal
compressor from the shaft.

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In order to insert the other 3 rings, repeat the operations described previously, by means of following
spacer rings:
380001933/3 for the 2nd ring;
380001933/2 for the 3rd ring;
380001933/1 for the 4th ring.

1. Lubrication oil passage


2. Forward gear clutch passage
3. Reverse gear clutch passage
4. Forward gear engagement
5. Forward gear clutch disc kit
6. Reverse gear clutch disc kit
7. Reverse gear engagement
8. Input shaft
Apply compressed air of approximately 6 bar (87 psi)
to the forward clutch passage.
Listen for the forward gear piston to move and to
lock the relevant clutch disc kit.
Try to shift the forward travel gear.
It must not turn on the input shaft.
Try to shift the reverse travel gear.
It must turn freely on the input shaft.
If the clutches do not work correctly, disassemble
them to find the problem.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Carry out the check procedure of the clutch disc kit


play on both sides of the clutch.
Position the shaft on a suitable support (S) and
apply load F on the counterdisc (11) surface by
means of a proper buffer (T), as shown.
This operation clears any possible play.

To check the backlash, supply the piston chamber


with compressed air at 6 bar (87 psi) and verify the
actual stroke X with a dial indicator.
Determine clearance X.

The piston stroke (19) and (38) must be such to


ensure a play corresponding to (according to the
clutch disc kit)
X = 2.15 4.10 mm (0.08 0.16 in)
X = 1.60 2.45 mm (0.06 0.10 in)
If the distance is not within specification, the clutch
is probably wrongly installed.
Turn the clutch shaft upside down and repeat the
operation for the other clutch disc kit.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Shaft (D)
Assemble the bearing (16) on shaft (D) by means of
tool 380200230.

Assemble the bearing (37) on shaft (D) by means of


tool 380200230.

Lubricate with oil the shaft seat (A).

Insert shaft (D) and shaft (A).


The operation is correct only if the 2 shafts are fitted
at the same time.

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110
SHAFTS B, C

Disassembly
Remove the shafts (B) and (C).

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Remove the gearshift control yokes.
To remove the shaft (C) use tool 380200246.

Shaft (C)
By means of a puller remove the bearing (1).

Remove the thrust washer (2) and 3rd speed gear


(3).

Remove the 3rd/4th speed synchronizer assy (4).

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112

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Remove the ring (5) from each side of the synchronizer assy.
The components of the synchronizer assy are serviced as a complete unit.
The synchronizer assy may be disassembled for
inspection and cleaning.
If some parts are damaged, replace the synchronizer assy.

Use a suitable gauge to measure the backlash


between the bottom of the teeth on the synchronizer ring and the edge of the sleeve on the outside
of the synchronizer assy.
The backlash (S) should be approximately 1.0 mm
(0.04 in) with used parts in good condition.
If the backlash (S) is 0.5 mm (0.02 in) or less, use a
new synchronizer assy.
Before disassembly, repeat the measurement on
the opposite side of the synchronizer.

Remove the ring (6) from each side of the synchronizer.

Remove the sleeve (7) from the synchronizer hub.


When the sleeve is removed from the hub, the
spring plates, the hub pins and the hub springs will
be released from the hub.
Be careful not to lose any of these parts.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Remove the blocks (8), the balls (9), the springs
(10) and the synchronizer hub (11).
The synchronizer hub contains 3 blocks (8), 3 balls
(9) and 3 springs (10).

Remove the 4th speed gear (12).

Turn the shaft.


Remove outer ring of bearing (15).

Use a puller to remove inner ring of bearing (15).


NOTE: do not try to remove the bearing by pulling
the gear since it is locked by snap ring (16).

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114

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Remove the snap ring (16).

Remove the shims (20) and the thrust washer (17).

Remove the pin (19).

Remove the 2nd speed gear (18).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Remove the spacer (21).

Remove the 1st/2nd speed synchronizer assy (23).


Remove the synchronizer ring (22).

Remove the steel ring (24) and the sintered ring


(25) together.
Install the synchronizer with the synchronizer assy.
Use a suitable gauge to measure the backlash
between the bottom of the teeth on the synchronizer ring and the edge of the sleeve on the outside
of the synchronizer assy.

The backlash (S1) should be approximately 1.0 mm


(0.04 in) with used parts in good condition.
If the backlash (S1) is 0.5 mm (0.02 in) or less, use
a new synchronizer assy.
Repeat the measurement on the opposite side.

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116

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Remove the ring (26).

Overturn the synchronizer and remove the ring (27)


from the other side.

Remove the steel ring (28) and the sintered ring


(29) together.

Remove the ring (30).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Support the sleeve on blocks.
Push it down and, at the same time, extract the
detent devices of sleeve and hub.
Remove the sleeve (31).

Remove the balls (32), the blocks (33), the springs


(34) and the hub (35).

Remove the spacer (36).

Remove the 1st speed gear (37).

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118
Only with 4WD models
Remove the snap ring (38).

Only with 4WD models


Remove the 4WD gear (14).

Only with 4WD models


Remove the snap ring (13).

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Shaft (B)
Use a puller to remove the inner ring of bearing
(39).

Turn the shaft (41).


Remove the bearing (40).

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120

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Assembly
Shaft (C)
Only with 4WD models
Put the secondary shaft on the bench so that the
first-second gear end is up.
You can use a vice with soft jaws to hold the shaft in
position.
Install the snap ring (13).

Only with 4WD models


Assemble the 4WD gear (14).

Only with 4WD models


Assemble the snap ring (38).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Assemble the 1st speed gear (37).

Assemble the spacer (36).

Assemble the 1st/2nd speed synchronizer (23).


Before final assembly, check the correct location of
the hub (35), sleeve (31), springs (34), blocks (33)
and balls (32).
The springs are installed on the hub.
The blocks are not yet pushed down into the sleeve
and are holding the hub outside the sleeve.
The balls are loose in the recesses of the blocks.

Use a punch or a screwdriver to push the balls (32)


into the blocks and push these latter downwards, so
that the balls are on the flat faces of the teeth, but
not into the detent grooves.
When all the balls are in position, push the hub and
the blocks downwards until the balls move into the
detent groove.

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122

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Assemble the ring (30).

Lubricate the sintered ring (29) and the steel ring


(28).
Assemble the sintered ring (29) and the steel ring
(28).

Assemble the ring (27).


The flat sides of the teeth must be directed
upwards.

Overturn the synchronizer and assemble the ring


(26) from the other side.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Lubricate the sintered ring (25) and the steel ring
(24) with oil.
Assemble the sintered ring (25) and the steel ring
(24).
Install the top synchronizer ring on the synchronizer
assy.
Make sure that the teeth on the top synchronizer
ring are aligned with the teeth inside the sleeve.
Push the sleeve upwards until it engages with the
teeth on top of synchronizer ring.
To do this, you must use enough force to overcome
the strength of the detent springs and balls.
When the synchronizer ring and the sleeve are
engaged, the detent must hold the sleeve in this
position.
Push the sleeve back to neutral position, turn over
the synchronizer assy and repeat the procedure
with the lower synchronizer ring.
If the sleeve does not engage with the teeth or does
not hold the position to which it was shifted, the synchronizer assy is damaged or was not correctly
assembled.
Disassemble the synchronizer assy to find the problem.
Install the ring (22) so that the flat sides of the teeth
are directed upwards.
Assemble the 1st/2nd speed synchronizer (23).

Install the spacer (21) on the 2nd speed gear (18).

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124

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Assemble the 2nd speed gear (18).

Assemble the pin (19).

Assemble the thrust washer (17) and the shims


(20).

Assemble the snap ring (16).


Measure the backlash X between gear (18) and
thrust washer (17):
the value must be between 0.2 0.42 mm (0.01 0.02 in).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Use a thickness gauge.

If backlash X is more than the prescribed value,


remove the snap ring and the thrust washer from
their seats and, using the shims shown in the chart,
reach the prescribed value.
Correctly assemble the shims (20) between the
thrust washer (17) and the snap ring (16).
SHIM RANGE
Shims mm (in)

0.05
0.1
0.3
(0.002) (0.004) (0.012)

0.5
(0.02)

Heat the inner ring of the bearing (15) to 80 100 C


(176 212 F).
Assemble the inner ring of the bearing (15) by
means of tool 380200203.

Assemble the outer ring of bearing (15).

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126

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Turn the shaft.


Assemble the 4th speed gear (12).

Assemble the 3rd/4th speed synchronizer (4).


Before final assembly, check the correct location of
the hub (11), sleeve (7), springs (10), blocks (8) and
balls (9).
The springs are installed on the hub.
The blocks are now on the spring and not yet on the
sleeve and are holding the hub outside the sleeve.
The balls are loose in the recesses of the blocks.

Install the 3 sets of blocks (8), balls (9) and springs


(10) onto the hub (11).
Use a punch or a screwdriver to push the spring
plates as the synchronizer hub is installed into the
sleeve (7).
Be sure that the spring plates are aligned with the
grooves of the sleeve.

Assemble the ring (6) on each side of the synchronizer assy.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Use oil to lubricate the ring (5) and install it on each
side of the synchronizer assy. Install the top synchronizer ring on the synchronizer assy.
Make sure that the teeth on the top synchronizer
ring are aligned with the teeth inside the sleeve.
Push the sleeve upwards until it engages with the
teeth on top of synchronizer ring.
To do this, you must use enough force to overcome
the strength of the detent springs and balls.
When the synchronizer ring and the sleeve are
engaged, the detent must hold the sleeve in this
position.
Push the sleeve back to neutral position, turn over
the synchronizer assy and repeat the procedure
with the lower synchronizer ring.
If the sleeve does not engage with the teeth or does
not hold the position to which it was shifted, the synchronizer assy is damaged or was not correctly
assembled.
Disassemble the synchronizer assy to find the problem.
Assemble the 3rd/4th speed synchronizer assy (4)
on the shaft.

Lubricate the thrust washer (2).


Assemble the 3rd speed gear (3) and the thrust
washer (2) on the shaft.

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128

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Heat the bearing (1) to 80 100 C (176 212 F).


Assemble the bearing (1) with tool 380200190.

Heat the inner ring of the bearing (39) to 80 100 C


(176 212 F).
Assemble the inner ring of the bearing (39) by
means of tool 380200203.

Turn the shaft (41).


Heat the bearing to 80 100 C (176 212 F).
Assemble the bearing (40) with tool 380200190.

Re-position the shaft assemblies (B) and (C) into


the half box.
Use tool 380200246.

WARNING
The shaft assemblies must be inserted with pins
and yokes.
Insert the pre-fitted yokes for 3rd and 4th speed and
for 1st and 2nd speed as shown.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Position the assy with care, paying attention that the
ends of the yoke pins are correctly seated.

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130
4WD - E SHAFT

Disassembly
Remove the shaft (E).

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Remove the 4WD clutch gear (10).

Remove the bearing (11).

Use tool 380200258 to compress the spring retainer


downwards in order to reach the snap ring. Remove
the snap ring (1).
Release the tension and remove the tool.
Remove the washer (2).

Remove the spacer (3).

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132
Remove the springs (4).

Remove the sleeve (5).

Remove the 2 O-rings (6) and (9).

Remove the seal rings (8).

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Remove the 4WD clutch tube (7) from the front box.
If necessary, or if the tube is leaking or damaged,
replace the front box.

Assembly
Assemble and lubricate the O-rings (6) and (9).

Assemble the sleeve (5).

Assemble the springs (4).

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134

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Assemble the spacer (3).

Position the washer (2) and the snap ring (1).

Use tool 380200258 to press the spring retainer


down until you have access to the snap ring.
Assemble the snap ring (1).
Release the tension and remove the tool.
Make sure that the snap ring (1) is seated correctly
in the recess of the spring retainer.

Place tool 380200207 on the shaft.


The tool will stop in the correct position to install the
seal ring in the groove.
Heat the seal ring (8) to 60 80 C (140 176 F).
Assemble the seal ring on the tool.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Assemble tool 380200225 on tool 380200207 and
slide the seal ring until it reaches the groove of the
shaft.
Remove tools 380200225 and 380200207 and the
spacer from the shaft.

Assemble the end of seal compressor 380200214


with the deep chamfer onto the shaft and over the
seal ring.
Use a back and forth twisting motion to allow the
seal compressor to slip over the top of the seal ring
and seat this latter into the groove.
Be careful not to damage the seal ring.
After the seal ring is seated in the groove, remove
the seal compressor from the shaft.

Turn the seal compressor around and slide the end


with the narrow chamfer over the shaft and over the
seal ring.
Leave the seal compressor in place for 15 minutes
until the seal ring has cooled and is properly seated
in the groove.
After the seal ring has cooled, remove the seal
compressor from the shaft.

Insert tool 380200208.


Repeat the previously described operations to
insert the second ring.
Lubricate the seal rings.

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136

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Apply compressed air at about 6 bar (87 psi) to 4WD


clutch oil passage (see arrow) by plugging the opposite hole with a finger.
The sleeve (5) should move when compressing the
springs (4).
The 4WD gear (10) should turn freely on 4WD shaft.
If the operation is not correct, dismantle to find the
problem.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Assemble the bearing (11).

Assemble the gear (10).

Assemble the shafts (B) and (C).


Assemble shaft (E).

Reassemble the 4WD clutch tube (7), if previously


removed from the front box.
Assemble the front half box on the rear half box.

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138

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

SPEED CONTROLS

Disassembly
Loosen and remove the screws (1).
For the disassembly of the two half boxes it is necessary to remove the gearshift control assy.
Remove the gearshift control assy (2) and the O-ring
(3).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Use proper pliers to release the catch on the collar
fastening the boot.
Remove the collar (4).

Remove the protection boot (5).

Remove the 2 pins (7).

Remove the snap ring (8).

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140

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Remove the bushing (9).

Remove the spring (10).

Remove the gearshift lever (6).

If disassembly is required, remove the pins (11) and


separate the yokes from the shift rods.
Make sure that you remember how the parts are
assembled and which parts go together.
Inspect all parts for burrs or excessive wear.
Assembly is the reverse procedure of disassembly.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Assembly
Apply grease to the ball of the gearshift lever.
Assemble the gearshift lever (6).

Check for the correct position of the control lever (6)


according to the gearbox cover (2):
- direct the recess (A) towards the straight side of
cover (B);
- the slots (C) aligned with the cover holes (D).

Insert the spring (10).

Assemble the bushing (9).

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142

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Assemble the snap ring (8).

Insert the pins (7) through the holes of the cover


flange, so that they engage in the slots of the gearshift lever.

Assemble the protection boot (5) so that its end is


correctly positioned over the pin ends.
Be careful so that the pins do not fall out during this
step.

Assemble the collar (4) on the protection.


Use proper pliers to engage the collar block.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Assemble and lubricate the O-ring (3) in the seat of
the cover flange.
Put the gearshift control assy behind the rear cover.
Screw in and tighten the screws (1) to a tightening
torque of 23 Nm (17 lbfft).

Insert the two pins (11) to lock the 3rd and 4th
speed control yoke (13) and the 1st and 2nd speed
control yoke (14).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

TROUBLESHOOTING
FAULT
The vehicle does not
move.

POSSIBLE CAUSE

ACTION

Control valve supply problem.

Check and, if necessary, replace the


control valves.

Damaged connections of transmission


and vehicle wiring harness.

Repair and, if necessary, replace the


wiring harness.

Oxidation in the contacts of the


electric cables of the wiring harness.

Clean the contacts.

Interruption of the electric cable.

Replace the electric cable.

Damage to the solenoids/solenoid


valves.

Replace the solenoids.

Damage to sensors.

Replace sensors.

Short circuits or bad contact.

Check and, if necessary, replace the


fuses.

Incorrect oil level.

Restore the oil level.

Check for possible oil leaks.

Eliminate the leaks and restore the oil


level.

Suction strainer restriction.

Clean the suction strainer.

Damaged oil pump.

Replace the oil pump.

Damaged oil pump pressure relief


valve.

Replace the oil pump.

Damaged/restricted filter.

Replace the filter.

Damaged / stuck control valve.

Replace the control valve.

Damaged converter.

Replace the converter.

Oil temperature below 0 C (32 F).

Wait for the operating temperature to


be reached (stall test).

Damaged rotary seal rings.

Replace the rotary seal rings.

Synchronizers damaged.

Replace the synchronizers.

Stuck shuttle lever.

Repair the shuttle lever.

Excessively worn-out clutch assembly. Repair and, if necessary, replace the


clutch disc kit.
Lack of motion transmission (broken
gears, shafts, bearings, etc.).

Check, repair and, if necessary,


replace.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

FAULT

POSSIBLE CAUSE
The brake does not release.

145

ACTION
Check the general pressure of
transmission.
Check voltage.
Check the operation of the solenoid
valve.
Check the mounting of the brake
solenoid valve block after operating on
the brake.
After the above-described
verifications, disassemble the brake
cover and check the condition of the
parts for unlocking/locking the brake
(seal rings, belleville washers, brake
disc deformation, etc.).

The vehicle has a reduced


power transmission.

Overheating.

Incorrect oil temperature.

Wait for the operating temperature to


be reached (stall test).

Transmission oil overheating.

Restore acceptable temperature


values.

Incorrect operating pressures.

Check the hydraulic circuit and


replace (oil pump, filters, control
valve).

Damaged converter.

Replace the converter.

Incorrect oil level.

Restore the oil level.

Worn-out clutch assembly.

Replace/repair.

4WD fails to engage.

Repair/replace the 4WD shaft assy.

Overheated solenoids/solenoid
valves.

Replace.

Damage to sensors.

Replace sensors.

Damaged cooling system.

Repair the cooling system.

Dirty heat exchanger.

Clean the heat exchanger.

Unintentionally activated parking


brake.

Deactivate the parking brake.

Excessive soil deposit on axle wheel


hubs.

Clean the axle wheel hubs.

Seizure (broken gears, shafts,


bearings, etc.).

Check, repair and, if necessary,


replace.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

FAULT

Wheel rotation with lifted


vehicle.

Noise.

Irregular coupling.

POSSIBLE CAUSE

ACTION

Braking force external to transmission:


axle operating problem.

Check and repair the axle.

Dragging of clutch discs.

Repair and, if necessary, replace the


clutch discs.

Damaged converter.

Replace the converter.

Damaged oil thermostat.

Replace the oil thermostat.

Incorrect oil level.

Restore the oil level.

Worn-out oil pump.

Replace the oil pump.

Dragging of clutch discs.

Repair and, if necessary, replace the


clutch discs.

Low oil temperature (high oil


viscosity).

Wait for the operating temperature to


be reached (stall test).

Incorrect oil gradient.

Change oil and filters.

Damaged control valve.

Replace the control valve.

Stuck shuttle lever.

Repair and, if necessary, replace the


shuttle lever.

Damaged converter.

Replace the converter.

Damaged oil pump.

Replace the oil pump.

Ventilation/Cavitation.

Check the oil level.


Check the oil gradient.

Seizure (broken gears, shafts,


bearings, etc.).

Check, repair and, if necessary,


replace.

Worn-out clutch discs.

Replace the clutch discs.

Synchronizer coupling wear.

Replace the synchronizer coupling.

Damaged 4WD coupling assy.

Replace the 4WD coupling assy.

Damaged hydraulic control valve.

Replace the control valves.

Electric system fault.

Repair the electric system.

Worn-out clutch discs.

Replace the clutch discs.

Damaged converter.

Replace the converter.

Low oil temperature (high oil


viscosity).

Wait for the operating temperature to


be reached (stall test).

Overheating.

See overheating.

Damaged hydraulic system.

Repair the hydraulic system.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

147

FAULT

POSSIBLE CAUSE

The gear remains


engaged.

Damaged/stuck shuttle lever.

Repair and, if necessary, replace the


shuttle lever.

Electric system fault.

Repair the electric system.

Damaged control valve.

Replace the control valve.

Damaged hydraulic system.

Repair the hydraulic system.

Damaged clutch assembly.

Repair and, if necessary, replace the


clutch assembly.

Gearshift lever damaged.

Replace gearshift lever.

Synchronizers damaged.

Replace the synchronizers.

Damaged 4WD connection assy.

Replace the 4WD coupling assy.

Hydraulic system fault.

Repair the hydraulic system.

Damaged control valve.

Replace the control valve.

Braking sensor fault.

Check and, if necessary, replace the


braking sensors.

Electric system fault.

Repair the electric system.

Gearshift lever damaged.

Replace the gearshift lever.

Synchronizers damaged.

Replace the synchronizers.

Lack of 4WD power


transmission.

Gear fails to engage.

ACTION

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

REPAIR TIMES
The times are referred to average values of maintenance performed by skilled personnel in workshops
equipped with all necessary fixtures for a proper
execution of the required works.
The repair and/or replacement times are indicated in
minutes.
We assume that the transmission assy has already
been removed from the machine.
ASSY

OPERATION

TIME (minutes)

Plugs and filters

Oil filter replacement

Oil pump

Oil pump replacement

20

Replacement of lubrication tube

Replacement of supply tube for solenoid valve of


parking brake

Control valve replacement

15

Control valve overhauling

60

Solenoid valve replacement

10

PTO shaft replacement

60

Replacement of seal rings on input shaft

20

Half box replacement

80

Open, clean, close the half boxes

50

Replacement of shaft A / bearings

60

Overhauling of shaft A

150

Replacement of seal rings on shaft A

120

Replacement of shaft D / bearings

60

Replacement of shaft B

60

Overhauling/replacement of shaft C

150

Replacement of bearings of shaft B

60

Replacement of bearings of shaft C

60

Overhauling/replacement of shaft E

100

Shaft E

Replacement of bearings of shaft E

70

(only with 4WD models)

Replacement of seal rings

70

Gear/sleeve replacement

90

Gearshift lever replacement

20

Disc kit replacement

40

Brake overhauling/replacement

40

Lines

Control valve
4WD solenoid valve
(only with 4WD models)

Transmission box

Shafts A and D

Shafts B and C

Gearshift control
Parking brake

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

149

SPECIAL TOOLS
PN CNH

DESCRIPTION

USE

2WD 4WD

380002211

Handle

To be used with the various pushers and buffers

380200190

Buffer

Assembly / disassembly of several bearings

380200197

Buffer

Assembly of bearings of shaft A

380200203

Buffer

Assembly of bearings of shaft B and C

380200207

Protection

Assembly of 4WD shaft seal ring

380200208

Protection

Assembly of 4WD shaft seal ring

380200213

Protection

Assembly of 4WD shaft cover seal ring

380200214

Calibrator

Assembly of seal ring on PTO shaft and 4WD shaft

380200215

Attachment

Disassembly / assembly of clutch

380200218

Buffer

Assembly of oil pump seal ring

380200224

Cover and shims

Assembly of seal ring on shaft A

380200225

Plunger

Assembly of seal ring on PTO shaft and 4WD shaft

380001926

Protection

Clutch piston assembly

380200226

Buffer

Assembly of SAHR seal ring for parking brake

380200230

Buffer

Assembly of bearings of shaft D

380001933

Cover and shims

Assembly of seal ring on shaft A

380001927

Calibrator

Assembly of seal ring on shaft A

380001928

Plunger

Assembly of seal ring on shaft A

380200246

Hook

Lifting of shafts B and C and of gear control yokes

380200257

Protection

Assembly of seal ring on PTO shaft

380200258

Tool

Disassembly / Assembly of snap ring on 4WD shaft

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

POWERSHIFT TRANSMISSION
This transmission is used on powershift backhoe
loader models 580ST - 590ST - 695ST.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
4WD/2WS TRANSMISSION - POWERSHIFT (580ST - 590ST)
Model ..................................................................................................................... CARRARO TLB2 MPB 4WD
Type (4x4) ................................................................................................. 4 forward and 4 reverse travel gears
Torque converter ratio .................................................................................................................................. 2.38
Transmission ratios:
1st gear .........................................................................forward travel 5.533:1

reverse travel 4.549:1

2nd gear ........................................................................forward travel 3.359:1

reverse travel 2.762:1

3rd gear.........................................................................forward travel 1.553:1

reverse travel 1.260:1

4th gear .........................................................................forward travel 0.811:1

reverse travel 0.677:1

4WD/4WS TRANSMISSION - POWERSHIFT (695ST)


Model ..................................................................................................................... CARRARO TLB2 MPB 4WS
Type (4x4) ................................................................................................. 4 forward and 4 reverse travel gears
Torque converter ratio .................................................................................................................................. 2.38
Transmission ratios:
1st gear .........................................................................forward travel 4.468:1

reverse travel 3.657:1

2nd gear ........................................................................forward travel 2.700:1

reverse travel 2.220:1

3rd gear.........................................................................forward travel 1.232:1

reverse travel 1.013:1

4th gear .........................................................................forward travel 0.652:1

reverse travel 0.536:1

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

151

HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


2/3 proportional solenoid valve specifications
Absorption:.................................................................................................................................................. 10 W
Protection degree:......................................................................................................................................IP69K
Solenoid resistance:......................................................................................................... 7.25

[20 C (68 F)]

Power supply voltage:............................................................................................................................12 V DC

2/3 solenoid valve specifications


Power supply voltage:............................................................................................................................12 V DC
Absorption:........................................................................................................................ 1.68 A [20 C (68 F)]
Protection degree:......................................................................................................................................IP69K
Solenoid resistance:......................................................................................................... 7.14

[20 C (68 F)]

2/4 solenoid valve specifications


Power supply voltage:............................................................................................................................12 V DC
Absorption:........................................................................................................................ 1.68 A [20 C (68 F)]
Protection degree:......................................................................................................................................IP69K
Solenoid resistance:......................................................................................................... 7.14

Diagram
A.

2/3 proportional solenoid 2nd - 4th speed actuation

B.

2/3 proportional solenoid reverse speed

C.

2/3 proportional solenoid forward speed

D.

2/3 proportional solenoid 1st - 3rd speed actuation

E.

2/3 solenoid valve 4WD engagement

F.

2/4 solenoid valve 2nd or 4th speed selection

G.

2/3 solenoid valve differential lock engagement

H.

2/4 solenoid valve 1st or 3rd speed selection

PS.

Supply pressure check port

HDL2. Differential lock engagement control port

[20 C (68 F)]

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
DIMENSIONS
2WS

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4WS

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
HYDRAULIC DIAGRAM
2WS

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

REF.

DESCRIPTION

NOTES

Suction filter

Pump

Oil filter relief valve

23 bar (333 psi)

Filter

10 Nm (7.4 lbfft)

Torque converter

Oil cooler

Torque converter relief valve

Pressure regulator for sequential valve

Air breather

10

Forward gear pressure check port

11

Reverse gear pressure check port

12

Forward gear clutch

13

Reverse gear clutch

14

4WD clutch

15

HDL

16

Shaft lubrication inlet

17

Brake oil return port

18

Transfer oil return port

19

Main pressure check port

20

Pressure check port of 1st gear clutch

21

Pressure check port of 2nd gear clutch

22

1st gear clutch

23

2nd gear clutch

24

3rd gear clutch

25

4th gear clutch

26

Main shaft lubrication

27

Output shaft lubrication

28

Temperature thermostat

29

Parking brake lubrication

250 Nm (184.39 lbfft)


36 cm3/rev (2.20 in3/rev)

3.5 5.5 bar (50 80 psi)

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
4WS

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REF.

DESCRIPTION

NOTES

Suction filter

Pump

Oil filter relief valve

23 bar (333 psi)

Spin-on filter

10 Nm (7.4 lbfft)

Torque converter

Oil cooler

Torque converter relief valve

Pressure regulator for sequential valve

Air breather

10

Forward gear pressure check port

11

Reverse gear pressure check port

12

Forward gear clutch

13

Reverse gear clutch

14

4WD clutch

15

HDL

16

Shaft lubrication inlet

17

Brake oil return port

18

Transfer oil return port

19

Main pressure check port

20

Pressure check port of 1st gear clutch

21

Pressure check port of 2nd gear clutch

22

1st gear clutch

23

2nd gear clutch

24

3rd gear clutch

25

4th gear clutch

26

Main shaft lubrication

27

Output shaft lubrication

28

Temperature thermostat

29

Parking handbrake lubrication

250 Nm (184.39 lbfft)


36 cm3/rev (2.20 in3/rev)

3.5 5.5 bar (50 80 psi)

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

159

PORTS
2WS

REF.

DIMENSION

USE

7/8 - 14 UNF

Oil inlet from cooler

7/8 - 14 UNF

Oil outlet to cooler

9/16 - 18 UNF

Check port for torque converter input


pressure

NOTES - MISCELLANEOUS

3 9 bar (43.5 130 psi)


13.5 16.5 bar (196 239 psi)

9/16 - 18 UNF

Forward gear pressure check port

0.3 bar (4.3 psi) = maximum pressure in


neutral position
13.5 16.5 bar (196 239 psi)

9/16 - 18 UNF

Reverse gear pressure check port

0.3 bar (4.3 psi) = maximum pressure in


neutral position

Oil drain plug

9/16 - 18 UNF

9/16 - 18 UNF

Oil pressure delivery to differential lock

14 17 bar (203 246 psi)

Lubrication pressure check port (from cooler) 1 5 bar (14.5 72.5 psi) forward/reverse gear
Oil outlet to brake tank

1 5 bar (14.5 72.5 psi) neutral position

9/16 - 18 UNF

Brake oil pressure delivery

14 17 bar (203 246 psi)

10

9/16 - 18 UNF

Oil return

11

9/16 - 18 UNF

Oil level check port

12

9/16 - 18 UNF

Oil main pressure check port

13

1/8 - BSP

Lubrication check port

14

1/8 - BSP

Check port of 1st gear

15

1/8 - BSP

Check port of 2nd gear

16

1/8 - BSP

Check port of 4th gear

14 17 bar (203 246 psi)

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4WS

REF.

DIMENSION

USE

7/8 - 14 UNF

Oil inlet from cooler

7/8 - 14 UNF

Oil outlet to cooler

9/16 - 18 UNF

Check port for torque converter input


pressure

NOTES - MISCELLANEOUS

3 9 bar (43.5 130 psi)


13.5 16.5 bar (196 239 psi)

9/16 - 18 UNF Forward gear pressure check port

0.3 bar (4.3 psi) = maximum pressure in


neutral position
13.5 16.5 bar (196 239 psi)

9/16 - 18 UNF Reverse gear pressure check port

0.3 bar (4.3 psi) = maximum pressure in


neutral position

Oil drain plug

9/16 - 18 UNF Oil pressure delivery to differential lock

9/16 - 18 UNF

9/16 - 18 UNF Brake oil pressure delivery

10

9/16 - 18 UNF Oil return

11

9/16 - 18 UNF Oil level check port

12

9/16 - 18 UNF Oil main pressure check port

13

1/8 - BSP

Lubrication check port

14

1/8 - BSP

Check port of 1st gear

15

1/8 - BSP

Check port of 2nd gear

16

1/8 - BSP

Check port of 4th gear

14 17 bar (203 246 psi)

Lubrication pressure check port (from cooler) 1 5 bar (14.5 72.5 psi) forward/reverse gear
Oil outlet to brake tank

1 5 bar (14.5 72.5 psi) neutral position


14 17 bar (203 246 psi)

14 17 bar (203 246 psi)

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

161

CONTROLS

1. GEARSHIFT AND DIRECTION CONTROL


LEVER: it is possible to select four forward and
four rearward travel gears.
The lever has 3 positions, according to which
the travel direction is defined:
F = forward travel
N = idle/neutral
R = reverse
By turning the knob, instead, the following
gears are selected:
1 = 1st gear
2 = 2nd gear
3 = 3rd gear
4 = 4th gear

2. KICKDOWN SWITCH: if the machine is in second gear and it is necessary to shift to the first
gear to work with the loader attachment, activating the kickdown switch to a lower ration
allows the machine to instantly shift from second to first gear.
When the reverse travel is activated, transmission reverts to second gear.
3. TRANSMISSION DISCONNECT BUTTON (on
loader attachment control lever)

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KICKDOWN (QUICK SHIFTING TO LOWER


GEAR RATIO)
The kickdown function (2nd to 1st gear only)
instantly increases the torque on the driving wheels
and, hence, the digging power. For example when
the loader is pushing into a pile and more torque is
required at the wheels.
This is achieved by an instant gearshift from 2nd to
1st gear by means of button (2).

1
TRANSMISSION DISCONNECTION
The disconnect feature is useful when loading, for
example; when pushing the loader into a pile and
you have sufficient dirt in the bucket press the disconnect switch (3) which disengages the transmission and allows the full power of the engine to be
directed to the hydraulic oil pump.
Disconnection is available in 1st and 2nd gear.
NOTE: transmission disconnection is selectable
when the machine speed is lower than 5 km/h, by
depressing the button on the loader lever, and
remains active until the switch is released.
2

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
LUBRICATION

1. Hole for filling and fastening of oil dipstick


2. Oil level plug
3. Oil drain plug
4. Breather

LEVEL CHECK
The oil level check should be carried out with the
engine running at low speed and at normal operating temperature.
Move the machine to a level and firm ground.
Raise the loader attachment and assemble the
safety support strut.
Place the backhoe attachment in the road travel
position.
Place the direction-of-travel lever and gearshift
lever in neutral position.
Immobilize the machine by means of the parking
brake.
Open and raise the engine guard and lock it in
opened position by means of the safety lock on the
left-hand gas spring.
Extract the dipstick (1), clean it with a clean cloth
and completely insert it into the hose, then take it
out again.
If the oil level is below the mini mark, top up.
Stop the engine.
Unlock the safety lock and close the engine guard.

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OIL CHANGE
Move the machine to a level and firm ground.
Raise the loader attachment and assemble the
safety support strut.
Place the backhoe attachment in the road travel
position.
Place the direction-of-travel lever and gearshift lever
in neutral position.
Immobilize the machine by means of the parking
brake.
Stop the engine and remove the starter key.
Open and raise the engine guard and lock it in
opened position by means of the safety lock on the
left-hand gas spring.
Remove the dipstick (1).
NOTE: change the oil while the transmission is still
warm; the oil will flow more easily.
Place a container with suitable capacity under the
drain plug (2).
Loosen and remove the drain plug (2).
Let the transmission oil drain.

Re-install the drain plug (2).


Fill with new oil of specified type through the dipstick
hole.
NOTE: transmission
(4.57 gal).

oil

capacity

20.8

litres

Reassemble the dipstick (1).


Check the oil level by means of the dipstick and, if
necessary, add more oil.
Drive the machine for a few minutes in first and second gear, then stop the engine.
Check the oil level again by means of the dipstick
and, if necessary, add more oil.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
GREASING
Tecnolube POLYMER 400 grease
Transmission oil

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REMOVAL FROM MACHINE

1. Transmission

12. Dipstick tube

2. Anti-vibration

13. Dipstick

3. Left transmission support


4. Right transmission support

14. M10 x 30 hex screw


[tightening torque 52 57 Nm (38 42 lbfft)]

5. Washer

15. Washer

6. M12 x 35 hex screw


[tightening torque 90 110 Nm (66 81 lbfft)]

16. Torque converter

7. Washer

18. Plate

8. M12 x 90 hex screw


[tightening torque 90 110 Nm (66 81 lbfft)]

19. Snap ring

9. Washer
10. M12 nut

21. M10 x 20 hex screw


[tightening torque 52 57 Nm (38 42 lbfft)]

11. M8 x 25 screw
[tightening torque 26 31 Nm (19 23 lbfft)]

22. M10 x 30 hex screw


[tightening torque 52 57 Nm (38 42 lbfft)]

17. Plate

20. Washer

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
Some of the following pictures could not exactly
show your transmission, but the procedure is correct.
TIGHTENING TORQUES AND APPLICATION OF SEALANTS / ADHESIVES
A. Loctite 510
B. Loctite 542
C. Loctite 518
D. Loctite 638

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Only 4WS

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

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PLUGS AND FILTERS

Disassembly
Remove the oil drain plug (1) and drain the oil from
the transmission.

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Loosen and remove the 2 screws (1).

Remove cover (3).


Remove the oil filter (4) and the O-ring (5).

Unscrew and remove the oil filter (6).


If necessary, remove the fitting (7).

Loosen and remove the valve (8).

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Check the valve (8).
Clean the valve.
If necessary, replace the O-rings (9) and (10).

If necessary, remove the breather (11).

NOTE: this port enables you to check the supply


pressure for forward gear engagement.
Remove the plug (12).

NOTE: this port enables you to check the supply


pressure for reverse gear engagement.
Remove the plug (13).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

NOTE: this port enables you to check the lubrication pressure.


Remove the plug (14).

Remove the revolution sensor (15).

Remove the oil thermostat (16).

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Assembly
Assemble the revolution sensor (15).
Tighten to the prescribed torque of 50 Nm (37 lbfft).

Assemble the oil thermostat (16).


Tighten to the prescribed torque of 30 Nm (22 lbfft).

Assemble the plugs (12) and (13).


Tighten to the prescribed torque of 30 Nm (22 lbfft).

Assemble and tighten the breather (11) by hand.

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Clean the valve (8).


Assemble the O-rings (9) and (10) onto the valve
(8).

Assemble valve (8).


Tighten to the prescribed torque of 28 Nm (21 lbfft).

Assemble fitting (7).


Tighten to the prescribed torque of 50 Nm (37 lbfft).

Assemble the oil filter (6).


Lubricate the gasket.
Tighten clockwise until the gasket makes contact
with its seat, then tighten further 2/3 of a turn.

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Assemble the O-ring (5) on the filter (4).
Insert the filter (4).

Assemble the cover (3).


Screw in the 2 screws (2) and tighten to the prescribed torque of 23 Nm (17 lbfft).

Assemble the oil drain plug (1).


Tighten to the prescribed torque of 30 Nm (22 lbfft).

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OIL PUMP

Disassembly
Loosen and remove the screws (1).
Mark the oil pump position with respect to the bell
housing before loosening the screws.

Pull out the oil pump (2) by means of two levers (A).

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Remove the oil pump (2).

WARNING
The O-ring can be damaged.

Remove the O-ring (3).

WARNING
Do not disassemble the pump or its operation may
be compromised.

If necessary, remove the seal ring (4).

WARNING
The seal ring can be damaged.

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Assembly
Assemble the seal ring (4) onto the oil pump (2).
Use tool 380200218.
Lubricate the seal ring (4).

Assemble the O-ring (3).

Before pump assembly (if new), check that the oil


passage holes (between pump and half box) or the
visual marks coincide.

Lubricate the seal ring (4) to keep it centred, in


order to facilitate its introduction onto the oil pump.

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Lubricate the matching seat with the front half box.
Assemble the oil pump (2).

Screw in and tighten the screws (1) to a tightening


torque of 23 Nm (17 lbfft).
Check that the mark on the oil pump and on the bell
housing coincide.

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HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE

Disassembly
Disconnect cable (12).

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Drain the transmission oil.
Disconnect the electric connections.
Loosen all the fittings of the delivery pipes connected with the control valve (2).
Loosen and remove the screws (1).

Remove the control valve (2).

Remove the gasket (3).

Remove the pressure switch (4).

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Place the control valve on a workbench.


Loosen and remove the screws (5) of the valves.

Pull out the valves (6), (7) and (8) with a screwdriver.

Check the valves (6), (7) and (8).

Loosen and remove the valve (9).

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Check the valve (9).
Clean the valve and, if necessary, replace the O-rings
(10) and (11).

Assembly
Clean the valve (9).
Assemble the O-rings (10) and (11).

Assemble valve (9).


Tighten to the prescribed torque of 25 30 Nm
(18 22 lbfft).

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Assemble the valves ON/OFF (6) and (7) and the


proportional valves (8) by observing the shown
positions.

Assemble the pressure switch (4).

Screw in and tighten the screws (5) to a tightening


torque of 3 4 Nm (2 3 lbfft).

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Assemble the gasket (3).

Assemble the control valve (2).

Screw in and tighten the screws (1) to a tightening


torque of 20 Nm (15 lbfft).

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HYDRAULIC SYSTEM LINES

Disassembly
Drain the transmission oil.
Remove the tube (1) (2nd gear).

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Remove the tube (2) (4th gear).

Remove the tube (3) (3rd gear).

Remove the tube (4) (1st gear).

Remove the tube (5) (4WD).

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Remove the tube (6) (lubrication).

Remove the tube (7) (lubrication).

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Assembly
Assemble the tube (7) (lubrication) by tightening the
fittings to the tightening torque of 30 Nm (22 lbfft).

Assemble the tube (6) (lubrication) by tightening the


fittings to the tightening torque of 30 Nm (22 lbfft).

Assemble the tube (5) (4WD) by tightening the fittings to the tightening torque of 30 Nm (22 lbfft).

Assemble the tube (4) (1st gear) by tightening the


fittings to the tightening torque of 30 Nm (22 lbfft).

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Assemble the tube (3) (3rd gear) by tightening the


fittings to the tightening torque of 30 Nm (22 lbfft).

Assemble the tube (2) (4th gear) by tightening the


fittings to the tightening torque of 30 Nm (22 lbfft).

Assemble the tube (1) (2nd gear) by tightening the


fittings to the tightening torque of 30 Nm (22 lbfft).

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PARKING BRAKE

Disassembly
Remove the oil drain plug (T) and drain the oil from
the transmission.

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Unscrew the screw (1).


Use a screwdriver and 2 screws to lock the flange.
Remove the screw (1) and the washer (2).
Remove the flange (4) and the O-ring (3).

Loosen and remove the screws (6) and (7).


Remove the brake (8) assembly.
Remove the O-ring (9) from the brake (8).

Remove the seal ring (15).

WARNING
The seal ring can be damaged.
Remove the plug (5).

Remove the rings (10), the 5 brake discs (11) and


the 5 counterdiscs (12).

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Remove the hub (13).

Only 4WS
Remove the brake and the disc kit.
Do not remove the plug (16).

Only 4WS
Remove the screw (17), the washer (18) and the
hub (19).

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Assembly
Assemble the hub (13).

Use a gauge to check that each counterdisc (12)


and each brake disc (11) is flat.
If necessary, replace them.
If the brake discs (11) are nearly smooth, replace
them.
If the friction material is damaged or appears
burned, replace it.
Check the grooves for wear.
Check counterdiscs (12) for pitting, scoring, or other
damage.
If necessary, replace them.
If you will be using new brake discs, soak them in oil
for at least an hour before assembly.
If you are using the old friction discs, make sure that
the contact surfaces are coated with oil before
assembly, check the wear condition.
If this is 50% compared to the nominal value, we
suggest its replacement.

Brake disc kit


Brake disc number

Counterdisc number

Nominal brake disc thickness


Brake disc kit nominal
thickness [with 163 kg
(359.34 lbs) of load]
Brake disc maximum wear
(each side)

3.6 0.05 mm
(0.14 0.002 in)
37.40 37.60 mm
(1.47 1.48 in)
0.65 mm
(0.02 in)

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Assemble the counterdisc (12), the brake disc (11)
and the ring (10).
Repeat this operation until the brake disc kit is complete.

Assemble the plug (5).


Assemble the seal ring (15) onto the brake (8), use
tool 380200226.
Lubricate the seal ring (15).

Insert the O-ring (9) on the brake (8).


Assemble the brake assy (8) on transmission.
Screw in and tighten the screws (6) and (7) to the
prescribed torque of 50 Nm (37 lbfft).

Assemble the flange (4) and the O-ring (3).


Lubricate the O-ring (3).
Assemble the washer (2) and the screw (1).
Use a screwdriver and 2 screws to lock the flange.
Tighten the screw (1) to a tightening torque of 139 Nm
(102.5 lbfft).

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Only 4WS
Assemble the hub (19), the washer (18) and the
screw (17).
Tighten the screw (1) to a tightening torque of 139 Nm
(102.5 lbfft).

Only 4WS
Assemble the brake disc kit and the brake (8).
Tighten the screws (6) and (7) to a tightening
torque of 50 Nm (37 lbfft).

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TRANSMISSION BOX

Disassembly
Remove the snap ring (16).

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Drain the transmission oil.


Unscrew and remove the screw (1) for flange fastening (2).

If necessary, use a screwdriver and 2 screws to lock


the flange.

Collect the washer (3).

Remove the flange (2) and the O-ring (4).

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Remove the seal ring (5).

WARNING
The seal ring can be damaged.

Only 4WS
Loosen and remove the screw (A) and the washer
(B).
If necessary, replace the O-ring (E).
Remove the flange (D).
If necessary, replace the seal ring (G).
Loosen and remove the screws (C).
Remove the hub (F).

Unscrew and remove the screws (6) for flange fastening (7).

Remove the flange (7).

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Pull out the transmission shaft PTO (8).

If necessary, replace the seal ring (9) by cutting it.

Remove the snap ring (10).

Take out the bearing (11) with tool 380200190.

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Loosen and remove the screws (12) from the rear
(13) and the front half box (14).

Insert a lever (L) in the special slot and remove the


cover.
NOTE: the surfaces are attached with some sealant.

If necessary, use a plastic hammer to facilitate the


separation of the half box.

WARNING
Do not lift the transmission shafts; the removal of
the shafts from their housings can damage the seal
rings.

Lift the front half box (14).

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Remove the 4 O-rings (15).

Seal all oil recirculation holes with rubber plugs (T).

Assembly
Clean the edge of the rear half box.
Carefully verify the box and its inner components for
the possible presence of debris (dirt, filings or
burrs).
Thoroughly clean all possible dirt.

WARNING
Only after a careful inspection of the whole transmission, proceed with the re-assembly.
Remove the old sealant from the mating surface of
the rear half box by means of a proper scraper.

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We suggest the use of a sealant solvent.

Carefully clean the O-ring seats.

Degrease and dry accurately the mating surface of


the rear half box.
NOTE: we suggest the use of a proper solvent.

Apply sealant on the mating surface of the rear half


box.

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Spread the sealant uniformly.

Prevent the penetration of the sealant in the O-ring


seats.

Carefully clean the O-ring seats.

Assemble the O-rings (15).


Do not lubricate the O-rings.

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Place the 4 O-rings (15) into their seats with a
buffer.

Assemble the front half box (14) on the rear one.


Make sure that the bearings of the shafts go straight
into the bores in the front box.
Push the front half box onto the rear one.

Assemble the snap ring (16).

Tighten the screws (12) to the rear half box (13) and
to the front half box (14).
Tighten the screws (12) to a tightening torque of
50 Nm (37 lbfft).

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Assemble the seal ring (5) on the output of the front


shaft by means of tool 380200226.

Assemble the flange (2) and a new O-ring (4).

Assemble the washer (3) and tighten the screw (1).

Tighten the screw (1) to a tightening torque of 139 Nm


(102.5 lbfft).
Use a screwdriver and 2 screws to lock the flange.

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Assemble the bearing (11) on the transmission shaft
PTO (8).

Assemble the snap ring (10).

To assemble the seal ring (9) perform following


operations by means of the listed tools in sequence:
380200257;
380200225;
380200214.

Insert transmission shaft PTO (8) to stroke end.

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Smear a thin layer of sealant on the flange (7).

WARNING
During flange assembly, the 2 holes for the oil passage (P) should coincide.

Screw in and tighten the screws (6) to a tightening


torque of 50 Nm (37 lbfft).

Only 4WS
Assemble the hub (F).
Screw in and tighten the screws (C) to the tightening torque of 50 Nm (37 lbfft).
Assemble the seal ring (G) by means of tool
380200226.
Assemble O-ring (E).
Assemble the flange (D).
Place the washer (B), screw in and tighten the screw
(A) to the tightening torque of 139 Nm (102.5 lbfft).

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A, D SHAFTS

Disassembly
Grab the shaft with the (A) pliers and pull out the
shaft assy (D).

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Shaft (A)
If necessary, remove the seal ring (1).

Remove the snap ring (2).

Assemble a bearing separator under the gear (do


not assemble the bearing separator between the
gear and the bearing).
Use a puller on the bearing separator and insert a
shaft protector between the puller and the end of
the input shaft.
By means of puller which operates between separator and shaft protection, pull only until the bearing is
free, otherwise the parts can be damaged.

Remove the bearing (3).

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Remove the spacer (4).

Remove the gear (6).

Remove the roller retainer (7).

Remove the thrust washer (8).

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Remove the pin (9).

Remove the snap ring (10).

Lift and remove the snap ring (11).

Remove the discs (18) and the counterdiscs (17).

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Place a mark below the groove on the clutch bell.

Mark the snap ring (11), the discs (18) and the
counterdiscs (17).
These marks will be used as a reference during
assembly.

Lower the cover (13) by means of tool 380200215.

Remove the snap ring (14).

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Loosen the knobs of the threaded bars to clear the


spring tension.
Remove the upper part of tool 380200215.

Remove the cover (13) and the spring (15).

Remove the sleeve (5).

Remove the piston (19) by blowing in compressed


air through the delivery hole.

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If necessary, remove the seal ring (20) with the
inner O-ring from the outside seat of the piston and
the seal ring (21) with the relevant O-ring from the
inner seat of the piston.
To remove the rings it is necessary to cut them.

Turn the shaft.


If necessary, remove the seal rings (22).

Remove the snap ring (23).

Remove the bearing (24) by means of a puller.

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Remove the bearing (24) and the thrust washer


(25).

Remove the gear (26) and the roller retainer (12).

For the disassembly of other parts, repeat the operations described previously.

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Check the seal ring grooves (large and small) for
wear or damage.
Check if the output shaft is worn or damaged.
Check oil passages in the output shaft to be sure
that they are open and free of foreign material.
Check the ball bearings and the needle bearings for
flat areas, pitting or other damage.
If you are to re-use the clutch discs, observe the
assembly order.

At each disassembly check with a gauge that the


total thickness of the clutch discs remains in the
wear limits; otherwise replace the clutch disc kit (18)
with a new one.
Verify that all clutch discs are free from burns, that
the friction surfaces are not damaged and that the
grooves of the friction surfaces are well outlined.
Moreover, verify that the counterdiscs (17) are perfectly flat, without scrapes or pittings.
In case any of the discs shows even just one of the
above-mentioned faults, replace the clutch disc kit
with a new one.
If you are to use a new kit of clutch discs, let it soak
into a bath of oil for at least one hour before its use.
In any case, prior to assembling the clutch disc kit,
lubricate the contact surfaces of the counterdiscs
with oil.

Check that the hole of the input shaft on the rear half
box does not show damages that could cause leaks
when the clutch is assembled.
Check that the grooves of the input shaft are not
damaged by the steel discs.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

2WS forward - reverse gear clutch


Disc number (each side)

Counterdisc number (each side)

Rated thickness of disc


Disc kit nominal thickness [with 163 kg (359.34 lbs) of load]
Disc maximum wear (each side)

A. Reverse
B. Forward
1. Clutch disc (no. 6)
2. Clutch counterdisc (no. 3)
3. Clutch counterdisc (no. 3)

2.4 0.05 mm (0.09 0.002 in)


29.00 29.20 mm (1.14 1.15 in)
0.35 mm (0.01 in)

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221

4WS forward gear clutch


Disc number (each side)

Counterdisc number (each side)

Rated thickness of disc


Disc kit nominal thickness [with 163 kg (359.34 lbs) of load]
Disc maximum wear (each side)

A. Reverse
B. Forward
1. Reverse clutch disc (no. 6)
2. Reverse clutch counterdisc (no. 2)
3. Reverse clutch counterdisc (no. 2)
4. Forward clutch disc (no. 7)
5. Forward clutch counterdisc (no. 3)
6. Forward clutch counterdisc (no. 4)

2.4 0.05 mm (0.09 0.002 in)


33.90 34.10 mm (1.33 1.34 in)
0.35 mm (0.01 in)

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Shaft (D)
Remove the bearing (16) from the shaft (D) by
means of a puller.

Remove the bearing (37) from the shaft (D) by


means of a puller.

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Assembly
Shaft (A)
Assemble the seal ring (20) with the relevant O-ring
and the seal ring (21) with the relevant inner O-ring,
respectively in the outer and inner seat of the piston.

Apply a thin film of oil on the seal rings.

Insert the piston (19) by means of tool (T)


380001926 to protect the seal rings (21).

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Assemble the sleeve (5).

Assemble the spring (15) and the cover (13).

Lower the cover (13) by means of tool 380200215.

Insert the snap ring (14).


NOTE: make sure that the snap ring (14) is correctly fitted into its seat.

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Loosen the knobs of the threaded bars to clear the
spring tension.
Remove the upper part of tool 380200215.

Remove the 380200215 tool and fit the pin (9).

Insert the thrust washer (8).

Insert the roller retainer (7).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

To assemble the clutch discs start with the gear (6)


on the bench.
Assemble the thrust washer (11) so that the reference mark on top of the plate, made during disassembly, is facing towards the gear.

Assemble the discs (18) and the counterdiscs (17)


on the gear (6).
The assembled clutch disc kit must contain 6
counterdiscs and 6 friction discs.

Use 2 screwdrivers to position the disc kit.

Assemble the snap ring (10).

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Assemble the spacer (4).

Heat the bearing (3) to 80 100 C (176 212 F).


Assemble the bearing (3) with tool 380200190.

Assemble the snap ring (2).

NOTE: for clarity of the seal ring installation procedure, the following photos do not show the disc kit,
gear, spacer, bearing, and snap ring installed on the
input shaft.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Insert the seal ring (1).

Assemble the 380200224 tool onto the input shaft


with the chamfered end facing inwards.

Let tool 380200224 slide on the input shaft and


above the spacer.
The tool will stop in the correct position to install the
seal ring in the groove.

Heat the seal ring to 60 80 C (140 176 F) for 5


minutes.
Assemble the seal ring on tool 380200224.

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Assemble tool 380200225 over tool 380200224 and
slide the seal ring until it reaches the groove in the
shaft.
Remove tools 380200224 and 380200225, the
expander/protector and the spacer from the shaft.

Assemble the end of seal compressor 380200214


with the deep chamfer onto the shaft and over the
seal ring.
Use a back and forth twisting motion to allow the
seal compressor to slip over the top of the seal ring
and seat this latter into the groove.
Be careful not to damage the seal ring.
After the seal ring is seated in the groove, remove
the seal compressor from the shaft.

Turn the seal compressor around and slide the end


with the narrow chamfer over the shaft and over the
seal ring.
Leave the seal compressor in place for 15 minutes
until the seal ring has cooled and is properly seated
in the groove.
After the seal ring has cooled, remove the seal
compressor from the shaft.

Turn the shaft upside down to carry out the operations described previously.
Lubricate the thrust washer (25).
Assemble the thrust washer so that the notch in the
inner edge fits over the pin.
Make sure that the side with the oil grooves is
down.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Heat the bearing (24) to 80 100 C (176 212 F).


By means of tool 380200197 place the bearing (24)
onto the input shaft until it makes contact with the
thrust washer.

Assemble the snap ring (23).

Assemble the snap rings and place the spacer in


the protection (tool 380001933).

Place tool 380001933 on the shaft.


The tool will stop in the correct position to install the
seal ring in the groove.

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Heat the seal ring to 60 80 C (140 176 F) for 5
minutes.
Assemble the seal ring on tool 380001933.

Assemble tool 380001928 over tool 380001933 and


slide the seal ring until it reaches the groove in the
shaft.
Remove tools 380001928 and 380001933.

Assemble the end of tool 380001927 with the deep


chamfer onto the shaft and over the seal ring.
Use a back and forth twisting motion to allow the
seal compressor to slip over the top of the seal ring
and seat this latter into the groove.
Be careful not to damage the seal ring.
After the seal ring is seated in the groove, remove
the seal compressor from the shaft.

Turn the seal compressor around and slide the end


with the narrow chamfer over the shaft and over the
seal ring.
Leave the seal compressor in place for 15 minutes
until the seal ring has cooled and is properly seated
in the groove.
After the seal ring has cooled, remove the seal
compressor from the shaft.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

In order to insert the other 3 rings, repeat the operations described previously, by means of following
spacer rings:
380001933 for the 2nd ring;
380001933 for the 3rd ring;
380001933 for the 4th ring.

1. Lubrication oil passage


2. Forward gear clutch passage
3. Reverse gear clutch passage
4. Forward gear engagement
5. Forward gear disc kit
6. Reverse gear disc kit
7. Reverse gear engagement
8. Input shaft
Apply compressed air of approximately 6 bar (87 psi)
to the forward clutch passage.
Listen for the forward gear piston to move and to
lock the relevant disc kit.
Try to shift the forward travel gear.
It must not turn on the input shaft.
Try to shift the reverse travel gear.
It must turn freely on the input shaft.
If the clutches do not work correctly, disassemble
them to find the problem.

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Carry out the check procedure of the clutch disc kit
play on both sides of the clutch.
Position the shaft on a suitable support (S) and
apply load F on the counterdisc (11) surface by
means of a proper buffer (T), as shown.
This operation clears any possible play.

To check the backlash, supply the piston chamber


with compressed air at 6 bar (87 psi) and verify the
actual stroke X with a dial indicator.
Determine clearance X.

Only for 2WS input shaft


The piston stroke (19) and (38) must be such to
ensure a play corresponding to
X = 1.60 2.45 mm (0.06 0.10 in)
If the distance is not within specification, the clutch
is probably wrongly installed.
Turn the clutch shaft upside down and repeat the
operation for the other clutch disc kit.

Only for 4WS input shaft


The piston stroke (19) and (38) must be such to
ensure a play corresponding to
X = 1.60 2.45 mm (0.06 0.10 in)
Y = 1.90 2.75 mm (0.07 0.11 in)
If the distance is not within specification, the clutch
is probably wrongly installed.
Turn the clutch shaft upside down and repeat the
operation for the other clutch disc kit.

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Shaft (D)
Assemble the bearing (16) on shaft (D) by means of
tool 380200230.

Assemble the bearing (37) on shaft (D) by means of


tool 380200230.

Lubricate the shaft seat (A).

Assemble shaft (D) and shaft (A).


The operation is correct only if the 2 shafts are fitted
at the same time.

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SHAFT B

Disassembly
Unscrew and remove the screws (28) and remove
the 4WD oil bulkhead (29).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Assemble on the rear end of the shaft (C) the hub


(27) and tool 380200256.

Lift the 3 shafts (B), (C) and (E) simultaneously by


means of tool 380200239.

Do not remove the oil bulkhead (P) and the screw


(V).

Remove the seal rings (1) and (2).

WARNING
The seal rings can be damaged.

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Remove the bearing (3) and the gear (4) by means
of a puller.

Remove the bearing (3) and the gear (4).

Remove the snap ring (5).

Remove the thrust washer (6).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Remove the pin (23).

Remove the gear (8).

Remove the roller retainer (7) and the thrust washer


(13).

Remove the pin (24) and the spacer (14).

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Push the thrust washer (10) slightly.

Remove the snap ring (9).

Remove the thrust washer (10) by means of 2


screwdrivers.

Remove the discs (11) and the counterdiscs (12).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Lower the cover (16) by means of tool 380200215.

Remove the snap ring (15).

Loosen the knobs of the threaded bars to clear the


spring tension.
Remove the upper part of tool 380200215.

Remove the cover (16) and the spring (17).

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Remove the sleeve (18).

Remove the piston (19) by blowing in compressed


air through the delivery hole.

If necessary, remove the seal ring (20) with the


inner O-ring from the outside seat of the piston and
the seal ring (21) with the relevant O-ring from the
inner seat of the piston.
To remove the rings it is necessary to cut them.

Remove the seal ring (26).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Remove the bearing (25) by means of a puller.

Check the seal ring grooves (large and small) for


wear or damage.
Check if the output shaft is worn or damaged.
Check oil passages in the output shaft to be sure
that they are open and free of foreign material.
Check the ball bearings and the needle bearings for
flat areas, pitting or other damage.
If you are to re-use the clutch discs, observe the
assembly order.

At each disassembly check with a gauge that the


total thickness of the clutch disc kit remains within
the wear limits; otherwise replace the clutch disc kit
(11) with a new one.
Verify that all clutch discs are free from burns, that
the friction surfaces are not damaged and that the
grooves of the friction surfaces are well outlined.
Moreover, verify that the counterdiscs (12) are perfectly flat, without scrapes or pittings.
In case any of the discs shows even just one of the
above-mentioned faults, replace the clutch disc kit
with a new one.
If you are to use a new kit of clutch discs, let it soak
into a bath of oil for at least one hour before its use.
In any case, prior to assembling the clutch disc kit,
lubricate the contact surfaces of the counterdiscs
with oil.

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243

Check that the hole of the input shaft on the rear half
box does not show damages that could cause leaks
when the clutch is assembled.
Check that the grooves of the input shaft are not
damaged by the steel discs.

2nd gear clutch


Disc number (each side)

Counterdisc number (each side)

Rated thickness of disc


Disc kit nominal thickness [with 163 kg (359.34 lbs) of load]

2.0 0.05 mm (0.08 0.002 in)


30.50 30.70 mm (1.20 1.21 in)

Disc maximum wear (each side)

0.20 mm (0.008 in)

Pack maximum wear (each side)

3.2 mm (0.126 in)

Assembly
Assemble the bearing (25) with tool 380200190.

Assemble the seal ring (26).


In order to fit the ring (26), repeat the following
operations by means of spacer ring 380200224.

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Assemble the seal ring (20) with the relevant inner


O-ring and the snap ring (21) with the relevant inner
O-ring, respectively in the outer and inner seat of
the piston.

Apply a thin film of oil on the seal rings recently fitted.

Insert the piston (19) by means of tool 380001926


to protect the seal rings (21).

Assemble the sleeve (18).

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Assemble the spring (17) and the cover (16).

Lower the cover (16) by means of tool 380200215.

Assemble the snap ring (15).

Loosen the knobs of the threaded bars to clear the


spring tension.
Remove the upper part of tool 380200215.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Assemble the disc kit.

Assemble the spacer (14) and the pin (24).

Insert the thrust washer (13) and the roller retainer


(7).

Assemble the thrust washer (10) and push it to end


stroke on disc kit.

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Assemble the snap ring (9).

Supply compressed air at low pressure to the delivery hole to push the thrust washer (10) against the
snap ring (9) and align the disc teeth.

Assemble the gear (8) by paying attention not to let


it slide to stroke end.

Assemble the pin (23).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Assemble the thrust washer (6) and the snap ring


(5).

Assemble the gear (4) paying attention to direct the


protruding end of the groove towards the clutch and
the bearing (3).
Use tool 380200203.

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1. Lubrication oil passage


2. Oil passage for 2nd gear clutch
3. 2nd gear engagement
4. 2nd gear clutch disc kit
5. Input shaft

Try to turn the 2nd travel gear. It must turn on the


input shaft.
Apply compressed air at approximately 6 bar (87 psi)
to the 2nd gear clutch passage.
Listen for the 2nd gear piston to move and to lock
the related clutch disc kit.
Try to shift the 2nd travel gear. It must not turn on
the input shaft.
If the clutch does not work correctly, disassemble it
to find the problem.
Carry out the check procedure of the clutch disc kit
backlash on both sides of the FWD-REV-clutch.
Position the shaft on a suitable support and apply
load F on the counterdisc (10) surface by means of
a proper buffer.
This operation clears any possible play.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

To check the backlash, supply the piston chamber


(19) with compressed air at 6 bar (87 psi) and verify
the actual stroke X with a dial indicator.
Determine clearance X.

Only for 2WS input shaft


The piston stroke (19) must be such to ensure a
play corresponding to:
X = 2.20 3.05 mm (0.09 0.12 in)
If the distance is not within specification, the clutch
is probably wrongly installed.

Insert the seal rings (1) and (2).


In order to insert the seal rings, repeat the following
operations by means of:
- spacer 380200240 for 1st and 2nd ring;
- pusher 380200242 and compressor 380200241.

Assemble the bulkhead (29) and tighten the screws


(28).

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SHAFT C

Disassembly
Unscrew and remove the screws (V1) to detach the
4WD oil bulkhead (P1).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Assemble on the rear end of the shaft (C) the hub


(61) and tool 380200256.

Lift the 3 shafts (B), (C) and (E) simultaneously by


means of tool 380200239.

Do not remove the oil bulkhead (P2) and the screw


(V2).

Remove tool 380200256 and sleeve (62).

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Remove the bearing (58) by means of a puller.

Remove the spacer (57).

Remove the gear (54).

Overturn the assembly.


Push the thrust washer (39) downwards.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Remove the snap ring (38).

Remove the thrust washer (39) by means of 2


screwdrivers.

Remove the disc kit (40).

Lower the cover (42) in order to allow the extraction


of the snap ring (41) by means of tool 380200215.

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Loosen the knobs of the threaded bars to clear the
spring tension.
Remove the upper part of tool 380200215.

Remove the snap ring (41), the cover (42) and the
spring (43).

Remove the piston (44) by blowing in compressed


air through the delivery hole.

If necessary, remove the seal ring (45) with the relevant O-ring from the outer seat of piston (44).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

If necessary, remove the seal ring (53) with the relevant O-ring from the gear seat (54).

Remove the gear (37) by means of a puller.

Remove the 2 bushings (47) and (56), the 2 roller


retainers (46) and (55) and the spacer (50).
Verify the condition of the removed components
(46), (47), (50), (55) and (56).

Remove the O-rings (48) and (52) from the bushing


(50).

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Verify the wear condition of the seal rings (49) and
(51).
If necessary, cut the seal rings (49) and (51) to
remove them from bushing (50).

Remove the gear (35).

Remove the roller retainer (36).

Remove the thrust washer (31).


Remove the feather (32).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Lower the counterdisc (33) slightly to release the


snap ring (34).

Remove the snap ring (34).

Remove the thrust washer (33) by means of 2


screwdrivers.

Remove the disc kit (32).

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Remove the pin (22).

Lower the cover (29) by means of tool 380200215.

Remove the snap ring (30).

Loosen the knobs of the threaded bars to clear the


spring tension.
Remove the upper part of tool 380200215.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Remove the snap ring (30), the cover (29) and the
spring (28).

Pull out the piston (26) from its seat by blowing in


compressed air through the delivery hole.

Remove the bushing (27) and the piston (26).

If necessary, remove the seal ring (25) with the


inner O-ring from the outside seat of the piston and
the seal ring (24) with the relevant O-ring from the
inner seat of the piston.
To remove the rings it is necessary to cut them.

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Overturn the shaft (23).
Remove the seal rings (16), (17), (18) and (19) by
cutting them.

Remove the bearing (1) by means of a puller.

Remove the thrust washer (2).

Remove the gear (3).

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Remove the roller retainer (7) and the thrust washer


(8).

Remove the pin (21).

Remove the roller retainer (7) and the thrust washer


(8).
Remove the feather (22).

Slightly lower the thrust washer (5) to release the


snap ring (4).

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Remove the snap ring (4).

Remove the thrust washer (5) by means of 2 screwdrivers.

Remove the disc kit (6).

Lower the cover (10) by means of tool 380200215.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Remove the snap ring (9).

Loosen the knobs of the threaded bars to clear the


spring tension.
Remove the upper part of tool 380200215.

Remove the snap ring (9), the cover (10) and the
spring (11).

Pull out the piston (13) from its seat by blowing in


compressed air through the delivery hole.

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Remove the bushing (12) and the piston (13).

If necessary, remove the seal ring (15) with the


inner O-ring from the outside seat of the piston and
the seal ring (14) with the relevant O-ring from the
inner seat of the piston.
To remove the rings it is necessary to cut them.

Check the seal ring grooves (large and small) for


wear or damage.
Check if the output shaft is worn or damaged.
Check oil passages in the output shaft to be sure
that they are open and free of foreign material.
Check the ball bearings and the needle bearings for
flat areas, pitting or other damage.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

If you are to re-use the clutch discs, observe the


assembly order.

At each disassembly check with a gauge that the


total thickness of the clutch discs remains in the
wear limits; otherwise replace the clutch disc kit (B)
with a new one.
Verify that all clutch discs are free from burns, that
the friction surfaces are not damaged and that the
grooves of the friction surfaces are well outlined.
Moreover, verify that the counterdiscs (A) are perfectly flat, without scrapes or pittings.
In case any of the discs shows even just one of the
above-mentioned faults, replace the clutch disc kit
with a new one.
If you are to use a new kit of clutch discs, let it soak
into a bath of oil for at least one hour before its use.
In any case, prior to assembling the clutch disc kit,
lubricate the contact surfaces of the counterdiscs
with oil.
Check that the hole of the input shaft on the rear half
box does not show damages that could cause leaks
when the clutch is assembled.
Check that the grooves of the input shaft are not
damaged by the steel discs.

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267

1st gear clutch


Disc number (each side)

Counterdisc number (each side)

Rated thickness of disc

2.20 0.05 mm (0.09 0.002 in)

Disc kit nominal thickness [with 163 kg (359.34 lbs) of load]

27.50 27.70 mm (1.08 1.09 in)

Disc maximum wear (each side)

0.15 mm (0.006 in)

Pack maximum wear (each side)

1.8 mm (0.071 in)

3rd gear clutch


Disc number (each side)

Counterdisc number (each side)

Rated thickness of disc

2.00 0.05 mm (0.08 0.002 in)

Disc kit nominal thickness [with 163 kg (359.34 lbs) of load]

30.50 30.70 mm (1.20 1.21 in)

Disc maximum wear (each side)

0.20 mm (0.008 in)

Pack maximum wear (each side)

3.2 mm (0.126 in)

4th gear clutch


Disc number (each side)

Counterdisc number (each side)

Rated thickness of disc

2.00 0.05 mm (0.08 0.002 in)

Disc kit nominal thickness [with 163 kg (359.34 lbs) of load]

15.90 16.10 mm (0.62 0.63 in)

Disc maximum wear (each side)

0.20 mm (0.008 in)

Pack maximum wear (each side)

1.6 mm (0.063 in)

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Assembly
Assemble the seal ring (53) and the relevant O-ring
on gear (54) by means of tool 380200248.
Assemble the O-ring (52).

Adjust the seal ring (53) by means of tool


380200250.

Assemble the seal ring (45) and the relevant O-ring


on piston (44).

Apply a thin film of grease on the outer edge and in


the inner part of the piston (44) and fit it to the gear
(54).

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Insert the spring (43), the cover (42) and the snap
ring (41).

Lower the cover (42) by means of tool 380200215.

Insert the snap ring (41).


Make sure that the snap ring (41) is correctly fitted
into its seat.

Loosen the knobs of the threaded bars to clear the


spring tension.
Remove the upper part of tool 380200215.

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Insert the kit (40) and the thrust washer (39) into the
gear (54).

Assemble the snap ring (38) making sure it is correctly seated.

Assemble the seal ring (25) with the relevant O-ring


and the snap ring (24) with the relevant O-ring,
respectively in the outer and inner seat of the piston
(26).

Apply a thin film of oil on the seal rings recently fitted.

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Insert the piston (26) by means of tool 380001926
to protect the seal rings.

Assemble the sleeve (27).

Assemble the spring (28) and the cover (29).

Lower the cover (29) by means of tool 380200215.

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Insert the snap ring (30).


Make sure that the snap ring (30) is correctly fitted
into its seat.

Loosen the knobs of the threaded bars to clear the


spring tension.
Remove the upper part of tool 380200215.

Remove the 380200215 tool and fit the pin (21).

Insert the thrust washer (31) on the shaft (23).


Apply a thin film of grease under the thrust washer
(31) to prevent its falling when overturning the shaft.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Assemble the thrust washer (31) by inserting it on
pin (22).

Assemble the feather (22) and the thrust washer


(31).
Apply a thin film of grease under the thrust washer
(31) to prevent its falling when overturning the shaft.

Insert the disc and counterdisc kit (32) onto the


main shaft (23).

Assemble the roller retainer (36) and the thrust


washer (33).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Assemble the snap ring (34).

Supply compressed air at low pressure into hole (a)


to push the thrust washer (33) against the snap ring
(34).

Assemble the gear (35) by paying attention not to


let it slide to stroke end.

Insert the gear (37) on the shaft (23).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Insert the gear (54) on the shaft (23).

Assemble the bushing (47) and the bearing (46)


with tool 380200190.

Assemble the O-rings (48) and (52) on the bushing


(50).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Assemble new seal rings (49) and (51) on bushing


(50) by means of tools 380200251, 380200252 and
380200253.

Assemble the bushing (50) and the shaft (23) with


tool 380200190.
The reference marks must be directed upwards.

Assemble the bushing (56) and the bearing (55)


with tool 380200190.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Assemble the spacer (57).

Assemble the bearing (58) with tool 380200190.

Assemble the hub (61) and tool 380200256.

Turn the shaft.


Assemble the O-ring with relevant ring (14) in the
outer seat of piston (13).
Assemble the O-ring with relevant ring (15) in the
inner seat of piston (13).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Apply a thin film of oil on the seal rings recently fitted.

Insert the piston (13) by means of tool 380001926


to protect the seal rings.

Assemble the sleeve (12).

Assemble the spring (11) and the cover (10).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Lower the cover (10) by means of tool 380200215.

Insert the snap ring (9).


Make sure that the snap ring (9) is correctly fitted
into its seat.

Loosen the knobs of the threaded bars to clear the


spring tension.
Remove the upper part of tool 380200215.

Assemble the pin (21).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Insert the disc kit (6) on the shaft (23).

Assemble the thrust washer (5).

Assemble the snap ring (4).

Supply compressed air at low pressure into the supply hole to push the thrust washer (5) against the
snap ring (4).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Assemble the thrust washer (8) and the roller
retainer (7).

Assemble the feather (22), the thrust washer (8)


and the roller retainer (7).

Assemble the gear (3).

Assemble the thrust washer (2).

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282

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Assemble the bearing (1) with tool 380200190.

Assemble the seal rings (16), (17), (18) and (19) by


means of tool 380200224.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

283

1. 1st gear clutch oil passage


2. 3rd gear clutch oil passage
3. 4th gear clutch oil passage
4. 3rd gear engagement
5. 3rd gear disc kit
6. 4th gear disc kit
7. 4th gear engagement
8. 1st gear engagement
9. 1st gear disc kit
10. Main shaft
11. Lubrication oil passage

Check that all gears turn freely on main shaft.


Apply compressed air at approximately 6 bar (87 psi)
to the 1st gear clutch passage.
Listen for the 1st gear piston to move and to lock
the related clutch disc kit.
Try to shift the 1st travel gear.
It must not turn on the main shaft.
If the clutch does not work correctly, disassemble it
to find the problem.
Apply compressed air at approximately 6 bar (87 psi)
to the 3rd gear clutch passage.

Listen for the 3rd gear piston to move and to lock


the related clutch disc kit.
Try to shift the 3rd travel gear.
It must not turn on the main shaft.
If the clutch does not work correctly, disassemble it
to find the problem.
Apply compressed air at approximately 6 bar (87 psi)
to the 4th gear clutch passage.
Listen for the 4th gear piston to move and to lock
the related clutch disc kit. Try to shift the 4th travel
gear.
It must not turn on the main shaft.

If the clutch does not work correctly, disassemble it


to find the problem.

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284

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Carry out the check procedure of the clutch disc kit


play.
Position the shaft on a suitable support and apply
load F on the surface of the clutch counterdisc by
means of a proper buffer (T).
This operation clears any possible play.

To check the backlash, supply the piston chamber


(26) with compressed air at 6 bar (87 psi) and verify
the actual stroke X with a dial indicator.
Determine clearance X.

The piston stroke (26) must be such to ensure a


play corresponding to:
X = 0.5 1.95 mm (0.020 0.077 in)
If the distance is not within specification, the clutch
is probably wrongly installed.

The piston stroke (13) must be such to ensure a


play corresponding to:
X = 2.20 3.05 mm (0.09 0.12 in)
If the distance is not within specification, the clutch
is probably wrongly installed.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
The piston stroke (44) must be such to ensure a
play corresponding to:
X = 1.725 2.375 mm (0.068 0.093 in)
If the distance is not within specification, the clutch
is probably wrongly installed.

Hook the 3 shafts (B), (C) and (E) by means of tool


380200239.
Lift the shafts (B), (C) and (E) at the same time and
insert the assy into the half box.

Assemble the bulkhead (P1) and tighten the screws


(V1).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

E SHAFT
(Only for 2WS)

* = 4WD shaft set

Disassembly
Unscrew and remove the screws to detach the 4WD
oil bulkhead.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Assemble on the rear end of the shaft (C) the hub
and tool 380200256.

Lift the 3 shafts (B), (C) and (E) simultaneously by


means of tool 380200239.

Do not remove the oil bulkhead (P) and the screw


(V).

Remove the seal rings (22) and (23).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Remove the bearings (21) and (1) by means of a


puller.
Remove the spacer (20).

Remove the gear (18).

Remove the roller retainer (19).

Overturn the shaft.


Press the belleville washers and remove the snap
ring (2) by means of tool 380200258.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Remove the shims (3) and the thrust washer (4).

Remove the belleville washers (5) and the spacer


(6).

Remove the snap ring (17).

Remove the thrust washer (16) and the disc and


counterdisc kit (15).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Remove the counterdisc (14).

Take out the piston (8).

Remove the inner (7) and outer O-ring (9) from the
piston (8).

Remove the pins (10) and the O-rings (11).

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291

If you are to re-use the clutch discs, observe the


assembly order.

At each disassembly check with a gauge that the


total thickness of the clutch discs remains in the
wear limits; otherwise replace the clutch disc kit (11)
with a new one.
Verify that all clutch discs are free from burns, that
the friction surfaces are not damaged and that the
grooves of the friction surfaces are well outlined.
Moreover, verify that the counterdiscs (12) are perfectly flat, without scrapes or pittings.
In case any of the discs shows even just one of the
above-mentioned faults, replace the clutch disc kit
with a new one.
If you are to use a new kit of clutch discs, let it soak
into a bath of oil for at least one hour before its use.
In any case, prior to assembling the clutch disc kit,
lubricate the contact surfaces of the counterdiscs
with oil.

Check that the hole of the input shaft on the rear half
box does not show damages that could cause leaks
when the clutch is assembled.
Check that the grooves of the input shaft are not
damaged by the steel discs.
4WD clutch
Disc number (each side)

Counterdisc number (each side)

Rated thickness of disc

2.00 0.05 mm (0.08 0.002 in)

Disc kit nominal thickness [with 163 kg (359.34 lbs) of load]

33.80 34.00 mm (1.33 1.34 in)

Disc maximum wear (each side)

0.15 mm (0.006 in)

Pack maximum wear (each side)

2.7 mm (0.106 in)

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Assembly
Insert the inner O-ring (7) and the outer O-ring (9)
on the piston (8).

Insert the O-rings (11) on the related pins (10).

Insert the pins (10) on the piston (8).

Apply a thin film of grease on the O-rings and position the pins on piston (8) in order to match the
holes of the output shaft.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Overturn the shaft (12) and insert the piston (8).

Insert the counterdisc (14) with the chamfer downwards into the shaft (12).

Assemble the disc and counterdisc kit starting with


a counterdisc (A) followed by a disc (B).

Assemble the thrust washer (16) on the shaft (12).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Assemble the snap ring (17).

Assemble the gear (18).

Assemble the roller retainer (19) and the spacer


(20).

Assemble the bearing (21) with tool 380200190.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Turn the shaft (12).
Make sure that the disc, counterdisc kit and the piston are correctly seated.

Pre-assemble the spacer (6), the thrust washer (4)


and the snap ring (2).

With a thickness gauge determine the value of X


between the thrust washer (4) and the snap ring (2).

To value X subtract the fixed measure S1 of


1.80 mm (0.071 in) corresponding to the piston
stroke.
The resulting measure S corresponds to the height
of the shim that must be inserted between the thrust
washer (4) and the snap ring (2).
S = X - S1 = X - 1.80 mm (0.071 in)

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Choose the shim with value S from the shim range


available.
NOTE: in any case, choose the shim ensuring a
piston stroke of 1.70 1.90 mm (0.067 0.075 in).
SHIM RANGE
Shims mm
(in)

0.1
(0.004)

0.3
(0.012)

0.5
(0.02)

Remove the thrust washer (4) and the snap ring (2).

Insert the belleville washers (5).


Check the proper orientation of the belleville washers (5).

Assemble the thrust washer (4) and the shims (3)


with size S previously calculated.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Press the belleville washers and fit the snap ring (2)
by means of tool 380200275.
The springs can cause damages to persons if the
snap ring is not assembled correctly.

Assemble the bearing (1) with tool 380200203.

Assemble the seal rings (22) and (23).


Use tool 380200224.

Use tool 380200223 to check piston operation and


verify correct adjustment.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

In order to check the sealing of rings (7) and (9), put


the piston chamber under pressure with oil at 10 bar
(145 psi) and verify with a dial gauge that the actual
stroke is 1.70 1.90 mm (0.067 0.075 in).

1. 4WD oil passage


2. 4WD gear
3. 4WD lubricant oil passage
4. Shaft
5. Belleville washers

Apply compressed oil pressure of approximately


10 bar (145 psi) to the 4WD clutch passage.
Listen for the piston to move and to unlock the
related clutch disc kit.
The belleville washers compress themselves. Try to
shift the 4WD gear.
It must turn freely on the 4WD shaft.
If the clutches do not work correctly, disassemble
them to find the problem.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Lift the 3 shafts (B), (C) and (E) at the same time
and insert the assy into the half box by means of
tool 380200239.

Assemble the bulkhead and tighten the screws.

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300

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

E SHAFT
(Only for 2WS)

* = 4WD shaft set

Disassembly
Unscrew and remove the screws to detach the 4WD
oil bulkhead.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Assemble on the rear end of the shaft (C) the hub
and tool 380200256.

Lift the 3 shafts (B), (C) and (E) simultaneously by


means of tool 380200239.

Do not remove the oil bulkhead (P) and the screw


(V).

Remove the seal rings (25) and (26).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Remove the bearings (1) and (24) by means of a


puller.
Remove the spacer (23).

Remove the gear (21).

Remove the roller retainer (22).

Remove the thrust washer (20).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Overturn the shaft (13).
Press the belleville washers (5) and remove the
snap ring (2) by means of tool 380200258.

Remove the shims (3) and the thrust washer (4).

Remove the belleville washers (5) and the spacer


(6).

Overturn the shaft (13).


Remove the bell housing assy from the shaft.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Remove the O-ring (15).

Remove the snap ring (19).

Remove the thrust washer (18) and the disc and


counterdisc kit (15).

Remove the 4WD disc and counterdisc kit (17).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Remove the counterdisc (16).

Take out the piston (8) by means of pins (10).

Remove the inner (7) and outer O-ring (9) from the
piston (8).

Remove the pins (10) and the O-rings (11).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

If you are to re-use the clutch discs, observe the


assembly order.

At each disassembly check with a gauge that the


total thickness of the clutch discs remains in the
wear limits; otherwise replace the clutch disc kit (11)
with a new one.
Verify that all clutch discs are free from burns, that
the friction surfaces are not damaged and that the
grooves of the friction surfaces are well outlined.
Moreover, verify that the counterdiscs (12) are perfectly flat, without scrapes or pittings.
In case any of the discs shows even just one of the
above-mentioned faults, replace the clutch disc kit
with a new one.
If you are to use a new kit of clutch discs, let it soak
into a bath of oil for at least one hour before its use.
In any case, prior to assembling the clutch disc kit,
lubricate the contact surfaces of the counterdiscs
with oil.

Check that the hole of the input shaft on the rear half
box does not show damages that could cause leaks
when the clutch is assembled.
Check that the grooves of the input shaft are not
damaged by the steel discs.

4WD clutch
Disc number (each side)

Counterdisc number (each side)

Rated thickness of disc

2.00 0.05 mm (0.08 0.002 in)

Disc kit nominal thickness [with 163 kg (359.34 lbs) of load]

33.80 34.00 mm (1.33 1.34 in)

Disc maximum wear (each side)

0.15 mm (0.006 in)

Pack maximum wear (each side)

2.7 mm (0.106 in)

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Assembly
Insert the inner O-ring (7) and the outer O-ring (9)
on the piston (8).

Insert the O-rings (11) on the related pins (10).

Insert the pins (10) on the clutch piston (8).

Apply a thin film of grease on the O-rings and position the pins on piston (8) in order to match the
holes of the output shaft (12).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Overturn the bell housing (12) and insert the piston


(8).

Insert the brake counterdisc (16) with the chamfer


downwards into the bell housing (12).

Assemble the disc and counterdisc kit (17) starting


with a counterdisc (A) followed by a disc (B).

Assemble the thrust washer (18).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Assemble the snap ring (17).

Assemble the O-ring (15).

Assemble the shaft (13).

Turn the shaft (13) and the bell housing (12).


Make sure that the disc and counterdisc kit and the
piston are correctly seated.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Pre-assemble the spacer (6), the thrust washer (4)


and the snap ring (2).

With a thickness gauge determine the value of X


between the thrust washer (4) and the snap ring (2).

To value X subtract the fixed measure S1 of


1.80 mm (0.071 in) corresponding to the piston
stroke.
The resulting measure S corresponds to the
height of the shim that must be inserted between
the thrust washer (4) and the snap ring (2).
S = X - S1 = X - 1.80 mm (0.071 in)

Choose the shim with value S from the shim range


available.
NOTE: in any case, choose the shim ensuring a
piston stroke of 1.70 1.90 mm (0.067 0.075 in).
SHIM RANGE
Shims mm
(in)

0.1
(0.004)

0.3
(0.012)

0.5
(0.02)

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Remove the thrust washer (4) and the snap ring (2).

Insert the belleville washers (5).

Check the proper orientation of the belleville washers (5).

Assemble the thrust washer (4) and the shims (3)


with size S previously calculated.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Press the belleville washers and fit the snap ring (2)
by means of tool 380200275.
The springs can cause damages to persons if the
snap ring is not assembled correctly.

Assemble the bearing (1) with tool 380200203.

Assemble the thrust washer (20).

Assemble the gear (21).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Assemble the roller retainer (22) and the spacer
(23).

Assemble the bearing (24) with tool 380200190.

Assemble the seal rings (25) and (26) by means of


tool 380200224.

Use tool 380200223 to check piston operation and


verify correct adjustment.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

In order to check the sealing of the rings, put the


piston chamber under pressure with oil at 10 bar
(145 psi) and verify with a dial gauge that the actual
stroke is 1.70 1.90 mm (0.067 0.075 in).

1. 4WD oil passage


2. 4WD gear
3. 4WD lubricant oil passage
4. Shaft
5. Belleville washers

Apply compressed oil pressure of approximately


10 bar (145 psi) to the 4WD clutch passage.
Listen for the piston to move and to unlock the
related clutch disc kit.
The belleville washers compress themselves. Try to
shift the 4WD gear.
It must turn freely on the 4WD shaft.
If the clutches do not work correctly, disassemble
them to find the problem.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Lift the 3 shafts (B), (C) and (E) at the same time
and insert the assy into the half box by means of
tool 380200239.

Assemble the bulkhead and tighten the screws.

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316

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

E SHAFT
(Only 4WS)

Disassembly
Unscrew and remove the screws to detach the 4WD
oil bulkhead.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Lift the 3 shafts (B), (C) and (E) simultaneously by
means of tool 380200239.

Do not remove the oil bulkhead (P) and the screw


(V).

Remove the seal rings (24), (25) and (26).

Remove the gear (22).

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318

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Remove the O-ring (21).

Remove the snap ring (19).


Remove the bearing (19) by means of a puller.

Remove the snap ring (16).


Remove the thrust washer (18) and the disc and
counterdisc kit (14).

Remove the counterdisc (13).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Overturn the shaft (17).
Press the belleville washers (5) and remove the
snap ring (2) by means of tool 380200258.

Remove the shims (3) and the thrust washer (4).

Remove the belleville washers (5) and the spacer


(6).

Remove the bell housing (12) from the shaft (17).


Remove the O-ring (18).

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320

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Take out the piston (8) by means of pins (10).

Remove the inner (7) and outer O-ring (9) from the
piston (8).

Remove the pins (10) and the O-rings (11).

If you are to re-use the clutch discs, observe the


assembly order.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

321

At each disassembly check with a gauge that the


total thickness of the clutch discs remains in the
wear limits; otherwise replace the clutch disc kit with
a new one.
Verify that all clutch discs (b) are free from burns,
that the friction surfaces are not damaged and that
the grooves of the friction surfaces are well outlined.
Moreover, verify that the counterdiscs (a) are perfectly flat, without scrapes or pittings.
In case any of the discs shows even just one of the
above-mentioned faults, replace the clutch disc kit
with a new one.
If you are to use a new kit of clutch discs, let it soak
into a bath of oil for at least one hour before its use.
In any case, prior to assembling the clutch disc kit,
lubricate the contact surfaces of the counterdiscs
with oil.

Check that the hole of the input shaft on the rear half
box does not show damages that could cause leaks
when the clutch is assembled.
Check that the grooves of the input shaft are not
damaged by the steel discs.
4WD clutch
Disc number (each side)

Counterdisc number (each side)

Rated thickness of disc

2.00 0.05 mm (0.08 0.002 in)

Disc kit nominal thickness [with 163 kg (359.34 lbs) of load]

33.80 34.00 mm (1.33 1.34 in)

Disc maximum wear (each side)

0.15 mm (0.006 in)

Pack maximum wear (each side)

2.7 mm (0.106 in)

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Assembly
Insert the inner O-ring (7) and the outer O-ring (9)
on the piston (8).

Insert the O-rings (11) on the related pins (10).

Insert the pins (10) on the piston (8).

Apply a thin film of grease on the O-rings and position the pins on piston (8) in order to match the
holes of the output shaft (12).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Overturn the bell housing (12) and insert the piston
(8).

Insert the brake counterdisc (13) with the chamfer


downwards into the clutch bell housing (12).

Assemble the disc and counterdisc kit (14) starting


with a counterdisc (A) followed by a disc (B).

Assemble the thrust washer (15).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Assemble the O-ring (18) on the shaft (17).


Turn the shaft (17) on the bell housing (12).

Turn the shaft (13) and the bell housing (12).


Make sure that the disc, counterdisc kit and the piston are correctly seated.

Pre-assemble the spacer (6), the thrust washer (4)


and the snap ring (2).

With a thickness gauge determine the value of X


between the thrust washer (4) and the snap ring (2).

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
To value X subtract the fixed measure S1 of
1.80 mm (0.071 in) corresponding to the piston
stroke.
The resulting measure S corresponds to the height
of the shim that must be inserted between the thrust
washer (4) and the snap ring (2).
S = X - S1 = X - 1.80 mm (0.071 in)

Choose the shim with value S from the shim range


available.
NOTE: in any case, choose the shim ensuring a
piston stroke of 1.70 1.90 mm (0.067 0.075 in).
SHIM RANGE
Shims mm
(in)

0.1
(0.004)

0.3
(0.012)

0.5
(0.02)

Remove the thrust washer (4) and the snap ring (2).

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326

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Insert the belleville washers (5).

Check the proper orientation of the belleville washers (5).

Assemble the thrust washer (4) and the shims (3)


with size S previously calculated.

Press the belleville washers and fit the snap ring (2)
by means of tool 380200275.
The springs can cause damages to persons if the
snap ring is not assembled correctly.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Turn the shaft (17) and the bell housing (12).
Assemble the bearing (19) with tool 380200229.
Assemble the snap ring (20).

Assemble the O-ring (21).

Assemble the gear (22).

Assemble the bearing (24) with tool 380200220.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Fitting diagram of bearing (23).

Assemble the seal rings (24), (25) and (26).

Use tools 380200264, 380001927 and 380001928.

Fitting diagram of tool (T) 380200264.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION
Use tool 380200265 to check piston operation and
verify correct adjustment.

In order to check the sealing of rings (7) and (9), put


the piston chamber under pressure with oil at 10 bar
(145 psi) and verify with a dial gauge that the actual
stroke is 1.70 1.90 mm (0.067 0.075 in).

1. 4WD oil passage


2. 4WD gear
3. Bearing lubrication
4. Shaft
5. Belleville washers
6. Bearing

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330

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

Apply compressed oil pressure of approximately


10 bar (145 psi) to the 4WD clutch passage.
Listen for the piston to move and to unlock the
related clutch disc kit.
The belleville washers compress themselves. Try to
shift the 4WD gear.
It must turn freely on the 4WD shaft.
If the clutches do not work correctly, disassemble
them to find the problem.
Lift the 3 shafts (B), (C) and (E) at the same time
and insert the assy into the half box by means of
tool 380200239.

Assemble the bulkhead and tighten the screws.

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SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

331

TROUBLESHOOTING
FAULT
The vehicle does not
move.

POSSIBLE CAUSE

ACTION

Control valve supply problem.

Check and, if necessary, replace the


control valves.

Damaged connections of transmission


and vehicle wiring harness.

Repair and, if necessary, replace the


wiring harness.

Oxidation in the contacts of the


electric cables of the wiring harness.

Clean the contacts.

Interruption of the electric cable.

Replace the electric cable.

Damage to the solenoids/solenoid


valves.

Replace the solenoids.

Damage to sensors.

Replace sensors.

Short circuits or bad contact.

Check and, if necessary, replace the


fuses.

EGM/ECU gearshift electronic control


operation fault.

Replace the electronic control of the


EGM/ECU gearshift.

Incorrect oil level.

Restore the oil level.

Check for possible oil leaks.

Eliminate the leaks and restore the oil


level.

Suction strainer restriction.

Clean the suction strainer.

Damaged oil pump.

Replace the oil pump.

Damaged oil pump pressure relief


valve.

Replace the oil pump.

Damaged/restricted filter.

Replace the filter.

Damaged / stuck control valve.

Replace the control valve.

Damaged converter.

Replace the converter.

Oil temperature below 0 C (32 F).

Wait for the operating temperature to


be reached (stall test).

Damaged rotary seal rings.

Replace the rotary seal rings.

Stuck shuttle lever.

Repair the shuttle lever.

Excessively worn-out clutch assembly. Repair and, if necessary, replace the


clutch discs.
Lack of motion transmission (broken
gears, shafts, bearings, etc.).

Check, repair and, if necessary,


replace.

Copyright
332

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

FAULT

POSSIBLE CAUSE
The brake does not release.

ACTION
Check the general pressure of
transmission.
Check voltage.
Check the operation of the solenoid
valve.
Check the mounting of the brake
solenoid valve block after operating on
the brake.
After the above-described
verifications, disassemble the brake
cover and check the condition of the
parts for unlocking/locking the brake
(seal rings, belleville washers, brake
disc deformation, etc.).

The vehicle has a reduced


power transmission.

Overheating.

Incorrect oil temperature.

Wait for the operating temperature to


be reached (stall test).

Transmission oil overheating.

Restore acceptable temperature


values.

Incorrect operating pressures.

Check the hydraulic circuit and


replace (oil pump, filters, control
valve).

Damaged converter.

Replace the converter.

Incorrect oil level.

Restore the oil level.

Worn-out clutch assembly.

Replace/repair.

4WD fails to engage.

Repair/replace the 4WD shaft assy.

Overheated solenoids/solenoid
valves.

Replace.

Damaged connections of transmission


and vehicle wiring harness.

Repair and, if necessary, replace the


wiring harness.

Software of EGM/ECU gearshift


electronic control faulty.

Replace EGM/ECU.

Damage to sensors.

Replace sensors.

Damaged cooling system.

Repair the cooling system.

Dirty heat exchanger.

Clean the heat exchanger.

Unintentionally activated parking


brake.

Deactivate the parking brake.

Excessive soil deposit on axle wheel


hubs.

Clean the axle wheel hubs.

Copyright
SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

FAULT

Wheel rotation with lifted


vehicle.

Noise.

Irregular coupling.

POSSIBLE CAUSE

333

ACTION

Seizure (broken gears, shafts,


bearings, etc.).

Check, repair and, if necessary,


replace.

Braking force external to transmission:


axle operating problem.

Check and repair the axle.

Dragging of clutch discs.

Repair and, if necessary, replace the


clutch discs.

Damaged converter.

Replace the converter.

Damaged oil thermostat.

Replace the oil thermostat.

Incorrect oil level.

Restore the oil level.

Worn-out oil pump.

Replace the oil pump.

Dragging of clutch discs.

Repair and, if necessary, replace the


clutch discs.

Low oil temperature (high oil


viscosity).

Wait for the operating temperature to


be reached (stall test).

Incorrect oil gradient.

Change oil and filters.

Damaged control valve.

Replace the control valve.

Stuck shuttle lever.

Repair and, if necessary, replace the


shuttle lever.

Damaged converter.

Replace the converter.

Damaged oil pump.

Replace the oil pump.

Ventilation/Cavitation.

Check the oil level.


Check the oil gradient.

Seizure (broken gears, shafts,


bearings, etc.).

Check, repair and, if necessary,


replace.

Worn-out clutch discs.

Replace the clutch discs.

Damaged hydraulic control valve.

Replace the control valves.

Electric system fault.

Repair the electric system.

Worn-out clutch discs.

Replace the clutch discs.

Damaged converter.

Replace the converter.

Low oil temperature (high oil


viscosity).

Wait for the operating temperature to


be reached (stall test).

Overheating.

See overheating.

EGM/ECU gearshift electronic control


operation fault.

Replace EGM/ECU.

Damaged hydraulic system.

Repair the hydraulic system.

Copyright
334

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

FAULT

POSSIBLE CAUSE

The gear remains


engaged.

Damaged/stuck shuttle lever.

Repair and, if necessary, replace the


shuttle lever.

Electric system fault.

Repair the electric system.

Damaged control valve.

Replace the control valve.

Damaged hydraulic system.

Repair the hydraulic system.

Damaged clutch assembly.

Repair and, if necessary, replace the


clutch assembly.

EGM/ECU gearshift electronic control


operation fault.

Replace EGM/ECU.

Damaged 4WD connection assy.

Replace the 4WD coupling assy.

Hydraulic system fault.

Repair the hydraulic system.

Damaged control valve.

Replace the control valve.

Braking sensor fault.

Check and, if necessary, replace the


braking sensors.

Electric system fault.

Repair the electric system.

EGM/ECU gearshift electronic control


operation fault.

Replace EGM/ECU.

Damaged clutch engagement assy.

Replace the clutch engagement assy.

Damaged hydraulic system.

Repair the hydraulic system.

Damaged control valve.

Replace the control valve.

Damaged pressure sensors.

Check and, if necessary, replace the


sensors.

Electric system fault.

Repair the electric system.

EGM/ECU gearshift electronic control


operation fault.

Replace EGM/ECU.

Lack of 4WD power


transmission.

Gear fails to engage.

ACTION

Copyright
SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

335

REPAIR TIMES
The times are referred to average values of maintenance performed by skilled personnel in workshops
equipped with all necessary fixtures for a proper
execution of the required works.
The repair and/or replacement times are indicated in
minutes.
We assume that the transmission assy has already
been removed from the machine.
ASSY

Plugs and filters

OPERATION

TIME (minutes)

Oil filter replacement

Oil temperature sensor replacement

Revolutions sensor replacement

Converter replacement

10

Oil pump replacement

20

Replacement of lubrication and gearshift lines (each)

Control valve replacement

20

Control valve overhauling

40

Solenoid valve replacement (each)

PTO shaft replacement

30

Replacement of seal rings on input shaft

20

Half box replacement

80

Open, clean, close the half boxes

50

Replacement of shaft A / bearings

60

Overhauling of shaft A

150

Replacement of seal rings on shaft A

120

Replacement of shaft D / bearings

60

Overhauling/replacement of shaft B

150

Replacement of bearings of shaft B

60

Overhauling/replacement of shaft B

180

Replacement of bearings of shaft C

60

Overhauling/replacement of shaft E

100

Replacement of bearings of shaft E

60

Replacement of seal rings on shaft E

70

Solenoid valve replacement

10

Disc kit replacement

40

Replacement of seal rings on piston

20

Oil pump
Lines

Control valve

Transmission box

Shafts A and D

Shafts B

Shafts C

Shaft E

Parking brake

Copyright
336

SECTION 21 - TRANSMISSION

SPECIAL TOOLS
PN CNH

DESCRIPTION

USE

380002211

Handle

To be used with the various pushers and buffers

380200190

Buffer

Assembly / disassembly of several bearings

380200197

Buffer

Assembly of shaft A bearings

380200203

Buffer

Assembly of several bearings and of 2nd travel gear

380200214

Calibrator

Assembly of seal ring on PTO shaft and 4WD shaft

380200215

Attachment

Disassembly / assembly of clutch

380200218

Buffer

Assembly of oil pump seal ring

380200223

Check

Piston check

380200224

Cover and shims

Several seal ring assembly

380200225

Plunger

Several seal ring assembly

380001926

Protection

Clutch piston assembly

380200226

Buffer

Assembly of SAHR seal ring for parking brake

380200230

Buffer

Assembly of bearings of shaft D

380200240

Cover and shims

Seal ring assembly

380001933

Cover and shims

Assembly of seal ring on shaft A

380001927

Calibrator

Assembly of seal ring on shaft A

380001928

Plunger

Assembly of seal ring on shaft A

380200241

Calibrator

Assembly of seal ring on shaft

380200239

Hook

Lifting of shafts B, C, E and of gear control yokes

380200257

Protection

Assembly of seal ring on PTO shaft

380200242

Plunger

Seal ring assembly

380200248

Protection

Assembly of seal ring on shaft C

380200250

Calibrator

Assembly of seal ring on shaft C

380200251

Cover and shims

Assembly of seal ring on shaft C

380200252

Plunger

Assembly of seal ring on shaft C

380200253

Calibrator

Assembly of seal ring on shaft C

380200256

Sleeve

Shaft disassembly

380200275

Tool

Assembly of snap ring on shaft E

380200258

Puller

Disassembly of snap ring on shaft E

380200220

Drift

Assembly of bearings of shaft E

380200229

Drift

Assembly of bearings of shaft E

2WS 4WS

Copyright

580T
580ST
590ST
695ST

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE


2WD - 2WS FRONT AXLE ............................................................................................................................... 3
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS.................................................................................................................. 3
LUBRICATION AND GREASING ................................................................................................................ 4
REMOVAL FROM MACHINE ...................................................................................................................... 6
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY............................................................................................................... 7
TROUBLESHOOTING................................................................................................................................. 7
4WD - 2WS FRONT AXLE ............................................................................................................................. 10
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................................................ 10
LUBRICATION AND GREASING .............................................................................................................. 11
REMOVAL FROM MACHINE .................................................................................................................... 13
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY............................................................................................................. 14
TROUBLESHOOTING............................................................................................................................... 57
SPECIAL TOOLS....................................................................................................................................... 61
4WS FRONT AXLE......................................................................................................................................... 62
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................................................ 62
LUBRICATION AND GREASING .............................................................................................................. 63
REMOVAL FROM MACHINE .................................................................................................................... 65

Copyright
2

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

Copyright
SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

2WD - 2WS FRONT AXLE


TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

Manufacturer
Model

CNH
Steering

Copyright
4

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

LUBRICATION AND GREASING


Oil capacity
Oil type

1. Level and fill plug for differential oil


2. Air breather
3. Level, fill and drain plug for reduction gear oil
4. Oil drain plug
5. Greasing points

0.2 litres (0.044 gal)


Akcela Transaxle fluid 80W -140

Copyright
SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE
Before draining the oil from the axle body, use the
breather (2) to release any possible internal pressure.

WARNING
Risk of violent oil ejection.

To drain the oil from the central body remove the


level plug (1) and the drain plug (4).

WARNING
Risk of violent oil ejection.
Drain all oil.
Clean, screw in and tighten the drain plug (4).
Fill through the hole of the plug (1).
Check the level and, if necessary, top up.
Clean, screw and tighten the plug (1).
Before draining the oil from the reduction gear,
rotate it so that the plug (3) is in the highest position
(position A) and partially unscrew the plug to
release any possible internal pressure.
Turn and bring the plug to the lowest position (position B).
Remove the plug and drain the oil.
Now turn again and bring the hole of the plug (3) to
check and oil filling position (position C).
Carry out the filling.
Clean, screw and tighten the plug (3).

Copyright
6

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

REMOVAL FROM MACHINE


Move the machine to a level and firm ground, away
from any soft ground, excavations and poorly
shored cavity.
Rest the loader attachment on the ground in order to
unload the weight of the machine from the 2 front
wheels, then lift the front part, thus ensuring the
safety of the subsequent operations.
Use the locking pin (if provided) to lock the loader
attachment controls.
Place the backhoe attachment in the road travel
position.
Place the direction-of-travel lever and gearshift lever
in neutral position.
Immobilize the machine by means of the parking
brake.
Completely raise the stabilizers and lock them
mechanically.
Stop the engine and remove the starter key.
Release the hydraulic pressure by operating the
control levers in all directions.
On hydraulically controlled machines, turn the key to
ON and release the pressure by moving the hydraulic control levers in all directions.
Place some wedges under the wheels so as to prevent the machine from moving.
Disconnect the electric system by disconnecting the
battery master switch.
Fasten the front axle (3) to a lifting hoist or to a support.
Now it is possible to carry out the disassembly of
the 2 front tyres by loosening and removing the relevant fixing nuts (7) [tightening torque = 330 Nm
(243 lbfft)].
Disconnect the hoses of the steering cylinder, paying attention to possible oil leaks, preventing spillage over the ground using a container.
Remove the snap ring (6) from the machine side,
and keep the shims (4).
Using a soft hammer, tap the pin (5) in order to
extract it from the relevant hole, on the front side of
the machine.
Once the pin (5) has been disassembled, it is possible to remove the front axle (3).

Copyright
SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY


(See 4WD front axle)

TROUBLESHOOTING
FAULT
Bent axle beam body.

POSSIBLE CAUSE

ACTION

Overloaded vehicle.

Replace the axle beam body.

Damaged vehicle.

Replace the axle beam body.

Insufficient lubrication.

Replace the bearings and top up oil.

Contaminated oil.

Change the oil, fill up to right level


and replace at recommended
intervals.

Excessive use.

Replace the bearings.

Normal wear.

Replace the bearings.

Prolonged operation with oil at a


high temperature.

Replace the gasket or seal and


matching surface if damaged.

Incorrectly installed seal.

Correctly lubricate and change oil


and seals at recommended
intervals.

Damaged seal lip.

Replace the seal.

Contaminated oil.

Change the oil, fill up to right level


and replace at recommended
intervals.

Bent or broken axle beam.

Intensive use of the vehicle or


overloaded vehicle.

Replace the axle beam.

Axle shaft broken on wheel


side.

Loose wheel support.

Replace the axle beam and check if


the wheel support is worn out or
wrongly adjusted.

Bent axle beam body.

Replace the axle beam and check if


the wheel support is worn out or
wrongly adjusted.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Faulty differential.

Inspect and repair the axle.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

Worn out or pitted bearings.

Oil leakage form the seals.

Wheel vibration and tyre


resistance.

Copyright
8

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

FAULT
Difficult steering; the machine
travels in a straight line while
steering.

Excessive noise.

Uneven wear of tyre.

Friction noise.

POSSIBLE CAUSE

ACTION

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Faulty differential.

Replace the differential.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Faulty differential.

Replace the differential.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

Incorrect wheel alignment.

Replace the parts and check that the


bearings are in good conditions.

Incorrect axle part installation.

Check the installation.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Faulty differential.

Replace the differential.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

Incorrect wheel adjustment.

Carry out the adjustment and check


that the bearings are in good
conditions.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

Damaged or worn axle parts.

Replace the parts and check that the


bearings are in good conditions.

Presence of foreign objects.

Discard.

Incorrect axle part installation.

Check the installation.

Copyright
SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

FAULT
Vibrations during travel.

Intermittent noise.

POSSIBLE CAUSE

ACTION

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Faulty differential.

Replace the differential.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

Damaged ring gear.

Replace bevel gear.

Differential box screws loose.

Tighten the screws to torque.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Faulty differential.

Replace the differential.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

Copyright
10

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

4WD - 2WS FRONT AXLE


TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

Manufacturer
Model

CNH
Steering

Steering angle

According to the type

Total reduction ratio

According to the type

Lubrication angle

35 maximum (front and rear) - 35 maximum (from side to side)

Copyright
SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

11

LUBRICATION AND GREASING

Oil capacity
Oil type

1. Level and fill plug for differential oil


2. Air breather
3. Level, fill and drain plug for reduction gear oil
4. Oil drain plug
5. Greasing points

Differential

6.5 litres (1.43 gal)

Final drive (each)

0.7 litres (0.15 gal)

Akcela Transaxle fluid 80W -140

Copyright
12

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

Before draining the oil from the axle body, use the
breather (2) to release any possible internal pressure.

WARNING
Risk of violent oil ejection.

To drain the oil from the central body remove the


level plug (1) and the drain plug (4).

WARNING
Risk of violent oil ejection.
Drain all oil.
Clean, screw in and tighten the drain plug (4).
Fill through the hole of the plug (1).
Check the level and, if necessary, top up.
Clean, screw and tighten the plug (1).
Before draining the oil from the reduction gear,
rotate it so that the plug (3) is in the highest position
(position A) and partially unscrew the plug to
release any possible internal pressure.
Turn and bring the plug to the lowest position (position B).
Remove the plug and drain the oil.
Now turn again and bring the hole of the plug (3) to
check and oil filling position (position C).
Carry out the filling.
Clean, screw and tighten the plug (3).

Copyright
SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE
REMOVAL FROM MACHINE
Move the machine to a level and firm ground, away
from any soft ground, excavations and poorly
shored cavity.
Rest the loader attachment on the ground in order to
unload the weight of the machine from the 2 front
wheels, then lift the front part, thus ensuring the
safety of the subsequent operations.
Use the locking pin (if provided) to lock the loader
attachment controls.
Place the backhoe attachment in the road travel
position.
Place the direction-of-travel lever and gearshift lever
in neutral position.
Immobilize the machine by means of the parking
brake.
Completely raise the stabilizers and lock them
mechanically.
Stop the engine and remove the starter key.
Release the hydraulic pressure by operating the
control levers in all directions.
On hydraulically controlled machines, turn the key to
ON and release the pressure by moving the hydraulic control levers in all directions.
Place some wedges under the wheels so as to prevent the machine from moving.
Disconnect the electric system by disconnecting the
battery master switch.
Fasten the front axle (4) to a lifting hoist or to a support.
Now it is possible to carry out the disassembly of
the 2 front tyres by loosening and removing the relevant fixing nuts (5) [tightening torque = 330 Nm
(243 lbfft)].
Disconnect the hoses of the steering cylinder, paying attention to possible oil leaks, preventing spillage over the ground using a container.
Disconnect the cardan joint (1).
Loosen and remove the screws (2) with the relevant washers (3) [tightening torque = 460 540 Nm
(339 398 lbfft)].
Remove the front axle (4).

13

Copyright
14

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY


NOTE: The 2WD and 4WD axles are identical, with
the following exceptions: the 2WD axle has pressed
steel plugs in the bores, while the 4WD has internal
gears and shafts.
The 2WD axle reduction gear has no planetary carrier.
MOUNTING SCREW TORQUE

Tie rod nut, standard


Tie rod nut, HD

111 137 Nm (82 101 lbfft)


213 263 Nm (157 194 lbfft)

Tie rod ball joint nut, standard

129 160 Nm (95 118 lbfft)

Ball joint nut, HD

162 200 Nm (119 147 lbfft)

Tie rod ball joint nut, standard

255 315 Nm (188 232 lbfft)

Breather

11 14 Nm (8 10 lbfft)

Oil drain plug

54 66 Nm (40 49 lbfft)

Lubrication fitting, king pin

20 30 Nm (15 22 lbfft)

Planet carrier retention screw


King pin screw

21 26 Nm (15.5 19 lbfft)
154 188 Nm (114 139 lbfft)

Differential cover screw

96 118 Nm (71 87 lbfft)

Steering cylinder screw

358 442 Nm (264 326 lbfft)

Steering stop nut

200 244 Nm (148 178 lbfft)

Shaft retaining nut

358 442 Nm (264 326 lbfft)

Ring gear support screw, standard

88 108 Nm (65 80 lbfft)

Ring gear support screw, HD

96 118 Nm (71 87 lbfft)

Gear pin screw

95 105 Nm (70 77 lbfft)

Oil drain plug

72 88 Nm (53 65 lbfft)

Bearing cup screw

96 118 Nm (71 87 lbfft)

Ring nut retainer screw

21 26 Nm (15.5 19 lbfft)

Ring gear screw

96 118 Nm (71 87 lbfft)

Pinion

1.7 2.2 Nm (1.2 1.6 lbfft)

Differential

1.5 2.5 Nm (1.1 1.8 lbfft)

Wheel bearing with seal, standard

8 25 Nm (6 18 lbfft)

Wheel bearing with seal, HD

12 25 Nm (9 18 lbfft)

Standard differential

0 1 Nm (0 0.7 lbfft)

Limited slip differential

1 5 Nm (0.7 4 lbfft)

Copyright
SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE
WHEEL HUB

Disassembly
Unscrew and remove the plug (1) and drain the oil.

15

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16

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

Loosen and remove the 2 screws (2).

Separate the planetary carrier (3) from the axle


using the two slots for prying.

Remove the planetary gear carrier assy (3).

Remove the O-ring (4).

Copyright
SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE
Mark the washers and grease the pins.

Remove the washers (18).

Inspect the washers (18) for dents or damage in


roller contact area.

If necessary, remove the gears.

17

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18

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

Wipe off any contamination on the drain plug.

Loosen the caulking on the nut (5).

Unscrew the ring nut (5) by means of tool


380000468.

Remove the ring nut (5).

Copyright
SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE
Loosen and remove the screws (10).

Tighten the 2 screws (10) in the 2 threaded holes in


the hub.
Tighten the 2 screws evenly until the ring gear carrier (11) is free of the swivel housing.

Remove the ring gear (6).

Remove the wheel hub (13) complete with swivel


housing using a puller.

19

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20

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

Remove the outer bearing (15).

Separate the wheel hub (13) from the swivel housing.

Remove the seal ring (17).

Remove the inner bearing (16).

Copyright
SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE
Remove the snap ring (12) which fastens the ring
gear (6) in the ring gear carrier (11).

Separate the ring gear carrier (11) and the ring gear
(6).

If necessary, remove the bushings (14).

Remove the bearing cups (15) and (16), if necessary.

21

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22

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

Checks
Clean all parts in cleaning solvent.
Inspect the bearing cup and the rollers in the bearings for flat areas, pitting, scoring, and other damage. Also check the inner race for damage. If any of
these defects are found, new bearings and new
bearing cups must be installed.
Inspect the pins for wear and damage.
Inspect the teeth of the gears and of the ring gear
for wear, pitting, scoring or other damage.
Use new parts as required.

Assembly
If bearing cups were removed, use an acceptable
driver to press new bearing cups into the wheel
hub.

The word OUTSIDE on the seal ring (17) must be


facing up.
Use tool DMT100004 to insert the new seal ring into
the wheel hub.
Do not damage the seal ring.

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SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE
Insert the new rollers using tool DMT100002.

Apply grease to help retain the rollers.

Make sure that all required rollers have been


installed.

Install the gears (8) onto the pins, respecting the


reference marks traced during disassembly.

23

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24

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

Remove tool DMT100002.

Check the correct assembly of all rollers.

Install the washers (18).


Where possible, match the washers with the relevant pins, respecting the reference marks traced
during disassembly.

Screw in and tighten the screws (9).

Copyright
SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE
Press the bushings (14) into the ring gear carrier
(11).

Assemble the ring gear carrier (11) and the ring


gear (6).

Assemble the snap ring (12).

Assemble the cup of the inner bearing into the


swivel housing.
Installation will be easier if you heat the bearing
slightly.
Do not heat the bearing more than 149 C (300 F).
Assemble the wheel hub (13).

25

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26

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

Install the outer bearing (15).


Installation will be easier if you heat the bearing
slightly.
Do not heat the wheel bearing more than 149 C
(300 F).

Align the holes in the ring gear carrier (11) with the
holes in the swivel housing and install the ring gear
carrier.

Install and tighten the screws (10) evenly to pull the


hub against the swivel housing.
Tighten the screws (10) to a tightening torque
of 358 442 Nm (264 326 lbfft).

Tighten the ring nut (5) using tool 380000468, to a tightening torque of 358 442 Nm (264 326 lbfft).

Copyright
SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE
Assemble a new O-ring (4).

Assemble the planetary carrier (3).

Screw in and tighten the 2 screws (2) to a tightening


torque of 21 26 Nm (15.5 19 lbfft).
Screw on the plug (1) after oil filling.

27

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28

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

SWIVEL HOUSING

Disassembly
Unscrew and remove the tie rod nut (1).

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SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE
Use a two-jaw puller to loosen the ball joint.

Remove the ball joint (2).

Loosen and remove the screws (4).

Remove the steering cylinder (3).

29

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30

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

Fasten the swivel housing (10) to an appropriate lifting tool.


Loosen the screws (6).

Remove the screws (6) and the top king pin (7).

Repeat the same operations to remove the bottom


king pin.

Remove the swivel housing (10) together with the


cardan joint (14).

Remove the belleville washer (9) from the top and


bottom of the axle body.

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SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE
Remove the bearing (8) from the top and bottom of
the axle body by means of a puller.

Remove the seal (15) by means of a puller.

Remove the bushing (16) by means of a puller.

Remove the bearing cup (8) from the king pin (7)
using a hammer and a chisel.

31

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32

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

Assembly
Install the bushing
DMT100005.

(16)

by

means

of

tool

Install the seal (15) by means of tool DMT100006.

Assemble the bearing (8).

Assemble the swivel housing (10) together with the


cardan joint (14).

Assemble the belleville washers (9).


Fasten the swivel housing (10).

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SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE
Assemble the top king pin (7).
Tighten the screws (6) to a tightening torque of
154 188 Nm (114 139 lbfft).

Assemble the bottom king pin (7).


Tighten the screws (6) to a tightening torque of
154 188 Nm (114 139 lbfft).

Assemble the ball joint (2) and the nut (1).

Tighten the nut (1) for 2WD to 129 160 Nm


(95 118 lbfft).
Tighten the nut (1) for 4WD to 162 200 Nm
(119 147 lbfft).

33

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34
CARDAN JOINT

Disassembly
Remove the 4 snap rings (3).

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

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SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE
Use the CAS1980 V-block to support the coupling (5).
Adjust the screws in the V-block to hold the coupling
level.
Use a driver and press the bottom bearing cup
against the V-block.

Fasten the bearing cup in a vice and drive the coupling off the bearing cup.

Use the V-block to support the coupling and press


the other bearing cup against the V-block.

Remove the long axle shaft (2) from the coupling (5).

35

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36

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

Remove the coupling (5) from the bearing cup.

Press the bottom bearing cup out of the yoke.

Remove the yoke from the bearing cup. DO NOT hit


the axle shaft in the seal area.

Press the other bearing cup out of the yoke.

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SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE
Remove the cross (4).

Press the bearing cup out of the yoke.

Press the bearing cup into the yoke until the top of
the bearing cup is 6 mm (0.24 in) above the top of
the yoke.

Carefully install the cross (4) in the bearing cup.

37

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38

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

Press the other bearing cup into the yoke until the
top of the bearing cup is 9 mm (0.35 in) above the
top of the yoke.

Carefully remove the cross (4) from the bearing cup


so that the cross is in both bearing cups.

Hold the cross and press the bearing cups into the
yoke.

Press a bearing cup into the yoke so that a snap


ring can be installed.

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SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE
Assemble the snap ring (3).

Repeat the same operations for the other bearing


cup.
Use the V-block to support the coupling and press
the bearing cup into the coupling evenly with the
outer diameter of the coupling.

Carefully install the cross (4) into the bearing cup.

Press the other bearing cup into the coupling until


the bearing cup is 6 mm (0.24 in) above the top of
the yoke.

39

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40

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

Carefully raise the cross into the top bearing cup so


that the cross is in both bearing cups.

Hold the cross and press the bearing cup into the
coupling so that a snap ring can be installed.

Assemble the snap ring (3).

Repeat the same operations for the other bearing


cup.

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SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE
DIFFERENTIAL

Disassembly
Loosen and remove the differential carrier screws
(1).

41

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42

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

Remove the differential carrier (2) by means of a


suitable lifting device.

Place the differential on an approved working area.

Prevent the pinion from turning.


Measure the backlash of the ring gear.
Record the reading.

Make an identification mark on the supports and


ring nut on one side of the differential carrier.

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SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE
Loosen and remove the screws (29) and the washers (28).

Loosen both adjusting ring nuts (15) by means of


tool DMT100002.

Remove the screws (26) and the supports (27).

Remove the differential assy.

43

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44

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

Remove the seal (4) and the cover (3).

Loosen and remove the nut (5) of the pinion using


tool 380000468 and tool 380100102.

Remove the washer (6).

Extract the pinion (13) using a press.

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SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE
Remove the washers (8) and (10) and the spacer
(9).

Separate the pinion (13) from the inner bearing (11).

Remove the shim (12).

Use a soft punch to remove the bearing cups only if


the inspection indicates the need for new parts.

45

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46

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

Remove the seal (30) from the cover (3).

Remove the O-ring (4) from the cover (3).

Loosen and remove the screws (14).

Remove the ring gear (17).

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SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE
Remove the gear (18).

Remove the retaining pin (19).

Remove the pin (20) and the gears (22).

47

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48

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

Remove the thrust washer (24) and the gear (23).

Checks
Clean all parts in cleaning solvent.
Inspect the bearing cups and the bearings for flat
areas, pitting, scoring and other damage.
Also check the inner race for damage. If any of
these defects are found, new bearings and bearing
cups must be installed.
Inspect the teeth on the pinion and of the ring gear
for pitting, scoring and broken teeth. The ring gear
and pinion gear must be replaced as a set.
Inspect the gears, the pins and the teeth of the pinion gears for pitting, scoring and other damage.
Also inspect the thrust surfaces and the bores of
each gear. Check the splines in the gears for wear.
Inspect the thrust washers for pitting, scoring and
other damage.

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SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE
Assembly
Assemble the thrust washer (24) and the gear (23).

Install the pin (20) and the gears (22).

Install the retaining pin (19).

NOTE: before assembly, grease all gear contact


surfaces.

49

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50

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

Assemble the gear (18).

Make sure that the mounting surfaces of the ring


gear (17) are clean and install the ring gear.
Screw in and tighten the screws (14) to a tightening
torque of 96 118 Nm (71 87 lbfft).

Assemble the bearing cup(s) into the differential


carrier.
Use a feeler to ensure cups are fully seated.

Install the shim (12).


The chamfer of the shim must be towards the pinion.

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SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE
Press the bearing (11) against the shim.
Use a feeler gauge to ensure bearing is fully
seated.

Lubricate the bearing (11).

Install a new spacer (9) and the washers (8) and


(10).

Insert the pinion (13).


Install the bearing (7).

51

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52

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

Assemble the washer (6).

Install a new nut (5).


Use a yoke and the wrench 380000468 to tighten
the nut.

The pinion and bearings will still be loose.


Progressively tighten the nut until the bearings
become seated.
NOTE: If the nut is tightened too much (rotating
torque higher than specified), the pinion must be
removed and a new spacer must be installed on the
pinion.
Use tool 380100102 and a torque wrench to check
the rotating torque of the pinion.
It must be rotated while tightening the nut. Final
reading to be verified after 3 complete revolutions. The rotating torque must be 1.7 2.2 Nm
(1.2 1.6 lbfft).
If the rotating torque is lower than specified, further
tighten the nut and check the rotating torque again.

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SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE
When the rotating torque is as specified, use a
hammer and punch and partially drive the nut (5)
into the slot in the pinion.

Assemble a new O-ring (4) on the cover (3).

Assemble a new seal (30) in the cover (3) using tool


DMT100001.
The seal will be approximately 1/16 from the inner
face of the cover.

Lubricate the O-ring and the seal.


Assemble the cover (3).

53

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54

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

Install the differential carrier assy and lubricate the


bearings.

Assemble the supports (27) with the alignment


marks.
Tighten the screws (26) to 20 Nm (15 lbfft) to pull
the supports against the differential carrier (do not
overtighten).
The bearings must be able to rotate.

Assemble the adjusting ring nuts (15).


Tighten both adjusting ring nuts (15), making sure
there is some backlash between the ring gear and
the pinion.

Rotate the pinion by approx. 3 or 4 turns and ensure


proper seating.
Check in 3 places, approximately 120 apart.
The value of the rolling torque must be
0.0009 0.0015 Nm (0.0006 0.0011 lbfft).
If values vary more than 0.001 Nm (0.0007 lbfft),
then replace bevel set.
If backlash value is too large, loosen the ring nut by
one slot on gear side and tighten the ring nut slot on
the back face of the ring gear.
If backlash value is too small, do the opposite of the
above-described operations.

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SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE
Make the final adjustments of the ring nuts to align
locking devices and confirm the rolling torque.
Apply the yellow compound on the bevel set in 3
places, 120 apart, on 3 teeth each.
Rotate bevel set enough to see pattern in yellow
compound.
Pattern should be per chart above.
Normal wear will flatten (elongate) the contact pattern.
NOTE: this is a non-adjustable bevel set. If pattern
is significantly different from specifications, then
replace bevel set.
If the original ring gear and pinion gear are being
used, the backlash must be equal to the measurement made during disassembly.
Tighten the screws (26) to the prescribed torque
of 266 Nm (196 lbfft).
Screw in the lock screw (29) which blocks the
ring gear and tighten to a tightening torque of
162 200 Nm (119 147 lbfft).

Apply some sealant.

55

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56

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

Assemble the differential carrier (2).

Screw in and tighten the screws (1) to a tightening


torque of 162 200 Nm (119 147 lbfft).

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SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

57

TROUBLESHOOTING
FAULT
Ring gear tooth broken on the
outer side.

Ring gear tooth side broken.

POSSIBLE CAUSE
Excessive gear load compared to
the one expected.

Replace bevel gear set.

Incorrect ring gear adjustment


(excessive backlash).

Follow carefully the recommended


operations for the adjustment of the
bevel gear set backlash.

Loose pinion nut.

Tighten the pinion nut.

Load bump.

Replace bevel gear set.

Incorrect ring gear adjustment


(insufficient backlash).

Follow carefully the recommended


operations for the adjustment of the
bevel gear set backlash.

Loose pinion nut.

Tighten the pinion nut.

Worn pinion or ring gear teeth. Insufficient lubrication.


Contaminated oil.
Incorrect lubrication or depleted
additives.

Overheated ring gear and


pinion teeth.
Check if ring gear teeth are
damaged.

ACTION

Replace bevel gear set.


Follow carefully the recommended
operations for the adjustment of the
bevel gear set backlash.

Worn out pinion bearings that cause


an incorrect pinion axle backlash
and wrong contact between pinion
and ring gear.

Use proper lubricants, fill up to the


right levels and replace at
recommended intervals.

Prolonged operation at high


temperatures.

Replace bevel gear set.

Inappropriate lubricant.

Use proper lubricants, fill up to the


right level and replace at
recommended intervals.

Low oil level.


Contaminated oil.
Pinion teeth pitting.

Bent axle beam body.

Worn out or pitted bearings.

Excessive use.

Replace bevel gear set.

Insufficient lubrication.

Use correct lubrication, fill up to the


right level and substitute at
recommended intervals.

Overloaded vehicle.

Replace the axle beam body.

Damaged vehicle.

Replace the axle beam body.

Insufficient lubrication.

Replace the bearings and top up oil.

Contaminated oil.

Change the oil, fill up to right level


and replace at recommended
intervals.

Excessive use.

Replace the bearings.

Normal wear.

Replace the bearings.

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58

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

FAULT
Oil leakage form the seals.

POSSIBLE CAUSE

ACTION

Prolonged operation with oil at a


high temperature.

Replace the gasket or seal and


matching surface if damaged.

Incorrectly installed seal.

Correctly lubricate and change oil


and seals at recommended
intervals.

Damaged seal lip.

Replace the seal.

Contaminated oil.

Change the oil, fill up to right level


and replace at recommended
intervals.

Use until worn.

Replace the flange.

Loose pinion nut.

Check that the pinion spline is not


excessively worn out.

Pinion axle backlash.

Replace bevel gear set if required.

Fatigue failure of pinion teeth.


See if the fracture line is well
defined (wave lines, straight
lines).

Use until worn.

Replace bevel gear set.

Pinion and ring gear teeth


breakage.

Crash load of differential


components.

Check and/or replace other


differential components.

Worn out side gear spline.


Replace all scratched
washers (excessive
backlash).

Excessive use.

Replace differential gear group.

Worn out or scored thrust


washer surface.

Excessive use.

Use correct lubrication and fill up to


right level.

Inappropriate lubricant.

Replace at intervals recommended.

Contaminated oil.

Replace all scratched washers and


those with a thickness by 0.1 mm
(0.004 in) lower than the new ones.

Excessive use.

Replace bearing.

Excessive pinion axial backlash.

Check pinion axial backlash.

Insufficient lubrication
Contaminated oil.

Use proper lubrication, fill up to right


level and replace at recommended
intervals.

Excessive wear of input


flange spline.

Worn out inner diameter of


tapered roller bearing.

Continuous overload.

Replace the axle shaft if required.

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SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

FAULT

POSSIBLE CAUSE

59

ACTION

Bent or broken axle beam.

Intensive use of the vehicle or


overloaded vehicle.

Replace the axle beam.

Axle shaft broken on wheel


side.

Loose wheel support.

Replace the axle beam and check if


the wheel support is worn out or
wrongly adjusted.

Bent axle beam body.

Replace the axle beam and check if


the wheel support is worn out or
wrongly adjusted.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Faulty differential.

Inspect and repair the axle.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Faulty differential.

Replace the differential.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Faulty differential.

Replace the differential.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

Incorrect wheel alignment.

Replace the parts and check that the


bearings are in good conditions.

Incorrect axle part installation.

Check the installation.

Wheel vibration and tyre


resistance.

Difficult steering; the machine


travels in a straight line while
steering.

Excessive noise.

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60

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

FAULT
Uneven wear of tyre.

Friction noise.

Vibrations during travel.

Intermittent noise.

POSSIBLE CAUSE

ACTION

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Faulty differential.

Replace the differential.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

Incorrect wheel adjustment.

Carry out the adjustment and check


that the bearings are in good
conditions.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

Damaged or worn axle parts.

Replace the parts and check that the


bearings are in good conditions.

Presence of foreign objects.

Discard.

Incorrect axle part installation.

Check the installation.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Faulty differential.

Replace the differential.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

Damaged ring gear.

Replace bevel gear.

Differential box screws loose.

Tighten the screws to torque.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Faulty differential.

Replace the differential.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

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SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

61

SPECIAL TOOLS
PN CNH

DESCRIPTION

USE

CAS-1980

V-block

Support for cardan joint disassembly

380100103

Protection

Assembly of differential carrier seal ring

DMT100001

Protection

Pinion seal ring assembly

DMT100002

Tool

Assembly of bearings

DMT100004

Buffer

Wheel hub seal ring assembly

DMT100005

Buffer

Assembly of bushing into the axle body

DMT100006

Buffer

Assembly of seal ring in axle body

DMT100007

Tool

Assembly of pinion bearing

380000468

Wrench

Pinion nut tightening

380100102

Wrench

Pinion nut tightening

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62

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

4WS FRONT AXLE


TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

Manufacturer

CARRARO

Model

26.32

Differential ratio

2.75

Planetary hub ratio

6.92

Total reduction ratio

19.04

Lubrication angle

35 maximum (front and rear) - 35 maximum (from side to side)

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SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

63

LUBRICATION AND GREASING

Oil capacity
Oil type

1. Oil level plug


2. Air breather
3. Level, fill and drain plug for reduction gear oil
4. Oil drain plug
5. Greasing points

Differential

10.5 litres (2.31 gal)

Final drive (each)

1.3 litres (0.29 gal)

Akcela Transaxle fluid 80W -140

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64

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

Before draining the oil from the axle body, use the
breather (2) to release any possible internal pressure.

WARNING
Risk of violent oil ejection.

To drain the oil from the central body remove the


level plug (1) and the drain plug (4).

WARNING
Risk of violent oil ejection.
Drain all oil.
Clean, screw in and tighten the drain plug (4).
Fill through the hole of the plug (1).
Check the level and, if necessary, top up.
Clean, screw and tighten the plug (1).
Before draining the oil from the reduction gear,
rotate it so that the plug (3) is in the highest position
(position A) and partially unscrew the plug to
release any possible internal pressure.
Turn and bring the plug to the lowest position (position B).
Remove the plug and drain the oil.
Now turn again and bring the hole of the plug (3) to
check and oil filling position (position C).
Carry out the filling.
Clean, screw and tighten the plug (3).

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SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE
REMOVAL FROM MACHINE
Move the machine to a level and firm ground, away
from any soft ground, excavations and poorly
shored cavity.
Rest the loader attachment on the ground in order to
unload the weight of the machine from the 2 front
wheels, then lift the front part, thus ensuring the
safety of the subsequent operations.
Use the locking pin (if provided) to lock the loader
attachment controls.
Place the backhoe attachment in the road travel
position.
Place the direction-of-travel lever and gearshift lever
in neutral position.
Immobilize the machine by means of the parking
brake.
Completely raise the stabilizers and lock them
mechanically.
Stop the engine and remove the starter key.
Release the hydraulic pressure by operating the
control levers in all directions.
On hydraulically controlled machines, turn the key to
ON and release the pressure by moving the hydraulic control levers in all directions.
Place some wedges under the wheels so as to prevent the machine from moving.
Disconnect the electric system by disconnecting the
battery master switch.
Fasten the front axle (6) to a lifting hoist or to a support.
Now it is possible to carry out the disassembly of the 2
front tyres by loosening and removing the relevant fixing nuts (7) [tightening torque = 700 Nm (516 lbfft)].
Disconnect the hoses of the steering cylinder, paying attention to possible oil leaks, preventing spillage over the ground using a container.
Disconnect the cardan joint (1) by unlocking and
removing the screws (2) and the bracket (3).
Loosen and remove the screws (5) with the relevant
washers (4).
Remove the front axle (6).

65

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66

NOTES:

SECTION 25 - FRONT AXLE

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580T
580ST
590ST
695ST

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE


2WS REAR AXLE (580T - 580ST).................................................................................................................... 3
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS.................................................................................................................. 3
LUBRICATION AND GREASING ................................................................................................................ 5
REMOVAL FROM MACHINE ...................................................................................................................... 7
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY............................................................................................................... 8
TROUBLESHOOTING............................................................................................................................... 61
REPAIR TIMES.......................................................................................................................................... 67
SPECIAL TOOLS....................................................................................................................................... 68
2WS REAR AXLE (590ST) ............................................................................................................................. 69
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................................................ 69
LUBRICATION AND GREASING .............................................................................................................. 71
REMOVAL FROM MACHINE .................................................................................................................... 73
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY............................................................................................................. 74
TROUBLESHOOTING............................................................................................................................. 127
REPAIR TIMES........................................................................................................................................ 133
SPECIAL TOOLS..................................................................................................................................... 134
4WS REAR AXLE (695ST) ........................................................................................................................... 135
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS.............................................................................................................. 135
LUBRICATION AND GREASING ............................................................................................................ 138
REMOVAL FROM MACHINE .................................................................................................................. 140
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY........................................................................................................... 141
TROUBLESHOOTING............................................................................................................................. 219
REPAIR TIMES........................................................................................................................................ 225
SPECIAL TOOLS..................................................................................................................................... 227

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2

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

2WS REAR AXLE


(580T - 580ST)
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

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4

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Manufacturer

CARRARO

Model

28.44

Bevel gear reduction ratio

2.75/1

Epicyclic gear ratio

6.40/1

Total reduction ratio

17.6/1

Input rotation
Dry weight
Differential type
Pressure for differential lock
Bevel gear set backlash

clockwise
420 kg
(926 lb)
Mechanical and driven
12 35 bar
(174 508 psi)
0.20 0.28 mm
(0.0079 0.0110 in)

Pinion bearing preload (1)


(measured on = 34.8 mm (1.37 in) without seal ring)

FP = 115 138 N
(26 31 lbf)

Ring gear-pinion bearing total preload (1)


(measured on = 34.8 mm (1.37 in) without seal ring)

FT = (FP + 33) (FP + 50) N


[FT = (FP + 7.4) (FP + 11.2) lbf]

Pinion bearing rolling torque (1) measured without seal ring


Total pinion-ring gear bearing rolling torque (1) measured without
seal ring

MP = 2.0 2.4 Nm
(1.47 1.77 lbfft)
MT = (MP + 0.58) (MP + 0.87) Nm
[MT = (MP + 0.43) (MP + 0.64) lbfft]

(*) Only for new bearings

SERVICE BRAKE

Brake type

Wet disc brake

Brake operating temperature

-20 C 150 C (-4 5.9 F)

Maximum operating pressure

43 bar (624 psi)

Oil displacement for brake actuation (each side)

16 cm 3 (0.98 in3)

A. New counterdisc thickness = 8.0 0.05 mm


(0.31 0.002 in)
B. New friction disc thickness = 6.73 0.1 mm
(0.26 0.004 in)
Worn disc minimum thickness = 5.8 mm (0.23 in)
C. New counterdisc thickness = 5.0 0.05 mm
(0.20 0.002 in)

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

LUBRICATION AND GREASING


Oil capacity (differential)
Oil type

1. Level and fill plug for differential oil


2. Differential oil drain plug
3. Oil breather
4. Oil drain plug
5. Brake breather

17 litres (3.74 gal)


Akcela Transaxle fluid 80W -140

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6

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Before draining the oil from the axle body, use the
breather (3) to release any possible internal pressure.

WARNING
Risk of violent oil ejection.

To drain the oil from the central body remove the


level plug (1) and the drain plug (2).

WARNING
Risk of violent oil ejection.
Drain all oil.
Clean the plug (2), screw it and tighten to the prescribed torque of 80 Nm (59 lbfft).
Fill through the hole of the plug (1).
Check the level and, if necessary, top up.
Clean the plug (2), screw it and tighten to the prescribed torque of 80 Nm (59 lbfft).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
REMOVAL FROM MACHINE
Move the machine to a level and firm ground, away
from any soft ground, excavations and poorly
shored cavity.
Lower the loader attachment to the ground.
Use the locking pin (if provided) to lock the loader
attachment controls.
Lower the backhoe attachment to the ground.
Place the direction-of-travel lever and gearshift lever
in neutral position.
Immobilize the machine by means of the parking
brake.
Lower the stabilizers until the rear wheels are
slightly lifted from the ground (they are free from
machine weight).
Stop the engine and remove the starter key.
Release the hydraulic pressure by operating the
control levers in all directions.
On hydraulically controlled machines, turn the key to
ON and release the pressure by moving the hydraulic control levers in all directions.
Disconnect the electric system by disconnecting the
battery master switch.
Fasten the rear axle to a lifting hoist or to a support.
Now it is possible to carry out the disassembly of the
2 rear tyres by loosening and removing the relevant
fixing nuts (9) [tightening torque = 700 Nm (516 lbfft)].
Disconnect the cardan joint (6) by unlocking and
removing the screws (7) and the bracket (8).
Unscrew and remove the screws (4) with the nuts
(2) and the washers (3) and (5) [tightening torque
= 610 678 Nm (445 500 lbfft)].
Remove the rear axle (1).

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8

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY


Some of the following pictures could not exactly
show your axle, but the procedure is correct.
TIGHTENING TORQUES AND APPLICATION OF SEALANTS / ADHESIVES
A. Loctite 510
B. Loctite 270
C. Loctite 638

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
GREASE POINTS

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10

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

FRONT FLANGE

Disassembly
Remove the stop ring (1) and the front flange (2).
Remove the O-ring (4) and the shim (5).

Remove the seal ring (3).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Assembly
Assemble the seal ring (3) into the central body with
a drift 380200228 and a hammer.

Insert the shim (5) and a new O-ring (4) into the pinion shaft.
Insert the front flange (2) on the shaft end.
Fasten the pieces as soon as assembled by fitting
the snap ring (1).

11

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12

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

BRAKES

Disassembly
Drain the oil completely from the differential.

Loosen and remove all screws (1) except for 2 as a


safety measure.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Connect the wheel hub (2) to a lifting device and
tension the rope.
Insert 2 opposed threaded rods to enable removal.

Remove the 2 last screws (1) and separate the


wheel hub assy (2) from the axle body (3).

Slowly remove the wheel hub assy and the half axle
(4), make sure that the braking discs (5) and the
counterdiscs (6) stay on the wheel hub assy.

Place the wheel hub assy vertically and mark the


counterdisc (5) assembled to the axle body side (3).
Remove the discs (6), the counterdiscs (5) and the
dowel pins (7).

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14

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Remove the half axle (4) from the wheel hub assy
(2).

In some cases the axle shaft can be delivered


already assembled in 2 parts.

Remove the screws (8) and the belleville washers


(9) from the brake cylinder (10).

Check screws (8) and belleville washers (9) for


damage.
NOTE: if brake discs are replaced, also replace
screws and springs.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Remove the snap ring (11) and the self adjust kit
assy (12).

Place the self adjust kit (12) on tool 380200245 and


remove the snap rings (13).

Check bushing (14) for wear.


Repeat the procedure for the remaining 2 self
adjust kits.

Remove the brake cylinder assy (10).

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16

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Remove the brake piston (15) from the brake cylinder (10).

Remove the O-rings (16) and (17) from the brake


cylinder (10).

Remove the O-ring (18) from the brake piston (15).

Remove the O-ring (19).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Assembly
Assemble the O-ring (19).

Assemble the O-ring (18) onto the brake piston


(15).

Assemble the O-rings (16) and (17) onto the brake


cylinder (10).

Lubricate the O-rings (16), (17) and (18).


Assemble the brake piston (15) into the brake cylinder (10).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Lubricate the seat of the brake cylinder on the


wheel hub (2) and assemble the dowel pins (7).

Assemble the brake cylinder assy (10) and remove


the dowel pins (7).

Place the bushing (14) into tool 380200245 paying


attention to direct it with the chamfer edge upwards.

Assemble the snap rings (13) by turning them by


90 with respect to the ring mounted before.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Assemble the snap rings (13) until they are seated
against the calibrated disc and using a drift
380200245.
Repeat the procedure for the remaining 2 self
adjust kits.

Assemble the self adjust kits (12) into the brake cylinder, paying attention to direct the chamfer edge of
the bushing (14) upwards.

Assemble the snap rings (11).


Make sure that the teeth of the snap ring are
directed towards the self adjust kit.

Snap ring (11) orientation.

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20

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Assemble the belleville washers (9) on the screws


(8) paying attention to orient them correctly.

Assemble the screws (8) and the belleville washers


(9).
Tighten the screws (8) to a tightening torque of
15.3 Nm (11 lbfft).
Make sure that the 4 belleville washers are correctly
aligned before tightening the screws.

Assemble half shaft (4) and the dowel pins (7).

Using the reference mark made during disassembly, assemble the counterdisc (5) paying attention to
direct it with the mark towards the axle body (3).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Assemble the first braking disc (6) and the counterdisc (5).
If using new brake discs (6), they must be soaked in
oil for at least 24 hours prior to installation.

Assemble the last brake disc (6) and make sure that
its slots are aligned with those of the first disc.

Connect the wheel hub (2) to a lifting device and


assemble it on the beam (3).
Support and turn the axle beam (4), while pushing
the wheel hub onto it.

Screw in screws (1) applying the prescribed sealant


and tighten to tightening torque of 226 Nm (167 lbfft).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

WHEEL HUB

Disassembly
Remove the brake assy.

If disassembly of the planetary gear carrier for overhauling is not necessary, use a bearing puller to lift
the planetary gear carrier assy.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Enlarge the snap ring (2) and simultaneously
extract the gear carrier (1).

If necessary, remove the snap rings (3) and by


means of a puller the gears (4) with the bearings (5)
from the gear carrier (1).
NOTE: the bearing (5) cannot be removed from the
gear (4).
If one gear must be replaced, replace the whole
pair.

Unscrew and remove the ring nut (6) fastening the


ring gear retaining hub using tool 380200244.

Separate the wheel hub (7) from the wheel flange


(8) with a puller.

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24

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Connect the wheel hub (7) to a hoisting tool to


remove it.
Collect the bearing (9).

Remove the bearing cup (9) from the wheel hub (7).

Remove the seal ring (10) from the wheel hub (7).

Remove the bearing cup (11) from the wheel hub


(7).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Remove the spacer (12) from the wheel flange (8).

To remove the bearing (11), use a disc grinder to cut


the cage and to engrave the ring.
Then use a chisel to cut and to remove the ring.

Assembly
Assemble the bearing cup (11) onto wheel hub (7)
with the buffer 380200211.
Assemble the bearing cup (9) with the buffer
380002222.
Assemble the seal ring (10) on the wheel hub (7)
with the buffer 380200254.

Use tool 380200254 (T) to assemble the seal ring


(10) onto the wheel hub (7).

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26

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Assemble the bearing (11) onto wheel flange (8)


with a pusher and a press.

Place the spacer (12) on the wheel flange (8).

Connect the wheel hub (7) to a lifting device and


place it on the wheel flange (8).
Clean the sealing surface of the flange.
Pay attention not to damage the seal ring (10).

Assemble the bearing cup (9) with a pusher and a


hammer.
Assemble the ring nut (6).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Screw in and tighten the ring nut (6) with tool
380200244 at tightening torque of 1000 Nm (738
lbfft).

Assemble the bearing (5) with tool 380200255 (T).

Assemble the gears (4) and the snap rings (3) on


the gear carrier (1).
Ensure that the chamfer of the bearings (5) is
directed towards the gear carrier (1).

Connect the gear carrier (1) to a hoisting tool to


remove it.
Lift it and then place it on the wheel hub (7).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Orient the gear carrier (1) so that the tooth engages


into the ring nut (6).

In order to simplify the installation, align the hole on


the gear carrier with the ring nut (6).
NOTE: it may take several attempts to find the right
combination of alignment between teeth and hole of
the gear carrier and the ring nut, to get the locking
tooth to engage.

Enlarge the snap ring (2) to complete the gear carrier (1) assembly.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
DIFFERENTIAL SUPPORT ASSY

Disassembly
Drain the oil completely from the differential.

Loosen and remove the screws (1).

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30

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Separate the axle support (3) from the axle body (2)
using pry bars in slots.

Connect the differential support (3) to a lifting


device to remove it.

Measure the rolling torque MT0 of the bearings (pinion-ring gear system), using wrench 380200269.
Note value MT0 that is necessary for assembling the
bearings.
NOTE: the total rolling torque must be determined
without the pinion seal ring.

It is possible to measure the total starting preload


FT0 of the bearings (pinion-ring gear system) using
a dynamometer whose cord is wound on the end of
the pinion shaft.
Note value FT0 that is necessary for assembling the
bearings.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Unscrew and remove the screws (4) fastening the
ring nuts (5) and (6).

Unscrew the ring nuts (5) and (6) using tool


380200243.

Remove the differential box (7).


The bearing cups (8) and (9) must be removed
together with the differential box.

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32

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Assembly
Assemble the bearing cups (8) and (9) on the differential box (7) with drift 380200218.

Assemble the differential box (7) with bearings onto


the differential support (3).

Tighten both ring nuts (5) and (6) with special tool
380200243, till the backlash is eliminated and the
bearings are slightly preloaded.
Check that the bearings are correctly seated.

Position a magnetic-base dial gauge on the differential support, so that the feeler touches the surface
of one tooth of the ring gear with a 90 angle.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Lock the pinion and alternately move the ring gear,
and note the backlash between pinion and ring
gear, measured with the dial gauge.
Repeat the operation on two or more points (teeth),
rotating the ring gear, so that to obtain an average
value.
Check if the measured backlash value is within the
requested range:
0.20 0.28 mm (0.0079 0.0110 in)
Carry out the adjustment by operating on the ring
nuts (5) and (6) with tool 380200243.
Adjust the ring nuts (5) and (6), remembering that:
- if the measured backlash is less than the prescribed tolerance range, unscrew the ring nut (6)
and screw in the ring nut (5) by the same measure;
- if the measured backlash is more than the prescribed tolerance range, unscrew the ring nut (5)
and screw in the ring nut (6) by the same measure.

Repeat the whole sequence of the above mentioned operations until the requested conditions are
reached.

Once the pinion-ring gear backlash has been


adjusted, if the bearings have not been replaced,
measure the total preload FTm of the bearings (pinion-ring gear system), using a dynamometer whose
cord is wound on the end of the pinion shaft.
Use this method only if the bearings are already run
in.
The measured value FTm should be within the following range:
FTm = FT0 (FT0 + 10) N
FTm = FT0 (FT0 + 2.25) lbf

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Once the pinion-ring gear backlash has been


adjusted, if the bearings have not been replaced,
measure the total rolling torque MTm of the bearings
(pinion-ring gear system) with a torque meter and
the special wrench 380200269.
The measured value MTm should be the same of
the starting:
MTm = MT0

If the bearings have been replaced, measure the


total preload FTm of the bearings (pinion-ring gear
system), using a dynamometer whose cord is
wound on tool 380200272 inserted on the pinion
splined end.

The total preload FTm is measured by tool


380200237.
The measured value should be within the following
range:
FTm = (FPm + 11) (FPm + 16.7) N
[FTm = (FPm + 2.47) (FPm + 3.75) lbf]
where FPm is the actual preload measured on tool
380200237 [gauge diameter Dm = 104.4 mm
(4.11 in)].

NOTE: if you do not use the prescribed tool to


measure the total preload FTm, the reference diameter is the diameter of pinion shaft splined end.
The measured value should be within the following
range:
FTm = (FPm + 33) (FPm + 50) N
[FTm = (FPm + 7.42) (FPm + 11.24) lbf]
where FPm is the preload of the pinion bearings.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Once the pinion-ring gear backlash has been
adjusted, if the bearings have been replaced, measure the total rolling torque MTm of the bearings (pinion-ring gear system) with a torque meter and the
wrench 380200269.

WARNING
All preloads must be measured without seal rings.

The total torque MTm should be within the following


range:
MTm = (MPm + 0.58) (MPm + 0.87) Nm
[MTm = (MPm + 0.43) (MPm + 0.64) lbfft]
where MPm is the preload of the pinion bearings.

If the measure is not within the requested range,


check the assembly of each component and operate on the ring nuts (5) and (6) of the differential
support:
- if the total preload is less than the given range,
screw on the ring nuts (5) and (6) by the same
measure, keeping the pinion-ring gear backlash
value unchanged;
- if the total preload is less than the given range,
screw on the ring nuts (5) and (6) with the same
measure, keeping the pinion-ring gear backlash
value unchanged.
Once all the adjustment operations have been completed, lock the ring nuts (5) and (6) with the screws
(4).
Tighten the screws (4) to a tightening torque of 10 Nm
(7.4 lbfft).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Before matching worked surfaces, make sure they


are perfectly clean, if not, clean with proper detergents.
Apply a film of sealant on the contact surface of the
axle body (2) and the differential support.

Place the differential support (3) on the axle body


(2).

Screw in and tighten the screws (1) to a tightening


torque of 80 Nm (59 lbfft).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Check of the bevel gear
To test the marks of the bevel gear teeth, paint the
ring gear with red lead paint.
The contact mark test should always be carried out
on the ring gear teeth and on both sides.

OK -> Correct contact:


If the bevel gear is well adjusted, the mark on the
teeth surfaces will be regular.
Z -> Excessive contact on the tooth tip:
approach the pinion to the ring bevel gear and then
move the ring bevel gear away from the pinion in
order to adjust the backlash.
X -> Excessive contact at the tooth base:
move the pinion away from the ring bevel gear and
then approach the ring bevel gear to the pinion in
order to adjust the backlash.

Movements to correct:
1 -> move the pinion for type X contact adjustment;
2 -> move the pinion for type Z contact adjustment.

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38
DIFFERENTIAL LOCKING ASSY

Disassembly
Loosen plug (1) without removing it.

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Push the yoke (2) downwards using the differential
support as a retainer, then remove the plug (1).

Insert tool 380200259.

Remove the snap ring (5).


Remove tool 380200259.

Remove the bushing (6).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Remove the spring (4).

Extract the rod assy (3) from the differential support.

Remove the yoke (2), the spring (7) and the spacer
(8) from the rod (3).

Remove the O-ring (9) from the plug (1).


Remove the O-rings (11) and (12) from the piston
(10).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Assembly
Assemble the O-rings (11) and (12) onto the piston
(10).
Assemble the O-ring (9) on the plug (1).
Lubricate the O-rings.

Lubricate the rod (3).


Assemble the yoke (2) on the rod (3).
Assemble the spacer (8) and the spring (7).
Orient the spacer (8) with the flat side towards the
snap ring (13).

Assemble the rod assy (3) onto the differential support.

Assemble the spring (4).

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42

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Assemble the bushing (6), making sure that its flat


end faces outwards.

Insert tool 380200259 (T1).

Assemble the snap ring (5) with tool 380200260


(T2).
Remove tools 380200259 (T1) and 380200260
(T2).

Push the yoke (2) downwards using the differential


support as a retainer.
Screw in the plug (1) by hand.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Tighten the plug (1) to the requested torque of 80 Nm
(59 lbfft).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

DIFFERENTIAL

Disassembly
If differential bearings must be replaced, remove
the bearing cups (1) and (2).
Remove the sleeve (3).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Remove the snap ring (4).

Take out the cover (5) and collect the anti-rotation


pin (6) and the shoulder ring (7).

Remove the gear (8).

Remove the dowels (9).

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46

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Take out the pins (10).

Unscrew and remove the screws (11) and the ring


gear (12).

Slip off pin (13) until the gear is free (14).


NOTE: the pin can be slipped off only in one direction.

Assemble the planetary gear (14) and the relevant


shoulder ring (15).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Remove the pin (13), the planetary gear (16) and
the relevant shoulder ring (17).

Pull out partially the pins (18) and remove the


spacer (19).

Remove the pins (18), the gears (20) and the relevant shoulder rings (21).

Remove the gear (22) and the relevant ring (23).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Remove the pins (25) locking the differential box


(24).

Assembly
Assemble the O-rings (26) on the pins (25).

Assemble the pins (25) into the differential box (24).

Assemble the gear (22) and the relevant ring (23).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Assemble the gears (20) and the relevant shoulder
rings (21). Insert pins (18) far enough to hold them.
NOTE: orient the pins with the flat side upwards.

Assemble the spacer (19) and the pins (18), make


sure to align the pin holes with those of the differential box (24).

Lubricate and assemble the gear (16) and the relevant shoulder ring (17).
Insert pin (13).
Orient the pin (13) with the flat side upwards.

Assemble the planetary gear (14) and the relevant


shoulder ring (15) and insert the pin (13) and make
sure to align the pin hole with that of the differential
box (24).

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50

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Assemble the ring gear (12), apply some sealant


and tighten the screws (11) to a tightening torque of
165 Nm (122 lbfft).

Insert the pins (10) and tighten the plugs (9) to the
prescribed torque.

Assemble the gear (8).

Apply a thin film of grease on the cover (5) and


assemble the ring (7).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Assemble the anti-rotation pin (6) on the cover (5).
Assemble the cover (5) onto the differential box.

Lock the cover (5) with the snap ring (4).

Assemble the sleeve (3) and make sure that it seats


correctly.
NOTE: to ease the fitting, turn the gear (22).

Assemble the bearing cups (1) and (2) with drift


380200218.
Take care not to mix the bearing cups.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

PINION ASSY

Disassembly
Measure the starting preload FP0 of the pinion bearings using a dynamometer whose cord is wound on
the end of the pinion shaft.

WARNING
Note value FP0 that is necessary for assembling the
bearings.

Measure the rolling torque MP0 of the bearings,


using a torque wrench and tool 380200269.

WARNING
Note value MP0 that is necessary for assembling
the bearings.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Lock the differential assy in a vice.
Unscrew the ring nut (1) using special tools
380000021 and 380000020.
NOTE: this operation will irretrievably damage the
lock nut (1).

Remove the ring nut (1) and collect its washer (2).

Tap the shaft end with a soft hammer to remove the


pinion (3).
Collect the washers (4) and (5), the spacer (6) and
the bearing (7).

Remove the bearing cups (7) and (8) from the differential support (9) using a buffer and a hammer.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Remove the bearing (8) from the pinion (3) by


means of a puller.
Collect the shim (10).

Check the conditions of all pinion parts.


The ring nut (1) and the spacer (6) must be
replaced during assembly.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Assembly
Place the differential support (9) on a workbench.
Insert the bearing cups (7) and (8) with the buffers
380200200 and 380002215 and a hammer.

Insert the bearings (7) and (8) into the relevant


seats.
Assemble the false pinion kit 380200273 (a1) and
the ring nut (1).
Tighten without exceeding the ring nut, until the
backlash is eliminated.

Assemble tool 380200187 (T) on the differential box


seats (9).

Use a depth gauge to measure dimension X (distance between bearing axis of differential box and
leaning point of pinion head or bearing base).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

To adjust the bevel gear measure the distance A


with a depth gauge.
Determine the value X as follows:
X = (A + C) - B mm (in)
where B and C are known values.

In order to determine the value (S) of the shim to be


placed between pinion and bearing, subtract from
the measured value (X) the value (V) engraved on
pinion head (V = prescribed distance).
S = (X - V) mm (in)

Select the shim (10) with value (S) from the range
of available shims, and fit it onto the shaft end under
the pinion head.
SHIM RANGE
Shims
2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4
mm
(0.098) (0.102) (0.106) (0.110) (0.114) (0.118) (0.122) (0.126) (0.130) (0.134)
(in)
Q.ty

Remove tool 380200187 from the seats (9) of the


differential box.
Disassemble the ring nut (10), the false pinion
380200202 (a1) and the bearings (7) and (8).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Once you have chosen the suitable shim (10), insert
it on the pinion shaft with the chamfer against the
pinion head.

Insert the bearing (8) into the pinion (3) using a


press and a buffer 380200204.

Insert the pinion (3) into the differential box (9).


Insert the shims (4) and (5) and the spacer (6).
NOTE: always use a new spacer (6).

Check the right assembly sequence.

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58

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Assemble the bearing (7) on pinion shaft, using


buffer 380200204 and a hammer.

Insert the washer (2) and tighten the new ring nut
(1) on the pinion shaft.
Lubricate the ring nut thread (1) and the supporting
face with the washer (2) with oil.

Screw in the ring nut (1) using the wrench for ring
nut 380200268 and the pinion retainer 380200269.

WARNING
The tightening torque is given by the measure of
the preload on bearings (7) and (8); gradually
tighten the ring nut (1).
NOTE: if the tightening is excessive, the spacer (6)
must be replaced and the procedure repeated.
When you check the preload, strike the pinion end
(3) with a soft hammer to favour the bearings (7)
and (8) settlement.
If the bearings have not been replaced, to measure
the preload FPm of the bearings (7) and (8), use a
dynamometer whose cord is wound on the end of
pinion shaft (3).

WARNING
Use this method only if the bearings are not to be
replaced, otherwise go to next step.
The measured value should be within the following
range:
FPm = FP0 (FP0 + 10) N
[FPm = FP0 (FP0 + 2.25) lbf]

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
If the bearings have not been replaced, it is possible
to measure the rolling torque MPm of the bearings
(7) and (8), using a torque wrench and tool
380000020.
NOTE: use this method only if the bearings are not
replaced.

WARNING
All preloads must be measured without seal rings.
The measured value should be the same of the
starting:
MPm = MP0
If the bearings (7) and (8) are new, to measure the
preload FPm of the bearings, use a dynamometer
whose cord is wound on tool 380200237, inserted
on the end of pinion shaft.

The actual preload FPm is measured on tool


380200237 [gauge diameter Dm = 114.4 mm (4.50
in)].
The measured value should be within the following
range:
FPm = 38.3 46 N
[FPm = 8.61 10.34 lbf]

WARNING
Values for new bearings.

In case you do not use the prescribed tool to measure the preload, the reference diameter is the diameter of pinion shaft splined end.
The measured value should be within the following
range:
FPm = 115 138 N
[FPm = 25.85 31.02 lbf]

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

If the bearings are new, measure the rolling torque


MPm of the pinion shaft bearings with a torque
meter and the wrench 380000020.

WARNING
All preloads must be measured without seal rings.

The measured value MPm should be within the following range:


MPm = 2.0 2.4 Nm
[MPm = 1.47 1.77 lbfft]

Once the prescribed preload value is achieved,


caulk the ring nut (1) using a hammer and a punch.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

61

TROUBLESHOOTING
FAULT
Wheel vibrations.

Tyre resistance.

Broken axle shaft.

Difficult steering; the machine


travels in a straight line while
steering.

No differential action; jams


during steering.

POSSIBLE CAUSE

ACTION

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Axle faulty.

Inspect and repair the axle.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Axle beam bent.

Replace the axle beam.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Axle faulty.

Inspect and repair.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Axle beam bent.

Replace the axle beam.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Axle faulty.

Inspect and repair.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Axle beam bent.

Replace the axle beam.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Axle faulty.

Inspect and repair.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

FAULT
Excessive noise.

Excessive wear of the tyre.

Friction noise.

Vibrations during travel.

POSSIBLE CAUSE

ACTION

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Axle faulty.

Inspect and repair.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

Incorrect wheel alignment.

Check that the structure and the


bearings are in good conditions.

Incorrect axle part installation.

Check the installation.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Axle faulty.

Inspect and repair.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

Differential locked.

Check the installation.

Excessive steering angle.

Reduce the steering angle.

Incorrect wheel alignment.

Check that the structure and the


bearings are in good conditions.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

Damaged or worn axle parts.

Replace the damaged axle parts.

Incorrect axle part installation.

Check the installation.

Incorrect adjustment of the bevel


gear set.

Adjust the bevel gear set.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Axle faulty.

Inspect and repair.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

FAULT
Outer tip of ring gear tooth is
broken.

POSSIBLE CAUSE
Excessive gear load compared to
the one expected.

Crash load.

Replace bevel gear.

Gear adjustment wrong (insufficient


backlash).

Follow carefully recommended


adjustment operations of ring gear
and pinion backlash and of tooth
marks detection.

Insufficient lubrication.

Replace bevel gear.

Contaminated lubricant.

Replace worn out pinion bearings


that cause an incorrect pinion axle
backlash and wrong contact
between pinion and ring gear.

Incorrect lubrication or poor


additives.
Worn out pinion bearings that cause
an incorrect pinion axle backlash
and wrong contact between pinion
and ring gear.
Ring gear teeth or pinion teeth
overheated. Check if gear
teeth have faded.

Replace bevel gear.

Pinion nut loose.

Pinion nut loose.


Ring gear teeth or pinion teeth
damaged or scored.

ACTION

Follow carefully recommended


adjustment operations of ring gear
and pinion backlash and of tooth
marks detection.

Gear adjustment wrong (excessive


backlash).

Inner tip of ring gear tooth is


broken.

63

Prolonged operation at high


temperature.
Unsuitable lubricant.
Oil level low.

Use proper lubricant, fill up to right


level and replace at recommended
intervals.
Replace bevel gear.
Use proper lubricant, fill up to right
level and replace at recommended
intervals.

Contaminated lubricant.
Drive pinion teeth pitted.

Bent axle beam body.

Extremely intense use.

Replace bevel gear.

Insufficient lubrication.

Use proper lubricant, fill up to right


level and replace at recommended
intervals.

Machine overloaded.

Replace the axle beam body.

Damaged vehicle.
Crash load.
Bearings worn or pitted.

Insufficient lubrication.

Replace the bearings.

Contaminated lubricant.

Use proper lubricant, fill up to right


level and replace at recommended
intervals.

Extremely intense use.


Normal wear.
Pinion nut loose.

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64

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

FAULT
Gaskets leak oil.

POSSIBLE CAUSE

ACTION

Prolonged operation at excessive oil


temperature.

Replace the gasket and matching


surface if damaged.

Oil gasket wrongly installed.

Use proper lubricant, fill up to right


level and replace at recommended
intervals.

Gasket edge cut or scored.


Contaminated lubricant.
Excessive wear of input
flange spline.

Intense use.

Replace the flange.

Pinion nut loose.

Check that the pinion spline is not


excessively worn out.

Pinion axial backlash.

Replace bevel gear, if necessary.


Pinion gear tooth fatigue
break.
Check if the fracture line is
wavy or clearly delineated
(stop line).

Intense use.

Break of pinion teeth and ring


gear teeth.

Crash load of differential


components.

Check and/or replace other


differential components.

Splines of planetary gear worn


(excessive backlash).

Intense use.

Replace differential gear assy.

Worn or scored surfaces of


the scraper thrust washer.

Insufficient lubrication.

Continuous overload.

Replace axle beam, if necessary.

Lubrication wrong.
Contaminated lubricant.

Inner diameter of pinion


tapered roller bearing worn
out.

Replace bevel gear.

Replace all scratched washers and


those with a 0.1 mm (0.004 in)
thickness lower than the new ones.
Use proper lubricant, fill up to right
level and replace at recommended
intervals.

Intense use.

Replace bearing.

Excessive pinion end play.

Check pinion axial backlash.

Unsuitable lubrication.

Use proper lubricant, fill up to right


level and replace at recommended
intervals.

Contaminated lubricant.
Broken or bent axle beam.

Intense vehicle operation, overload.

Replace the axle beam.

Broken axle beam at wheel


flange.

Loose wheel support.

Replace the axle beam.

Bent axle beam body.

Check bending of axle beam body.


Ensure that wheel support is not
worn out or wrongly adjusted.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

FAULT
Noise during travel.

Noise during idling.

Intermittent noise.

Constant noise.

POSSIBLE CAUSE

65

ACTION

Excessive backlash between ring


gear and pinion.

Adjust the backlash between the ring


gear and the pinion.

Pinion and ring gear worn.

Replace pinion and ring gear.

Worn-out pinion bearings

Replace pinion bearings.

Loose pinion bearings.

Adjust pinion bearings.

Excessive pinion end play.

Adjust the axial play of the pinion.

Differential bearings worn out.

Replace differential bearings.

Loose differential bearings.

Adjust the bearings.

Ring gear excessively off-set.

Replace the ring gear.

Low lubricant level.

Restore the level.

Poor or wrong lubricant grade.

Change lubricant.

Axle beam bent.

Replace the axle beam.

Noises emitted by the axle when the


vehicle is moving are usually heard
during idling, even though they are
not too loud.

Adjust the backlash between the ring


gear and the pinion or replace pinion
and ring gear.

Wrong backlash between pinion and


ring gear (the noise heard while
decelerating disappears when speed
is increased).

Adjust the play between the pinion


and the ring gear.

Pinion spline or input flange worn.

Replace the pinion.

Damaged ring gear.

Replace bevel gear.

Differential box screws loose.

Tighten the screws to torque.

Ring gear teeth or pinion teeth


damaged.

Replace bevel gear.

Worn bearings.

Replace the bearings.

Pinion splines worn.

Replace the pinion.

Axle beam bent.

Replace the axle beam.

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66

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

FAULT
Noise while bending.

POSSIBLE CAUSE

ACTION

Differential planetary gears


damaged.

Replace the planetary gears.

Differential box and/or pins worn.

Replace the differential box.

Worn differential thrust washers.

Replace the thrust washers.

Worn-out axle beam splines

Replace the axle beam.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

67

REPAIR TIMES
The times are referred to average values of maintenance performed by skilled personnel in workshops
equipped with all necessary fixtures for a proper
execution of the required works.
The repair and/or replacement times are indicated in
minutes.
We assume that the axle has already been removed
from the machine.
ASSY
Connection flange

OPERATION

TIME (minutes)

Pinion sealing ring

30

Replacement / overhauling of wheel flange (x 1)

240

Replacement of wheel hub with ring gear (x 1)

240

Replacement of bearings and wheel hub seal ring (x 1)

210

O-ring replacement (x 1)

30

Gear carrier assy replacement (x 1)

50

Replacement of discs and counterdiscs and zero setting of


self-adjust (for each side)

40

Overhauling / replacement of brake piston seals (x 1)

90

Overhauling / replacement of brake cylinder (for each side)

105

Self-adjust replacement (for each side)

60

Axle shaft replacement (x 1)

30

Differential bearing replacement

180

Bevel gear / differential replacement

150

Differential

Differential gear replacement

240

Differential locking

O-ring / piston replacement

30

Pinion

Pinion bearings replacement

180

Wheel hub

Brake

Differential support

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68

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

SPECIAL TOOLS
PN CNH

DESCRIPTION

USE

380002211

Handle

To be used with the various pushers and buffers

380000021

Wrench

Screw / unscrew the pinion ring nut

380200187

False differential box

Differential and pinion assembly

380002215

Buffer

Pinion bearing cups assembly

380000020

Wrench

Measure of pinion rolling torque

380002222

Buffer

Wheel hub seal ring and bearing assembly

380200200

Buffer

Pinion bearing cups assembly

380200202

False pinion

Differential and pinion assembly

380200204

Buffer

Assembly of pinion bearings

380200211

Buffer

Wheel hub seal ring and bearing assembly

380200218

Buffer

Assembly of bearing cups into the differential box

380200228

Drift

Pinion seal ring assembly

380200237

Tool

Measure of pinion preload

380200243

Wrench

Screw / unscrew the pinion ring nuts

380200244

Wrench

Screw / unscrew the wheel hub ring nuts

380200245

Buffer

Assembly / disassembly of self-adjust kit

380200254

Buffer

Wheel hub seal ring and bearing assembly

380200255

Buffer

Assembly of bearings into gears

380200259

Plunger

Assembly / disassembly of differential locking yoke

380200260

Guide

Assembly / disassembly of differential locking yoke

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

2WS REAR AXLE


(590ST)
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

69

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70

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Manufacturer

CARRARO

Model

28.50

Bevel gear reduction ratio

2.75/1

Epicyclic gear ratio

6.40/1

Total reduction ratio

17.6/1

Input rotation

clockwise

Dry weight

472 kg
(1040 lb)

Differential type
Pressure for differential lock
Bevel gear set backlash

Mechanical and driven


12 35 bar
(174 508 psi)
0.20 0.35 mm
(0.008 0.014 in)

Pinion bearing preload (*)


(measured on = 39.7 mm (1.56 in) without seal ring)

FPm = 10.0 12.0 daN


(22.48 26.98 lbf)

Ring gear-pinion bearing total preload (*)


(measured on = 39.7 mm (1.56 in) without seal ring)

FTm = (FPm + 2.76) (FPm + 4.16) daN


[FTm = (FPm + 6.20) (FPm + 9.35) lbf]

Pinion bearing rolling torque (*) measured without seal ring


Total pinion-ring gear bearing rolling torque (*) measured
without seal ring

MPm = 2.0 2.4 Nm


(MPm = 1.47 1.77 lbfft)
MTm = (MPm + 0.55) (MPm + 0.83) Nm
[MTm = (MPm + 0.40) (MPm + 0.61) lbfft]

(*) Only for new bearings

SERVICE BRAKE

Brake type

Wet disc brake

Brake operating temperature

-20 C 150 C (-4 5.9 F)

Maximum operating pressure

55 bar (798 psi)

Oil displacement for brake actuation (each side)

A. New counterdisc thickness = 8.0 0.05 mm


(0.31 0.002 in)
B. New friction disc thickness = 6.73 0.1 mm
(0.26 0.004 in)
Worn disc minimum thickness = 5.8 mm (0.23 in)
C. New counterdisc thickness = 5.0 0.05 mm
(0.20 0.002 in)

16 cm 3 (0.98 in3)

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

71

LUBRICATION AND GREASING


Oil capacity (differential)
Oil type

1. Level and fill plug for differential oil


2. Differential oil drain plug
3. Oil breather
4. Oil drain plug
5. Brake breather

15.5 litres (3.41 gal)


Akcela Transaxle fluid 80W -140

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72

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Before draining the oil from the axle body, use the
breather (3) to release any possible internal pressure.

WARNING
Risk of violent oil ejection.

To drain the oil from the central body remove the


level plug (1) and the drain plug (2).

WARNING
Risk of violent oil ejection.
Drain all oil.
Clean the plug (2), screw it and tighten to the prescribed torque of 80 Nm (59 lbfft).
Fill through the hole of the plug (1).
Check the level and, if necessary, top up.
Clean the plug (2), screw it and tighten to the prescribed torque of 80 Nm (59 lbfft).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
REMOVAL FROM MACHINE
Move the machine to a level and firm ground, away
from any soft ground, excavations and poorly
shored cavity.
Lower the loader attachment to the ground.
Use the locking pin (if provided) to lock the loader
attachment controls.
Lower the backhoe attachment to the ground.
Place the direction-of-travel lever and gearshift lever
in neutral position.
Immobilize the machine by means of the parking
brake.
Lower the stabilizers until the rear wheels are
slightly lifted from the ground (they are free from
machine weight).
Stop the engine and remove the starter key.
Release the hydraulic pressure by operating the
control levers in all directions.
On hydraulically controlled machines, turn the key to
ON and release the pressure by moving the hydraulic control levers in all directions.
Disconnect the electric system by disconnecting the
battery master switch.
Fasten the rear axle to a lifting hoist or to a support.
Now it is possible to carry out the disassembly of
the 2 rear tyres by loosening and removing the
relevant fixing nuts (9) [tightening torque = 700 Nm
(516 lbfft)].
Disconnect the cardan joint (6) by unlocking and
removing the screws (7) and the bracket (8).
Unscrew and remove the screws (4) with the nuts
(2) and the washers (3) and (5) [tightening torque =
610 678 Nm (445 500 lbfft)].
Remove the rear axle (1).

73

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74

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY


Some of the following pictures could not exactly
show your axle, but the procedure is correct.
TIGHTENING TORQUES AND APPLICATION OF SEALANTS / ADHESIVES
A. Loctite 510
B. Loctite 270
C. Loctite 638

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
GREASE POINTS

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76

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

FRONT FLANGE

Disassembly
Remove the stop ring (1) and the front flange (2).
Collect shim (4) and the O-ring (3).

Take out the seal ring (5) from the central body (6).

WARNING
The seal ring can be damaged.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
If necessary, remove protection (7) from the front
flange (2).

Assembly
On the front flange (2), assemble the protection (7)
using tool 380200277.

Use tool 380200277 to assemble the protection (7)


on the front flange (2).

Insert a new seal ring (5) into the central body (6)
using tool 380200276.

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78

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Use tool 380200276 to fit the seal ring (5) into the
central body (6).

Grease the O-ring (3).


Insert the washer (4), the O-ring (3) and the front
flange (2) into the pinion.
Fasten the pieces as soon as assembled by fitting
the snap ring (1).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
BRAKES

Disassembly
Drain the oil completely from the differential.

Loosen and remove all screws (1) except for 2 as a


safety measure.

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80

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Connect the wheel hub (2) to a lifting device and


tension the rope.
Insert 2 opposed threaded rods to enable removal.

Remove the 2 last screws (1) and separate the


wheel hub assy (2) from the axle body (3).

Slowly remove the wheel hub assy and the half axle
(4), make sure that the discs (5) and the counterdiscs (6) stay on the wheel hub assy.

Place the wheel hub assy vertically and mark the


counterdisc (5) assembled to the axle body side (3).
Remove the discs (6), the counterdiscs (5) and the
dowel pins (7).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Remove the half axle (4) from the wheel hub assy
(2).

Remove the screws (8) and the belleville washers


(9) from the brake cylinder (10).

Check screws (8) and belleville washers (9) for


damage.
NOTE: if brake discs are replaced, also replace
screws and springs.

Remove the snap ring (11) and the self adjust kit
assy (12).

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82

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Place the self adjust kit (12) on tool 380200245 and


remove the snap rings (13).

Check bushing (14) for wear.


Repeat the procedure for the remaining 2 self
adjust kits.

Remove the brake cylinder assy (10).

Remove the brake piston (15) from the brake cylinder (10).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Remove the O-rings (16) and (17) from the brake
cylinder (10).

Remove the O-ring (18) from the brake piston (15).

Remove the O-ring (19).

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84

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Assembly
Assemble the new O-ring (19).

Assemble the O-ring (18) onto the brake piston


(15).

Assemble the O-rings (16) and (17) onto the brake


cylinder (10).

Lubricate the O-rings (16), (17) and (18).


Assemble the brake piston (15) into the brake cylinder (10).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Lubricate the seat of the brake cylinder on the
wheel hub (2) and assemble the dowel pins (7).

Assemble the brake cylinder assy (10) and remove


the dowel pins (7).

Place the bushing (14) into tool 380200245 paying


attention to direct it with the chamfer edge upwards.

Assemble the snap rings (13) by turning them by


90 with respect to the ring mounted before.

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86

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Assemble the snap rings (13) until they are seated


against the calibrated disc and using a drift
380200245.
Repeat the procedure for the remaining 2 self
adjust kits.

Assemble the self adjust kits (12) into the brake cylinder, paying attention to direct the chamfer edge of
the bushing (14) upwards.

Assemble the snap rings (11).


Make sure that the teeth of the snap ring are
directed towards the self adjust kit.

Snap ring (11) orientation.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Assemble the belleville washers (9) on the screws
(8) paying attention to orient them correctly.

Assemble the screws (8) and the belleville washers


(9).
Tighten the screws (8) to a tightening torque of
15.3 Nm (11 lbfft).
Make sure that the 4 belleville washers are correctly
aligned before tightening the screws.

Assemble half shaft (4) and the dowel pins (7).

Using the reference mark made during disassembly, assemble the counterdisc (5) paying attention to
direct it with the mark towards the axle body (3).

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88

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Assemble the first braking disc (6) and the counterdisc (5).
If using new brake discs (6), they must be soaked in
oil for at least 24 hours prior to installation.

Assemble the last brake disc (6) and make sure that
its slots are aligned with those of the first disc.

Connect the wheel hub (2) to a lifting device and


assemble it on the beam (3).
Support and turn the axle beam (4), while pushing
the wheel hub onto it.

Screw in screws (1) applying the prescribed sealant and tighten to tightening torque of 226 Nm
(167 lbfft).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
WHEEL HUB

Disassembly
Remove the brake assy.

If disassembly of the planetary gear carrier for overhauling is not necessary, use a bearing puller to lift
the planetary gear carrier assy.

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90

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Enlarge the snap ring (2) and simultaneously


extract the gear carrier (1).

If necessary, remove the snap rings (3) and by


means of a puller the gears (4) with the bearings (5)
from the gear carrier (1).
NOTE: the bearing (5) cannot be removed from the
gear (4).
If one gear must be replaced, replace the whole
pair.

Unscrew and remove the ring nut (6) fastening the


ring gear retaining hub using tool 380200244.

Separate the hub (7) from the wheel flange (8) with
a puller.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Connect the hub (7) to a hoisting tool to remove it.
Collect the bearing (9).

Remove the bearing cup (9) from the wheel hub (7).

Remove the seal ring (10) from the wheel hub (7).

Remove the bearing cup (11) from the wheel hub


(7).

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92

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Remove the spacer (12) from the wheel flange (8).

To remove the bearing (11), use a disc grinder to cut


the cage and to engrave the ring.
Then use a chisel to cut and to remove the ring.

Assembly
Assemble the bearing cup (11) onto wheel hub (7)
with the buffer 380200211.
Assemble the bearing cup (9) with the buffer
380002222.
Assemble the seal ring (10) on the wheel hub (7)
with the buffer 380200254.

Use tool 380200254 (T) to assemble the seal ring


(10) onto the wheel hub (7).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Assemble the bearing (11) onto wheel flange (8)
with a press.

Place the spacer (12) on the wheel flange (8).

Connect the wheel hub (7) to a lifting device and


place it on the wheel flange (8).
Clean the sealing surface of the flange.
Pay attention not to damage the seal ring (10).

Assemble the bearing (9) and the ring nut (6).

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94

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Screw in and tighten the ring nut (6) with tool


380200244 at tightening torque of 1000 Nm (738 lbfft).

Assemble the bearing (5) with tool 380200255 (T).

Assemble the gears (4) and the snap rings (3) on


the gear carrier (1).
Ensure that the chamfer of the bearings (5) is
directed towards the gear carrier (1).

Connect the gear carrier (1) to a hoisting tool to


remove it.
Lift it and then place it on the wheel hub (7).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Orient the gear carrier so that the tooth engages
into the ring nut (6).

In order to simplify the installation, align the hole on


the gear carrier with the ring nut (6).
NOTE: it may take several attempts to find the right
combination of alignment between teeth and hole of
the gear carrier and the ring nut, to get the locking
tooth to engage.

Enlarge the snap ring (2) to complete the gear carrier (1) assembly.

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96

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

DIFFERENTIAL SUPPORT ASSY

Disassembly
Drain the oil completely from the differential.

Loosen and remove the screws (1).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Separate the axle support (3) from the axle body (2)
using pry bars in slots.

Connect the differential support (3) to a lifting


device to remove it.

Measure the rolling torque MT0 of the bearings (pinion-ring gear system), using wrench 380200269.
Note value MT0 that is necessary for assembling the
bearings.
NOTE: the total rolling torque must be determined
without the pinion seal ring.

It is possible to measure the total starting preload


FT0 of the bearings (pinion-ring gear system) using
a dynamometer whose cord is wound on the end of
the pinion shaft.
Note value FT0 that is necessary for assembling the
bearings.

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98

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Unscrew and remove the screws (4) fastening the


ring nuts (5) and (6).

Unscrew the ring nuts (5) and (6) using tool


380200243.

Remove the differential box (7).


The bearing cups (8) and (9) must be removed
together with the differential box.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Assembly
Assemble the bearing cups (8) and (9) on the differential box (7) with drift 380200218.

Assemble the differential box (7) with bearings onto


the differential support (3).

Tighten both ring nuts (5) and (6) with special tool
380200243, till the backlash is eliminated and the
bearings are slightly preloaded.
Check that the bearings are correctly seated.

Position a magnetic-base dial gauge on the differential support, so that the feeler touches the surface
of one tooth of the ring gear with a 90 angle.

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100

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Lock the pinion and alternately move the ring gear,


and note the backlash between pinion and ring
gear, measured with the dial gauge.
Repeat the operation on two or more points (teeth),
rotating the ring gear, so that to obtain an average
value.
Check if the measured backlash value is within the
requested range:
0.20 0.35 mm (0.008 0.014 in)
Carry out the adjustment by operating on the ring
nuts (5) and (6) with tool 380200243.
Adjust the ring nuts (5) and (6), remembering that:
- if the measured backlash is less than the prescribed tolerance range, unscrew the ring nut (6)
and screw in the ring nut (5) by the same measure;
- if the measured backlash is more than the prescribed tolerance range, unscrew the ring nut (5)
and screw in the ring nut (6) by the same measure.

Repeat the whole sequence of the above mentioned operations until the requested conditions are
reached.

Once the pinion-ring gear backlash has been


adjusted, if the bearings have not been replaced,
measure the total preload FTm of the bearings (pinion-ring gear system), using a dynamometer whose
cord is wound on the end of the pinion shaft.
Use this method only if the bearings are already run
in.
The measured value FTm should be within the following range:
FTm = FT0 (FT0 + 10) N
[FTm = FT0 (FT0 + 2.25) lbf]

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Once the pinion-ring gear backlash has been
adjusted, if the bearings have not been replaced,
measure the total rolling torque MTm of the bearings
(pinion-ring gear system) with a torque meter and
the special wrench 380200269.
The measured value MTm should be the same of
the starting:
MTm = MT0

If the bearings have been replaced, measure the


total preload FTm of the bearings (pinion-ring gear
system), using a dynamometer whose cord is
wound on tool 380200272 inserted on the pinion
splined end.

The total preload FTm is measured by tool


380200272.
The measured value should be within the following
range:
FTm = (FPm + 9.2) (FPm + 13.8) N
[FTm = (FPm + 2.07) (FPm + 3.10) lbf]
where FPm is the actual preload measured on tool
380200272 [gauge diameter Dm = 119.1 mm
(4.69 in)].

Once the pinion-ring gear backlash has been


adjusted, if the bearings have been replaced, measure the total rolling torque MTm of the bearings (pinion-ring gear system) with a torque meter and the
wrench 380200269.

WARNING
All preloads must be measured without seal rings.

101

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102

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

If the measure is not within the requested range,


check the assembly of each component and operate on the ring nuts (5) and (6) of the differential
support:
- if the total preload is less than the given range,
screw on the ring nuts (5) and (6) by the same
measure, keeping the pinion-ring gear backlash
value unchanged;
- if the total preload is less than the given range,
screw on the ring nuts (5) and (6) with the same
measure, keeping the pinion-ring gear backlash
value unchanged.
NOTE: To test the marks of the bevel gear teeth,
paint the ring gear with red lead paint.
The contact mark test should always be carried out
on the ring gear teeth and on both sides.

OK -> Correct contact:


If the bevel gear is well adjusted, the mark on the
teeth surfaces will be regular.
Z -> Excessive contact on the tooth tip:
approach the pinion to the ring bevel gear and then
move the ring bevel gear away from the pinion in
order to adjust the backlash.
X -> Excessive contact at the tooth base:
move the pinion away from the ring bevel gear and
then approach the ring bevel gear to the pinion in
order to adjust the backlash.

Movements to correct:
1 -> move the pinion for type X contact adjustment;
2 -> move the pinion for type Z contact adjustment.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Once all the adjustment operations have been completed, fit the ring nuts (5) and (6) by tightening the
screws (4).
Tighten the screws (4) to a tightening torque of 10 Nm
(7.4 lbfft).

Before matching worked surfaces, make sure they


are perfectly clean, if not, clean with proper detergents.
Apply a film of sealant on the contact surface of the
axle body (2) and the differential support.

Place the differential support (3) on the axle body


(2).

Screw in and tighten the screws (1) to a tightening


torque of 169 Nm (125 lbfft).

103

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104
DIFFERENTIAL LOCKING ASSY

Disassembly
Loosen plug (1) without removing it.

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Push the yoke (2) downwards using the differential
support as a retainer.
Remove the plug (1).

Insert tool 380200259.

Remove the snap ring (5).


Remove tool 380200259.

Remove the bushing (6).

105

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106

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Remove the plug (7).

Remove the springs (4) and (8) and the spacer (9).

Extract the rod assy (3) from the differential support.

Remove the O-ring (10) from the plug (1).


Remove the O-rings (12) and (13) from the piston
(11).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Remove the O-ring (14) from the plug (7).

Assembly
Assemble the O-ring (14) on the plug (7).

Assemble the O-rings (12) and (13) onto the piston


(11).
Assemble the O-ring (10) on the plug (1).
Lubricate the O-rings.

Assemble the rod (3) and the yoke (2) in the differential support.
NOTE: orient the rod (3) with the outer groove (A)
directed towards the yoke (2).

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108

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Insert the springs (4) and (8) and the spacer (9).

Screw in and tighten the plug (1) to the prescribed


torque of 80 Nm (59 lbfft).

Assemble the bushing (6).

Insert tool 380200259 (T1).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Assemble the snap ring (5) with tool 380200260
(T2).
Remove tools 380200259 (T1) and 380200260
(T2).

Push the yoke (2) downwards using the differential


support as a retainer.
Screw in the plug (1) by hand.

Tighten the plug (1) to the prescribed torque of 30 Nm


(22 lbfft).

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110
DIFFERENTIAL

Disassembly
Loosen and remove the screws (1).
Remove the ring gear (2).

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
If necessary, replace the differential bearings.
Remove the bearing cups (3) and (4).
Remove the sleeve (5).

Remove the snap ring (6).

Take out the cover (7) and collect the anti-rotation


pin (8) and the ring (9).

Remove the gear (10).

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112

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Remove the dowels (11).

Take out the pins (12).

Slip off pin (13) until the gear is free (14).

Assemble the gear (14) and the relevant shoulder


ring (15).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Remove the pin (13), the gear (16) and the relevant
shoulder ring (17).

Pull out partially the pins (18) and remove the


spacer (19).

Remove the pins (18), the gears (20) and the relevant shoulder rings (21).

Remove the gear (22) and the relevant ring (23).

113

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114

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Remove the pins (25) locking the differential box


(24).

Assembly
Assemble the O-rings (26) on the pins (25).

Assemble the pins (25) into the differential box (24).

Assemble the gear (22) and the relevant ring (23).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Assemble the gears (20) and the relevant shoulder
rings (21). Insert pins (18) far enough to hold them.
NOTE: orient the pins with the flat side upwards.

Assemble the spacer (19) and the pins (18), make


sure to align the pin holes with those of the differential box (24).

Assemble the gear (16) and the relevant shoulder


ring (17).
Insert pin (13).
Orient the pin (13) with the flat side upwards.

Assemble the gear (14) and the relevant shoulder


ring (15) and insert the pin (13) and make sure to
align the pin hole with that of the differential box
(24).

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116

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Insert the pins (12).


Screw in and tighten the plugs (11) to the prescribed torque of 25 Nm (18.4 lbfft).

Assemble the gear (10).

Apply a thin film of grease on the cover (7) and


assemble the ring (9).

Assemble the anti-rotation pin (8) on the cover (7).


Assemble the cover (7) onto the differential box.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Lock the cover (7) with the snap ring (6).

Assemble the sleeve (5) and make sure that it seats


correctly.
NOTE: to ease the fitting, turn the gear (22).

Assemble the bearing cups (3) and (4) with drift


380200218.
Take care not to mix the bearing cups.

Assemble the ring gear (2).


Apply some sealant and tighten the screws (1) to
the prescribed torque of 190 Nm (140 lbfft).

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118

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

PINION ASSY

Disassembly
Measure the starting preload FP0 of the pinion bearings using a dynamometer whose cord is wound on
the end of the pinion shaft.

WARNING
Note value FP0 that is necessary for assembling the
bearings.

Measure the rolling torque MP0 of the bearings,


using a torque wrench and tool 380200269.

WARNING
Note value MP0 that is necessary for assembling
the bearings.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Lock the differential assy in a vice.
Unscrew the ring nut (1) using special tools
380200268 and 380200269.
NOTE: this operation will irretrievably damage the
lock nut (1).

Remove the ring nut (1) and collect its washer (2).

Tap the shaft end with a soft hammer to remove the


pinion (3).
Collect the washers (4) and (5), the spacer (6) and
the bearing (7).

Remove the bearing cups (7) and (8) from the differential support (9) using a buffer and a hammer.

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120

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Remove the bearing (8) from the pinion (3) by


means of a puller.
Collect the shim (10).

Check the conditions of all pinion parts.


The ring nut (1) and the spacer (6) must be
replaced during assembly.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Assembly
Place the differential support (9) on a workbench.
Insert the bearing cups (7) and (8) with buffer
380200274 and a hammer.

Insert the bearings (7) and (8) into the relevant


seats.
Assemble the false pinion kit 380200273 (a1) and
the ring nut (1).
Tighten without exceeding the ring nut, until the
backlash is eliminated.

Assemble tool 380200187 (T) on the differential box


seats (9).

Use a depth gauge to measure dimension X (distance between bearing axis of differential box and
leaning point of pinion head or bearing base).

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122

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

To adjust the bevel gear measure the distance A


with a depth gauge.
Determine the value X as follows:
X = (A + C) - B mm (in)
where B and C are known values.

In order to determine the value (S) of the shim to be


placed between pinion and bearing, subtract from
the measured value (X) the value (V) engraved on
pinion head (V = prescribed distance).
S = (X - V) mm (in)

Select the shim (10) with value (S) from the range
of available shims, and fit it onto the shaft end under
the pinion head.
NOTE: orient the shim (10) with the chamfered end
towards the pinion head (3).
SHIM RANGE
Shims
2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4
mm (0.098) (0.102) (0.106) (0.110) (0.114) (0.118) (0.122) (0.126) (0.130) (0.134)
(in)
Q.ty

Remove tool 380200187 from the seats (9) of the


differential box.
Disassemble the ring nut, the spacer, the false pinion 380200273 and the bearings (7) and (8).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Once you have chosen the suitable shim (10), insert
it on the pinion shaft with the chamfer against the
pinion head.

Insert the bearing (8) on the pinion (3) using a press


and a buffer 380200220.

Insert the pinion (3) into the differential box (9).


Insert the shims (4) and (5) and the spacer (6).

Check the right assembly sequence.

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124

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Assemble bearing (7) on pinion shaft, using buffer


380200220 and a hammer.

Insert the washer (2) and tighten the new ring nut
(1) on the pinion shaft.
Lubricate the ring nut thread (1) and the supporting
face with the washer (2) with oil.

Screw in the ring nut (1) using the wrench for ring
nut 380200268 and the pinion retainer 380200269.

WARNING
The tightening torque is given by the measure of
the preload on bearings (7) and (8); gradually
tighten the ring nut (1).
NOTE: if the tightening is excessive, the spacer (6)
must be replaced and the procedure repeated.
When you check the preload, strike the pinion end
(3) with a soft hammer to favour the bearings (7)
and (8) settlement.
If the bearings have not been replaced, to measure
the preload FPm of the bearings (7) and (8), use a
dynamometer whose cord is wound on the end of
pinion shaft (3).

WARNING
Use this method only if the bearings are not to be
replaced, otherwise go to next step.
The measured value should be within the following
range:
FPm = FP0 (FP0 + 10) N
[FPm = FP0 (FP0 + 2.25) lbf]

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
If the bearings have not been replaced, it is possible
to measure the rolling torque MPm of the bearings
(7) and (8), using a torque wrench and tool
380200269.
NOTE: use this method only if the bearings are not
replaced.

WARNING
All preloads must be measured without seal rings.
The measured value should be the same of the
starting:
MPm = MP0
If the bearings (7) and (8) are new, to measure the
preload FPm of the bearings, use a dynamometer
whose cord is wound on tool 380200272, inserted
on the end of pinion shaft.

The actual preload FPm is measured on tool


380200272 [gauge diameter Dm = 119.1 mm
(4.69 in)].
The measured value should be within the following
range:
FPm = 33.3 40 N
(FPm = 7.49 8.99 lbf)

WARNING
Values for new bearings.

In case you do not use the prescribed tool to measure the preload, the reference diameter is the diameter of pinion shaft splined end.
The measured value should be within the following
range:
FPm = 100 120 N
(FPm = 22.48 2.02 lbf)

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126

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

If the bearings are new, measure the rolling torque


MPm of the pinion shaft bearings with a torque
meter and the wrench 380200269.

WARNING
All preloads must be measured without seal rings.

The measured value MPm should be within the following range:


MPm = 1.6 2.4 Nm
(M Pm = 1.18 1.77 lbfft)

Once the prescribed preload value is achieved,


caulk the ring nut (1) using a hammer and a punch.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

127

TROUBLESHOOTING
FAULT
Wheel vibrations.

Tyre resistance.

Broken axle shaft.

Difficult steering; the machine


travels in a straight line while
steering.

POSSIBLE CAUSE

ACTION

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Axle faulty.

Inspect and repair the axle.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Axle beam bent.

Replace the axle beam.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Axle faulty.

Inspect and repair.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Axle beam bent.

Replace the axle beam.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Axle faulty.

Inspect and repair.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Axle beam bent.

Replace the axle beam.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Axle faulty.

Inspect and repair.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

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128

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

FAULT

POSSIBLE CAUSE

ACTION

No differential action; jams


during steering.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

Excessive noise.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Axle faulty.

Inspect and repair.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

Incorrect wheel alignment.

Check that the structure and the


bearings are in good conditions.

Incorrect axle part installation.

Check the installation.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Axle faulty.

Inspect and repair.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

Differential locked.

Check the installation.

Excessive steering angle.

Reduce the steering angle.

Incorrect wheel alignment.

Check that the structure and the


bearings are in good conditions.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

Damaged or worn axle parts.

Replace the damaged axle parts.

Incorrect axle part installation.

Check the installation.

Incorrect adjustment of the bevel


gear set.

Adjust the bevel gear set.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Axle faulty.

Inspect and repair.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

Excessive wear of the tyre.

Friction noise.

Vibrations during travel.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

FAULT
Outer tip of ring gear tooth is
broken.

POSSIBLE CAUSE
Excessive gear load compared to
the one expected.

Crash load.

Replace bevel gear.

Gear adjustment wrong (insufficient


backlash).

Follow carefully recommended


adjustment operations of ring gear
and pinion backlash and of tooth
marks detection.

Insufficient lubrication.

Replace bevel gear.

Contaminated lubricant.

Replace worn out pinion bearings


that cause an incorrect pinion axle
backlash and wrong contact
between pinion and ring gear.

Incorrect lubrication or poor


additives.
Worn out pinion bearings that cause
an incorrect pinion axle backlash
and wrong contact between pinion
and ring gear.
Ring gear teeth or pinion teeth
overheated. Check if gear
teeth have faded.

Replace bevel gear.

Pinion nut loose.

Pinion nut loose.


Ring gear teeth or pinion teeth
damaged or scored.

ACTION

Follow carefully recommended


adjustment operations of ring gear
and pinion backlash and of tooth
marks detection.

Gear adjustment wrong (excessive


backlash).

Inner tip of ring gear tooth is


broken.

129

Prolonged operation at high


temperature.
Unsuitable lubricant.
Oil level low.

Use proper lubricant, fill up to right


level and replace at recommended
intervals.
Replace bevel gear.
Use proper lubricant, fill up to right
level and replace at recommended
intervals.

Contaminated lubricant.
Drive pinion teeth pitted.

Bent axle beam body.

Extremely intense use.

Replace bevel gear.

Insufficient lubrication.

Use proper lubricant, fill up to right


level and replace at recommended
intervals.

Machine overloaded.

Replace the axle beam body.

Damaged vehicle.
Crash load.
Bearings worn or pitted.

Insufficient lubrication.

Replace the bearings.

Contaminated lubricant.

Use proper lubricant, fill up to right


level and replace at recommended
intervals.

Extremely intense use.


Normal wear.
Pinion nut loose.

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130

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

FAULT
Gaskets leak oil.

POSSIBLE CAUSE

ACTION

Prolonged operation at excessive oil


temperature.

Replace the gasket and matching


surface if damaged.

Oil gasket wrongly installed.

Use proper lubricant, fill up to right


level and replace at recommended
intervals.

Gasket edge cut or scored.


Contaminated lubricant.
Excessive wear of input
flange spline.

Intense use.

Replace the flange.

Pinion nut loose.

Check that the pinion spline is not


excessively worn out.

Pinion axial backlash.

Replace bevel gear, if necessary.


Pinion gear tooth fatigue
break.
Check if the fracture line is
wavy or clearly delineated
(stop line).

Intense use.

Break of pinion teeth and ring


gear teeth.

Crash load of differential


components.

Check and/or replace other


differential components.

Splines of planetary gear worn


(excessive backlash).

Intense use.

Replace differential gear assy.

Worn or scored surfaces of


the scraper thrust washer.

Insufficient lubrication.

Continuous overload.

Replace axle beam, if necessary.

Lubrication wrong.
Contaminated lubricant.

Inner diameter of pinion


tapered roller bearing worn
out.

Replace bevel gear.

Replace all scratched washers and


those with a 0.1 mm (0.004 in)
thickness lower than the new ones.
Use proper lubricant, fill up to right
level and replace at recommended
intervals.

Intense use.

Replace bearing.

Excessive pinion end play.

Check pinion axial backlash.

Unsuitable lubrication.

Use proper lubricant, fill up to right


level and replace at recommended
intervals.

Contaminated lubricant.
Broken or bent axle beam.

Intense vehicle operation, overload.

Replace the axle beam.

Broken axle beam at wheel


flange.

Loose wheel support.

Replace the axle beam.

Bent axle beam body.

Check bending of axle beam body.


Ensure that wheel support is not
worn out or wrongly adjusted.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

FAULT
Noise during travel.

Noise during idling.

Intermittent noise.

Constant noise.

POSSIBLE CAUSE

131

ACTION

Excessive backlash between ring


gear and pinion.

Adjust the backlash between the ring


gear and the pinion.

Pinion and ring gear worn.

Replace pinion and ring gear.

Worn-out pinion bearings

Replace pinion bearings.

Loose pinion bearings.

Adjust pinion bearings.

Excessive pinion end play.

Adjust the axial play of the pinion.

Differential bearings worn out.

Replace differential bearings.

Loose differential bearings.

Adjust the bearings.

Ring gear excessively off-set.

Replace the ring gear.

Low lubricant level.

Restore the level.

Poor or wrong lubricant grade.

Change lubricant.

Axle beam bent.

Replace the axle beam.

Noises emitted by the axle when the


vehicle is moving are usually heard
during idling, even though they are
not too loud.

Adjust the backlash between the ring


gear and the pinion or replace pinion
and ring gear.

Wrong backlash between pinion and


ring gear (the noise heard while
decelerating disappears when speed
is increased).

Adjust the play between the pinion


and the ring gear.

Pinion spline or input flange worn.

Replace the pinion.

Damaged ring gear.

Replace bevel gear.

Differential box screws loose.

Tighten the screws to torque.

Ring gear teeth or pinion teeth


damaged.

Replace bevel gear.

Worn bearings.

Replace the bearings.

Pinion splines worn.

Replace the pinion.

Axle beam bent.

Replace the axle beam.

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132

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

FAULT
Noise while bending.

POSSIBLE CAUSE

ACTION

Differential planetary gears


damaged.

Replace the planetary gears.

Differential box and/or pins worn.

Replace the differential box.

Worn differential thrust washers.

Replace the thrust washers.

Worn-out axle beam splines

Replace the axle beam.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

133

REPAIR TIMES
The times are referred to average values of maintenance performed by skilled personnel in workshops
equipped with all necessary fixtures for a proper
execution of the required works.
The repair and/or replacement times are indicated in
minutes.
We assume that the axle has already been removed
from the machine.
ASSY
Connection flange

OPERATION

TIME (minutes)

Pinion sealing ring

30

Replacement / overhauling of wheel flange (x 1)

240

Replacement of wheel hub with ring gear (x 1)

240

Replacement of bearings and wheel hub seal ring (x 1)

210

O-ring replacement (x 1)

30

Gear carrier assy replacement (x 1)

50

Replacement of discs and counterdiscs and zero setting of


self-adjust (for each side)

40

Overhauling / replacement of brake piston seals (x 1)

90

Overhauling / replacement of brake cylinder (for each side)

105

Self-adjust replacement (for each side)

60

Axle shaft replacement (x 1)

30

Differential bearing replacement

180

Bevel gear / differential replacement

150

Differential

Differential gear replacement

240

Differential locking

O-ring / piston replacement

30

Pinion

Pinion bearings replacement

180

Wheel hub

Brake

Differential support

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134

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

SPECIAL TOOLS
PN CNH

DESCRIPTION

USE

380002211

Handle

To be used with the various pushers and buffers

380200268

Wrench

Screw / unscrew the pinion ring nut

380200187

False differential box

Differential and pinion assembly

380002222

Buffer

Wheel hub seal ring and bearing assembly

380200269

Wrench

Measure of pinion rolling torque

380200211

Buffer

Wheel hub seal ring and bearing assembly

380200218

Buffer

Assembly of bearing cups into the differential box

380200220

Buffer

Assembly of pinion bearings

380200272

Tool

Measure of pinion preload

380200273

False pinion

Differential and pinion assembly

380200274

Buffer

Assembly of bearings into the differential box

380200243

Wrench

Screw / unscrew the pinion ring nuts

380200244

Wrench

Screw / unscrew the wheel hub ring nuts

380200245

Buffer

Assembly / disassembly of self-adjust kit

380200276

Buffer

Assembly of seal ring into front flange

380200254

Buffer

Disassembly of bearings and wheel hub seal ring

380200277

Buffer

Assembly of protection onto front flange

380200255

Buffer

Assembly of bearings into gears

380200259

Plunger

Assembly / disassembly of differential locking yoke

380200260

Guide

Assembly / disassembly of differential locking yoke

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

4WS REAR AXLE


(695ST)
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

135

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136

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Manufacturer
Model
Maximum steering angle
Toe-in

CARRARO
26.32M
21 0-1
A1

Bevel gear reduction ratio

2.750/1

Epicyclic gear ratio

6.923/1

Total reduction ratio

19.038/1

Input rotation

clockwise

Dry weight

538 kg
(1186 lb)

Differential type

Limited slip or open

Bevel gear set backlash

0.15 0.30 mm
(0.006 0.012 in)

Pinion bearing preload (*)


(measured on = 34.8 mm without seal ring)

FP = 92 138 N
(FP = 21 31 lbf)

Ring gear-pinion bearing total preload (*)


(measured on = 34.8 mm without seal ring)

FT = (FP + 33.4) (FP + 50.2) N


[FT = (FP + 7.5) (FP + 11.29) lbf]

Pinion bearing rolling torque (*) measured without seal ring


Total pinion-ring gear bearing rolling torque (*) measured without
seal ring
(*) Only for new bearings

MP = 1.6 2.4 Nm
(MP = 1.18 1.77 lbfft)
MT = (MP + 0.58) (MP + 0.87) Nm
[MT = (MP + 0.43) (MP + 0.64) lbfft]

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

137

SERVICE BRAKE

Brake type
Brake actuation

Wet disc brake


Hydraulic

Brake operating temperature

-25 C 150 C (-13 5.9 F)

Maximum operating pressure

Mineral oil

Oil displacement for brake actuation (each side)

Standard brake discs


A. New counterdisc thickness = 5.0 0.05 mm
(0.20 0.002 in)
B. New friction disc thickness = 4.8 0.05 mm
(0.19 0.002 in)
Worn disc minimum thickness = 4.0 mm (0.16 in)
C. New counterdisc thickness = 8.9 9.0 mm
(0.350 0.354 in)

Limited slip brake discs


A. New counterdisc thickness = 1.3 0.03 mm
(0.051 0.001 in)
B. New friction disc thickness = 1.6 0.03 mm
(0.063 0.001 in)
Worn disc minimum thickness = 1.4 mm (0.055 in)
C. New friction disc thickness = 2.7 0.05 mm
(0.106 0.002 in)
Worn disc minimum thickness = 2.6 0.05 mm
(0.102 0.002 in)

14 cm3 (0.85 in3)

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138

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

LUBRICATION AND GREASING

Oil capacity
Oil type

1. Level and fill plug for differential oil


2. Differential oil drain plug
3. Oil breather
4. Filler, level and drain plug for reduction gear oil
5. Greasing points

Differential

11 litres (2.42 gal)

Final drive (each)

1.3 litres (0.28 gal)

Akcela Transaxle fluid 80W -140

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Before draining the oil from the axle body, use the
breather (3) to release any possible internal pressure.

WARNING
Risk of violent oil ejection.

To drain the oil from the central body remove the


level plug (1) and the drain plug (2).

WARNING
Risk of violent oil ejection.
Drain all oil.
Clean, screw and tighten the plug (2).
Fill through the hole of the plug (1).
Check the level and, if necessary, top up.
Clean, screw and tighten the plug (1).
Before draining the oil from the reduction gear, turn
the gear so that the plug (4) is in the highest possible position [position A].
Partially unscrew the plug (4) to release any possible internal pressure.
Turn the plug (4) and bring it to its lowest position
[position B].
Remove the plug and drain the oil.
Rotate again to bring the hole of the plug (4) to
check and oil filling position (position C).
Carry out the filling.
Clean, screw in and tighten the plug (4).

139

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140

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

REMOVAL FROM MACHINE


Move the machine to a level and firm ground, away
from any soft ground, excavations and poorly
shored cavity.
Lower the loader attachment to the ground.
Use the locking pin (if provided) to lock the loader
attachment controls.
Lower the backhoe attachment to the ground.
Place the direction-of-travel lever and gearshift lever
in neutral position.
Immobilize the machine by means of the parking
brake.
Lower the stabilizers until the rear wheels are
slightly lifted from the ground (they are free from
machine weight).
Stop the engine and remove the starter key.
Release the hydraulic pressure by operating the
control levers in all directions.
On hydraulically controlled machines, turn the key to
ON and release the pressure by moving the hydraulic control levers in all directions.
Disconnect the electric system by disconnecting the
battery master switch.
Fasten the rear axle to a lifting hoist or to a support.
Now it is possible to carry out the disassembly of
the 2 rear tyres by loosening and removing the
relevant fixing nuts (9) [tightening torque = 700 Nm
(516 lbfft)].
Disconnect the cardan joint (6) by unlocking and
removing the screws (7) and the bracket (8).
Unscrew and remove the screws (2) with the nuts
(4) and the washers (3) and (5) [tightening torque
= 830 970 Nm (612 715 lbfft)].
Remove the rear axle (1).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
Some of the following pictures could not exactly
show your axle, but the procedure is correct.
TIGHTENING TORQUES AND APPLICATION OF SEALANTS / ADHESIVES
B. Loctite 270
C. Loctite 638

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142

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
GREASE POINTS
Tecnolube POLYMER 400 grease
grease AGIP GR MU EP2

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144

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

FRONT FLANGE

Disassembly
Drain oil from the central body.
Remove the snap ring (1) from the pinion shaft (6)
and slip off the front flange (2).

Remove the seal ring (5).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Remove the O-ring (3).
Collect the washer (4).

Assembly
Insert the washer (4) into the pinion shaft.
Assemble and lubricate the new O-ring (3).

Assemble the new seal ring (5) with tool 380200267


and a hammer.

Assemble the seal ring (5) by means of tool


380200267 (T1).

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146
Assemble the front flange (2).
Assemble the snap ring (1).
Refill the central body with oil.

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
STEERING CYLINDER

Disassembly
Loosen and remove the nuts (1) and (14) and slip
off the tie rods (3) and (12) from the swivel housings
(2) and (13).

WARNING
Do not damage the end of the threaded pins.
If necessary, replace the nuts (1) and (14).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Remove the clamps (15) and (18).


Disassemble the sensor (17), the connector bracket
(16) and the 2 clamps (15) and (18).

Remove the tie rods (3) and (12) from the cylinder
rods by loosening the nuts (4) and (11), then check
their conditions.
Remove the ball joints (5) and (9).

Loosen and remove the 2 screws (6) and the 2


screws (9).
Take out the bushings (7) by means of a puller.

Remove the steering cylinder (8).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Remove the snap rings (19) and (27) from the
steering cylinder (8).

Push the two cylinder heads (21) and (25) inside


the cylinder.

Collect the 2 snap rings (20) and (26).

Pull out the rod (23) as necessary to collect the cylinder head (25).
NOTE: do not extract the piston from the cylinder
(22).

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150

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Push the rod (23) in the opposite direction and


remove it from the cylinder (22) with the head (21).
Extract the head (21) from the rod (23).

Remove and, if necessary, replace all different seal


rings from the rod (23) and from the 2 cylinder
heads (21) and (25).

Assembly
Assemble the seal rings (24) onto the 2 heads (21)
and (25).

Assemble the seal rings (24) onto rod (23).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Check the proper assembly of the seal rings.

Assemble the 2 heads (21) and (25) with rod (23).

The 2 heads (21) and (25) must be positioned correctly.

Insert the pre-assembled assy, consisting in the rod


(23) and the two cylinder heads (21) and (25) into
the cylinder body (22).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Push the cylinder heads (21) and (25) into the cylinder body (22).

Insert the 2 snap rings (20) and (26) into the relevant seats in the cylinder body (22).

Pull outward the rod (23) on each side pulling the


cylinder heads (21) and (25) to the end of the
stroke.

Assemble the 2 snap rings (19) and (27) on the


heads (21) and (25).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Check the correct assembly of the heads and snap
rings.

Assemble the steering cylinder (8).

Cool the bushes (7) down to a temperature


lower than -100 C (-148 F) with liquid nitrogen.
Assemble the bushes (7) by means of a punch and
a hammer.

Screw in and tighten the screws (6) to a tightening


torque of 220 Nm (162 lbfft).
Screw in and tighten the screws (9) to a tightening
torque of 660 Nm (487 lbfft).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Screw in the ball joints (5) and (10) to the ends of the
rod to the prescribed torque of 300 Nm (221 lbfft).
Screw in the nuts (4) and (11) and the tie rods (3)
and (12) to the ball joints (5) and (10).

Align the swivel housing (2) with the axle.


Screw the tie rod (3) so that its ball joint can be
inserted into the swivel housing (2) arm.
It is important to unscrew the nut (4) to carry out this
operation.
Repeat the mentioned operations on the other side.

Insert the ball joint of the tie rod (12) into its seat on
the swivel housing (13).
Screw in and tighten the nut (14) to a tightening
torque of 260 Nm (192 lbfft).
Repeat the mentioned operations on the other side.

Screw in the nuts (4) and (11) of the tie rods (3) and
(12) only after the toe-in adjustment has been carried out.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Assemble the sensor (17) and the connector
bracket (16) with the clamps (15) and (18) to the
steering cylinder (8).

Tighten the clamps (7) and (8) only after the toe-in
adjustment has been carried out.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

STEERING SENSOR ADJUSTMENT

WARNING
The steering sensor adjustment operations can be
carried out only after toe-in adjustment has been
carried out.
Connect, by means of the relevant connector (C),
the steering sensor (17) to a control device that can
detect the presence of voltage generated by the
sensor. The tool is usually provided with a led that
turns on only when voltage is present.

Respect the steering sensor electric specifications


and the connection diagram.
It is also possible to use a common tester or to connect the steering sensor to the vehicle control
panel.
The picture shows the connector (C) diagram.

Align the wheels to rectilinear driving direction.


Move the steering sensor (17) and relative clamps
to a side of the cylinder.
Fix the clamps (15) and (18) so that they can slide
on the cylinder surface.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Slide horizontally the steering sensor till the led is
on (position A) and measure XA dimension,
between the differential support and the rear part of
the sensor shown in the figure.

The red led (L) of the sensor (17) is located as illustrated.

Slide horizontally the steering sensor till the led is


on (position B) and measure XB dimension,
between the differential support and the rear part of
the sensor.

Move the steering sensor backwards by a distance


of (XB - XA)/2 as shown in the figure [maximum tolerance 1.0 mm (0.04 in)].

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Before tightening the hose clamps, check the right


position of the steering sensor (17) in the appropriate seat fixed on the steering cylinder (the steering
sensor must be oriented as shown in the figure).

Position the fastening screws (S) of the 2 hose


clamps (15) and (18).
Tighten the fastening screws (S) to lock the sensor
(17).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
REDUCTION GEAR

Disassembly
Unscrew the plug (1) and drain oil from the reduction gear.

Loosen and remove the 2 fixing screws (2).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Remove the gear carrier (3) from the wheel hub


(10) and remove the relevant O-ring (9).
Position the gear carrier (3) on a workbench and
check its wear conditions.

To carry out any possible replacement of the gears


(6):
- loosen and remove the screw (8) of each gear (6);
- remove the washer (7);
- take out the gears (6) from the pins;
- collect the bearings (5) and check their conditions;
- collect the thrust washer (4).

Assembly
Collect all reduction gear parts: the gear carrier, the
thrust washers (4), the gears (6) with the relevant
needle bearings (5), the washers (7) and the
screws (8).
With new gears (6), it is advisable to assemble new
bearings (5).

Position the planetary gears carrier (3) on a workbench.


Insert the needles (5) into the gears (6).
Grease the needles (5).
Insert the pin of the planetary gear carrier (3), the
thrust washer (4) and the gears (6) with needles.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Assemble the washers (7) into the pins of the planetary gear carrier (3).
Screw in and tighten the screws (8) to a tightening
torque of 79 Nm (58 lbfft).

Install the new O-ring (9) on the wheel hub (10).

Assemble the reduction gear assy on the wheel


hub.
Screw in and tighten the screws (2) to a tightening
torque of 25 Nm (18.4 lbfft).

Refill the epicyclic reduction gear with oil.


Screw in and tighten the plug (1) to the tightening
torque of 60 Nm (44 lbfft).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

WHEEL HUB

Disassembly
Insert a lever between the swivel housing and the
axle body and fit it into the double joint.
With the lever push the double joint in the direction
of the wheel hub to allow the snap ring removal.
Do not damage the double joint.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Remove the snap ring (1).
Collect the washer (2) and the thrust washer (3).

Loosen and remove the screws (5).

In order to remove the ring gear carrier hub from its


housing, screw two of the just removed screws (5)
in the threaded extraction holes.
Remove the ring gear carrier hub (7) together with
the ring gear (4).

Remove the snap ring (8) and separate the ring


gear carrier hub (7) from the ring gear (4).
Only if necessary, remove the centering bushes (6)
from the ring gear carrier by means of tool
380200192 and a hammer.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Remove the wheel hub (11) from the swivel housing


(14) and collect the bearing (9).

Slide out the wheel hub (11), using levers and a


hammer to facilitate the operation.

Position the wheel hub (11) on a flat surface and


remove the seal ring (13).
Take out the bearing cups (9) and (12) with a drift
and a hammer.

Remove the bearing (12) from the swivel housing


(14) by means of a puller.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Unscrew and remove the screws (15) and (19) from
the upper (16) and lower (18) king pins.

DANGER
Before removing the king pins (16) and (18), secure
the swivel housing (14) with a rope or a hoist or any
other supporting device to guarantee operators
safety.
Remove the king pins (16) and (18).

Loosen and remove the swivel housing (14).

Position the swivel housing (14) on a flat surface


and take the seal ring (25) out with a puller.
Rivet the swivel housing and take out the bronze
bushing (24), using a buffer and a hammer.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Assembly
If previously removed, assemble the steering stop
screw (23), the nut (22) and the bushings (20) and
(21).
Do not tighten the nut (22) until the steering angle
adjustment has been carried out.

Insert the bronze bushing (24) into the swivel housing (14) by means of tool 380000024 and a hammer.
Assemble the new seal ring (25) into the swivel
housing (14) with tool 380200266 and a hammer.

If the ball bearing (17) has been previously


removed, reassemble it to the lower king pin (18) by
means of tool 380200195 and a press.
Grease the king pin seats (16) and (18).
Position the belleville washers (27) and (28) on the
king pin seats (16) and (18).

Secure the swivel housing (14) with a rope to a


hoist or any other supporting device.
Protect the splined end of the axle shaft by winding
it with protective tape, to avoid damaging the seal
ring.
Assemble the swivel housing (14) to the axle and,
after assembly, completely remove the protective
tape.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Assemble the lower (18) and the upper (16) king
pins.
Screw in and tighten the screws (19) and (15) to the
prescribed torque of 300 Nm (221 lbfft).
Make sure that the belleville washers stay in the
correct position.

The special operation Set Right of the bearings


does not require preload or backlash adjustment.
Anyway, before assembling new components,
check the indicated dimensions.
A = 10.090 10.140 mm (0.397 0.399 in)
B = 64.275 64.325 mm (2.530 2.532 in)
C = 27.000 27.100 mm (1.063 1.066 in)

Insert the bearing cups (9) and (12) into the wheel
hub (11) by means of tool 380200211 and a press.
Insert the new seal ring (13) into the wheel hub (11)
using tool 380200210 and a hammer.
Lubricate the seal ring (13).

Assemble the bearing (12) in the swivel housing


(14).
Assemble the wheel hub (11) on the swivel housing
(14) and fit the bearing (9).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Position the ring gear hub (7) on a workbench and


insert the bushings (6) at surface level with tool
380200192.
At least two bushings (diametrically-opposed)
should be set slightly higher than the carrier surface
level to be used as dowel pins.

Preassemble the ring gear carrier hub (7) and the


ring gear (4) with the snap ring (8).

Assemble the ring gear carrier hub assy on the


wheel hub using the two projecting bushings as
dowel pins.
Screw the relevant screws in order to put in contact
the assembly with the wheel hub.

Assemble all bushings (6) up to stroke end with tool


380200192 and a hammer.
Screw in and tighten the screws (5) to a tightening
torque of 230 Nm (170 lbfft).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Insert a lever between the swivel housing (14) and
the axle body and fit it into the double joint.
With the lever push the double joint in the direction
of the wheel hub to allow the snap ring introduction.

Insert the thrust washer (3) and the washer (2).


Assemble the snap ring (1) at the end of the splined
hub.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

BEAM ASSY

Disassembly
Drain axle oil completely.
Loosen and remove the two screws (13).
Unscrew the nuts (11) of the oil recirculation line
(12).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Remove the oil recirculation line (12).

If necessary, remove the cover (1) from the double


joint (2).

Remove the double joint (2).

Put alignment marks on the beam trumpets, on the


brake cylinders and on the axle central body, in
order to identify the coupling parts during reassembly.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Position the axle on supports suitable to hold it or


secure the assemblies separately to a lifting device.
Loosen and remove the screws (7).

Remove the beam (8) and the O-ring (9).


If the beam is removed, the brake assy is released.

Extract the seal ring (3).


If necessary, remove the bushing (4), paying attention not to damage its seat.

If necessary, remove the bushing (5) and the race


(6) of the ball joint from the seats using a puller.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Assembly
Cool down the bushing (5) and the cup (6) to a temperature lower than -100 C (-148 F) with liquid
nitrogen.
Assemble the bushing (5) in the upper king pin seat
with buffer 380200196 and a hammer.
Assemble the cup (6) on the lower king pin seat
with buffer 380200196 and a hammer.

Assemble the bushing (4) by means of tool


380200227 and a hammer.
Assemble a new seal ring (3) by means of tool
380002226.
Lubricate the seal ring.

Correctly orient the seal ring (3).

Assemble the new O-ring (9) on the beam (8).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Support the assemblies properly as already pointed


out for disassembly phase.
Assemble the beam (8) on the central axle body
(10) respecting the reference marks applied during
disassembly.

Screw in and tighten the screws (7) to a tightening


torque of 320 Nm (236 lbfft).

Tighten the screw (7) respecting the sequence


shown.

Insert the double joint (2).


Be careful not to damage the seal ring.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Assemble the oil recirculation line (12).

Screw in and tighten the screws (13) to a tightening


torque of 23 Nm (17 lbfft).
Tighten the nuts (11) to the tightening torque of
60 Nm (44 lbfft).

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176
BRAKES

Disassembly
Remove the beam and the axle shaft.

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Remove the brake components: the counterdiscs
(11), discs (12), the brake disc carrier hub (10), the
brake disc (9) and the brake counterdisc (8).
NOTE: mark the position of the hub for assembly.

Remove the brake piston return kit (7) and the selfadjust kit (6).

Take out the brake piston (4) from the brake cylinder (1).
If necessary, remove the plug (14) and the relevant
O-ring (13).

Blow some air through the oil supply hole for the
brake to eject the piston (4), using the minimum
pressure required.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Remove the O-rings (2) and (3) from the piston (4).

If necessary, remove the bushings (5) of the selfadjust kit from the piston (4), using tool 380200194
and a hammer.

Assembly
Collect the piston (4).
Push the washers (5) into the self-adjust seats
using tool 380200194 and a hammer, till they are
aligned with the piston supporting inner surface.

The bushings (5) must be aligned with the inner


supporting surface of the piston (4).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Assemble the new O-rings (2) and (3) into the piston (4).
Lubricate the O-rings.

Insert the piston (4) into the brake cylinder (1).

Place tool 380200238 onto the piston (4).


Place the piston (4) with one slot aligned with the oil
recirculation hole or with the brake inspection hole
in the brake cylinder (1).
Use a prybar to insert the piston into the brake
flange with a light pressure.

Insert the big spring, the small spring and the bushing of the piston return kit (7) into the bigger hole of
the piston.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Assemble the cover and the screw of the piston


return kit (7).

Assemble the bushing, the washer and the screw of


the self-adjust kit (6).

Screw and tighten the screws of the 2 kits.

If you are to replace the brake discs, you have to


restore the initial piston position.
Remove the connections, the breathers and possible plugs from the brake oil inlets.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Bring the piston (4) to stroke end, using tool
380200238 and a hammer.
Place the tool carefully so as not to damage the piston.

Check that the brake discs and the counterdiscs do


not show any sign of burning (otherwise replace
them).
If new brake discs are installed, soak them into prescribed oil before assembly.

Reassemble all elements of the brake assy: the


brake counterdisc (8), the brake disc (9), the brake
disc carrier hub (10), the counterdiscs (11) and the
discs (12).

Orient the teeth correctly i.e. to the outside of the


brake disc carrier hub (10).

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182

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Reassemble the beam with the axle central body.

BRAKE DISC REPLACEMENT


Remove the wheel hub assy from the axle.

Remove the beam.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Remove the brake components: the counterdiscs
(11), discs (12), the brake disc carrier hub (10), the
brake disc (9) and the brake counterdisc (8).

Check that the brake discs and the counterdiscs do


not show any sign of burning (otherwise replace
them).
If new brake discs are installed, soak them into prescribed oil before assembly.

If you are to replace the brake discs, you have to


restore the initial piston position.
Remove the connections, the breathers and possible plugs from the brake oil inlets.

Bring the brake piston (4) to stroke end, using tool


380200238 and a hammer.
place the special tool carefully so as not to damage
the piston.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Reassemble all brake elements: the brake counterdisc (8), the brake disc (9), the brake disc carrier
hub (10), the counterdiscs (11) and the discs (12).

Orient the teeth correctly i.e. to the outside of the


brake disc carrier hub (10).

Reassemble the beam with the axle central body.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
DIFFERENTIAL SUPPORT

Disassembly
Remove the brake.

Measure the starting preload FT0 of the bearings


(pinion-ring gear system) using a dynamometer
whose cord is wound on the end of the pinion shaft.
Note value FT0 that is necessary for assembling the
bearings.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Ensure the brake cylinder (6) to a lifting device


using its holes.
Loosen and remove the screw (7).

Remove the brake cylinder (6).


This operation releases the differential assy.
Disassemble the brake cylinder (6) and remove the
relevant O-ring (4).
Remove the O-ring (2).

Remove the differential (3) from the central body


(1).

Unscrew and remove the screw (10) and the ring


nut retainer (9) from the brake cylinder (6).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Unscrew and remove the ring nut (8) from the brake
cylinder (6) using tool 380200209.

Pull out the bearing cup (5) from the brake cylinder
(6) using a buffer and a hammer.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Assembly
Before assembling the differential, install the pinion
assy.

Lubricate and insert the new O-ring (2) on each side


of the central body (1).

Place the brake cylinder (6) on a flat surface and


force the bearing cup (5) using buffer 380200218.

Measure the outer diameter C of the ring gear


installed on the differential.
Calculate the value:
R = C/2 mm (in)
NOTE: this datum is required for the backlash
adjustment between pinion and ring gear.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Lubricate or assemble a new O-ring (4) into the seat
of the 2 brake cylinders (6).

Assemble the left brake cylinder into the central


body (1).
Check that the reference marks applied during disassembly between the brake cylinders and the central body coincide.
Insert the differential (3) into the central body (1).
The ring gear must be placed on the left side.

Assemble the right brake cylinder (6) into the central body (1).
Check that the reference marks applied during disassembly between the brake cylinders and the central body coincide.

Tighten screw (7) in place (A).


Tighten the screw to the prescribed torque of 80 Nm
(59 lbfft).
Screw in the 2 screws M16 x 130 (S) in place (B)
and tighten them to the 80 Nm (59 lbfft) torque.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Tighten both ring nuts (8) with tool 380200209, till


the backlash is eliminated and slightly preload the
differential bearings.

Assemble tool 380200222 on the hole of the differential box.


Place a dial gauge and a feeler in contact and to
90 with respect to the surface of the tool and in correspondence of value R.

Shift manually and alternately tool 380200222


bracket installed on the hole of the differential box.
Determine and note the backlash between pinion
and ring gear.
Turn the ring gear 1/4 of turn, determine and note
the backlash between pinion and ring gear.
Repeat this operation to get several values of the
backlash.
Check if the average backlash is within the
requested range:
0.15 0.30 mm (0.006 0.012 in)
If the backlash is not within the requested range,
carry out adjustment as follows.
Adjust the ring nuts (8) with tool 380200209.
Unscrew and tighten both ring nuts of about 30
each, then check the backlash.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Adjust the ring nuts (8) remembering that:
- if the measured backlash is higher than the prescribed tolerance range, tighten the ring nut on
the opposite side of the ring gear and loosen the
opposite ring nut by the same measure (A);
- if the measured backlash is lower than the prescribed tolerance range, tighten the ring nut on
the ring gear side and loosen the opposite ring nut
by the same measure (B).

After pinion-ring gear backlash adjustment, check


that there is a minimum preload on the differential
box bearings.
Repeat the whole sequence of the above mentioned operations until the indicated conditions are
reached.

Once the pinion-ring gear backlash has been


adjusted, if the bearings have not been replaced,
measure the total preload FTm of the bearings (pinion-ring gear system), using a dynamometer whose
cord is wound on the end of the pinion shaft.
Use this method only if the bearings are already run
in.
The measured value FTm should be within the following range:
FTm = FT0 (FT0 + 10) N
[FTm = FT0 (FT0 + 2.25) lbf]
If the bearings have been replaced, measure the
total preload FTm of the bearings (pinion-ring gear
system), using a dynamometer whose cord is
wound on tool 380200237 inserted on the pinion
splined end.

WARNING
All preloads must be measured without seal ring.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

The total preload FTm is measured by tool


380200237.
The measured value should be within the following
range:
FTm = (FPm + 11.1) (FPm + 16.7) N
[FTm = (FPm + 2.5) (FPm + 3.7) lbf]
where FPm is the actual preload measured on tool
380200237 [gauge diameter Dm = 104.4 mm (4.11 in)].

NOTE: if you do not use the prescribed tool to


measure the total preload FTm, the reference diameter is the diameter of pinion shaft splined end.
The measured value should be within the following
range:
FTm = (FPm + 33.4) (FPm + 50.2) N
[FTm = (FPm + 7.5) (FPm + 11) lbf]
where FPm is the preload of the pinion bearings.

Once the pinion-ring gear backlash has been


adjusted, if the bearings have been replaced, measure the total rolling torque MT of the bearings (pinion-ring gear system) with a torque meter and the
wrench 380000020.

WARNING
All preloads must be measured without seal rings.

The total torque MT should be within the following


range:
MTm = (MP + 0.58) (MP + 0.87) Nm
[MTm = (MP + 0.43) (MP + 0.64) lbfft]
where MP is the preload of the pinion bearings.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
If the measure is not within the requested range,
check the assembly of each single component and
operate on the ring nuts of the differential support:
- if the total preload is less than the given range,
screw on the adjusting ring nuts by the same
measure, keeping the pinion-ring gear backlash
value (A) unchanged;
- if the total preload is more than the given range,
unscrew the adjusting ring nuts by the same
measure, keeping the pinion-ring gear backlash
value (B) unchanged.

Once all adjustment operations have been performed, assemble the ring nut retainers (9), fastening them with the relevant screws (10).
Tighten the screws (10) to a tightening torque of
13 Nm (9 lbfft).
Turn the ring nuts (8) as little as possible to allow
their assembly.

Remove the 2 additional screws M16 x 130 (S) from


both sides.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

NON-SELF-LOCKING DIFFERENTIAL

Disassembly
Lock the differential with a clamp.
Loosen the screws (1) and remove the ring gear (2).
This operation releases also the two half boxes of
the differential.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Disassemble the 2 half boxes (4) and (12).
Apply reference marks on the 2 half boxes before
separating them.
Disassemble all parts and check their operating status and wear condition.

Take out the bearings (3) and (13) from the half
boxes (4) and (12) using a puller.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Assembly
Assemble the bearings (3) and (13) on the half
boxes (4) and (12), using tool 380200188 and a
hammer.

Place the half boxes (4) and (12) on a workbench


and carefully assemble the inner elements: the differential locking counterdiscs (5), the gear (6), the 2
pins (7), the planetary gears (8) and the thrust
washers (9).
Join the two half boxes (4) and (12), aligning the
reference marks made during disassembly.

Before matching worked surfaces, make sure they


are perfectly clean, if not, clean with proper detergents.
Place the ring gear (2) on the differential box.
Apply sealant on the screw thread (1).
Screw in and tighten the screws (1) to a tightening
torque of 155 Nm (114 lbfft).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
LIMITED SLIP DIFFERENTIAL

Disassembly
Lock the differential with a clamp.
Loosen the screws (1) and remove the ring gear (2).
This operation releases also the two half boxes of
the differential.

Disassemble the 2 half boxes (4) and (12).


Apply reference marks on the 2 half boxes before
separating them.
Disassemble all parts and check their operating status and wear condition.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Take out the bearings (3) and (13) from the half
boxes (4) and (12) using a puller.

If necessary, take out the bushings (14) from the


half boxes (4) and (12).
Do not damage the bushing seats.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Assembly
If previously removed, insert bushings (14) into the
half boxes (4) and (12) using tool 380200205 and a
hammer.

Assemble the bearings (3) and (13) on the half


boxes (4) and (12), using tool 380200188 and a
hammer.

Place the half boxes (4) and (12) on a workbench


and carefully assemble the inner elements: differential locking counterdiscs (5), differential locking
discs (6) and (7), gears (8), 2 pins (9), planetary
gears (10) and thrust washers (11).
The first disc (7) must be oriented with friction face
towards the discs and with smooth face towards the
gear (8).
Join the 2 half boxes (4) and (12), aligning the reference marks made during disassembly.

Before matching worked surfaces, make sure they


are perfectly clean, if not, clean with proper detergents.
Place the ring gear (2) on the differential box.
Apply sealant on the screw thread (1).
Screw in and tighten the screws (1) to a tightening
torque of 155 Nm (114 lbfft).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

PINION

Disassembly
Remove the differential assy.
Measure the starting preload FP0 of the pinion bearings using a dynamometer whose cord is wound on
the end of the pinion shaft.

WARNING
Note value FP0 that is necessary for assembling the
bearings.

Unscrew the ring nut (10) using wrench (T1) and


pinion retainer (T2) 380000020 with 3/4 standard
connection.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Tap the shaft end with a soft hammer to remove the
pinion (1).

Once the pinion (1) has been removed, collect the


washers (4), (6) and (9), the spacer (5) and the
bearing (8).

Check the wear condition of the bearing cups.


Take out the bearing cups (3) and (8), if necessary.

Remove the bearing (3) from the pinion (1) by


means of a puller.
Collect the shim (2).

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202

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Check the conditions of all parts.


The ring nut (10) and the spacer (5) must be
replaced during reassembly.

Assembly
Position the axle central body onto a workbench.
Insert the bearing cups (3) and (8) into their seats
using kit 380200216.

Use the false pinion 380200202 and false differential box 380200217.
Insert the bearing and the false pinion into the
seats.
Tighten the ring nut, until the backlash is eliminated.

Check the correct place of the differential box supports at the right and left side, using the reference
marks applied on the same and on the central body.
Assemble the 2 brake cylinders, fastening them
with the relevant screws.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Insert the false differential box 380200217 into the
central axle body.
Check that the false differential box is inserted in
both seats of the differential supports.

To adjust the bevel gear measure the distance A


with a depth gauge.
Determine the value X as follows:
X = (A + C) - B mm (in)
where B and C are known values.

From the value X deduct the value V (stamped


on the pinion head) to get the value S.
S = X - V mm (in)

Choose the shim with value (S) from the shim range
available.
SHIM RANGE
Shims
2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4
mm
(0.098) (0.102) (0.106) (0.110) (0.114) (0.118) (0.122) (0.126) (0.130) (0.134)
(in)
Q.ty

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Loosen and remove the ring nut (10).


Remove the false pinion 380200202 and the bearings (3) and (8) from the central body (7).
Disassemble the false differential box 380200217
from the brake cylinders and then unscrew the
screws to remove the brake cylinders.

Once you have chosen the suitable shim (2), insert


it on the pinion shaft with the chamfer against the
pinion head.

Insert the bearing (3) on the pinion shaft (1) using a


press and tool 380200190.
Insert the shim (4) and a new spacer (5) and the
shim (6).

Check the right assembly sequence.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Insert the preassembled pinion (1) into the central
body and the bearing (8) into the pinion shaft.
Assemble the bearing (8) with tool 380200190 and
a hammer.

Insert the ring nut retaining washer and tighten the


new ring nut (10) on the pinion shaft.
Tighten the ring nut (10) using wrench (T1)
380000021 and the pinion retainer (T2) 380000020
with 3/4 standard connection.
The torque setting is given by the preload measurement on bearings.
Tighten the ring nut (10) gradually.
Excessive tightening could damage the spacer (5),
that would need to be replaced and the procedure
to be repeated.
When you check the preload, strike the pinion ends
(1) with a soft hammer to favour the seating of the
bearings.
If the bearings have not been replaced, to measure
the preload FPm, use a dynamometer whose cord is
wound on the end of the pinion shaft.

WARNING
Use this method only if the bearings are not
replaced.
The measured value should be within the following
range:
FPm = FP0 (FP0 + 10) N
[FPm = FP0 (FP0 + 2.25) lbf]

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

If the bearings are new, to measure the preload


FPm, use a dynamometer whose cord is wound on
tool 380200237, inserted on the end of pinion shaft.

The actual preload FPm is measured on tool


380200237 [gauge diameter Dm = 114.4 mm
(4.50 in)].
The measured value should be within the following
range:
FPm = 31 46 N
[FPm = 6.97 10.34 lbf]

In case you do not use the prescribed tool to measure the preload, the reference diameter is the diameter of pinion shaft splined end.
The measured value should be within the following
range:
FPm = 92 138 N
[FPm = 20.68 31.02 lbf]

It is possible to measure the rolling torque MP of the


pinion shaft bearings with a torque meter and the
wrench 380000020.

WARNING
All preloads must be measured without seal rings.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
The measured value MP should be within this
range:
MP = 1.6 2.4 Nm
[MP = 1.18 1.77 lbfft]

Once the prescribed preload value is achieved,


caulk the ring nut (10) using a hammer and a
punch.

Assemble the differential assy (3).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

TOE-IN / STEERING ANGLE

Toe-in check
Assemble 2 identical, 1 m long linear bars on the
wheel sides and lock them with 2 nuts on the wheel
hub stud screws.

WARNING
The 2 bars should be fixed on their middle so that
they are perfectly perpendicular to the supporting
surface and parallel to the pinion axis; align the 2
bars.

Measure with a tape measure the distance (M)


between bar ends.
NOTE: keep the minimum value, swinging the
measurement point.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Check that the difference between the measurements at the ends of the wheel hub diameters is
within the required tolerance range.
The nominal toe-in (A) value is referred to the external diameter of the wheel hubs flange, therefore the
measured toe-in value (M) at the bar ends must be
related to the ratio between length of the bar and
flange diameter:
nominal toe-in = A1

measured toe-in = M3

If toe-in is not correct, operate with two wrenches


on the rods (1) screwing in and out the two tie rods
(3) equally, till the toe-in is within the requested tolerance.

Once this adjustment has been performed, screw


in the nuts (2) of the bars (1) and tighten them to
a 250 Nm (184 lbfft) torque.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Steering angle adjustment


Use the same bars assembled for toe-in adjustment
and a long bar perfectly rested on the machined
part of the central body (pinion side), so that, at
maximum steering, the two bars form an acute
angle.

In order to set the steering angle, adjust a goniometer according to the angle measure (C), calculated
as follows:
C = 90 - S
Where (S) is the prescribed steering angle set.
Place the goniometer on the long bar.
Orient the left wheel assy until the calculated angle
(C) is obtained between the two bars.

Apply the prescribed sealant on the screw thread


(4).
Carry out the adjustment of the mechanical lock,
screwing in and out the relevant screws (4), locking
them afterwards with the nuts (5).
Tighten to the prescribed torque of 150 Nm (111 lbfft).

Check that the locks on the opposite sides are both


in contact with the axle beam.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Completely steer to the opposite side and repeat
the same operations described previously.

Check that the locks on the opposite sides are both


in contact with the axle beam.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

SPECIAL INTERVENTIONS

Disassembly of wheel assy and double joint


Drain the oil from the differential.
Loosen and remove the nut (1) and disconnect the
tie rod (3) from the swivel housing.

WARNING
Do not hit the end of the threaded pin of the tie rod
(3) during disassembly.

Do not unscrew the tie rod (3) and the relevant nut
(4) so as not to impair the wheel toe-in.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Ensure the swivel housing to a lifting device with a
rope.
Unscrew and remove the screws (5) and (9) from
the upper (6) and lower (10) king pins.

Remove the king pins (6) and (10).

Remove the wheel hub assy.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Assembly of wheel assy and double joint


Assemble the wheel hub assy.

Grease the king pin seats (6) and (10).


Position the belleville washers on the king pin seats.
Assemble the lower (10) and the upper (6) king
pins.

Assemble the upper (6) and lower (10) and king


pins by fastening the screws (9) and (5) to the prescribed torque of 300 Nm (221 lbfft).

Insert the ball joint of the tie rod (3) into its seat on
the swivel housing (1) by turning the swivel housing
as much as necessary.
Do not unscrew the tie rod (3) and the relevant nut
(4) so as not to impair the wheel toe-in.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Screw in and tighten the nut (2) to a tightening
torque of 260 Nm (192 lbfft).

Check the differential oil level from the hole of the


oil inlet plug (14) and top up if necessary.
Screw in and tighten the plug (14) to the tightening torque of 60 Nm (44 lbfft).

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Replacement of the seal ring of the double joint


Remove the wheel assy and the double joint.
Take out the seal ring (11), paying attention not to
damage its seat.

Assemble the new seal ring (11) with the buffer


380002226 and a hammer.
Lubricate the seal ring.

Check the correct place of the seal ring (11) according to the axle type.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE
Replacement of the bronze bushing of the double joint
Remove the wheel assy and the double joint.
Extract the seal ring (11).
Remove the bronze bushing (13) with a puller, paying attention not to damage its seat.

Insert the new bronze bushing (13) with the buffer


380200227 and a hammer.

Assemble the seal ring (11).

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218

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Brake wear check


Actuate the service brake with machine stopped.
Unscrew the breather to release the inner pressure.
Unscrew and remove the plug (1).

Check the wear condition of the brake disc friction


face by trying to insert between the counterdiscs a
dowel with 4.08 mm (0.16 in) of diameter.
If the dowel cannot be inserted, the brake discs
must be replaced because worn out.
If the dowel can be inserted, the brake discs must
not be replaced.

Screw in the plug (1) with a dynamometric wrench.


Carry out the check of the other brake assy.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

219

TROUBLESHOOTING
FAULT
Wheel vibrations.

Tyre resistance.

Broken axle shaft.

Difficult steering; the machine


travels in a straight line while
steering.

No differential action; jams


during steering.

POSSIBLE CAUSE

ACTION

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Axle faulty.

Inspect and repair the axle.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Axle beam bent.

Replace the axle beam.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Axle faulty.

Inspect and repair.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Axle beam bent.

Replace the axle beam.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Axle faulty.

Inspect and repair.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Axle beam bent.

Replace the axle beam.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Axle faulty.

Inspect and repair.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

FAULT
Excessive noise.

Excessive wear of the tyre.

Friction noise.

Vibrations during travel.

POSSIBLE CAUSE

ACTION

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Axle faulty.

Inspect and repair.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

Incorrect wheel alignment.

Check that the structure and the


bearings are in good conditions.

Incorrect axle part installation.

Check the installation.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Axle faulty.

Inspect and repair.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Overload.

Remove the excessive load.

Incorrect tyre rotation radius.

Replace the tyre or adjust pressure


on both tyres.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

Differential locked.

Check the installation.

Excessive steering angle.

Reduce the steering angle.

Incorrect wheel alignment.

Check that the structure and the


bearings are in good conditions.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

Damaged or worn axle parts.

Replace the damaged axle parts.

Incorrect axle part installation.

Check the installation.

Incorrect adjustment of the bevel


gear set.

Adjust the bevel gear set.

Incorrect installation.

Correct the installation.

Axle faulty.

Inspect and repair.

Wrong weight distribution.

Distribute the weight differently.

Bent or broken axle shaft.

Replace the axle beam.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

FAULT
Outer tip of ring gear tooth is
broken.

POSSIBLE CAUSE
Excessive gear load compared to
the one expected.
Gear adjustment wrong (excessive
backlash).
Pinion nut loose.

Inner tip of ring gear tooth is


broken.

Replace bevel gear.


Follow carefully recommended
adjustment operations of ring gear
and pinion backlash and of tooth
marks detection.
Replace bevel gear.

Gear adjustment wrong (insufficient


backlash).

Follow carefully recommended


adjustment operations of ring gear
and pinion backlash and of tooth
marks detection.

Insufficient lubrication.

Replace bevel gear.

Contaminated lubricant.

Replace worn out pinion bearings


that cause an incorrect pinion axle
backlash and wrong contact
between pinion and ring gear.

Incorrect lubrication or poor


additives.
Worn out pinion bearings that cause
an incorrect pinion axle backlash
and wrong contact between pinion
and ring gear.
Ring gear teeth or pinion teeth
overheated. Check if gear
teeth have faded.

ACTION

Crash load.

Pinion nut loose.


Ring gear teeth or pinion teeth
damaged or scored.

221

Prolonged operation at high


temperature.
Unsuitable lubricant.
Oil level low.

Use proper lubricant, fill up to right


level and replace at recommended
intervals.
Replace bevel gear.
Use proper lubricant, fill up to right
level and replace at recommended
intervals.

Contaminated lubricant.
Drive pinion teeth pitted.

Bent axle beam body.

Extremely intense use.

Replace bevel gear.

Insufficient lubrication.

Use proper lubricant, fill up to right


level and replace at recommended
intervals.

Machine overloaded.

Replace the axle beam body.

Damaged vehicle.
Crash load.
Bearings worn or pitted.

Insufficient lubrication.

Replace the bearings.

Contaminated lubricant.

Use proper lubricant, fill up to right


level and replace at recommended
intervals.

Extremely intense use.


Normal wear.
Pinion nut loose.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

FAULT
Gaskets leak oil.

POSSIBLE CAUSE

ACTION

Prolonged operation at excessive oil


temperature.

Replace the gasket and matching


surface if damaged.

Oil gasket wrongly installed.

Use proper lubricant, fill up to right


level and replace at recommended
intervals.

Gasket edge cut or scored.


Contaminated lubricant.
Excessive wear of input
flange spline.

Intense use.

Replace the flange.

Pinion nut loose.

Check that the pinion spline is not


excessively worn out.

Pinion axial backlash.

Replace bevel gear, if necessary.


Pinion gear tooth fatigue
break.
Check if the fracture line is
wavy or clearly delineated
(stop line).

Intense use.

Break of pinion teeth and ring


gear teeth.

Crash load of differential


components.

Check and/or replace other


differential components.

Splines of planetary gear worn


(excessive backlash).

Intense use.

Replace differential gear assy.

Worn or scored surfaces of


the scraper thrust washer.

Insufficient lubrication.

Continuous overload.

Replace axle beam, if necessary.

Lubrication wrong.
Contaminated lubricant.

Inner diameter of pinion


tapered roller bearing worn
out.

Replace all scratched washers and


those with a 0.1 mm (0.004 in)
thickness lower than the new ones.
Use proper lubricant, fill up to right
level and replace at recommended
intervals.

Intense use.

Replace bearing.

Excessive pinion end play.

Check pinion axial backlash.

Unsuitable lubrication.

Use proper lubricant, fill up to right


level and replace at recommended
intervals.

Contaminated lubricant.
Broken or bent axle beam.

Replace bevel gear.

Intense vehicle operation, overload.

Replace the axle beam.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

FAULT

POSSIBLE CAUSE

223

ACTION

Broken axle beam at wheel


flange.

Loose wheel support.

Replace the axle beam.

Bent axle beam body.

Check bending of axle beam body.


Ensure that wheel support is not
worn out or wrongly adjusted.

Noise during travel.

Excessive backlash between ring


gear and pinion.

Adjust the backlash between the ring


gear and the pinion.

Pinion and ring gear worn.

Replace pinion and ring gear.

Worn-out pinion bearings

Replace pinion bearings.

Loose pinion bearings.

Adjust pinion bearings.

Excessive pinion end play.

Adjust the axial play of the pinion.

Differential bearings worn out.

Replace differential bearings.

Loose differential bearings.

Adjust the bearings.

Ring gear excessively off-set.

Replace the ring gear.

Low lubricant level.

Restore the level.

Poor or wrong lubricant grade.

Change lubricant.

Axle beam bent.

Replace the axle beam.

Noises emitted by the axle when the


vehicle is moving are usually heard
during idling, even though they are
not too loud.

Adjust the backlash between the ring


gear and the pinion or replace pinion
and ring gear.

Wrong backlash between pinion and


ring gear (the noise heard while
decelerating disappears when speed
is increased).

Adjust the play between the pinion


and the ring gear.

Pinion spline or input flange worn.

Replace the pinion.

Damaged ring gear.

Replace bevel gear.

Differential box screws loose.

Tighten the screws to torque.

Ring gear teeth or pinion teeth


damaged.

Replace bevel gear.

Worn bearings.

Replace the bearings.

Pinion splines worn.

Replace the pinion.

Axle beam bent.

Replace the axle beam.

Noise during idling.

Intermittent noise.

Constant noise.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

FAULT
Noise while bending.

POSSIBLE CAUSE

ACTION

Differential planetary gears


damaged.

Replace the planetary gears.

Differential box and/or pins worn.

Replace the differential box.

Worn differential thrust washers.

Replace the thrust washers.

Worn-out axle beam splines

Replace the axle beam.

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

225

REPAIR TIMES
The times are referred to average values of maintenance performed by skilled personnel in workshops
equipped with all necessary fixtures for a proper
execution of the required works.
The repair and/or replacement times are indicated in
minutes.
We assume that the axle has already been removed
from the machine.
ASSY
Flange

Steering cylinder

Reduction gear assy

Wheel hub

Axle shaft

Brake

Differential support

OPERATION

TIME (minutes)

Replacement of pinion seal ring

30

Rod replacement (x 1)

30

Ball joint replacement (x 1)

15

Tie rod replacement (x 1)

30

Ball joint boot replacement (x 1)

15

Tie rod boot replacement (x 1)

15

Sensor replacement

15

Steering cylinder replacement

120

Steering cylinder overhauling

240

Sensor replacement and adjustment

60

Gear carrier replacement

20

Gear carrier overhaul (3 planetary gears)

35

Gear carrier overhaul (4 planetary gears)

45

Standard wheel hub replacement

30

Seal ring + wheel hub bearing replacement

75

Stud bolt replacement (x 1)

Swivel housing overhauling

90

Swivel housing replacement

70

Double joint replacement

30

Double joint overhauling

60

King pin replacement (x 1)

30

King pin bearing replacement (x 1)

45

Ring gear replacement (x 1)

30

Ball joint replacement (x 1)

45

Replacement of the seal rings of the double joint

45

Cardan joint bronze bushing replacement

60

Axle shaft replacement (x 1)

120

O-ring replacement (x 1)

30

Disc and counterdisc replacement (for each side)

60

Overhaul / replacement of piston seal rings (for each side)

90

Self-adjust kit replacement (for each side)

60

Overhaul / replacement of piston (for each side)

90

Overhaul / replacement of O-ring (for each side)

30

Replacement of differential assy

150

Differential box bearings

120

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

ASSY
Differential

Pinion

OPERATION

TIME (minutes)

Differential replacement

150

Overhaul / replacement of bevel gear, planetary gears, pins

240

Overhauling / replacement of differential box bearings

120

Overhauling / replacement of pinion bearings

180

Overhaul / replacement of bevel gear, planetary gears, pins

240

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SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

227

SPECIAL TOOLS
PN CNH

DESCRIPTION

USE

380002211

Handle

To be used with the various pushers and buffers

380000021

Wrench

Screw / unscrew the pinion ring nut

380200188

Buffer

Assembly of bearing cups into the differential box

380200190

Buffer

Assembly of pinion bearing cups

380000020

Wrench

Measure of pinion rolling torque

380200192

Buffer

Assembly / disassembly of bushings in the ring gear carrier hub

380200194

Buffer

Assembly / disassembly of self-adjust kit

380200195

Buffer

Ball bearing assembly of the lower king pin

380200196

Buffer

Ball bearing assembly of the upper king pin

380000024

Buffer

Bushing assembly into the swivel housing

380200202

False pinion

Differential and pinion assembly

380200205

Buffer

Assembly of bushings into the differential box

380200209

Wrench

Tighten / loosen the brake cylinder ring nut

380200210

Buffer

Wheel hub seal ring assembly

380200211

Buffer

Assembly of bearing cups into the wheel hub

380200216

Kit

Assembly of pinion bearing cups

380200217

False differential box

Differential and pinion assembly

380200218

Buffer

Assembly of bearing cup into the brake cylinder

380200222

Tool

Backlash measure between pinion and ring gear

380200227

Buffer

Assembly of bushing in the half-beam

380002226

Buffer

Assembly of seal ring in the half-beam

380200237

Tool

Preload measure

380200238

Buffer

Brake piston assembly

380200266

Buffer

Seal ring assembly into the swivel housing

380200267

Buffer

Pinion seal ring assembly

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NOTES:

SECTION 27 - REAR AXLE

Copyright

580T
580ST
590ST
695ST

SECTION 33 - BRAKE SYSTEM


PARKING BRAKE............................................................................................................................................. 3
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS.................................................................................................................. 3
OPERATION................................................................................................................................................ 3
ADJUSTMENT............................................................................................................................................. 4
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY............................................................................................................... 5
SERVICE BRAKE ........................................................................................................................................... 14
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................................................ 14
OPERATION.............................................................................................................................................. 14

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SECTION 33 - BRAKE SYSTEM

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SECTION 33 - BRAKE SYSTEM

PARKING BRAKE
This device allows the immobilization of the
machine each time it must be parked or stopped to
carry out maintenance work.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Type ....................................................................................................................................... manual, with lever
Maximum lever pull ....................................................................................................................1650 N (371 lbf)
Lever stroke ............................................................................................................................... 21 mm (0.87 in)
Maximum torque - Powershuttle ..........................................................................................2000 Nm (450 lbfft)
Maximum torque - Powershift ..............................................................................................1500 Nm (337 lbfft)

OPERATION
The parking brake essentially consists of:
- manual control lever;
- transmission brake.

The lever (1) is located on the right side of the cab


(seat placed to loader attachment).
The lever position (1) is controlled by the sensor (2),
when the lever is lifted to immobilize the machine,
the lamp (3) indicating the parking brake activation
and placed on the side instrument panel (4), lights
on.
IMPORTANT: if the gear is engaged when the parking brake is activated, it will actuate the warning
buzzer and the symbol parking brake alarm will
appear on the display.
By lifting the lever (1), by means of cable (5) and of
the relevant yoke (7), the brake is actuated inside
transmission (6).

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4

SECTION 33 - BRAKE SYSTEM

NEGATIVE PARKING BRAKE OPERATION


Negative parking brake applied (A)
When the system is not under pressure, the belleville washers (1) push on the parking brake piston
(2) compressing the brake discs (3).
This happens when the machine motor is stopped
or because the operator has actuated the parking
brake.
In order to move the machine disable the parking
brake.

Negative brake released (B)


When the brake oil reaches the disengagement
pressure, the parking brake piston (2) is pushed
against the belleville washers (1) and the brake
discs (3) are free.
This happens under normal operating condition,
when the operator disengages the parking brake.

ADJUSTMENT
The parking brake can be adjusted by placing the
brake pad in contact with the disc, now you have to
block the brake cable.
The brake cable movement (1) can be adjusted by
handling on the locknut (2).
Adjust the parking brake so as to brake the machine
completely by lifting the brake lever up to the 4th
ratchet.

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SECTION 33 - BRAKE SYSTEM
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
These procedures deal with the parking brake section and leave off the control lever and the relevant
connection cable.

1. Screw

10. Piston

2. Washer

11. Snap ring

3. O-ring

12. O-ring

4. Flange

13. Stop plate

5. Screw

14. O-ring

6. Brake cover

15. Disc

7. O-ring

16. Brake discs

8. Belleville washer

17. Hub

9. O-ring

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6

SECTION 33 - BRAKE SYSTEM

DISASSEMBLY
Loosen the screw (1).

Remove the screw (1) and the washer (2).

Remove the O-ring (3) and the flange (4).

Loosen the screws (5).

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SECTION 33 - BRAKE SYSTEM
Remove all screws (5), the screws (A) and alternately loosen the screws (B) to release the load
from the belleville washers.
NOTE: the housing is under spring pressure, failure
to follow the instructions will result in serious injury
or damage to the equipment.

Remove the brake cover (6).


Remove the O-ring (7).

Remove the brake discs (16).

Remove the hub (17).

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8

SECTION 33 - BRAKE SYSTEM

Remove the retaining plate (13).

Remove the O-rings (12) and (14) from the retaining


plate.

Compress the belleville washers, to remove the


snap ring (11).

Remove the piston (10) from the brake cover (6).

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SECTION 33 - BRAKE SYSTEM
Remove the O-ring (9) from the piston (10).

Remove the belleville washers (8) from the brake


cover (6).

INSPECTION
Clean all parts in cleaning solvent.
Inspect the brake discs and plates for pitting, scoring, excessive surface wear and other damage.
Inspect the belleville washer for cracking and excessive surface wear at contact points.
Inspect brake pistons and housing for scratches on
their sliding surfaces, and contact surfaces for pitting or excessive wear.
Replace the O-rings.

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10

SECTION 33 - BRAKE SYSTEM

ASSEMBLY
Assemble the new O-ring (7) on the brake cover (6).

Assemble the belleville washers (8).

Assemble the new O-ring (9) on the piston (10).

Lubricate and install the piston (10) into the brake


cover (6).

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SECTION 33 - BRAKE SYSTEM
Compress the belleville washers, to assemble the
snap ring (11).

Assemble new O-rings (12) and (14) onto the


retaining plate.

Lubricate and install the retaining plate (13) into the


brake cover (6).

Assemble the hub (17).

11

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12

SECTION 33 - BRAKE SYSTEM

Assemble the brake discs (16).

Assemble the brake cover assembly.

Screw in and tighten the screws (5) to a tightening


torque of 50 Nm (37 lbfft).

Assemble the flange (4) and the new O-ring (3).

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SECTION 33 - BRAKE SYSTEM
Screw in the screw (1) with the washer (2).

Tighten the screw (1) to a tightening torque of 139 Nm


(102 lbfft).

13

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14

SECTION 33 - BRAKE SYSTEM

SERVICE BRAKE
During operation, the brake system of the machine
can stop the machine at any time.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
2WS
Type ........................................................................................................wet multi-discs, 4 x axle (2 x half axle)
Braking surface ..................................................................................................................... 1236 cm2 (191 in2)
4WS
Type ........................................................................................................wet multi-discs, 6 x axle (3 x half axle)
Braking surface ..................................................................................................................... 1092 cm2 (169 in2)

OPERATION
This system essentially consists of:
- brake pedals (in the cab);
- wet disc brakes hydraulically operated in the rear
axle.

NOTE: this drawing represents the 2WS rear axle;


the operation of the 4WS rear axle is the same.
The two pedals (1) located in the cab underneath
the steering wheel, can be matched with the locking
pin (2).
This enables:
- the machine braking (pedals locked together);
- the machine turning (by pushing just one pedal).

By pushing the pedals (1) you activate the brake


pump (3) delivering hydraulic oil to the 2 brake
discs (5) fitted in the rear axle (6).
In this way, pressure is generated against the brake
pistons (7), which, on their turn, compress the discs
(9) and the counterdiscs (8), thus locking the axle
and therefore the machine.

Copyright

580T
580ST
590ST
695ST

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


HYDRAULIC DIAGRAMS ................................................................................................................................. 3
HYDRAULIC DIAGRAM - 2WS SIDESHIFT MECHANICAL MODELS....................................................... 3
HYDRAULIC DIAGRAM - 2WS SIDESHIFT PILOT MODELS .................................................................... 9
HYDRAULIC DIAGRAM - 4WS SIDESHIFT MECHANICAL MODELS..................................................... 13
HYDRAULIC DIAGRAM - 4WS SIDESHIFT PILOT MODELS .................................................................. 15
HYDRAULIC DIAGRAM - 4WS CENTER PIVOT PILOT MODELS .......................................................... 17
HYDRAULIC PUMP........................................................................................................................................ 19
HYDRAULIC FIXED-FLOW-RATE GEAR PUMP...................................................................................... 19
HYDRAULIC VARIABLE-FLOW-RATE PISTON PUMP ........................................................................... 30
CONTROL VALVES ....................................................................................................................................... 44
LOADER CONTROL VALVE ..................................................................................................................... 53
BACKHOE ATTACHMENT CONTROL VALVE......................................................................................... 57
RELIEF VALVES ....................................................................................................................................... 69
BACKHOE ATTACHMENT CONTROL VALVE PILOT SOLENOID VALVE .................................................. 78
ACCUMULATOR GLIDE RIDE PARKER..................................................................................................... 81
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................................................ 81
MAINTENANCE......................................................................................................................................... 81
SAFETY ..................................................................................................................................................... 81
CHECKING AND ADJUSTING THE PRECHARGE PRESSURE ............................................................. 82
HYDRAULIC SWING SYSTEM ...................................................................................................................... 84
OPERATION.............................................................................................................................................. 84
HYDRAULIC CYLINDERS.............................................................................................................................. 87
LOADER ATTACHMENT BOOM CYLINDER ........................................................................................... 88
LOADER BUCKET CYLINDER ................................................................................................................. 93
4X1 LOADER BUCKET CYLINDER .......................................................................................................... 97
BACKHOE BOOM CYLINDER ................................................................................................................ 100
BACKHOE ATTACHMENT DIPPER CYLINDER .................................................................................... 104

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2

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


BACKHOE BUCKET CYLINDER............................................................................................................. 108
TELESCOPIC CYLINDER ....................................................................................................................... 112
STABILIZER CYLINDER - CENTER PIVOT (695ST).............................................................................. 115
STABILIZER CYLINDER - SIDESHIFT ................................................................................................... 119
SWING CYLINDER.................................................................................................................................. 123
BACKHOE ATTACHMENT LOCK CYLINDER - SIDESHIFT .................................................................. 127
SPECIAL TOOLS..................................................................................................................................... 128

HYDRAULIC CONTROL LEVERS................................................................................................................ 129


TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS.............................................................................................................. 129
CONTROLS AND OPERATION .............................................................................................................. 130
COMPONENTS ....................................................................................................................................... 131
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY........................................................................................................... 133
CONTROL LEVER VALVE ...................................................................................................................... 136
TROUBLESHOOTING .................................................................................................................................. 138
PRELIMINARY CHECKS......................................................................................................................... 138
TROUBLESHOOTING (WITH REXROTH CONTROL VALVES).......................................................... 139
SWING ..................................................................................................................................................... 141
HYDRAULIC PUMP ................................................................................................................................. 142

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

HYDRAULIC DIAGRAMS
HYDRAULIC DIAGRAM - 2WS SIDESHIFT MECHANICAL MODELS
WITH FIXED-FLOW-RATE GEAR PUMP

* Alternative diagram for non-reactive steering

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4

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

1.

Front axle steering cylinder

2.

Power steering

3.

4x1 bucket cylinders

3A. Lock valve


4.

Dipper cylinders

4A. Lock valve


5.

Boom cylinders

5A. Lock valve


6.

Ride control valve (optional)

7.

Ride control accumulator (optional)

8.

Loader attachment control valve

9.

Hand hammer control valve (optional)

10. Backhoe hammer control valve (optional)


11. Hand hammer (optional)
12. Backhoe hammer (optional)
13. Hydraulic fixed-flow-rate gear pump
14. Priority valve
15. Oil cooler
16. Hydraulic tank
17. Air filter
18. Oil filter
19. Backpressure valve
20. Return filter
21. Backhoe attachment travel lock cylinders (sideshift)
22. Stabilizer right cylinder
22A.Lock valve
23. Stabilizer left cylinder
23A.Lock valve
24. Dipper cylinder
24A.Lock valve
25. Bucket cylinder
26. Swing cylinders
27. Swing control valve
28. Boom cylinder
28A.Lock valve
29. Telescopic cylinder
30. Backhoe attachment control valve
31. Backhoe quick coupler (optional)
32. Backhoe quick coupler control valve (optional)
33. Diagnostic

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
WITH FIXED-FLOW-RATE GEAR PUMP - WITHOUT BACKHOE ATTACHMENT SWING CONTROL VALVE

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6

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

1.

Front axle steering cylinder

2.

Power steering

3.

4x1 bucket cylinders

3A. Lock valve


4.

Dipper cylinders

4A. Lock valve


5.

Boom cylinders

5A. Lock valve


6.

Ride control valve (optional)

7.

Ride control accumulator (optional)

8.

Loader attachment control valve

9.

Hand hammer control valve (optional)

10. Backhoe hammer control valve (optional)


11. Hand hammer (optional)
12. Backhoe hammer (optional)
13. Hydraulic fixed-flow-rate gear pump
14. Priority valve
15. Oil cooler
16. Hydraulic tank
17. Air filter
18. Oil filter
19. Backpressure valve
20. Return filter
21. Backhoe attachment travel lock cylinders (sideshift)
22. Stabilizer right cylinder
22A.Lock valve
23. Stabilizer left cylinder
23A.Lock valve
24. Dipper cylinder
24A.Lock valve
25. Bucket cylinder
26. Swing cylinders
27. Diagnostic
28. Boom cylinder
28A.Lock valve
29. Telescopic cylinder
30. Backhoe attachment control valve
31. Backhoe quick coupler (optional)
32. Backhoe quick coupler control valve (optional)

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
WITH VARIABLE-FLOW-RATE PISTON PUMP

* Alternative diagram for non-reactive steering

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8

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

1.

Front axle steering cylinder

2.

Power steering

3.

4x1 bucket cylinders

3A. Lock valve


4.

Dipper cylinders

4A. Lock valve


5.

Boom cylinders

5A. Lock valve


6.

Ride control valve (optional)

7.

Ride control accumulator (optional)

8.

Loader attachment control valve

9.

Hand hammer control valve (optional)

10. Backhoe hammer control valve (optional)


11. Hand hammer (optional)
12. Backhoe hammer (optional)
13. Hydraulic variable-flow-rate piston pump
14. Priority valve
15. Oil cooler
16. Hydraulic tank
17. Air filter
18. Oil filter
19. Backpressure valve
20. Return filter
21. Backhoe attachment travel lock cylinders (sideshift)
22. Stabilizer right cylinder
22A.Lock valve
23. Stabilizer left cylinder
23A.Lock valve
24. Dipper cylinder
24A.Lock valve
25. Bucket cylinder
26. Swing cylinders
27. Diagnostic
28. Boom cylinder
28A.Lock valve
29. Telescopic cylinder
30. Backhoe attachment control valve
31. Bidirectional auxiliary attachment (optional)
32. Backhoe quick coupler (optional)
33. Backhoe quick coupler control valve (optional)

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
HYDRAULIC DIAGRAM - 2WS SIDESHIFT PILOT MODELS
WITH FIXED-FLOW-RATE GEAR PUMP

* Alternative diagram for non-reactive steering

Copyright
10

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

1. Front axle steering cylinder


2. Power steering
3. 4x1 bucket cylinders
3A. Lock valve
4. Dipper cylinders
4A. Lock valve
5. Boom cylinders
5A. Lock valve
6. Ride control valve (optional)
7. Ride control accumulator (optional)
8. Loader attachment control valve
9. Hand hammer control valve (optional)
10. Backhoe hammer control valve (optional)
11. Hand hammer (optional)
12. Backhoe hammer (optional)
13. Hydraulic fixed-flow-rate piston pump
14. Priority valve
15. Oil cooler
16. Hydraulic tank
17. Air filter
18. Oil filter
19. Backpressure valve
20. Return filter
21. Backhoe attachment travel lock cylinders (sideshift)
22. Stabilizer right cylinder
22A.Lock valve
23. Stabilizer left cylinder
23A.Lock valve
24. Dipper cylinder
24A.Lock valve
25. Bucket cylinder
26. Swing cylinders
27. Swing control valve
28. Boom cylinder
28A.Lock valve
29. Telescopic cylinder
30. Backhoe attachment control valve
31. Bidirectional auxiliary attachment (optional)
32. Backhoe quick coupler (optional)
33. Backhoe quick coupler control valve (optional)
34. Diagnostic
35. Left-hand hydraulic control lever
35A.Left hydraulic control lever - boom - dipper
35B.Left hydraulic control lever - swing
36. Right-hand hydraulic control lever
36A.Right hydraulic control lever - boom - dipper
36B.Right hydraulic control lever - swing
37. Backhoe attachment control valve solenoid valve

Copyright
SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
WITH VARIABLE-FLOW-RATE PISTON PUMP

* Alternative diagram for non-reactive steering

11

Copyright
12

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

1. Front axle steering cylinder


2. Power steering
3. 4x1 bucket cylinders
3A. Lock valve
4. Dipper cylinders
4A. Lock valve
5. Boom cylinders
5A. Lock valve
6. Ride control valve (optional)
7. Ride control accumulator (optional)
8. Loader attachment control valve
9. Hand hammer control valve (optional)
10. Backhoe hammer control valve (optional)
11. Hand hammer (optional)
12. Backhoe hammer (optional)
13. Hydraulic variable-flow-rate piston pump
14. Priority valve
15. Oil cooler
16. Hydraulic tank
17. Air filter
18. Oil filter
19. Backpressure valve
20. Return filter
21. Backhoe attachment travel lock cylinders (sideshift)
22. Stabilizer right cylinder
22A.Lock valve
23. Stabilizer left cylinder
23A.Lock valve
24. Dipper cylinder
24A.Lock valve
25. Bucket cylinder
26. Swing cylinders
27. Swing control valve
28. Boom cylinder
28A.Lock valve
29. Telescopic cylinder
30. Backhoe attachment control valve
31. Bidirectional auxiliary attachment (optional)
32. Backhoe quick coupler (optional)
33. Backhoe quick coupler control valve (optional)
34. Backhoe attachment control valve solenoid valve
35. Left-hand hydraulic control lever
35A.Left hydraulic control lever - boom - dipper
35B.Left hydraulic control lever - swing
36. Right-hand hydraulic control lever
36A.Right hydraulic control lever - boom - dipper
36B.Right hydraulic control lever - swing

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
HYDRAULIC DIAGRAM - 4WS SIDESHIFT MECHANICAL MODELS

13

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14
1.

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


Front axle steering cylinder

2.

Rear axle steering cylinder

3.

4WS steering control valve

4.

Power steering

5.

4x1 bucket cylinders

5A. Lock valve


6.

Dipper cylinders

6A. Lock valve


7.

Boom cylinders

7A. Lock valve


8.

Ride control valve (optional)

9.

Ride control accumulator (optional)

10. Loader attachment control valve


11. Hand hammer control valve (optional)
12. Backhoe hammer control valve (optional)
13. Hand hammer (optional)
14. Backhoe hammer (optional)
15. Hydraulic variable-flow-rate pump
16. Priority valve
17. Oil cooler
18. Hydraulic tank
19. Air filter
20. Oil filter
21. Return filter
22. Backpressure valve
23. Backhoe attachment control valve
24. Backhoe attachment travel lock cylinders (sideshift)
25. Bidirectional auxiliary attachment (optional)
26. Stabilizer right cylinder
26A.Lock valve
27. Stabilizer left cylinder
27A.Lock valve
28. Dipper cylinder
28A.Lock valve
29. Bucket cylinder
30. Swing cylinders
31. Swing control valve
32. Boom cylinder
32A.Lock valve
33. Telescopic dipper cylinder (optional)
34. Backhoe quick coupler (optional)
35. Backhoe quick coupler control valve (optional)

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
HYDRAULIC DIAGRAM - 4WS SIDESHIFT PILOT MODELS

15

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16
1.

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


Front axle steering cylinder

2. 4WS steering control valve


3. Rear axle steering cylinder
4. Power steering
5. 4x1 bucket cylinders
5A. Lock valve
6. Dipper cylinders
6A. Lock valve
7. Boom cylinders
7A. Lock valve
8. Ride control valve (optional)
9. Ride control accumulator (optional)
10. Loader attachment control valve
11. Hand hammer control valve (optional)
12. Backhoe hammer control valve (optional)
13. Hand hammer (optional)
14. Backhoe hammer (optional)
15. Hydraulic variable-flow-rate piston pump
16. Priority valve
17. Oil cooler
18. Hydraulic tank
19. Air filter
20. Oil filter
21. Return filter
22. Backpressure valve
23. Backhoe attachment control valve
24. Bidirectional auxiliary attachment (optional)
25. Stabilizer right cylinder
25A.Lock valve
26. Stabilizer left cylinder
26A.Lock valve
27. Dipper cylinder
27A.Lock valve
28. Bucket cylinder
29. Swing cylinders
30. Swing control valve
31. Boom cylinder
31A.Lock valve
32. Telescopic dipper cylinder (optional)
33. Backhoe quick coupler (optional)
34. Backhoe quick coupler control valve (optional)
35. Left-hand hydraulic control lever
35A.Boom or dipper left hydraulic control lever
35B.Left hydraulic control lever - swing
36. Right-hand hydraulic control lever
36A.Boom or dipper right hydraulic control lever
36B.Hydraulic control lever right-bucket
37. Backhoe attachment control valve solenoid valve

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
HYDRAULIC DIAGRAM - 4WS CENTER PIVOT PILOT MODELS

17

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18
1.

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


Front axle steering cylinder

2. 4WS steering control valve


3. Rear axle steering cylinder
4. Power steering
5. 4x1 bucket cylinders
5A. Lock valve
6. Dipper cylinders
6A. Lock valve
7. Boom cylinders
7A. Lock valve
8. Ride control valve (optional)
9. Ride control accumulator (optional)
10. Loader attachment control valve
11. Hand hammer control valve (optional)
12. Backhoe hammer control valve (optional)
13. Hand hammer (optional)
14. Backhoe hammer (optional)
15. Hydraulic variable-flow-rate piston pump
16. Priority valve
17. Oil cooler
18. Hydraulic tank
19. Air filter
20. Oil filter
21. Return filter
22. Backpressure valve
23. Backhoe attachment control valve
24. Bidirectional auxiliary attachment (optional)
25. Stabilizer right cylinder
25A.Lock valve
26. Stabilizer left cylinder
26A.Lock valve
27. Dipper cylinder
27A.Lock valve
28. Bucket cylinder
29. Swing cylinders
30. Swing control valve
31. Boom cylinder
31A.Lock valve
32. Telescopic cylinder
33. Backhoe quick coupler (optional)
34. Backhoe quick coupler control valve (optional)
35. Left-hand hydraulic control lever
35A.Boom or dipper left hydraulic control lever
35B.Left hydraulic control lever - swing
36. Right-hand hydraulic control lever
36A.Boom or dipper right hydraulic control lever
36B.Hydraulic control lever right-bucket
37. Backhoe attachment control valve solenoid valve

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

19

HYDRAULIC PUMP
The machine can be provided with 2 types of
hydraulic pump:
- fixed-flow-rate gear pump;
- variable-flow-rate piston pump.
Further to the type, pumps differentiate according to
the motor:
- 72 kW (97 HP) motor;
- 82 kW (110 HP) motor.

HYDRAULIC FIXED-FLOW-RATE GEAR


PUMP
The hydraulic pump is mounted on the rear part of
the transmission and is driven by a shaft directly
connected to the engine splined to the torque converter.
The pump consists of two pumping elements, the
front pump (1) and the rear pump (2), and a loadsensing flow divider valve (3) for the steering system.
Oil is drawn through the common inlet port into both
pumping elements.
The front pump flow is directed to the loader and
backhoe attachment control valve and also to the
sideshift carriage lock cylinders.
The rear pump flow passes through the flow divider
valve, which maintains priority oil flow to the steering system, with the remaining flow directed for
operating the stabilizers.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Pump 72 kW - 97 HP (580T - 580ST)
Model .......................................................................................................... CASAPPA KP 30.34 - 05 S6 - LMF
Type ...................................................................................................................................... double gear pump
Displacement ............................................................................. 35.427 + 35.427 cm3/rev (2.16 + 2.16 in3/rev)
Pump 82 kW - 110 HP (590ST - 695ST)
Model .......................................................................................................... CASAPPA KP 30.38 - 05 S6 - LMF
Type ...................................................................................................................................... double gear pump
Displacement ............................................................................. 40.258 + 35.427 cm3/rev (2.45 + 2.16 in3/rev)

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20

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

PUMP (97 HP ENGINE)

1st PUMP

Direction of rotation (looking on drive


shaft)

2nd PUMP

Clockwise (D)
35.427 cm3/rev
(2.16 in3/rev)

Displacement
Inlet pressure range for pump

35.427 cm3/rev
(2.16 in3/rev)

0.7 - 3 bar (10 - 43 psi)

Maximum continuous pressure

P1

260 bar (3771 psi)

260 bar (3771 psi)

Maximum intermittent pressure

P2

280 bar (4061 psi)

280 bar (4061 psi)

Maximum peak pressure

P3

300 bar (4351 psi)

300 bar (4351 psi)

Operating temperature

-25 to -80 C (-13 to -112 F)


min P1

Speed

350 rpm

max P1

Viscosity range

Contamination class

3000 rpm
2

recommended

12 to 100 mm /s (0.47 to 3.93 in/s) (cSt)

permitted

max 750 mm2/s (29.53 in/s) (cSt)

Dp > 200 bar (2900 psi)


bx = 75 - 10 mm (3.0 - 0.39 in)

8 - Nas 1638

Dp < 200 bar (2900 psi)


bx = 75 - 25 mm (3.0 - 0.98 in)

Relief valve

19 / 17 /14 - ISO 4406


10 - Nas 1638
21 / 19 /16 - ISO 4406
177 3 bar (2567 - 43 psi)

Stand by pressure load sensing valve

7 bar (102 psi)

Weight

30 kg (66 lb)

PUMP (110 HP ENGINE)

1st PUMP

Direction of rotation (looking on drive


shaft)

2nd PUMP

Clockwise (D)
40.258 cm3/rev
(2.45 in3/rev)

Displacement
Inlet pressure range for pump

35.427 cm3/rev
(2.16 in3/rev)

0.7 - 3 bar (10 - 43 psi)

Maximum continuous pressure

P1

260 bar (3771 psi)

260 bar (3771 psi)

Maximum intermittent pressure

P2

280 bar (4061 psi)

280 bar (4061 psi)

Maximum peak pressure

P3

300 bar (4351 psi)

300 bar (4351 psi)

Operating temperature
Speed
Viscosity range

Contamination class

Relief valve
Stand by pressure load sensing valve
Weight

-25 to -80 C (-13 to -112 F)


min P1

350 rpm

max P1

3000 rpm

recommended

12 to 100 mm2/s (0.47 to 3.93 in/s) (cSt)

permitted

max 750 mm2/s (29.53 in/s) (cSt)

Dp > 200 bar (2900 psi)


bx = 75 - 10 mm (3.0 - 0.39 in)

8 - Nas 1638
19 / 17 /14 - ISO 4406

Dp < 200 bar (2900 psi)


bx = 75 - 25 mm (3.0 - 0.98 in)

21 / 19 /16 - ISO 4406

10 - Nas 1638
177 3 bar (2567 - 43 psi)
7 bar (102 psi)
30 kg (66 lb)

Copyright
SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Tightening torques

Hydraulic diagram

21

Copyright
22

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

LOAD-SENSING VALVE

1. Orifice

8. Steering relief valve

2. Rear systems (EF)

9. Relief valve adjuster

3. Filter

10. Poppet

4. Spool

11. Return to inlet pump port

5. To steering priority flow (CF)

12. Lock plug

6. Orifice

13. Load sensing signal (LS)

7. Inlet port from rear pump (IN)

14. Orifice

When the steering is in neutral the LS port is connected to the unload (through the steering) and the
steering inlet port (CF) is open.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

23

Load sensing valve with pump running - Steering in neutral

1.
2.
3.
4.

Return to oil tank


Trapped oil
Pressure oil
Orifice
Rear systems (EF)
Filter
Spool

5. To steering priority flow (CF)


6. Orifice
7. Inlet port (from rear port)

The pressure on (CF) increases until the pressure value (stand-by pressure) is sufficient to move the spool
valve in a way to divert the flow toward (EF).

Load sensing valve with pump running - Steering working

1.
2.
3.
4.

Trapped oil
Return to oil tank
Orifice
Rear systems (EF)
Filter
Spool

During steering two actions are performed:


1. The fluid moves to the steering through (CF).
2. The (LS) signal is in communication to the steering.

5. To steering priority flow (CF)


6. Orifice
7. Inlet port (from rear port)

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24

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

COMPONENTS

1. Screw

19. Bushing

2. Steering control valve

20. Gasket

3. Spool

21. Bushing

4. O-ring

22. Elastic retainer

5. Plug

23. Bearing

6. Valve

24. Gear

7. Filter

25. Gear

8. Fitting

26. Front pump body

9. Spring seat

27. Gasket

10. Spring

28. Gear

11. O-ring

29. Flange

12. Cover

30. Seal ring

13. Relief valve

31. Seal ring

14. O-ring

32. Snap ring

15. Poppet

33. Pressure seal

16. Spring

34. Gear

17. Seat

35. O-ring

18. Rear pump body

36. Screw

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
Disassembly of the steering control valve
To aid reassembly draw an alignment line along the
total length of the pump assembly.
Remove the screws (1).

Remove the load-sensing steering control valve (2).


Check and replace the O-rings (35), if necessary.

Disassembly of the steering control valve


Do not disassemble the steering system relief valve
(A) if the valves pressure is to specification when
pressure-testing the pump prior to overhaul.
NOTE: if the steering system pressure relief valve is
disassembled, the valve must be reset as described
in Chapter Troubleshooting, pressure and flow testing.
Wash all components in an approved degreaser
and check the following:
- the valve bore must be free from scoring or damage to metering edges;
- the spool (3) should slide freely in the bore and
must be free from scoring or damage;
- ensure all orifices are clean;
- the valve seat must not show cavities or damage
(a small chamfer at the entrance of the bore is
allowed);
- examine the filter (7) mounted inside the outlet
and relief valves and replace the filter if dirty.
Pressure and flow test the pump.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Rear pump disassembly


Remove the screws (36).

Remove the rear pump assembly (18).

IMPORTANT: prior to disassembly and to ensure


correct reassembly identify the position of each
bearing block in the pump body as described below.
Write an identifying letter A and B, C and D on
the pump housing and in the channel of each bearing block.
NOTE: orientation of bearing block seals relative to
oil port.
If scribe is not available take care to keep bearing
blocks in pairs.

Disassemble the gears (24), the seals (33), the


elastic retainers (22) and the bearings (23).
Wash all components in approved degreaser.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Inspect the wear track cut by the gears in pump
body. The body can be reused if the track is bright
and polished and does not exceed 0.08 0.076 mm
(0.0031 0.0029 in) in depth.
Examine bearing block faces for scoring and flatness, paying particular attention to the face which
abuts the gears.
Examine bearing block bushes for scoring.
Examine pump gears for scored or worn side faces,
journals and damaged teeth.
If pump block, gears or bearing blocks are worn and
require replacement the pump assembly must be
replaced.
Re-assemble using the disassembly procedure in
reverse order and observe the following warnings:
- ensure that all parts are perfectly clean and lubricate bushes and gears with clean hydraulic fluid;
- replace all seals and O-rings;
- install the bearing blocks into the same positions
from which they were removed, using the identification letters written during disassembly;
- ensure plastic back-up seals are correctly positioned in the rubber seal.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Front pump disassembly


To remove the pump assy (26) from the flange (29)
it is necessary to remove the snap ring (33).
Remove and replace the seal rings (30) and (31).

Identify and note the position of each bearing block


to ensure correct reassembly.
Disassemble the gears (28) and (34), the seals
(33), the elastic retainers and the bearings (23).
Wash all components in approved degreaser.

Inspect the wear track cut by the gears in the inlet


side of the pump body. The body can be reused if
the track is bright and polished and does not
exceed 0.15 mm (0.006 in) in depth.
Examine bearing block faces for scoring.
Inspect teflon coated bearings in body or flange for
wear. If bearings are worn the bronze backing will
be revealed.
Examine pump gears for scored or worn side faces,
journals and damaged teeth.
Examine flange seal contact area on driveshaft. If
pump block, gears, bearing blocks or drive shaft are
worn the pump assembly must be replaced.
Re-assemble using the disassembly procedure in
reverse order and observe the following warnings:
- ensure that all parts are perfectly clean and lubricate bushes and gears with clean hydraulic oil;
- replace all seals and O-rings;
- install bearing blocks into the same positions from
which they were removed;
- make sure the safety retainers are correctly positioned in the rubber seal rings.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Assemble the inner seal, (30), with the spring and
the lip facing the pump.
Install the outer seal ring (31), with the spring and
the lip facing outwards and refit the snap ring (30).
Coat the rings with high melting point grease.
NOTE: ensure seal rings are fitted back to back.
NOTE: if the seal ring recess has been scored during seal removal, coat the outside diameter of the
seal ring with flexible gasket sealant to prevent
leakage.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

HYDRAULIC VARIABLE-FLOW-RATE PISTON PUMP


As an alternative to the fixed-flow-rate gear pump,
the machine can be provided with another type of
variable-flow-rate pump.
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Pump 72 kW - 97 HP (580ST)
Model ....................................................................................................................... DANFOSS J71C Series 45
Type ......................................................................................................................................... with axial pistons
Displacement ............................................................................................................... 71 cm3/rev (4.33 in3/rev)
Pump 82 kW - 110 HP (590ST - 695ST)
Model ....................................................................................................................... DANFOSS J75C Series 45
Type ......................................................................................................................................... with axial pistons
Displacement ............................................................................................................... 75 cm3/rev (4.57 in3/rev)

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
COMPONENTS

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32

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

1. Snap ring

32. Piston disc

2. Seal ring

33. Articulation

3. Pump body

34. Pin

4. O-ring

35. Cylinder

5. Plug

36. Washer

6. Plug

37. Spring

7. O-ring

38. Washer

8. Bearing

39. Ring

9. Shaft

40. Plug

10. Cradle bearing

41. O-ring

11. Pin

42. Spool

12. Snap ring

43. Plug

13. Pin

44. O-ring

14. Swash plate

45. Spool

15. Spring

46. Valve body

16. Piston

47. O-ring

17. Cylinder assy

48. Plug

18. O-ring

49. Spring guide

19. Bearing

50. Spring

20. Pin

51. Spring

21. Valve plate

52. O-ring

22. Check valve

53. Adjusting screw

23. Spring

54. Plug

24. O-ring

55. O-ring

25. Plug

56. Spring guide

26. Cover

57. Spring

27. Screw

58. Spring

28. O-ring

59. Back-up ring

29. Load-sensing control valve

60. O-ring

30. Screw

61. Adjusting screw

31. Piston

62. Dowel

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
Disassembly
Remove the load-sensing control valve (29) by
removing the 4 screws (30).
Remove and discard the 4 O-rings (28).

Loosen and remove the 4 screws (27).


Carefully remove the end cap (26).
Prevent the valve plate (21) from falling off.
Place the end cap and valve plate in a clean area,
protecting them from contamination.
Remove the bearing (19) and the O-ring (18).

Tilt the pump body to allow oil to drain.


Remove the cylinder assy (17).
Set the cylinder assy on a clean and dry surface.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Rotate the pump body (3) to a position so that the


shaft is pointing down.
Pull the shaft (9) out of the pump body (3).
Compress the spring (15) and rotate the piston (16)
towards the swash plate (14).
Lift the swash plate/piston assy until it is tilted and
remove it from the pump body (3).
Remove the piston (16) and the spring (15) from the
swash plate (17) by removing the pin (13) and the
snap ring (12).

Remove the bearing (8).


Examine the cradle bearings (10) to determine if
they need replacement.
Removing the pins (11) will likely damage the cradle
bearings, so make sure you have replacement
bearings before you remove them.
If cradle bearings (10) need replacing, remove the 2
pins (11).
Note the location and orientation of the bearings for
re-installation.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Orient the pump body (3) with the flange upwards.
Remove the snap ring (1).
Carefully pry out the seal ring (2).
In case it is not possible to extract the seal ring (2),
try to push the seal out by going through the inside
of the pump body (3).

Disassembly of the load-sensing control valve


(29)
Remove the 4 plugs (40), (43), (48), (54) and their
O-rings (41), (44), (47), (55).
Remove the 2 screws (62).
Remove the spools (42), (45). Note which bore
each spool came out of.
Also note the orientation of each spool for reinsertion.
There may be differences in reinserting into the
same bore.
Remove the adjusting screw (53) and the O-ring
(52).
Remove the springs (51), (50) and the spring guide
(49).
Remove the adjusting screw (61), the O-ring (60)
and the back-up ring (59).
Remove the springs (57), (58) and the spring guide
(56).

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Disassembly of cylinder assy (17)


Pull to extract the piston disc (32) with the pistons
(31) from the cylinder (35).
Number the pistons and bores for reassembly if
they are to be reused.
Remove the articulation (33).
Remove the 3 pins (34).
NOTE: perform this procedure only if you suspect
problems with the spring.
Turn the cylinder (35) over. Using a press, apply
pressure on the washer (38) to compress the spring
(37). Compress the spring enough to safely remove
the ring (39).
Carefully release the pressure and remove the
washer (38), the spring (37) and the washer (36)
from the cylinder (35).

WARNING
Compressing the spring (37) requires about
350 400 N (79 90 lbf).
Use a press sufficient to maintain this force.
Ensure that the spring is secure before attempting
to remove the ring (39).
Release the pressure slowly after the ring (39) has
been removed.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Inspection
After disassembly, wash all parts (including the end
cap and the pump body) thoroughly with clean solvent and allow to air dry.
Clean the oil ducts in the pump body and the end
cover with compressed air.
Conduct inspection in a clean area and keep all
parts free from contamination.
Inspect the pistons (31) for damage and discoloration. Discoloured pistons may indicate excessive
heat; do not reuse.
Inspect the running surface of the pistons (A).
Replace all pistons with scored or excessively
rounded edges. Measure the piston foot thickness
(B). Replace all excessively worn pistons.
Check the axial end-play (C).
Replace all pistons with excessive end-play.
Foot thickness (B)

3.23 mm (0.13 in)

Piston axial end-play (C)

0.05 mm (0.002 in)

The articulation (33) should be free of nicks and


scratches, and should not be excessively scored.
Examine for discoloration that may indicate excessive heat or lack of lubrication.
The piston disc (32) must be flat. The pistons must
insert with a minimum side play.
Place the pins (34) on a flat surface and roll them to
make sure they are straight.
Discard and replace any damaged parts.

If the cylinder assy was fully dissembled, visual


inspection of the cylinder block, spring (37) and
washers (36), (38) should indicate minimal wear.
Replace if cracks or other damage is present.

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38

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Examine the running face of the cylinder (35). The


surface should be smooth and free of nicks and
burrs.
Ensure that no scratches or grooves exist; these
may drastically reduce output flow.
Minimum height (D)

62.25 mm (2.45 in)

Maximum bore diameter (E)

19.8 mm (0.78 in)

Inspection of the load-sensing control valve (29).


Carefully examine the plugs (40), (43), (48), (54) for
signs of wear.
Inspect all springs to make sure they are intact.
Check the inside and outside surfaces of the
springs for wear.
Check the spools (42), (45) outside diameter for
scratches and/or burrs.
Clean and coat all spools, bores and seals with a
light coating of oil.

Make sure that the shaft (9) and its splines are
straight and free of damage or heavy wear.
Inspect the shaft surface where it meets the seal
ring.
Replace the shaft if a groove exists at the sealing
land surface that may let dirt into or hydraulic oil out
of the unit.
Clean the sealing area with non-abrasive material.
Lubricate the shaft with a light coat of oil.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Carefully inspect each surface of the swash plate
(14) for wear. All swash plate surfaces should be
smooth.
Inspect the swash plates running surface for damage and brass transfer.
Excessive transfer may indicate that the pistons
should be replaced.
Finally, check the swash plate pin for scratches.

Inspect the cradle bearings (10) for damage or


excessive wear.
The polymer wear layer must be smooth and intact.
Replace if scratched or excessively worn.
Inspect the valve plate (21) for scratches or
grooves.
Check the plate for evidence of any cavitation along
the running face.
If pitting from cavitation exists, replace the valve
plate.
Check for excess wear on the running face. If any
discoloration or burn marks are observed, replace.
Run a fingernail or a pencil tip across the diameter
of the sealing land surface. No deep or outstanding
grooves should be felt, as these may decrease
pump flow. Lap or replace if grooves or nicks are
present.
Inspect the mating surfaces of the end cap and
valve plate for any possible contamination.
Measure the thickness of the valve plate (21).
Ensure that valve plate parallelism is equal to or
less than 0.025 mm (0.0010 in).
Appearance should be flat and smooth on both the
running face and the bottom surface.
The valve plate should be flat to 0.005 mm (0.0002 in)
convex.
Carry out a magnetic particle inspection to detect
possible cracks.
The plate (21) must be replaced in case of cracks.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Check the cover (26).


Remove the check valve (22) to expose the spring
(23).
Check and record orientation of the pin (20). The
split in the pin should be facing into or out of the slot
in the valve plate.
Inspect the check valve (22) for wear on its sealing
face.
Make sure the spring (23) is undamaged.
Replace any components if excess wear is present.

Check that the piston assy (16) for any obvious


wear or damage.
Check the corresponding end cap bore for galling or
excessive wear.

Inspect the pump body (3) to ensure that it is clean


and free of foreign material.
Inspect the surfaces of the cradle bearings and the
mating surfaces of the end cover.

The bearings (8) consist of a race (B) and a cone


(A).
Make sure the cup (B) and cone (A) are free of
excessive wear or contamination.
Rotate the bearing to check for smoothness.
If a contaminated bearing is suspected, clean with
solvent and lubricate with hydraulic oil.
Inspect for uneven wear.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Assembly
Coat the cradle bearings (10) with oil and install
them into the pump body (3).
Insert the pins (11) a minimum of 0.5 mm (0.02 in)
below the bearing surface.
If the bearings (10) are reused, reinstall them in
their original position.
Install the bearing (8).
Before replacing the spring (15), coat the contact
surface of the swash plate (14) with oil.
Assemble the swash plate (14), and the piston (16)
and the spring (15) into the pump body (3).
Rotate the piston (16) perpendicularly to the swash
plate (14) and, at the same time, compress the spring
(15) to fit it into the pump body (3).
Liberally lubricate all sides of the piston (16) and its
relevant bore and also the flat face of the swash
plate to prevent premature wear during start-up.
Insert the shaft (9) through the bearing in the body.
Push on the piston to rotate the swash plate in order
to put the shaft in properly.
Lubricate components before assembly.
Install the inner washer (36), the spring (37) and the
outer washer (38) into the cylinder (35). Compress
the spring enough to insert the ring (39).

WARNING
Compressing the spring (37) requires about
350 400 N (79 90 lbf).
Use a press sufficient to maintain this force.
Ensure that the spring is secure before attempting
to assemble the ring (39).
Release the pressure slowly after the ring (39) has
been installed.
Turn the cylinder over and assemble the pins (34)
and the ball guide (33) into the cylinder (35).
Assemble the pistons (31) on the piston disc (32).
Install the piston/disc assy into the cylinder (35).
Ensure the concave surface of the disc seats correctly in the ball guide. If reusing the pistons, install
them to the original cylinder bores.
Lubricate the pistons (31), the piston disc (32) and
the ball guide (33) before assembly.
IMPORTANT: make sure to install the piston disc
(32) so that it mates correctly with the articulation
(33), the concave side of the disc against the convex side of the ball guide.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Secure the end of the shaft with one hand and keep
it horizontal. Insert the cylinder assy (17) onto the
shaft (9).
While holding the shaft still, slightly rotate the cylinder assy (17) to help position the shaft splines over
the ball guide and align them with the cylinder
splines.
When the cylinder slides completely over the shaft
splines, reposition the body with the flange facing
downward.

Clean the valve plate (21) and the end cap.


Assemble the pin (20) in the end cap (26) and verify
that it is properly oriented with the split facing into or
out of the slot in the valve plate (21).
The pin should be installed to 3.61 0.25 mm
(0.1421 0.0098 in) above the valve plate (21) surface.
Apply a liberal amount of grease to the backside of
the valve plate (21) surface to hold it in position.
Assemble the valve plate (21) over the pin (20).
Assemble the spring (23) and the check valve (22).
To ensure proper pump operation, it is extremely
important to guarantee that there is no contamination between the end cap (26) and the valve plate
(21).
Assemble the bearing cup (19).
Assemble the bearing race (19) onto the shaft (9).
Apply some grease to keep the O-ring (18) in place.
Assemble the cover (26) to the body (3).
Screw in and tighten the screws (27) to a tightening
torque of 127 155 Nm (94 114 lbfft).

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Lubricate the seal ring (2) with oil.
Place a protective sleeve over the shaft end (9) to
prevent damage to the seal ring during installation.
Holding the seal ring (2) perpendicular to the shaft
(9), press it into the body just far enough to clear the
ring groove.
Assemble with the concave side towards the shaft
bearing.
Assemble the snap ring (1).

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44

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

CONTROL VALVES
The hydraulic circuit is a load-sensing flow sharing
system working together with a hydraulic pump.
This system has the advantage that at any time the
distribution of flow to the services being operated is
in proportion to the openings of the control valve
spools.
The flow distribution to the backhoe and loader
control valves is independent of the load and it is
therefore possible to operate two or more spools at
the same time.
Important components of the system are the pressure compensator valves in each control valve section, together with the load-sensing line which
connects all spools of the loader and backhoe
attachment control valves.
With the fixed-flow-rate hydraulic pump, the loadsensing line only connects the loader and backhoe
attachment control valves and does not have any
connection to the hydraulic pump.
The hydraulic pump draws oil from the tank and
flow from the front pump is directed to the centre
galleries of the loader and backhoe control valves
assemblies.
The flow coming from the rear section of the pump
passes through the flow divider valve and sends
the priority flow to the steering system, while the
remaining flow adds to the flow from the front
pump, directed to the loader and backhoe attachment systems.
The centre gallery of both the loader and backhoe
control valves are blocked by the end plate.
Pressure in the supply system is controlled by the
pump flow balancer valve in accordance with the
pressure in the load-sensing line.
Consequently, the higher the load sensing pressure
is, the less flow is returned to the tank, with a corresponding increase in flow/pressure to the hydraulic
systems.
Maximum system pressure is limited by the load
sense pressure relief valve which relieves pressure in
the load sense line when it reaches 210 bar (304 psi).
Since the flow balancer valve is influenced by the
load-sensing pressure, the valve diverts a sufficient
quantity of oil to the tank to maintain the maximum
system pressure of 210 bar (304 psi).

LOADER CONTROL VALVE


The loader control valve is mounted on the right
side of the machine adjacent to the pump.
The control valve assembly consists of a maximum
of three sections and provides oil to the loader
attachment, to the bucket and to the 4x1 bucket, if
installed.
BACKHOE ATTACHMENT CONTROL VALVE
The backhoe attachment control valve is located in
the rear part of the machine.
The control valve consists of a maximum of 7 or 8
sections and provides the oil flow for operating the
lifting, the digging, the bucket, the stabilizers, the
swing, the (optional) telescopic arm and the auxiliary services, if installed.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
SYSTEM DIAGRAM (BACKHOE ATTACHMENT MECHANICAL CONTROLS)

Hydraulic system oil

Suction oil

Steering system oil

Return to oil tank

Load-sensing line oil


1. Hydraulic tank

8. Backhoe hammer control valve

2. Hydraulic pump

9. Backhoe hammer

3. Power steering

10. Oil cooler

4. Hand hammer control valve

11. Return line distributor block

5. Hand hammer

12. Filter

6. Backhoe attachment control valve

13. Oil cooler by-pass valve

7. Loader attachment control valve

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

SYSTEM DIAGRAM (BACKHOE ATTACHMENT PILOT CONTROLS)

Hydraulic system oil

Suction oil

Steering system oil

Return to oil tank

Load-sensing line oil

Control circuit oil

1. Hydraulic tank

9. Backhoe hammer

2. Pump

10. Oil cooler

3. Power steering

11. Return line distributor block

4. Hand hammer control valve

12. Filter

5. Hand hammer

13. Oil cooler by-pass valve

6. Backhoe attachment control valve


7. Loader attachment control valve

14. Solenoid valve for piloting backhoe control


valve

8. Backhoe hammer control valve

15. Hydraulic control lever


16. Accumulator

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
OIL FLOW OPERATION
All loader/backhoe attachment systems are in
neutral position
Each control valve section within the backhoe or
loader control valve assemblies contains a spool,
two check valves and a load-sensing pressure compensator.
A load-sensing gallery connects the compensators
in each control valve section.
When all control valves are in neutral position, the
spools stop the oil flow in each system and the pressure of the load-sensing line can bleed to the tank
through the relevant return-to-tank port.
Because there is no load sense pressure being
applied to the rear face of the flow balancer valve,
the valve will move against the spring and off its
seat when pump pressure reaches 15 bar. The
pump flow is now diverted back to the tank and the
balancer valve maintains a stand-by pressure of 15
bar while the systems are in neutral position.

Flow balancer valve operation - All spools in neutral


Pump stand-by pressure 15 bar

Return to oil tank

1. Load sense bleed orifice 1 l/min

4. Load sense line

2. Load-sensing limiter
(system pressure relief valve)

5. Pump flow balancer (unload) valve

3. Return to oil tank

7. To backhoe control valves

6. Pump flow IN

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Load sensing flow sharing - All spools in neutral


Pump pressure

Return to oil tank

Trapped oil
1. Load non-return check valve

3. Pressure compensator

2. Load sense line

4. Spool

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

49

One hydraulic circuit operating


When a single hydraulic circuit is operated the
spool in the control valve section is moved allowing
oil to flow past the lands of the spool and apply
pressure to the metering element of the pressure
compensating valve.
The metering element moves upwards to allow oil
to flow to the load check valve and at the same time
uncovers the drilling in the spool portion of the
pressure compensator valve enabling operating
pressure to be sensed in the load sense gallery.
As pressure increases to open the check valve, the
load-sensing pressure is applied to the spring side
of the flow balancer valve.

When pump pressure overcomes the pressure


behind the load check valve, the valve opens allowing oil to flow into the cylinder port.
Exhaust oil from the cylinder returns to tank through
the other port in the control valve section.
If pressure in a load-sensing system reaches 195 bar
(2828 psi), the relief valve is activated.
Pump pressure is now limited to 210 bar (304 psi).
This is the pressure required to overcome the pressure of the flow balancing valve spring [15 bar
(217 psi)] plus the load sensing pressure controlled
at 195 bar (2828 psi).

A higher pressure is now required to operate the


flow balancer valve and pump pressure increase
accordingly.

Flow balancer valve operation - Hydraulic systems operating


Pump pressure
Load-sensing pressure
Return to oil tank
1. Load sense bleed orifice 1 l/min

4. Load sense line

2. Load-sensing limiter
(system pressure relief valve)

5. Pump flow balancer (unload) valve

3. Return to oil tank

7. To backhoe control valves

6. Pump flow IN

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50

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Load sensing flow sharing - One spool operating


Pump pressure
Trapped oil
Return to oil tank
1. Load non-return check valve

3. Pressure compensator

2. Load sense line

4. Spool

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

51

Two or more hydraulic systems operating


When two or more hydraulic systems operate, each
system operates at a different pressure.
If pump flow to a specific system is not controlled, the
system requiring a lower operating pressure will work
faster than the system requiring a higher pressure,
because the flow will have to overcome less resistance.
To prevent this situation, the pressure compensating
valve regulates the oil flow directed to the system
operating at a lower load.
When two spools are operated simultaneously pump
pressure is applied to the metering element of the
pressure compensating valve in both valve sections.
Both metering elements therefore move upwards
allowing oil to flow to the load check valves. At the
same time, the port in the spool section of the pressure compensating valve is uncovered to allow operating pressure to be sensed in the load-sensing
gallery.

Pump pressure will rise until it exceeds the pressure


of the check valve of the system operating at the
heaviest load and the pressure in the load sensing
line has a value similar to that of the high pressure.
The pressure required to operate the system with a
lower load is now too high and, if not limited, it will
result in this system operating instead of and faster
than the system with a higher load.
To compensate for this condition, the load sensing
pressure moves the metering element of the pressure
compensating valve in the system with a lower load
downwards and restricts the flow to the system.
This balancing of flow and pressure according to the
load ensures that both systems operate simultaneously and at a balanced flow rate.

Load sense relief valve operating


Pump pressure at 210 bar (304 psi)

Return to oil tank

Load sense pressure at 195 bar (2828 psi)


1. Load sense bleed orifice 1 l/min (0.22 gal/min)

5. Pump flow balancer (unload) valve

2. Load sense limiter (system relief valve)

6. Pump flow IN

3. Return to oil tank

7. To backhoe control valves

4. Load sense line

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Load sensing flow sharing - Two spools operating


1st spool operating pressure

Trapped oil

2nd spool operating pressure

Return to oil tank

1. Load non-return check valve

3. Pressure compensator

2. Load sense line

4. Spool

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
LOADER CONTROL VALVE
The loader control valve is mounted on the right side
of the machine adjacent to the pump.
This control valve may be of 2 types, similar to each
other, according to the hydraulic pump assembled to
the machine:
- gear pump (with fixed flow rate);
- piston pump (with variable flow rate).
The control valve consists of 2 or 3 sections, an end
cover and an inlet section.
The 3 control valve sections are:
- loader attachment lifting;
- loader bucket;
- 4x1 loader bucket.
The loader attachment control valve has three sections when the 4x1 bucket is installed on the
machine.
LOADER ATTACHMENT CONTROL VALVE WITH GEAR PUMP (WITH FIXED FLOW RATE)

A. 4x1 loader bucket section


B. Bucket section
C. Loader attachment lifting section
1. End cover
2. Bucket relief valve (rod side) - 240 bar (3481 psi)
3. Bucket relief valve (piston side) - 165 bar (2393 psi)
4. Hydraulic speed relief valve - 165 bar (2393 psi)
5. 4x1 bucket relief valve - 240 bar (3481 psi)
6. Hydraulic speed solenoid
7. Inlet spool

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

LOADER ATTACHMENT CONTROL VALVE WITH PISTON PUMP (WITH VARIABLE FLOW RATE)

A. 4x1 loader bucket section


B. Bucket section
C. Loader attachment lifting section
1. End cover
2. Bucket relief valve (rod side) - 240 bar (3481 psi)
3. Bucket relief valve (piston side) - 165 bar (2393 psi)
4. 4x1 bucket relief valve - 240 bar (3481 psi)
5. Inlet spool

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
CONTROL VALVE REMOVAL FROM MACHINE
Move the machine to a level and firm ground, away
from any soft ground, excavations and poorly
shored cavity.
Lower the loader attachment to the ground.
Place the direction-of-travel lever and gearshift lever
in neutral position.
Immobilize the machine by means of the parking
brake.
Lower the stabilizers to the ground.
Stop the engine and remove the starter key.
Release the hydraulic pressure by operating the
control levers in all directions.
On hydraulically controlled machines, turn the key
to ON and release the pressure by moving the
hydraulic control levers in all directions.
Place some wedges under the wheels so as to prevent the machine from moving.
Disconnect the electric system by disconnecting the
battery master switch.
Drain oil from the hydraulic system.
Disconnect the battery.
Clean the area around the control valve.
Identify and disconnect the articulations, cables and
hoses and plug the hose ends.
A drip tray will be required to catch oil draining from
inside the hoses.
Loosen and remove the fastening screws.
Remove the control valve assembly from the
machine.
For installation, follow the removal procedure in
reverse order.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

DISASSEMBLY
Loosen and remove the 3 nuts (1).
[Tightening torque = 27 2 Nm (19.91 1.47 lbfft)]
Extract the 3 tie rods (2).

Remove the end cover (7).


Disassemble the sections of the control valve (4),
(5) and (6) and the inlet section (3).
Check and, if necessary, replace the O-rings (8)
located between the different sections of the control
valve.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
BACKHOE ATTACHMENT CONTROL VALVE
The backhoe attachment control valve is located in
the rear part of the machine.
The backhoe attachment control valve may be of 2
types, similar to each other, according to the
hydraulic pump installed on the machine:
- gear pump (with fixed flow rate);
- piston pump (with variable flow rate);
Furthermore, the backhoe attachment control valves
are divided into:
- control valves for backhoe attachment mechanical
controls;
- control valves for backhoe attachment pilot controls.
The backhoe attachment control valve may consist
of 6 or 7 or 8 sections, an end cover and an inlet
section.
The possible 8 sections are:
- right-hand stabilizer;
- left-hand stabilizer;
- boom;
- digging;
- swing;
- bucket;
- telescopic dipper (optional);
- auxiliary attachment (only optional on control
valves for backhoe attachment pilot controls).

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

BACKHOE ATTACHMENT CONTROL VALVE - BACKHOE ATTACHMENT MECHANICAL CONTROLS


The backhoe attachment control valves for
machines with backhoe attachment mechanical
controls may have 6 or 7 sections (and not 8 sections).
With gear pump (with fixed flow rate)

A. Right stabilizer section

1. End cover

B. Left stabilizer section

2. Inlet section

C. Dipper section

3. Dipper relief valves - 240 bar (3481 psi)

D. Bucket section

4. Bucket relief valve (rod side) - 260 bar (3771 psi)

E. Swing section

5. Bucket relief valve (piston side) - 220 bar (3191 psi)

F. Boom section

6. Swing relief valve - 205 bar (2973 psi)

G. Telescopic dipper section

7. Boom relief valve (rod side) - 240 bar (3481 psi)


8. Boom relief valve (piston side) - 310 bar
(4496 psi)
9. Telescopic dipper relief valve - 124 bar (1798 psi)
10. Pump flow rate balancer valve - 10 bar (145 psi)

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

59

With piston pump (with variable flow rate)

A. Right stabilizer section

1. End cover

B. Left stabilizer section

2. Inlet section

C. Dipper section

3. Dipper relief valves - 240 bar (3481 psi)

D. Bucket section

4. Bucket relief valve (rod side) - 260 bar (3771 psi)

E. Swing section

5. Bucket relief valve (piston side) - 220 bar (3191 psi)

F. Boom section

6. Swing relief valve - 205 bar (2973 psi)

G. Telescopic dipper section

7. Boom relief valve (rod side) - 240 bar (3481 psi)


8. Boom relief valve (piston side) - 310 bar
(4496 psi)
9. Telescopic dipper relief valve - 124 bar (1798 psi)
10. Pump flow rate balancer valve - 10 bar (145 psi)

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

CONTROL VALVE REMOVAL FROM MACHINE


Move the machine to a level and firm ground, away
from any soft ground, excavations and poorly
shored cavity.
Lower the loader attachment and the backhoe
attachment to the ground.
Place the direction-of-travel lever and gearshift lever
in neutral position.
Immobilize the machine by means of the parking
brake.
Lower the stabilizers to the ground.
Stop the engine and remove the starter key.
Release the hydraulic pressure by operating the
control levers in all directions.
On hydraulically controlled machines, turn the key
to ON and release the pressure by moving the
hydraulic control levers in all directions.
Place some wedges under the wheels so as to prevent the machine from moving.
Disconnect the electric system by disconnecting the
battery master switch.
Drain oil from the hydraulic system.
Disconnect the battery.
Clean the area around the control valve.
Identify the position of all hoses to be disconnected
and tag them.
Disconnect the hoses and plug their ends.
Disconnect the manual control levers.
Loosen and remove the fastening screws.
Remove the control valve assembly from the
machine.
For installation, follow the removal procedure in
reverse order.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
Loosen and remove the 3 nuts (1).
[Tightening torque = 27.2 Nm (20.06 lbfft)]
Extract the 3 tie rods (2).

Remove the end cover (3).


Disassemble the sections of the control valve (4),
(5), (6), (7), (8), (9) and (10) and the inlet section
(11).
Check and, if necessary, replace the O-rings (12)
located between the different sections of the control
valve.

Inlet section disassembly


Remove the flow balancer valve (13).
[Tightening torque = 100 Nm (73.76 lbfft)]
Remove the load-sensing valve (14).
[Tightening torque = 45 Nm (33.19 lbfft)]
Remove the pressure relief valve (15).
Unscrew and remove the plugs (16) and (17).
Unscrew and remove the plug (18).
[Tightening torque = 20 Nm (15 lbfft)]

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Disassembly of the end cover


Remove the relief valve (19).
Remove the valve (20).

Disassemble the control valve sections

NOTE: The figure shows the stabilizer section, the


valves may be different in the other sections.

- loosen and remove the pin (25);


[Tightening torque = 10 Nm (7.4 lbfft)]

Remove the check valves (21).


[Tightening torque = 30 Nm (22 lbfft)]

- extract the spring (27) with the relevant spring


guides (26);

Remove the flow balancer valve (22).


[Tightening torque = 60 Nm (44 lbfft)]

- keep the seal (29).

Remove the pressure relief valves (37).


[Tightening torque = 70 Nm (52 lbfft)]

Remove the spool:


- loosen and remove the screws (23);
[Tightening torque = 10 Nm (7.4 lbfft)]
- remove the cover (24) and the seal (28);

- loosen and remove the yoke (30) with the protection (31);
[Tightening torque = 10 Nm (7.4 lbfft)]
- loosen and remove the screws (32);
[Tightening torque = 10 Nm (7.4 lbfft)]
- remove the flange (33) with the relevant seal
(34);
- keep the seal (35);
- extract the spool (36).

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Assembly of spool seals
Position the metal part of the seal (29) on the outside of the spool (36).
The seal must be fitted on the end of the spool so
that its grooves (S) are not damaged and its tightness is not jeopardized.
Let the seal slide perpendicularly onto the spool.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

BACKHOE ATTACHMENT CONTROL VALVE - BACKHOE ATTACHMENT PILOT CONTROLS


The backhoe attachment control valves for
machines with backhoe attachment pilot controls
may have 6 or 7 or 8 sections.
With gear pump (with fixed flow rate)

A. Right stabilizer section


B. Left stabilizer section
C. Dipper section
D. Bucket section
E. Swing section
F. Boom section
G. Telescopic dipper section
H. Auxiliary section
1. End cover
2. Inlet section
3. Dipper relief valves - 220 bar (3191 psi)

4. Backhoe bucket relief valve (rod side) - 260 bar


(3771 psi)
5. Backhoe bucket relief valve (piston side) 220 bar (3191 psi)
6. Swing relief valve - 205 bar (2973 psi)
7. Boom relief valve (rod side) - 124 bar (1798 psi)
8. Boom relief valve (piston side) - 310 bar
(4496 psi)
9. Telescopic dipper relief valve - 124 bar (1798 psi)
10. Auxiliary section relief valves - 220 bar (3191 psi)
11. Pump flow rate balancer valve - 10 bar (145 psi)
12. Load-sensing relief valve - 205 bar (2973 psi)

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

65

With piston pump (with variable flow rate)

A. Right stabilizer section


B. Left stabilizer section
C. Dipper section
D. Bucket section
E. Swing section
F. Boom section
G. Telescopic dipper section
H. Auxiliary section
1. End cover
2. Inlet section
3. Dipper relief valves - 220 bar (3191 psi)

4. Backhoe bucket relief valve (rod side) - 260 bar


(3771 psi)
5. Backhoe bucket relief valve (piston side) 220 bar (3191 psi)
6. Swing relief valve - 205 bar (2973 psi)
7. Boom relief valve (rod side) - 124 bar (1798 psi)
8. Boom relief valve (piston side) - 310 bar
(4496 psi)
9. Telescopic dipper relief valve - 124 bar (1798 psi)
10. Auxiliary section relief valves - 220 bar (3191 psi)
11. Pump flow rate balancer valve - 10 bar (145 psi)

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

CONTROL VALVE REMOVAL FROM MACHINE


Move the machine to a level and firm ground, away
from any soft ground, excavations and poorly
shored cavity.
Lower the loader attachment and the backhoe
attachment to the ground.
Place the direction-of-travel lever and gearshift lever
in neutral position.
Immobilize the machine by means of the parking
brake.
Lower the stabilizers to the ground.
Stop the engine and remove the starter key.
Release the hydraulic pressure by operating the
control levers in all directions.
On hydraulically controlled machines, turn the key
to ON and release the pressure by moving the
hydraulic control levers in all directions.
Place some wedges under the wheels so as to prevent the machine from moving.
Disconnect the electric system by disconnecting the
battery master switch.
Drain oil from the hydraulic system.
Disconnect the battery.
Clean the area around the control valve.
Identify the position of all hoses to be disconnected
and tag them.
Disconnect the hoses and plug their ends.
Disconnect the manual control levers.
Loosen and remove the fastening screws.
Remove the control valve assembly from the
machine.
For installation, follow the removal procedure in
reverse order.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
Loosen and remove the 3 nuts (1).
[Tightening torque = 27.2 Nm (20.06 lbfft)]
Extract the 3 tie rods (2).

Remove the end cover (3).


Disassemble the sections of the control valve (4),
(5), (6), (7), (8), (9), (10) and (11) and the inlet section (12).
Check and, if necessary, replace the O-rings (13)
located between the different sections of the control
valve.

Inlet section disassembly


Remove the flow balancer valve (19).
[Tightening torque = 100 Nm (73.76 lbfft)]
Remove the load-sensing valve (14).
[Tightening torque = 45 Nm (33.19 lbfft)]
Remove the pressure relief valve (15).
Unscrew and remove the plugs (16) and (17).
Unscrew and remove the plug (18).
[Tightening torque = 20 Nm (15 lbfft)]

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Disassembly of the cover


Remove the relief valve (21).
Remove the valve (20).

Disassemble the control valve sections

NOTE: the figure shows the swing section, the


valves may be different in the other sections.
Remove the check valves (22).
[Tightening torque = 30 Nm (22 lbfft)]
Remove the flow balancer valve (24).
[Tightening torque = 60 Nm (44 lbfft)]
Remove the pressure relief valve (23).
[Tightening torque = 70 Nm (52 lbfft)]

Remove the spool:


- loosen and remove the screws (26);
[Tightening torque = 10 Nm (7.4 lbfft)]
- remove the cover (27);

- if necessary, replace the O-ring (28);


- remove the spring (29) and the relevant spring
guide (30);
- loosen and remove the screws (31);
[Tightening torque = 10 Nm (7.4 lbfft)]
- remove the cover (32);
- if necessary, replace the O-ring (33);
- remove the spring (34) and the relevant spring
guide (35);
- extract the spool (25).

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
RELIEF VALVES
There are different relief valves installed on the
loader and backhoe attachment control valves.
The relief valves may be operated with anti-cavitation feature (1) or direct acting (2) and protect the
single systems from excessive pressure.

OPERATION
Relief valve inoperative
When the system is not subject to overload conditions pressure in the system is insufficient to overcome pilot valve spring pressure and move the
valve of its seat.
System pressure sensed on the larger rear face of
the poppet valve maintains the poppet and sleeve
firmly on their seats.
1. Sleeve
2. Poppet valve
3. Pilot valve
4. Pilot valve body
5. Piston
6. Control valve (cylinder) exhaust gallery
7. Cylinder supply gallery

Exhaust oil
High pressure oil

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Pilot valve operation


When the cylinder is subjected to shock forces, the
pressure increase in the cylinder supply gallery
exceeds the pilot valve spring pressure: this valve
lifts off its seat.
System pressure on the rear face of the poppet
valve escapes to tank between the sleeve poppet
and valve body causing a pressure differential
between the front and rear face of the poppet valve.
The higher pressure in the cylinder supply gallery
unseats the poppet valve and moves the piston to
seat against the pilot valve.
1. Sleeve
2. Poppet valve
3. Pilot valve

Exhaust oil
High pressure oil
Reduced pressure oil

4. Pilot valve body


5. Piston
6. Control valve (cylinder) exhaust gallery
7. Cylinder supply gallery
Pilot and poppet valve operation
The excessive system pressure in the cylinder supply gallery now flows past the poppet valve to the
cylinder exhaust gallery and back to tank.
NOTE: during this operation the sleeve poppet is
held in the fully seated position by pressure oil.
1. Sleeve
2. Poppet valve
3. Pilot valve
4. Pilot valve body
5. Piston
6. Control valve (cylinder) exhaust gallery
7. Cylinder supply gallery

High pressure oil


Exhaust oil
Reduced pressure oil

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Anti-cavitation operation
Relief valves with an anti-cavitation feature are fitted
in systems where a rapid extension of the cylinder
could create a void condition and permit the transfer
of oil from the high pressure side of a cylinder to the
low pressure (void) side.
When for example the boom is rapidly lowered and
the cylinder rod end circuit relief valve operates, oil
has been removed from the rod end of the cylinder
and a void created in the piston end. This oil is automatically replenished by the anti-cavitation device in
the opposite circuit relief valve as follows:
The void creates a pressure lower in the cylinder
supply gallery and back pressure in the control
valve exhaust gallery acts on the outer face of the
sleeve poppet moving it to the right.
Exhaust oil is then directed into the cylinder supply
gallery to stop cavitation.

High pressure oil

Relief valve exhaust oil

Anti-cavitation oil supply to cylinder

1. Anti-cavitation system pressure relief valve

4. Control valve exhaust gallery

2. Cylinder rod

5. Spool

3. System pressure relief valve

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Pilot-operated pressure relief valve with anti-cavitation feature subjected to overload and fully relieving
high-pressure oil
1. Sleeve
2. Poppet valve
3. Pilot valve
4. Pilot valve body
5. Piston
6. Control valve (cylinder) exhaust gallery
7. Cylinder supply gallery
Anti-cavitation cylinder resupply oil
Exhaust oil
Direct-acting pressure relief valve operation
High-pressure oil in the system is sensed in the cylinder supply gallery and acts on the surface of the
pressure relief valve poppet.
When pressure in the system exceeds the pressure
relief valve setting, the oil pressure lifts the poppet,
allowing excess pressure in the overloaded cylinder
to escape to the drain gallery.

A. Direct acting circuit relief valve


Valve not subjected to overload conditions
B. Direct acting circuit relief valve
Valve subjected to overload conditions
1. Relief valve seat
2. Relief valve poppet
3. Valve pressure adjusting screw
4. Spring
5. Control valve exhaust gallery
6. Cylinder supply oil
Exhaust oil
High-pressure system oil

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
OVERHAUL
Before removing the relief valves from the machine,
lower the loader and backhoe attachment to the
ground, stop the engine and relieve pressure in all
systems by moving the backhoe attachment, loader
attachment and telescopic dipper controls through
all operating positions. If the pressure relief valves
are suspected of contamination, they may be disassembled and inspected for wear. During assembly,
restore the correct pressure.
During disassembly examine the poppet and seat in
the plunger assembly for a complete seating surface.
Pilot operated relief valve

1. Body

9. O-ring

2. Shutter

10. Nut

3. Spring

11. O-ring

4. Spring

12. Adjusting screw

5. O-ring

13. Spring

6. O-ring

14. Pilot valve

7. Valve

15. Poppet

8. Cover

16. Piston

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Direct acting circuit relief valve

1. Body

6. Cover

2. Poppet

7. O-ring

3. Spring

8. Nut

4. Spring

9. O-ring

5. Shim

10. Adjusting screw

Loader bucket relief valve

1. Relief valve assembly


2. Spring

7. Piston

3. Nut

8. Poppet

4. Body

9. Valve

5. Adjusting screw

10. Inner body

6. Spring

11. Spring seat

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
ADJUSTMENTS
System pressure relief valve adjustment
After overhaul, the pressure relief valves of the system must be tested and adjusted using a suitable
hand pump (1), a 275 bar (3988 psi) pressure
gauge and a V. L. Churchill test kit (2).

The hand pump must be attached to inlet port and


the drain hose to the outlet port T of test block using
suitable 1/2 BSP (British Standard Pipe) adaptors.
The pressure gauge may be connected to either the
hand pump or to the 3/8 UNF threaded port G in the
test block.
Remove the plug and insert the valve to be tested
into the appropriate port in the test block:
A. Stabilizer and backhoe relief valves
B. Loader bucket relief valves
C. Unload valve
NOTE: a special removable insert, which is part of
the test block, is installed in the bottom part of the
port used for testing the loader attachment valve. If
difficulty is experienced in screwing the loader valve
into the test block, check that the insert is fully
seated and correctly installed. When correctly
installed the O-ring (3) on the face of the insert
should be visible.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Operate hand pump and record maximum pressure


reading on gauge. Compare pressure values with
previous specifications.
IMPORTANT: before removing the valve from the
test block, release the pressure in the system using
the vent valve on the hand pump.

To adjust all relief valves with the exception of the


loader bucket relief valve remove the valve cap,
loosen locknut and turn adjuster to obtain correct
pressure.
IMPORTANT: relief valves must not be set outside
off the specified range.

Loader bucket relief valve adjustment


If the loader bucket circuit relief valve requires
adjustment, use the special adjusting tool supplied
with the test kit.
Hold relief valve in vice and using wrench supplied
with tool, unscrew the internal valve assembly from
the valve body.
Screw the internal valve assembly (2) into the body
of the adjusting tool (1).

Install valve into test block and operate hand pump


until valve is pressurized to 170 bar (2466 psi).
Using the special wrench supplied, loosen the locknut on the end of the valve and adjust pressure setting.
Operate hand pump and recheck pressure.
When pressure setting is correct tighten locknut and
release pressure in circuit using the vent valve on
the hand pump.
Remove the valve and, using a 3/8 16 UNC screw,
remove the insert.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Reassemble the valve and install it on the test block.
Operate hand pump and recheck pressure.
If pressure is now lower than that recorded with the
insert installed it is an indication that the anti-cavitation feature of the valve is leaking and the valve
requires overhaul or replacement.
The insert isolates the anti-cavitation feature of the
valve. When reassembling the insert into the test
block ensure it is installed correctly. When correctly
installed the O-ring (3) on the face of the insert
should be visible.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

BACKHOE ATTACHMENT CONTROL VALVE PILOT SOLENOID VALVE

Solenoid valve is located under the cab floor and is


installed directly in the lower part of the chassis that
supports the operating levers. The solenoid valve is
installed on backhoe loaders with backhoe attachment pilot controls and has the task to transform the
electric controls, received from the control levers,
into hydraulic controls, and to send them to the
backhoe attachment control valve. The module (A)
is installed only on the machines versions with telescopic dipper. If the machine is not equipped with
telescopic dipper, the solenoid valve installed is of
type (B); while if the telescopic dipper is installed
the solenoid valve can be of type (A) + (B).

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
If the backhoe loader is equipped with a telescopic
dipper and if the rear control valve contains an auxiliary section, the solenoid valve consists of valve
(B) and module (C).

DISASSEMBLY
Unscrew and remove the accumulator (1) from the
solenoid valve assy (2).

Loosen and remove the three screws (3) and disassemble valve (4).
Check and replace the O-rings (5), if necessary.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

If necessary, it is possible to disassemble the various solenoid valves:


- disassemble the solenoid valves (7) by loosening
the screws (6);
- loosen and remove the valve (8);
- loosen and remove the solenoid valves (9) and
(10);
- check and replace the O-rings, if necessary.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

81

ACCUMULATOR GLIDE RIDE PARKER


TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Capacity (gas)...........................................................................................................................2 litres (0.44 gal)
Capacity (oil) ........................................................................................................................1.84 litres (0.40 gal)
Precharge .................................................................................................................. 30 1 bar (4354 14 psi)

MAINTENANCE

SAFETY

Regularly check the gas pre-charge pressure during the first few weeks of operation.

Charging must be carried out by qualified personnel.

Then check at suitable intervals based on this initial


experience.

Before taking any readings or pressurizing with


nitrogen, the accumulator must be isolated from the
hydraulic system and the fluid side discharged in
order to depressurize it.

Carry out a visual examination of the accumulator


periodically in order to detect any early signs of
deterioration such as corrosion, deformation etc.
Comply with the regulatory provisions concerning
the monitoring of operational equipment.
Before removal, make sure that there is no residual
pressure in the accumulator.
Before carrying out any maintenance operation,
discharge the gas of the accumulator using a
Parker UCA charging and measuring device.

Use only nitrogen (N2) to pressurize the accumulator.


Danger of Explosion - Never Charge with Oxygen
The types of nitrogen permitted are:
- type S (99.8% pure);
- type R (99.99% pure);
- type U (99.993% pure).
If the pressure of the gas contained in the nitrogen
bottle is greater than the maximum permissible
operating pressure of the accumulator, a pressure
regulator must be fitted to the nitrogen bottle.
The precharge should be checked during the first
week following commissioning of the system.
Thereafter, it should be checked every three
months, or at intervals determined by the Manufacturer.
Effect of temperature on precharge pressure
In order to compensate for the difference in pressure at ambient and operating temperature, the
precharge pressure po should be adjusted according to the operating temperature of the system.
Stabilization
The process of charging or discharging an accumulator with nitrogen causes a temperature change
which is transmitted to the surrounding air as the
temperature of the accumulator stabilizes.
To allow for the effects of temperature transfer, the
accumulator should be allowed to stand for a minimum of 15 minutes before a final reading of the
precharge pressure is taken.

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82

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

CHECKING AND ADJUSTING THE PRECHARGE PRESSURE


To check the precharge pressure of the accumulator, it is necessary to have the universal charging
and measuring kit UCA 380002714.
The kit must be screwed onto the accumulators
gas valve, allowing the precharge pressure to be
checked and reduced.
If the precharge pressure is to be increased, the
UCA can be connected to the nitrogen source with
the hose supplied.
The kit includes two pressure gauges for readings
of 0 25 bar (0 363 psi) and 0 250 bar
(0 3626 psi)
If a different pressure interval becomes necessary,
use a pressure gauge available in commerce.
Kit UCA 380002714
A. Inflation valve
B. Bleed valve
1. UCA
2. Adapter (long)
3. Adapter (short)
4. Adapter (insert)
5. Pressure gauge
6. Protective cap - gauge port
7. Collar - gas port
8. Protective cap - filling port
9. Hose (1/4) with O-ring
10. Valve

Remove the protective cover and cap (11) from the


accumulator, to gain access to the gas valve (12).
Select the appropriate pressure gauge (5) for the
pressure to be checked, remove the protective cap
(6) and connect the port to the UCA (1).
Make sure that the bleed valve (B) is fully closed
and that the inflation valve (A) is fully raised by turning the handwheel in a counterclockwise direction.
Assemble the short adapter and adapter insert (3)
and (4), screw onto the gas valve (12) and hand
tighten.
Screw the UCA onto the adapter.
Position the assembly to permit easy reading of the
gauge, then hand tighten the collar (7).
Open the inflation valve (A) by screwing the handwheel clockwise until the inflation pressure registers
on the gauge.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

83

READINGS AND RESULTS


3 conditions may become true.
Nitrogen po pressure is correct

Screw the handwheel (A) counterclockwise to close


the accumulator gas valve.

Screw the handwheel (A) counterclockwise to close


the accumulator gas valve.

Slacken the bleed valve (B) to release pressure in


the UCA.

Slacken the bleed valve (B) to release pressure in


the UCA.

Remove the hose carefully, to release internal pressure.

Unscrew the UCA from the adapter.

Refit the cap (8) on the valve (10).

Unscrew the adapters from the accumulator gas


valve.

Unscrew the UCA from the adapter(s).

Nitrogen po pressure is too high


Slacken the bleed valve (B) to vent nitrogen from
the accumulator until, after stabilization, the desired
pressure po is registered. Nitrogen vents into the
air.
Tighten the bleed valve (B) once the desired filling
pressure is reached.
Screw the handwheel (A) counterclockwise to close
the accumulator gas valve.
Slacken the bleed valve (B) to release pressure in
the UCA.
Unscrew the UCA from the adapter.
Unscrew the adapters from the accumulator gas
valve.
Nitrogen po pressure is too low
Close the inflation valve (A) by screwing the handwheel counterclockwise.
Remove the cap (8).
Connect the end of the hose (9) to the valve (10).
Connect the other end of the hose to the nitrogen
source.
Progressively open the valve on the nitrogen
source.
Turn the handwheel (A) clockwise to let pressurized
gas in.
Use special care if the accumulator has small
capacity.
When pressure po is reached, close the valve on
the nitrogen source.
To allow for the effects of temperature transfer, the
accumulator should be allowed to stand for a minimum of 15 minutes to allow the temperature to stabilize before a final reading of the precharge
pressure is taken.

Unscrew the adapters from the accumulator gas


valve.
After removing the UCA and adapter(s), make sure
that the accumulator gas valve (12) is sealing effectively.
Refit the gas valve dust cover (12) and replace the
protective cover (11).

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84

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

HYDRAULIC SWING SYSTEM


OPERATION
The hydraulic swing system has two versions:
- Sideshift:
it can shift laterally with the backhoe attachment
because it is installed directly on the sideshift carriage performing the shifting;
- Center pivot:
it is fixed because it is installed directly on the
chassis.
The backhoe attachment may slew by 180 around
the main frame.
This movement is obtained by means of two
hydraulic cylinders (1) installed between the main
chassis and the backhoe attachment support.
The cylinders act directly on the backhoe attachment support, with no need for connections or bell
cranks.
Each cylinder is free to rotate, around two pivots
(3), while the stem comes out or retracts inside of
the cylinder body (2).
As each cylinder extends or retracts, the swing post
and the cylinders turn, pivoting on the headstocks
within the carriage.
Each cylinder is double-acting and, as hydraulic oil
is fed to a cylinder to turn the post, one cylinder
pushes and the other cylinder pulls.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

85

HYDRAULIC OIL FLOW


Hydraulic feed to the swing cylinders is controlled
by the swing section of the backhoe attachment
control valve, which contains pilot-operated pressure relief valves with anti-cavitation feature to protect the system and the cylinders, should an
overload condition occur.
The diagram illustrates the operation of the swing
circuit when retracting the right-hand cylinder (4)
and extending the left-hand cylinder (5) in order to
swing the backhoe attachment to the right.
When swinging the backhoe to the left the oil flows
are reversed and exactly the same principle of
operation applies.
The various operating stages for right swing are
described below as an example.
When the swing control is operated the control
valve directs oil flow to the rod end of the right hand
cylinder.
The oil flow at pump pressure lifts the one-way
restrictor (2) from its seat, thus allowing the flow to
continue unrestricted to the inlet port of the piston
end of the left-hand cylinder.
System pressure increases causing the right hand
cylinder to retract and the left hand cylinder to
extend.
As the cylinders move, displaced oil on the piston
side of the left hand cylinder flows towards the one
way restrictor (7) in the inlet port on the rod end of
the right hand cylinder.
The oil flow moves the restrictor to the restrict position which limits the flow of oil and creates a back
pressure (1st stage restricted return oil) in the right
hand cylinder.
The restricted flow of oil passes through restrictor
(7) into the rod end of the left hand cylinder before
returning to the control valve and back to tank.
The spool in the swing control valve (1) is designed
so that, during operation, oil can flow freely through
the port directing oil flow to the swing cylinders, but
is restricted when going back to the tank.
This restriction is achieved using metering lands
machined into the lands of the spool and creates a
secondary back pressure (2nd stage restricted
return oil) in the rod end of the cylinder.

By allowing oil to flow unrestricted to the power side


of the cylinder and be restricted on the exhaust side
a smooth controlled swing of the backhoe at optimum speed is achieved.
When the swing system reaches the last 20 - 25
of travel, the sliding restrictor on the end of the piston rod touches the outlet port of the cylinder barrel.
This further restricts the flow of oil drained from the
cylinder. As the piston moves towards the end of its
stroke, the sliding restrictor is gently pushed down
towards the centre of the cylinder rod, allowing a
progressive and controlled stop of the swing cycle.
If the swing control valve is suddenly returned to
neutral mid-way through a full power swing the supply and exhaust ports in the main control valve are
totally blocked.
The momentum of the swinging backhoe assembly
if not controlled will make the machine extremely
unstable.
To prevent this from occurring, the system pressure
relief valves operate and drain the oil until an
excess pressure is detected.
When the relief valve operates the cylinder rod will
move and a void will be created in the low pressure
side of the cylinder.
The anti-cavitation feature in the relief valves prevents the void from creating by transferring the
drain oil from the side of the system where an
excess pressure occurred to the low pressure side.

Copyright
86

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Pump pressure oil


1st stage restricted return oil
2nd stage restricted return oil
Return to oil tank

1. Control valve swing section

5. Left hand cylinder

2. Limiter

6. Compressor rod

3. Cushioning rod

7. Limiter

4. Right hand cylinder

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

87

HYDRAULIC CYLINDERS

1. Loader attachment boom cylinder

7. Telescopic cylinder

2. Loader bucket cylinder

8. Swing backhoe cylinder

3. 4x1 loader bucket cylinder

9. Stabilizer cylinder (center pivot models)

4. Backhoe boom cylinder

10. Stabilizer cylinder (sideshift models)

5. Backhoe dipper cylinder

11. Backhoe sideshift locking cylinder (sideshift


models)

6. Backhoe bucket cylinder

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88

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

LOADER ATTACHMENT BOOM CYLINDER


2WS

1. Stroke
2. Completely retracted

2WS-TC

1. Stroke
2. Completely retracted

Copyright
SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
LOADER ATTACHMENT BOOM CYLINDER REMOVAL
Move the machine to a level and firm ground.
Sufficiently raise the loader attachment to allow the
boom cylinder pivot pin to be removed and securely
support the front and rear part of the bucket with
stands to prevent the loader attachment arms from
lowering when the cylinder is disconnected.
If the bucket cannot be safely supported, remove it
and support the loader attachment arms using a
suitable stand or hoist.

WARNING
Always ensure that the loader is fully supported. Do
not work under or near an unsupported loader
attachment, to prevent the danger of personal
injury.
Relieve the residual pressure in the system by moving the loader control lever through all operating
positions.
Stop the engine.
Support the cylinder using sling and suitable hoist.
Disconnect the hoses.
Cap or plug all exposed openings.

Remove the snap ring (1) and the spacer (2).

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90

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Remove the ring (3) and the pin (4).


Use a hammer to extract the rod pin (5).

Remove the loader attachment boom cylinder.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
LOADER ATTACHMENT BOOM CYLINDER DISASSEMBLY

1. Cylinder rod

9. Back-up ring

2. Bushing

10. O-ring

3. Wiper ring

11. Piston

4. Ring

12. Piston gasket

5. Seal ring

13. Piston guide rings

6. Guide bush

14. Screw

7. Cylinder head

15. Cylinder tube

8. Safety screw

16. Bushing

The disassembly procedure described below may


start on the premise that the hydraulic lines have
already been disconnected.

WARNING
Cylinder weight (2WS): 32.5 kg (71.65 lb).
Cylinder weight (4WS): 41.3 kg (91.05 lb).
Lift and securely place the cylinder on a workbench.
Be sure that the cylinder is placed horizontally.
Drain hydraulic oil from the cylinder.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Support the cylinder rod (1).


Unscrew and remove the safety screw (8).
Use wrench 380000725 to loosen the cylinder head
(7).
If necessary gently heat the gland carrier to soften
the thread sealant applied during manufacture.

Remove the cylinder head (7) from the cylinder barrel (15) using a plastic hammer.
Remove the cylinder rod (1) and the cylinder head (7).
IMPORTANT: be sure to pull the cylinder rod (1)
straight so as not to damage the sliding surfaces.

Loosen and remove the screw (14).


Extract the piston (11) and the cylinder head (7)
from the cylinder rod (1).

Only if necessary:
- remove the wiper ring (3), the seal ring (4), the
ring (5), the guide bush (6) and the back-up ring
(9) with the O-ring (10) from the cylinder head (7);
- remove the piston seal (12) and the piston guide
rings (13) from the piston (11).

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
LOADER BUCKET CYLINDER
2WS

1. Stroke
2. Completely retracted

4WS

1. Stroke
2. Completely retracted

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

LOADER BUCKET CYLINDER REMOVAL


Move the machine to a level and firm ground.
Place the bucket firmly on the ground.
Relieve the residual pressure in the system by moving the loader control lever through all operating
positions.
Support the cylinder using a sling or a suitable
hoist.
Disconnect the hoses.
Cap or plug all exposed openings.

Support the link rods.


Remove the snap ring (1) and the spacer (2).
Use a hammer to extract the rod pin (3).

Remove the snap ring (4) and the spacer (5).


Hammer to slide out the pin (6).

Remove the loader bucket cylinder.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
LOADER BUCKET CYLINDER DISASSEMBLY

1. Bushing

9. O-ring

2. Cylinder rod

10. Piston

3. Wiper ring

11. Piston gasket

4. Seal ring

12. Piston guide

5. Ring

13. Screw

6. Cylinder head

14. Cylinder tube

7. Snap ring

15. Bushing

8. Back-up ring

The disassembly procedure described below is


based on the premise that the hydraulic hoses have
already been disconnected.

WARNING
Cylinder weight: 32.5 kg (71.65 lb).
Lift and securely place the cylinder on a workbench.
Be sure that the cylinder is placed horizontally.
Drain hydraulic oil from the cylinder.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Support the cylinder rod (2) and use the wrench


380000722 to loosen the cylinder head (6).
If necessary gently heat the gland carrier to soften
the thread sealant applied during manufacture.

Remove the snap ring (7).


Extract the cylinder head (6) from the cylinder barrel
(14) by tapping it with a plastic hammer.
Remove the cylinder rod (2) and the cylinder head
(6).
IMPORTANT: be sure to pull the cylinder rod (2)
straight so as not to damage the sliding surfaces.

Loosen and remove the screw (13).


Extract the piston (10) and the cylinder head (6)
from the cylinder rod (2).

Only if necessary:
- remove the wiper ring (3), the seal ring (4), the
ring (5), the back-up ring (8) with the O-ring (9)
from the cylinder head (6);
- remove the piston seal (11) and the piston guide
ring (12) from the piston (10).

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
4X1 LOADER BUCKET CYLINDER

1. Cylinder rod pin


2. Dowel
3. Bucket
4. Cylinder
5. Dowel
6. Nut
7. Cylinder bottom pin

LOADER 4x1 BUCKET CYLINDER REMOVAL


Move the machine to a level and firm ground.
Place the bucket firmly on the ground.
Relieve the residual pressure in the system by moving the loader control lever through all operating
positions.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Disconnect the hoses.


Cap or plug all exposed openings.

Unscrew and remove the clamping screws of the


cover (C).
Remove the cover (C).

Remove the pin (2).


Slide out the rod pin (1) with an hammer.

Unscrew and remove the nut (6) and the dowel (5).
Slide out the lower pin (7) with an hammer.

Remove the 4x1 bucket cylinder.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
LOADER 4x1 BUCKET CYLINDER DISASSEMBLY

1. Cylinder tube

7. Cylinder head

2. Piston

8. Gasket

3. Pin

9. Wiper ring

4. O-ring

10. Cylinder rod

5. Piston guide

11. Bushing

6. O-ring

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100

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

BACKHOE BOOM CYLINDER

1. Stroke

590ST - 695ST

2. Completely retracted

BACKHOE ATTACHMENT BOOM CYLINDER


REMOVAL
Move the machine to a level and firm ground.
Place the bucket firmly on the ground.
Support the backhoe attachment elements for cylinder removal using a suitable support.

WARNING
Always support the structural members so that they
will be stable and safe to work around.
Stop the engine and move the backhoe attachment
control levers through all operating positions to
relieve any residual pressures in the system.
Position a sling or other suitable lifting equipment
around the cylinder.

580T - 580ST

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Disconnect the hoses (T).
Cap or plug all exposed openings.
Remove the snap ring (1) and the spacers (2).
Extract the pin (3) with a hammer.

Disconnect the yoke of the lock cylinder (4) for


transport from the hook (5).

Extract the pin (6).


Remove the hook (5) and the hook (8).
Now it is possible to remove the rod pin (7) by tapping with a hammer on one side and extracting the
pin from the other.
Remove the backhoe attachment boom cylinder.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

BACKHOE ATTACHMENT BOOM CYLINDER DISASSEMBLY

1. Wiper ring
2. Bushing

11. O-ring

3. Cylinder rod

12. Piston gasket

4. Wiper ring

13. Piston guide

5. Seal ring

14. Piston

6. Ring

15. Screw

7. Guide bush

16. Cylinder tube

8. Screw

17. Bushing

9. Cylinder head

18. Wiper ring

10. Back-up ring

The disassembly procedure described below is


based on the premise that the hydraulic hoses have
already been disconnected.

WARNING
Cylinder weight (580T - 580ST): 92.7 kg (204.36 lb).
Cylinder weight (590ST - 695ST): 106 kg (233.69 lb).
Lift and securely place the cylinder on a workbench.
Be sure that the cylinder is placed horizontally.
Drain hydraulic oil from the cylinder.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Support the cylinder rod (3).
Unscrew and remove the safety screw (8).
Use wrench 380000724 to loosen the cylinder
head (9).
If necessary gently heat the gland carrier to soften
the thread sealant applied during manufacture.

Extract the cylinder head (9) from the cylinder barrel


(16) by tapping it with a plastic hammer.
Remove the cylinder rod (3) and the cylinder
head (9).
IMPORTANT: be sure to pull the cylinder rod (3)
straight so as not to damage the sliding surfaces.

Loosen and remove the screw (15).


Extract the piston (14) and the cylinder head (9)
from the cylinder rod (3).

Only if necessary:
- remove the wiper ring (4), the seal ring (5), the ring
(6), the guide bush (7) and the back-up ring (10)
with the O-ring (11) from the cylinder head (9);
- remove the piston guide ring (13) and the piston
seal (12) from the piston (14).

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104

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

BACKHOE ATTACHMENT DIPPER CYLINDER

1. Stroke

590ST - 695ST

2. Completely retracted

BACKHOE ATTACHMENT DIPPER CYLINDER


REMOVAL
Move the machine to a level and firm ground.
Place the bucket firmly on the ground.
Support the backhoe attachment elements for cylinder removal using a suitable support.

WARNING
Always support the structural members so that they
will be stable and safe to work around.
Stop the engine and move the backhoe attachment
control levers through all operating positions to
relieve any residual pressures in the system.
Position a sling or other suitable lifting equipment
around the cylinder.

580T - 580ST

Copyright
SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Check that the dipper (A) and the boom (B) are in a
safe position to prevent involuntary movements
after the removal of the dipper cylinder (1).

Remove the snap rings (2) and the spacers (3).


Extract the pin (4) with a hammer.

Remove the snap rings (5) and the spacers (6).


Slide out the rod pin (7) with an hammer.
Remove the backhoe dipper cylinder.

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106

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

BACKHOE ATTACHMENT DIPPER CYLINDER DISASSEMBLY

1. Wiper ring

10. Back-up ring

2. Bushing

11. O-ring

3. Cylinder rod

12. Piston gasket

4. Wiper ring

13. Piston guide

5. Seal ring

14. Piston

6. Ring

15. Screw

7. Guide bush

16. Cylinder tube

8. Safety screw

17. Bushing

9. Cylinder head

The disassembly procedure described below is


based on the premise that the hydraulic hoses have
already been disconnected.

WARNING
Cylinder weight (580T - 580ST): 73.4 kg (161.82 lb).
Cylinder weight (590T - 695ST): 74.6 kg (164.46 lb).
Lift and securely place the cylinder on a workbench.
Be sure that the cylinder is placed horizontally.
Drain hydraulic oil from the cylinder.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Support the cylinder rod (3).
Unscrew and remove the safety screw (8).
Loosen the cylinder head (9).
If necessary gently heat the gland carrier to soften
the thread sealant applied during manufacture.

Extract the cylinder head (9) from the cylinder barrel


(16) by tapping it with a plastic hammer.
Remove the cylinder rod (3) and the cylinder head
(9).
IMPORTANT: be sure to pull the cylinder rod (3)
straight so as not to damage the sliding surfaces.

Loosen and remove the screw (15).


Extract the piston (14) and the cylinder head (9)
from the cylinder rod (3).

Only if necessary:
- remove the wiper ring (4), the seal ring (5), the
ring (6), the guide bush (7) and the back-up ring
(10) with the O-ring (11) from the cylinder head
(9);
- remove the piston guide ring (13) and the piston
seal (12) from the piston (14).

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108

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

BACKHOE BUCKET CYLINDER

1. Stroke

580T - 580ST

2. Completely retracted

BACKHOE BUCKET CYLINDER REMOVAL


Move the machine to a level and firm ground.
Place the bucket firmly on the ground.

WARNING
Always support the structural members so that they
will be stable and safe to work around.
Stop the engine and move the backhoe attachment
control levers through all operating positions to
relieve any residual pressures in the system.
Position a sling or other suitable lifting equipment
around the cylinder.
Remove the snap ring (1) and the spacer (2).
Extract the pin (3) with a hammer and pay attention
to bucket levers.
If necessary use hydraulic power to very slowly
retract the cylinder.

590ST - 695ST

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Disconnect the hoses (T).
Cap or plug all exposed openings.
Remove the snap ring (4) and the spacer (5).
Extract the pin (6) with a hammer.

Remove the backhoe bucket.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

BACKHOE BUCKET CYLINDER DISASSEMBLY

1. Wiper ring

10. Back-up ring

2. Bushing

11. O-ring

3. Cylinder rod

12. Piston gasket

4. Wiper ring

13. Piston guide

5. Seal ring

14. Piston

6. Ring

15. Screw

7. Guide bush

16. Cylinder tube

8. Safety screw

17. Bushing

9. Cylinder head

18. Wiper ring

The disassembly procedure described below is


based on the premise that the hydraulic hoses have
already been disconnected.

WARNING
Cylinder weight (580T - 580ST): 60.7 kg (133.82 lb).
Cylinder weight (590ST - 695ST): 67 kg (147.71 lb).
Lift and securely place the cylinder on a workbench.
Be sure that the cylinder is placed horizontally.
Drain hydraulic oil from the cylinder.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Support the cylinder rod (3).
Unscrew and remove the safety screw (8).
Loosen the cylinder head (9).
If necessary gently heat the gland carrier to soften
the thread sealant applied during manufacture.

Extract the cylinder head (9) from the cylinder barrel


(16) by tapping it with a plastic hammer.
Remove the cylinder rod (3) and the cylinder head
(9).
IMPORTANT: be sure to pull the cylinder rod (3)
straight so as not to damage the sliding surfaces.

Loosen and remove the screw (15). Extract the piston (14) and the cylinder head (9) from the cylinder
rod (3).

Only if necessary:
- remove the wiper ring (4), the seal ring (5), the
ring (6), the guide bush (7) and the back-up ring
(10) with the O-ring from the cylinder head (9);
- remove the piston guide ring (13) and the piston
seal (12) from the piston (14).

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112

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

TELESCOPIC CYLINDER

1.

Stroke

2. Completely retracted

580T - 580ST
590ST - 695ST

Copyright
SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
TELESCOPIC CYLINDER DISASSEMBLY

1. Cylinder rod

9. Back-up ring

2. Bushing

10. O-ring

3. Wiper ring

11. Piston

4. Ring

12. Piston gasket

5. Seal ring

13. Piston guide

6. Guide bush

14. Screw

7. Cylinder head

15. Cylinder tube

8. Safety screw

16. Bushing

The disassembly procedure described below is


based on the premise that the hydraulic hoses have
already been disconnected.

WARNING
Cylinder weight (580T - 580ST): 37.6 kg (82.90 lb).
Cylinder weight (590ST - 695ST): 41.9 kg (92.37 lb).
Lift and securely place the cylinder on a workbench.
Be sure that the cylinder is placed horizontally.
Drain hydraulic oil from the cylinder.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Support the cylinder rod (1).


Unscrew and remove the safety screw (8).
Loosen the cylinder head (7).
If necessary gently heat the gland carrier to soften
the thread sealant applied during manufacture.

Extract the cylinder head (7) from the cylinder barrel


(15) by tapping it with a plastic hammer.
Remove the cylinder rod (1) and the cylinder head
(7).
IMPORTANT: be sure to pull the cylinder rod (1)
straight so as not to damage the sliding surfaces.

Loosen and remove the screw (14).


Extract the piston (11) and the cylinder head (7)
from the cylinder rod (1).

Only if necessary:
- remove the wiper ring (2), the seal ring (3), the
ring (4), the guide bush (5) and the O-ring (9) with
the back-up ring (8) from the cylinder head (7);
- remove the piston guide ring (11) and the piston
seal (10) from the piston (12).

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
STABILIZER CYLINDER - CENTER PIVOT (695ST)

(1) Stroke
(2) Completely retracted

STABILIZER CYLINDER REMOVAL - CENTER PIVOT


Make sure that the backhoe loader is locked in the
transfer position or parked in a safety work position.
Lower the stabilizers to the ground.

Support the cylinder safely with suitable belt and


hoist.
Remove the snap ring (1) and the shim (2).
Extract the pin (3) with a hammer. Using the
hydraulic power, retract the cylinder very slowly.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Stop the engine.


Release possible residual pressure by moving the
control levers of the stabilizers.
Disconnect all hoses.
Cap or plug all exposed openings.
Remove the snap ring (4) and the shim (5).
Hammer to slide out the pin (6).

Remove the stabilizer cylinder.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
STABILIZER CYLINDER DISASSEMBLY - CENTER PIVOT

1. Cylinder rod

8. Back-up ring

2. Wiper ring

9. O-ring

3. Ring

10. Piston gasket

4. Seal ring

11. Piston guide

5. Guide bush

12. Piston

6. Safety screw

13. Screw

7. Cylinder head

14. Cylinder tube

The disassembly procedure described below is


based on the premise that the hydraulic hoses have
already been disconnected.

WARNING
Cylinder weight: 43.4 kg (95.68 lb).
Lift and securely place the cylinder on a workbench.
Be sure that the cylinder is placed horizontally.
Drain hydraulic oil from the cylinder.

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118

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Replace the cylinder rod (1).


Unscrew and remove the safety screw (6).
Use wrench 380000726 to loosen the cylinder head
(7).
If necessary gently heat the gland carrier to soften
the thread sealant applied during manufacture.

Extract the cylinder head (7) from the cylinder barrel


(14) by tapping it with a plastic hammer.
Remove the cylinder rod (1) and the cylinder head
(7).
IMPORTANT: be sure to pull the cylinder rod (1)
straight so as not to damage the sliding surfaces.

Loosen and remove the screw (13).


Extract the piston (12) and the cylinder head (7)
from the cylinder rod (1).

Only if necessary:
- remove the wiper ring (2), the seal ring (3), the
ring (4), the guide bush (5) and the O-ring (9) with
the back-up ring (8) from the cylinder head (7);
- remove the piston guide ring (11) and the piston
seal (10) from the piston (12).

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
STABILIZER CYLINDER - SIDESHIFT

1. Stroke
2. Completely retracted

STABILIZER CYLINDER REMOVAL - SIDESHIFT


Move the machine to a level and firm ground.
Place the bucket firmly on the ground.

Lower the stabilizers to the ground.


Relieve possible residual pressures in the system
by moving the loader attachment control lever
through all operating positions.
Loosen and remove the screw (1) and the nut (2).
Extract the pin (3) to release the cylinder rod.

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120

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Disconnect the hydraulic tubes at the top of the stabilizer leg.


Remove the snap ring (4) and extract the pin (5).
Screw in an eye screw (6) on the cylinder and connect a rope or a chain.

Lift and remove the stabilizer cylinder.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
STABILIZER CYLINDER DISASSEMBLY - SIDESHIFT

1. Cylinder rod

8. Back-up ring

2. Wiper ring

9. O-ring

3. Seal ring

10. Piston

4. Ring

11. Piston guide

5. Guide bush

12. Piston gasket

6. Cylinder head

13. Screw

7. Safety screw

14. Cylinder tube

The disassembly procedure described below is


based on the premise that the hydraulic hoses have
already been disconnected.

WARNING
Cylinder weight: 34.6 kg (76.28 lb).
Lift and place the cylinder on a workbench and
secure it to a vice.
Be sure that the cylinder is placed horizontally.
Drain hydraulic oil from the cylinder.

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122

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Support the cylinder rod (1).


Unscrew and remove the safety screw (6). Use
wrench 380000721 to loosen the cylinder head (7).
If necessary gently heat the gland carrier to soften
the thread sealant applied during manufacture.

Extract the cylinder head (7) from the cylinder barrel


(14) by tapping it with a plastic hammer.
Remove the cylinder rod (1) and the cylinder head
(7).
IMPORTANT: be sure to pull the cylinder rod (1)
straight so as not to damage the sliding surfaces.

Loosen and remove the screw (13).


Extract the piston (12) and the cylinder head (7)
from the cylinder rod (1).

Only if necessary:
- remove the wiper ring (2), the seal rings (3), the
ring (4), the guide bush (5) and the O-ring (9) with
the back-up ring (8) from the cylinder head (7);
- remove the piston guide ring (11) and the piston
seal (10) from the piston (12).

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
SWING CYLINDER

1. Stroke
2. Completely retracted

SWING CYLINDER REMOVAL


Move the machine to a level and firm ground.
Place the bucket firmly on the ground.
Support the backhoe attachment elements for cylinder removal using a suitable stand and a hoist.

WARNING
Always support the structural members so that they
will be stable and safe to work around.
Stop the engine and move the backhoe attachment
control levers through all operating positions to
relieve any residual pressures in the system.
Loosen and remove the nut (1).
Slide out the screw (2) from the opposite side.
Now the pin (3) can come out and release the rod
cylinder.
If necessary hammer to help the pin (3) to come
out.

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124

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Disconnect the feed and return hose to the cylinders and cap all exposed openings.
Loosen and remove the nuts (4) and the screws (5)
(from both sides).
Now it is possible to remove the support (6).

Carefully lift and remove the swing cylinder.

Copyright
SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
SWING CYLINDER DISASSEMBLY

1. Bushing

10. King pin

2. Wiper ring

11. O-ring

3. Cylinder rod

12. Back-up ring

4. Wiper ring

13. Piston gasket

5. Seal ring

14. Piston guide

6. Ring

15. Piston

7. Guide bush

16. Lock retaining piston

8. Bushing

17. Cylinder tube

9. Seal ring

The disassembly procedure described below is


based on the premise that the hydraulic hoses have
already been disconnected.

WARNING
Cylinder weight: 31 kg (68.34 lb).
Lift and place the cylinder on a workbench and
secure it to a vice.
Be sure that the cylinder is placed horizontally.
Drain hydraulic oil from the cylinder.

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126

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Use the wrench 380000725 to loosen the king pin


(10).
If necessary gently heat the gland carrier to soften
the thread sealant applied during manufacture.
Remove the rod assy with the king pin and the piston assy.

Unscrew and remove the piston lock (16).


Disassemble the cylinder rod (3) and piston assy
(15) and the king pin (10) complete with gaskets.
Check the bushings (8) status.

Only if necessary:
- remove the wiper ring (4), the seal ring (5), the
ring (6), the guide bush (7) and the back-up ring
(12) with the O-ring (11) from the king pin (10).
- remove the piston seal (13) and the piston guide
ring (14) from the piston (15).

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
BACKHOE ATTACHMENT LOCK CYLINDER - SIDESHIFT
4 sideshift locking cylinders are installed on the
backhoe loader.
Their function is to lock the carriage once the backhoe attachment is in digging position.
The cylinder consists of:
1. Body
2. Cylinder
3. Gasket

BACKHOE ATTACHMENT LOCK CYLINDER


REMOVAL
Park the machine on a flat surface and position the
bucket on the ground.
Position the backhoe support in the centre of the
machine and lower the backhoe on the ground.
Lower the stabilizers to the ground.
Relieve the residual pressure in the system by moving the control levers through all operating positions.

Disconnect the line (1).


Loosen and remove the two screws (2).
Now it is possible to remove the whole cylinder (3).

127

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128

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

SPECIAL TOOLS
PN CNH

DESCRIPTION

380000721

Wrench

380000722

Wrench

380000724

Wrench

APPLICATION
Telescopic dipper cylinder head
Stabilizer cylinder head (sideshift)
Loader bucket cylinder head
Backhoe boom cylinder head
Backhoe dipper cylinder head
Backhoe bucket cylinder head

380000725

Wrench

Swing cylinder head


Loader cylinder head

380000726

Wrench

Stabilizer cylinder head (center pivot)

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

129

HYDRAULIC CONTROL LEVERS


TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Weight

5.1 5.3 kg (11.24 11.68 lb)

Spool stroke

7.55 mm (0.29 in)


SPECIAL TORQUE SETTINGS

Maximum permissible on the hydraulic control lever

80 Nm (59 lbfft)

Control block retaining screw

30 Nm (22 lbfft)

Control block cardan joint

50 Nm (37 lbfft)

Control block nut

40 Nm (30 lbfft)

Lower body screw

50 Nm (37 lbfft)

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130

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

CONTROLS AND OPERATION

1. CONTROL ENABLE SWITCH: when set to ON


(control lamp on), this switch allows enabling all
hydraulic controls of the backhoe attachment.
2. LEFT HAND HYDRAULIC CONTROL LEVER:
the left-hand hydraulic control lever controls
attachment swing and the boom or the dipper
(depending on the control pattern adopted).

6. TELESCOPIC DIPPER CONTROLS: (proportional controls): press the right-hand button to


extend the telescopic dipper.
Press the left-hand button to retract the telescopic dipper.
7. WRIST RESTS: the wrist rests may be adjusted
to the required height.

3. RIGHT HAND HYDRAULIC CONTROL


LEVER: the right-hand hydraulic control lever
controls the bucket and the boom or the dipper
(depending on the control pattern adopted).

8. HYDRAULIC CONTROL LEVER SUPPORT


ANGLE ADJUSTMENT: these controls are
used for the fore/aft and left/right adjustment of
the arm.

NOTE: the operating speed depends on the angle


of movement of the control levers. In intermediate
position, two movements may be obtained simultaneously.

9. HORN BUTTON: (momentary action control).

4. STABILIZER CONTROLS: the right-hand control is for the right-hand stabilizer and the lefthand control is for the left-hand stabilizer.

11. DECELERATOR BUTTON: by pressing this


button, the engine rpm sets to low idle. During
this phase, the accelerator knob and pedal are
disabled.
By pressing the button again, the engine rpm is
restored and the accelerator knob and pedal
are functional again.

5. CONTROL PATTERN CHANGE SWITCH: this


switch is used for changing the standard control
pattern to the ISO pattern.

10. CONTROLS OF AUXILIARY BIDIRECTIONAL


ATTACHMENT (If fitted): proportional buttons
for the activation of the additional attachment.

Copyright
SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
COMPONENTS
RIGHT HAND HYDRAULIC CONTROL LEVER

1. Valve

10. Half handle

2. Plate

11. Cover

3. Screw

12. Switches

4. Nut

13. Washer

5. Boot

14. Spacer

6. Connector

15. Clip

7. Wedge

16. Clip

8. Half handle

17. Plugs [if the switches (12) are not fitted]

9. Screw

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132

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

LEFT HAND CONTROL LEVER

1. Valve

11. Cover

2. Plate

12. Switch push button (horn)

3. Screw

13. Washer

4. Nut

14. Spacer

5. Boot

15. Clip

6. Connector

16. Clip

7. Wedge

17. Plugs [if the switches (18) are not fitted]

8. Half handle

18. Push-buttons (auxiliary bidirectional)

9. Screw

19. Connector

10. Half handle

20. Wedge

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
Disassembly
Release the pressure from the hydraulic systems by
carrying out the operations described below.
Turn the starter switch key to ON but do not start
the engine.
Turn pilot control cancellation switch to the ON position.
Move the hydraulic control levers through all positions.
Turn the starter switch key to OFF. Disconnect the
negative battery cables.
Mark the position of the lever parts (see the
exploded view on previous pages).
Remove the knob (P) and the support (S).
Remove the bracket (O) with the relevant screws
(with left hydraulic control lever).

Remove the decal (D), the mounting plate (D1) and


the detach the connectors (Q) (with left hydraulic
control lever).

Pull out both switches (I) and the detach relevant


connectors (Q1) (with right control lever).

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134

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Remove the knob (P1) in the rear section of control


lever.

Remove the screws (V) and the plate (N).

Lift the rubber boot (RL) for left control lever and the
rubber boot (RR) for right control lever.

Tag all hydraulic hoses before disconnecting them.


Disconnect all hoses (H).
Disconnect all connectors (Q2).

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
- Remove the screws (V1) and take out control
lever from the column.

Remove the screws (9).


Remove the half handles (8) and (10).
Remove the cap (11).
Remove the wedge (7) from the connector (6).
Remove the wedge (20) from the connector (19).
Remove the discs (6) and (19).
Remove the grommet (13), the clips (15) and the tie
hose (16).
Extract the switches (12) and (18).
Remove the spacers (14). Remove the boots (5).
Loosen the nut (4) and remove the screw (3).
Remove the plate (2).

Assembly
Proceed in reverse order.
Follow the marks made during disassembly and tighten
the nut (4) to a torque of 36 44 Nm (26 32 lbfft).

135

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136

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

CONTROL LEVER VALVE


P. Supply
T. Return to tank
Right valve (dipper/bucket)
1. Retracting the dipper
2. Opening the backhoe bucket
3. Extending the dipper
4. Closing the backhoe bucket
Left valve (backhoe attachment/swing)
1. Boom
2. Right swinging
3. Lowering
4. Left swinging

1. cardan joint cam


2. Plate
3. Shim
4. Upper body
5. Rod guide
6. Seal ring
7. Seal ring
8. Rod
9. Spring guide
10. Spring
11. Shim
12. Cover
13. Safety ring
14. Spring
15. Spool
16. Shims
17. Valve
18. O-ring
19. Lower body
20. O-ring
21. O-ring

Copyright
SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
HYDRAULIC CONTROL LEVER VALVE OVERHAUL
Disassembly
Mark the direction of installation of all disassembled
parts.
Remove the U/J cam (1) using a key.
Remove the plate (2).
Remove the shim (3) from the upper body (4).
Extract the rod guide (5) and replace the seal rings
(6) and (7).
Drift the rod (8) out.
Remove the spring guide (9), the spring (10) and
the shims (11).
Extract the spool assembly.
Hold the cover (12) and remove the safety ring
(13).
Remove the spring (14) and the spool (15).
Remove and note the thickness of the shims (16).
Proceed in the same manner for the other rods.
Secure the upper body (4) in a vice.
Loosen and remove the screw (17) using a key and
replace the O-ring (18).
Separate the upper (4) and lower (19) bodies and
replace the seal rings (20) and (21).
Assembly
To reassemble, proceed in the reverse order to that
of removal.
In the case of reassembly without changing the U/J
cam (1), put the same value of shims (3) as those
in place.
After changing the U/J cam (1) adjust the pressure
of the cam on the rods.
Install a 2 mm (0.079 in) shim (3), check that the
recessing of the push-rods is less than 0.2 mm
(0.009 in), modify the shimming to more or less if
required.
Assemble the new seal rings (6), (7) and O-rings
(18), (20) and (21).
Lubricate the moving parts.
Apply brake thread fluid on the threads of the U/J
cam (1) and the screw (17).
Tighten the cam (1) and the screw (17) to a tightening torque of 50 Nm (37 lbfft).

137

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138

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

TROUBLESHOOTING
PRELIMINARY CHECKS
When troubleshooting, the pressure and flow rate
test must be carried out in a systematic manner
and the results analyzed.

The above-described preliminary checks assume


that the failure is not linked to the engine performance.

In this way, the trouble may be identified immediately and accurately.

Having performed these checks and failed to locate


the cause of the malfunction, the following procedures should be adopted:

If short-cuts, assumptions and guesses are made,


unnecessary component disassembly or replacement could result.
Follow the step-by-step procedures outlined below.
As a first step in the fault finding procedure, several
preliminary checks should be made.
These checks are important because, once they
have been performed, they need no longer be considered as a possible cause of the immediate or
reported malfunction.
Check that the hydraulic oil is at the correct level
and of the correct specification.
Check the loader, backhoe or any additional accessory such as hydraulic bucket, hammers etc., for
correct assembly or installation and additionally for
signs of external damage that might cause gross
misalignment of structural members.
Check in more detail for other mechanical damage
such as kinked, twisted, worn or decayed hoses,
damaged cylinders and bent elements.
Do not forget to check underneath the unit for damaged steel tubes, particularly if the unit has been
known to have operated in arduous conditions,
been grounded, or bogged down.
Ensure optimum operating temperature of the
hydraulic oil is achieved.
Perform the system pressure and rear pump relief
valve pressure tests.

- if possible, operate the backhoe attachment and


make notes of its operating characteristics. Move
each cylinder control lever so that the cylinders
move from the fully extended to the fully retracted
position;
- compare the operating characteristics in the preceding stage with the malfunctions listed hereunder.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

139

TROUBLESHOOTING (WITH REXROTH CONTROL VALVES)


GENERAL
TROUBLE
All systems fail to operate.

Slow operation or loss of


power in all systems.

CAUSE

ACTION

Pump drive inoperative.

Check and repair as necessary.

Low oil level.

Check and top up.

Restricted pump suction line.

Inspect the suction line and the tank


and repair as necessary.

Worn pump

Perform pump performance test and


replace/reseal as necessary.

Restricted pump suction line.

Inspect the suction line and the tank


and repair as necessary.

Load sensing pressure relief valve


incorrectly adjusted.

Make a system pressure test.

Hydraulic speed solenoid valve


inoperative.

Make a system pressure test.

CAUSE
Valve spool leaking.

ACTION
Examine lift section of loader control
valve assembly for wear or scoring.
Examine/reseal piston and gland.

LOADER ATTACHMENT
TROUBLE
The lifting system fails to
operate, is slow or loses
power.
The bucket fails to operate,
is slow or loses power.

Cylinder leak (spools in


neutral).

Hesitation in the raising


movement of the loader
attachment or of the
bucket cylinders when the
control is initially actuated.

Piston seals leaking or cylinder barrel


damaged.
The relief valves are stuck open, set to
a too low value or there is a leak in the
seat.
Valve spool leaking.

Piston seals leaking or cylinder barrel


damage.
Damaged piston barrel.
Internal valve leak.

Load check valve between control


valve sections damaged.

Check the bucket system relief valve.

Examine bucket section of loader


control valve assembly for wear or
scoring.
Examine/reseal piston and gland.
Examine/reseal piston and gland.
Examine appropriate valve section of
loader control valve assembly for wear
or scoring.
Disassemble and inspect.

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140

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

BACKHOE
Refer to the following backhoe fault finding chart after first considering the preceding charts. This chart should
only be referred to if the supply system is operating normally, thereby confirming that the hydraulic supply systems and the pump are correctly operating. See also Fault finding hydraulic pump.
TROUBLE
The lifting system is
inoperative, is too slow,
loses power or does not
hold.

The digging control fails to


operate, is slow or loses
power.

The digging control fails to


operate, is slow or loses
power.

The telescopic dipper fails


to operate, is slow or loses
power.

Stabilizer pads leaking.

CAUSE

ACTION

Lifting system relief valve stuck open,


set too low or seat leaking.

Test the pressure of the lifting system


relief valve.

Valve spool leaking.

Examine lift section of backhoe control


valve assembly for wear and scoring.

Piston seals leaking or cylinder barrel


damaged.

Examine/reseal piston and gland.

Digging system relief valve (piston


end) stuck open, set too low or seat
leaking.

Test the pressure of the digging


system relief valve.

Valve spool leaking.

Examine digging section of backhoe


control valve assembly for wear and
scoring.

Piston seals leaking or cylinder barrel


damaged.

Examine/reseal piston and gland.

The bucket relief valve (rod end) is


stuck open, set to a too low value or
there is a leak in the seat.

Test the pressure of the bucket relief


valve.

Valve spool leaking.

Examine bucket section of backhoe


control valve assembly for wear and
scoring.

Piston seals leaking or cylinder barrel


damaged.

Examine/reseal piston and gland.

The telescopic dipper system relief


valve (piston end) is stuck open, set to
a too low value or there is a leak in the
seat.

Test the pressure of the telescopic


dipper relief valve.

Valve spool leaking.

Examine telescopic dipper section of


backhoe control valve assembly for
wear and scoring.

Piston seals leaking or cylinder barrel


damaged.

Examine/reseal piston and gland.

Stabilizer lock valve leaking.

Inspect/overhaul the stabilizer lock


valve.

Piston seals leaking or cylinder barrel


damaged.

Examine/reseal piston and gland.

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SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

141

SWING
TROUBLE
Right or left swing is
inoperative, is too slow or
loses power.

CAUSE

ACTION

Swing system relief valves not


seating, set too low or seat leaking.

Test the swing system relief valve.

Valve spool leaking.

Examine swing section of backhoe


control valve assembly for wear or
scoring.

Piston seals leaking or cylinder barrel


damaged.

Examine/reseal piston and gland.

The swing fails to slow


down (bearing stop) at
stroke end.

Built-in sliding limiter damaged.

Disassemble and inspect.

Piston seals leaking or cylinder barrel


damage.

Examine/reseal piston and gland.

The swing does not stop


when the control lever
returns to neutral (one
direction only).

The system relief valve (return side) is


stuck open, set to a too low value or
there is a leak in the seat.

Test the swing system relief valve.

Valve spool leaking.

Examine swing section of backhoe


control valve assembly for wear or
scoring.

Cylinder leak (spools in


neutral).

Internal valve leak.

Examine appropriate valve section of


backhoe control valve assembly for
wear or scoring.

Piston seals leaking or cylinder barrel


damaged.

Examine/reseal piston and gland.

Load check valve between control


valve sections damaged.

Disassemble and inspect.

A system temporarily
lowers when given the
control to lift.

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142

SECTION 35 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

HYDRAULIC PUMP
TROUBLE
Noisy system.

Hydraulic oil drain through


tank breather.

Oil heating.

CAUSE

ACTION

Worn or damaged pump gears or


pressure plates.

Make a hydraulic pump performance


test.

Aeration: air entering the systems at:


suction tube, pump shaft, fittings or
cylinder ring nuts.

Make a hydraulic pump performance


test.

Cavitation: system restrictions in the


suction line or in the tank filter.

Make a visual check and/or a


hydraulic pump performance test.

Water in the system.

Visual check.

The system relief valve vibrates.

Check system relief valve, adjust/


overhaul as necessary.

Vibrations in the lines.

Visual check.

Cold hydraulic oil.

Check the hydraulic oil operating


temperature.

Wrong oil type.

Investigate/drain and top up.

Tank overfilled.

Check the hydraulic oil level.

Aeration: air entering the system at:


suction tube, pump shaft, fittings or
cylinder ring nuts.

Make a hydraulic pump performance


test.

Cavitation: Restriction of the suction


filter in the tank.

Make a visual check and/or a


hydraulic pump performance test.

Low oil quantity.

Fill the tank.

Contaminated oil.

Drain the tank and refill with clean oil.

Too high/low setting of the relief valve. Drain the tank and refill with clean oil.
Test relief valves.
Oil in system too light.

Drain the tank and refill with oil with


the correct viscosity.

Oil cooler fins obstructed.

Clean the oil cooler.

Oil leaks through the shaft


seal.

Worn shaft seal.

Replace shaft seal and inspect pump.

Foamy oil.

Low oil level.

Fill the tank.

Air in the suction system.

Check/tighten suction line.

Wrong oil type.

Drain and refill with correct oil.

Copyright

580T
580ST
590ST
695ST

SECTION 39 - CHASSIS
DESCRIPTION ................................................................................................................................................. 3
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF COMPONENTS .................................................................................... 5
COMPONENTS WITHIN THE CHASSIS .................................................................................................... 5
COMPONENTS OF THE LOWER PART OF THE CHASSIS ..................................................................... 6
COMPONENTS ATTACHED OUTSIDE THE CHASSIS........................................................................... 10
COMPONENTS OF THE UPPER PART ................................................................................................... 11

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2

SECTION 39 - CHASSIS

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SECTION 39 - CHASSIS

DESCRIPTION
The chassis of the Backhoe Loader is manufactured
as a one-piece unit, on which the main assemblies
are attached, or which supports the main assemblies.
TYPES
Some kinds of chassis are available, which differ
from each other according to some main characteristics of the Backhoe Loader.
Backhoe attachment:
- Center pivot (fixed central rotation) (only 695ST):
the backhoe attachment is directly connected to
the chassis and cannot shift laterally;
- Sideshift: the backhoe attachment is installed on a
sideshift support and can shift laterally on the
chassis guides.
Steering:
- 2 wheel steering (2WS);
- 4 wheel steering (4WS).

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4
2WS SIDESHIFT CHASSIS

4WS SIDESHIFT CHASSIS

4WS CENTER PIVOT CHASSIS

SECTION 39 - CHASSIS

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SECTION 39 - CHASSIS

REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF COMPONENTS


COMPONENTS WITHIN THE CHASSIS

ENGINE
Supported by 2 rubber silent blocks and held in
position by 2 support brackets.

Remove:

The brackets are welded to the frame on either side


of the engine.

- the engine guard;

WARNING
Since they are fastened to each other, the engine
and the transmission operate as a one-piece unit. If
separated in the machine they are not self supporting and will collapse causing injury or damage to
the machine.
TRANSMISSION
Attached to the rear side of the engine and supported by means of brackets provided with rubber
silent blocks.
To make repairs that require disassembly of the
transmission or engine it will be necessary to
remove the engine/transmission as a complete unit
from the chassis.
To remove the engine/transmission from the
machine, it will be necessary to carry out some
operations.

- the air filter;


- the radiator and the relevant hoses (or pivot it forwards if possible);
- the front support grid (if necessary).
Disconnect:
- the cable for supply pump throttle and electric
shut-off;
- the engine wiring harness;
- the fuel tank connection and the recovery/return
hoses;
- the relevant hoses (plug all ports as required) of
the hydraulic pump;
- the transmission lever;
- the transmission wiring harness connectors.

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6

SECTION 39 - CHASSIS

COMPONENTS OF THE LOWER PART OF THE CHASSIS

FRONT AXLE
The front axle is attached to the underside of the
chassis by 6 through screws (2WS) or 4 through
screws (4WS).
To remove front axle from the machine see
REMOVAL FROM MACHINE in SECTION 25 FRONT AXLE.

REAR AXLE
The rear axle is attached to the frame at the rear of
the machine by 4 through screws.
To remove rear axle from the machine see
REMOVAL FROM MACHINE in SECTION 27 REAR AXLE.

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SECTION 39 - CHASSIS
CARDAN SHAFTS
2WS

1. Front axle
2. Front cardan shaft
3. Screw [tightening torque 33 39 Nm (24 29 lbfft)]
4. Bracket
5. Bracket
6. Screw [tightening torque 35 41 Nm (26 30 lbfft)]
7. Rear cardan shaft
8. Rear axle

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8

SECTION 39 - CHASSIS

4WS

1. Front axle
2. Bracket
3. Screw [tightening torque 35 41 Nm (26 30 lbfft)]
4. Front cardan shaft
5. Bracket
6. Screw [tightening torque 35 41 Nm (26 30 lbfft)]
7. Rear cardan shaft
8. Rear axle

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SECTION 39 - CHASSIS
COUNTERWEIGHT

It is installed under the chassis in the front section of


the machine.
There are different types of counterweights:
2WS (A):
1. Standard counterweight .............159 kg (350 lb)
2. Medium counterweight...............330 kg (727 lb)

4WS (B):
3. Standard counterweight .............160 kg (352 lb)

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10

SECTION 39 - CHASSIS

COMPONENTS ATTACHED OUTSIDE THE CHASSIS

TANKS
The hydraulic oil tank (1) and the fuel tank (2) are
attached to the chassis under the cab, respectively
to the right-hand and left-hand side of the machine.
When drained of their contents, both tanks can be
removed from the machine, disconnecting the relevant hoses and removing the fastening screws
[tightening torque of 85 Nm (63 lbfft)].
IMPORTANT: make sure that all inlets and pipes are
plugged or blanked off to prevent the dirt from entering them.

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SECTION 39 - CHASSIS
COMPONENTS OF THE UPPER PART
CAB

A. Front coupler

6. Nut

B. Rear coupler

7. Retaining screw

C. Cab skirts

8. Washer

1. Main frame

9. Cab floor

2. Anti-vibration

10. Cab support (rear)

3. Dampener

11. Support

4. Washer

12. Bushing

5. Washer

13. Cab support (front)

11

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12

SECTION 39 - CHASSIS

The cab frame is a one-piece unit, mounted on top


of the chassis.
To remove the cab it is necessary to carry out different operations, listed below.
Remove the cab skirts (S) all around the cab.
Disconnect the two electric connectors from the
main harness and engine harness.
Remove the two front fixing screws (7) between the
cab floor and the cab support (13) (detail A).
Remove the two rear fixing screws (7) between the
cab floor and the rear supports (10) on the main
frame (1) (detail B).
Disconnect the two steering cylinder hoses (left
side).
Disconnect the pump - power steering valve hose.
Disconnect the power steering valve - oil tank hose.
Disconnect the load sensing valve hose.
Disconnect the stabilizer cables (mechanical version).
Disconnect the parking brake cable.
Disconnect the water - heater hoses (after water discharge).
Disconnect the air conditioning hoses (after coolant
drain).
Disconnect the transport lock cable (mechanical
version).
Disconnect the telescopic dipper control pedal
(mechanical version).
Turn the knobs and the boots of the various levers
(front and rear)
Lift the cab with the crane after its anchorage to lifting hook.
IMPORTANT: when lifting the cab ensure the
hydraulic brake tanks are not caught and damaged
on the loader support frame.

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580T
580ST
590ST
695ST

SECTION 41 - STEERING SYSTEM


DESCRIPTION ................................................................................................................................................. 3
2WS STEERING SYSTEM ............................................................................................................................... 4
4WS STEERING SYSTEM ............................................................................................................................... 7
POWER STEERING ....................................................................................................................................... 11
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................................................ 11
COMPONENTS ......................................................................................................................................... 13
DISASSEMBLY.......................................................................................................................................... 15
ASSEMBLY................................................................................................................................................ 18

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2

SECTION 41 - STEERING SYSTEM

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SECTION 41 - STEERING SYSTEM

DESCRIPTION
The steering system has the following features:
- double-acting steering cylinder;
- oil tank in common with the main hydraulic system;
- a hydraulic pump located on the rear part of the
transmission;
- steering (or power steering) control valve located
on the steering wheels column.
The oil is taken from the tank and reaches the
pump.
The front pump flow is directed to the loader and
backhoe attachment control valves.
Thanks to the presence of a flow divider, the rear
pump delivery guarantees priority oil delivery to the
steering system.
The flow divider includes a load-sensing valve and a
steering system pressure relief valve.
According to the machine model, the steering system can be of 2 types:
- 2WS steering system;
- 4WS steering system.

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4

SECTION 41 - STEERING SYSTEM

2WS STEERING SYSTEM

1. Flow divider

5. Oil filter

2. Power steering

6. By-pass valve

3. Hydraulic tank

7. Radiator

4. Return manifold

8. Front axle

Copyright
SECTION 41 - STEERING SYSTEM
OPERATION
Power steering - Neutral position

Pump pressure

Trapped oil

Stand-by pressure

Return to oil tank

When the steering wheel is held still, the leaf springs


return and hold the power steering spool in neutral
position.
This ensures that no more oil is supplied to the
steering cylinder.
The spool also traps the oil in the steering cylinder
and allows the oil in the sensing lines to return to the
tank, thus allowing the priority flow divider to move
to the left.

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6

SECTION 41 - STEERING SYSTEM

Power steering - Turning right

Pump pressure

Trapped oil

Metered pressure

Return to oil tank

When the steering wheel is turned, the movement


of the power steering spool forms a series of passages.
During right turn, oil flows through the spool along a
groove and into a passage in the housing which
leads to the metering unit. A gallery is also lined up
to allow pressure oil to flow down the sensing line
to the priority flow divider.

As the metering unit is turned by the drive shaft, it


directs a measured quantity of oil along another set
of passages in the spool then from these to the
steering cylinder.
Return oil from the other side of the cylinder is
directed through the spool to a return passage in
the housing.

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SECTION 41 - STEERING SYSTEM

4WS STEERING SYSTEM

1. Flow divider

6. By-pass valve

2. Power steering

7. Radiator

3. Hydraulic tank

8. Front axle

4. Return manifold

9. 4WS steering control valve

5. Oil filter

10. Rear axle

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8

SECTION 41 - STEERING SYSTEM

4WS STEERING CONTROL VALVE


The valve is located on the rear axle.
Remove the four hoses and the two fastening
screws.
Remove the valve.
Draw a diagonal line across the complete valve
block this will assist in the correct reassembly later.
The valve consists of a central manifold block which
all input and output pipes are attached to.
On each side of this block is a solenoid valve.
The solenoid valves have two positions: both of
these positions are working positions and there is
no neutral point.
Each spool is detented and therefore the solenoids
are only energized momentarily to move the spool.
On the end of each solenoid is an emergency hand
operating pin which moves the control spool without
energizing the solenoid.
The switching of the steering valve is normally controlled by a microprocessor located underneath the
right hand side console.
Components
1. Solenoid knob
2. Solenoid
3. Control spool
4. Block
5. Central block
6. Fixing screws
7. Piston
8. O-ring
9. O-ring

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SECTION 41 - STEERING SYSTEM
OPERATION

In the position shown both spools have been


moved by solenoids (2b) and (3b).
The detents on the (a) side of the solenoid hold the
spool in this position until another solenoid is
pulsed.

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10

SECTION 41 - STEERING SYSTEM

The spool in valve (3) was last moved by solenoid


(3b): oil flowing in from P3 flows through the internal
galleries of the spool and exits at port A3.
From here, oil enters valve (2), whose spool was
last moved by solenoid (2b).
Oil flows through port P2 and exits through port T2,
cutting off flow to the rear steering cylinder.
Now the oil returns in valve (3), entering through
port B3 and flowing out through port T3. From here,
oil enters the front steering cylinder.

The three modes of steering are as follows:


Front wheel only steering

Front and rear wheel steer

Front and rear wheel crab


The solenoids energized are shown in the table
below.
These are also the pins which need to be pressed
when changing steering mode manually in an emergency.
X = Energized
O = Not Energized
3a

3b

2a

2b

2WS

2WS

4WS

CRAB

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SECTION 41 - STEERING SYSTEM

POWER STEERING
The power steering consists of a metering and
emergency pump that includes:
- a gearwheel with fixed stator with inner teeth and
a rotor with outer teeth;
- a 4-way rotary control valve consisting of an outer
sleeve and an inner selection rotor;
- a rotor connected to the steering wheel by means
of the steering column, which can be of two types,
fixed or adjustable;
- a cardan shaft which is mechanically tied to the
gearwheel and to the outer sleeve, and allows the
transmissions movement;
- a set of centering springs between the outer
sleeve and the inner rotor.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
L. Left control port (steering cylinder)
R. Right control port (steering cylinder)
P. Inlet to steering pump
T. Outlet to oil tank
LS. Outlet to steering pump

11

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12

SECTION 41 - STEERING SYSTEM

2WS (with variable-flow-rate pump)


Model ........................................................................................................................ EATON P/N 403 -8754-04
Displacement ............................................................................................................. 160 cm3/rev (9.76 in3/rev)
Shock valve adjustment ......................................................................................................... 235 bar (3408 psi)
Load-sensing pressure relief valve adjustment...................................................................... 175 bar (2538 psi)
2WS (with gear pump)
Model ........................................................................................................................ EATON P/N 403 -8754-08
Displacement ............................................................................................................. 160 cm3/rev (9.76 in3/rev)
Shock valve adjustment ......................................................................................................... 235 bar (3408 psi)
Load-sensing pressure relief valve adjustment...............................................................................................No
4WS
Model ........................................................................................................................ EATON P/N 403 -7754-04
Displacement ............................................................................................................. 160 cm3/rev (9.76 in3/rev)
Shock valve adjustment ......................................................................................................... 235 bar (3408 psi)
Load-sensing pressure relief valve adjustment...................................................................... 175 bar (2538 psi)

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SECTION 41 - STEERING SYSTEM
COMPONENTS

13

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14

SECTION 41 - STEERING SYSTEM

A. Anticavitation valve

19. Seal ring

B. Manual check valve

20. Gasket

C. Inlet check valve

21. O-ring

D. Cylinder relief valve

22. Seal

E. Load-sensing relief valve

23. Bearing cup

F. Inlet relief valve

24. Bearing

1. Screw

25. Bearing cup

2. Cover

26. Spring

3. O-ring

27. Spacer

4. Spring

28. Sleeve

5. Plug

29. Plug

6. Ball

30. O-ring

7. Rotor/stator gear

31. Spring

8. Plate

32. Poppet

9. Shaft

33. O-ring

10. Power steering unit

34. O-ring

11. Valve seat

35. Ball

12. Ball

36. Pin

13. Ball holder

37. Spacer

14. O-ring

38. Valve seat

15. Spring

39. Poppet

16. Plug

40. Spring

17. Cross pin

41. O-ring

18. Spool

42. Plug

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SECTION 41 - STEERING SYSTEM
DISASSEMBLY
Cleanliness is extremely important when repairing
the power steering.
Work in a clean area.
Before disconnecting the lines, thoroughly clean the
area.
Use a wire brush to remove foreign material and
debris.
Use protective material on vice jaws.
Power steering unit distortion can result if jaws are
over-tightened.
M = mark

Loosen and remove the screws (1).


Remove the cap (2).
Remove the O-ring (3).

Remove the rotor / stator gear (7).


Remove the O-ring (34).
Remove the spacer (37).

15

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16

SECTION 41 - STEERING SYSTEM

Remove the shaft (9).


Remove the plate (8).
Remove the O-ring (33) from the power steering
unit (10).

Carefully remove the anti-cavitation valve (A) and


the manual check valve (B) from the holes of the
screws by tipping.

Carefully remove the spool-sleeve (18) assembly


from the power steering unit (10), keeping it vertical.
Extract the pin (17) from the spool (18) and sleeve
(28) assembly.

CAUTION
Do not lift the spool-sleeve assembly inside the
power steering unit (10).
Slowly rotate the spool-sleeve assembly to remove
it from the power steering unit.

Remove the bearing race (25), the bearing (24) and


the bearing race (23) from the power steering unit
(10).
Remove the seal ring (19).

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SECTION 41 - STEERING SYSTEM
Partially push the spool (18) on the end of the
sleeve, then carefully remove the centering springs
(26) from the spool (18).
The power steering with low input torque uses four
centering springs (26) and two spacers (27).
The standard input torque power steering uses six
centering springs.
M = mark
S1 = low torque springs
S2 = standard springs
NOTE: do not remove any valves other than the
manual check valve and the anti-cavitation valves.
All other valves are factory preset and are non-serviceable.

17

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18

SECTION 41 - STEERING SYSTEM

ASSEMBLY
Check all mating surfaces.
If any parts have scratches or burrs, the power
steering must be replaced.
The use of parts with scratches or burrs can cause
leakage and is therefore not recommended.
Clean all metal parts in clean solvent.
Blow dry with air.
Do not wipe dry with cloth or paper towel because
lint or other matter can get into the hydraulic system
and cause damage.
Do not use grit paper or file or grind these parts.
Lubricate all seals, replace all old seals with new
seals and do not use an excessive quantity of lubricant on the seals of the rotor / stator gear.
Carefully assemble the spool (18) and the sleeve
(28) so that spring slots line up correctly. Rotate
spool while sliding parts together.
M = marks
Test for free rotation.
The spool should rotate smoothly in the sleeve with
finger tip force applied to its end.
Align the spool and the sleeve making reference to
the relevant marks (M).

The centering springs (26) for power steering with


low input torque (S1) have four arched springs with
two flat spacers (27) in the center.
The centering springs (26) for power steering with
standard input torque (S2) have six arched springs.
Position centering springs so that the notches line
up, and arched center sections are nested together.
Next, with spring notches facing sleeve, insert one
end of entire spring set into spring installation tool.

Copyright
SECTION 41 - STEERING SYSTEM
Compress the extended end of the spring set and
push it into the spool (18) - sleeve (28) assembly.
Keep pressure on spring ends while withdrawing
installation tool and pushing forward on springs at
same time.
Central springs set in spring slots. Seat springs
down evenly and flush with upper surface of spool
(28) and sleeve (18).

Insert the pin (17) through the spool (18) - sleeve


(28) assembly until the pin is within the outside
diameter of the sleeve.

Lubricate the seal ring (19).


Install the bearing races (23), (25) and the bearing
(24).

19

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20

SECTION 41 - STEERING SYSTEM

Position the spool (18) - sleeve (28) assembly so


that the splined end of the spool enters the power
steering body first.

CAUTION
While inserting the spool-sleeve assembly, make
sure that the parts do not tilt out of position. Gently
push the assembly into place with a slight rotation,
holding the pin so that it does not come out and
gets stuck in the internal groove.
Completely insert the spool-sleeve assembly into
the body.
With aligned spool-sleeve assembly, check for free
rotation by turning the assembly with fingertip force
applied to the end.
Position the power steering unit (10) in a vice.
Lightly clamp on the edges of the mounting area; do
not over-tighten the jaws.
NOTE: make sure that the spool and the sleeve are
flush or slightly below the units surface.
Clean the upper surface of the unit.

Install the O-ring (33).


Install the anti-cavitation valves (A) and the manual
check valve (B).
Install the plate (8). Align the holes in the plate (8)
with the threaded holes in the unit (10).

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SECTION 41 - STEERING SYSTEM
Rotate the spool and sleeve assembly until the pin
is parallel with the ports face.
Install the shaft (9), making sure it is engaged with
pin (17).
To guarantee proper alignment, mark the shaft (see
reference L2).
When marking the shaft, note the relationship
between slotted end and splined end.
Lubricate and install the O-ring (34).
The lubrication will hold the seal in place.
Note the parallel relationship of reference lines L1,
L2, L3 and L4.
Lubricate and install the O-ring (3).
Remove the cap (2).

Screw in the 7 screws (1).


Pretighten the screws to a tightening torque of 17 Nm
(12 lbfft).
Then tighten the screws to a tightening torque of
35 45 Nm (26 33 lbfft) in the sequence shown
in the figure.

Check for proper timing by turning the spool clockwise and feeling pressure in the R port.

21

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22

NOTES:

SECTION 41 - STEERING SYSTEM

Copyright

580T
580ST
590ST
695ST

SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR


CONDITIONING
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS....................................................................................................................... 3
GENERAL.................................................................................................................................................... 3
CAB HEATING.................................................................................................................................................. 5
CONTROLS ................................................................................................................................................. 5
OPERATION................................................................................................................................................ 6
AIR FLOW DIFFUSERS .............................................................................................................................. 7
OVERHAUL ................................................................................................................................................. 9
TROUBLESHOOTING............................................................................................................................... 11
AIR CONDITIONING ...................................................................................................................................... 12
PRINCIPLES OF AIR CONDITIONING ..................................................................................................... 12
CONTROLS ............................................................................................................................................... 17
OPERATION.............................................................................................................................................. 18
TROUBLESHOOTING AND TESTING...................................................................................................... 25
FLUSHING THE SYSTEM......................................................................................................................... 43
DRAINING THE SYSTEM ......................................................................................................................... 45
CHARGING THE SYSTEM........................................................................................................................ 46
OVERHAUL ............................................................................................................................................... 47
COMPRESSOR .............................................................................................................................................. 52
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................................................ 52
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION .............................................................................................................. 53
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY............................................................................................................. 56
TROUBLESHOOTING............................................................................................................................... 65

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2

SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
GENERAL
ENGINE RADIATOR COOLANT
Anti-freeze - Akcela Premium .................................................................................................12 litres (2.64 gal)
Water ......................................................................................................................................12 litres (2.64 gal)
System type ........................................................... Pressurized FULL FLOW by-pass with expansion chamber
FAN BELT DEFLECTION
Natural suction ........................................................................................................ 13 19 mm (0.51 0.75 in)
Turbocharged.......................................................................................................... 10 16 mm (0.39 0.63 in)
THERMOSTAT
Opening starts at.......................................................................................................................... 82 C (179 F)
Fully open at ................................................................................................................................ 95 C (203 F)
Radiator cap.............................................................................................................................. 0.90 bar (13 psi)
MOUNTING SCREW TORQUE
Coolant/hot water hose connections ...........................................................................................5 Nm (3.7 lbfft)
Air hose connections...................................................................................................................5 Nm (3.7 lbfft)
Heater housing to floor fastening screws .................................................................................6.2 Nm (4.6 lbfft)
COOLANT
Type .................................................................................................................................................... HFC 134a
Coolant quantity ............................................................................................................................ 1.2 kg (2.6 lb)
COMPRESSOR OIL
Type ......................................................................................................... SP20 (PAG type, viscosity index 100)
Oil change amount................................................................................................................. 135 cm3 (8.24 in3)
CHECK CONDITIONS
Air inlet temperature.................................................................................................................. 37.8 C (100 F)
Rated air inlet humidity ................................................................................................................................ 40%
Evaporation temperature ................................................................................................................. 0 C (32 F)
Overheating ..................................................................................................................................... 5 C (41 F)
Inlet air speed ...............................................................................................1.0 - 2.0 - 3.0 m/s (3.3-6.6-9.9 ft/s)
Condensation temperature .............................................................................. 58 C (136 F) (16 absolute bar)
Undercooling .................................................................................................................................... 2 C (35 F)

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4

SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

PERFORMANCE
Performance calculated at 1 m/s (3.28 ft) [191.72 m3/h (6769.31 ft3)]
Exchanged heat ................................................................................................. 5.48 kW

4718.28 kcal/h

Air outlet temperature......................................................................... 5.64 C (42.15 F)


Air side load loss ............................................................................................. 2.97 daPa
....................................................................................................................(0.00431 psi)

0.30 mmH20
(0.012 inH20)

Coolant side load loss ....................................................................................... 13.1 kPa

0.13 bar (1.9 psi)

Performance calculated at 2.0 m/s (6.56 ft) [383.4 m3/h (13537.22 ft 3)]
Exchanged heat ................................................................................................. 9.29 kW

7,998.69 kcal/h

Air outlet temperature....................................................................... 10.30 C (50.54 F)


Air side load loss ............................................................................................. 9.34 daPa
..................................................................................................................... (0.0135 psi)

0.95 mmH20
(0.037 inH20)

Coolant side load loss ....................................................................................... 32.7 kPa

0.33 bar (4.8 psi)

Performance calculated at 3.0 m/s (9.84 ft) [575.1 m /h (20305.83 ft )]


Exchanged heat ............................................................................................... 12.00 kW

10332.00 kcal/h

Air outlet temperature....................................................................... 13.70 C (56.66 F)


Air side load loss ........................................................................................... 18.30 daPa
...................................................................................................................... (0.0265psi)

1.87 mmH20
(0.074 inH20)

Coolant side load loss ..................................................................................... 51.20 kPa

0.51 bar (7.4 psi)

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

CAB HEATING
The cab is heated by a radiator mounted below the
cab seat, which is supplied hot water from the
engine coolant system.
A blower motor mounted behind the cab radiator is
used to transfer the heat into the cab.

CONTROLS
Heater blower control
The three-speed blower is controlled by means of a
knob (1) on the instrument console, to the right of
the operators seat.
Turn clockwise to the first position for slow speed.
A further clockwise rotation selects medium and
fast speeds.
The blower draws outside air from beneath the cab
floor and blows it into the cab through a filter.
Temperature control
The temperature of the air coming from the radiator
is adjusted by rotating the control knob (2), which
opens or closes the radiator valve, thus increasing
or decreasing the water flow as required.
Turn clockwise to increase the temperature of the
air coming from the heater.
By rotating counterclockwise, the temperature is
decreased.

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6

SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

OPERATION
CAB AIR FILTER
Before servicing the air filter situated under the
operators seat, switch off the blower and close all
windows and one door.
Forcibly close the other door.
The resulting back pressure will dislodge loose dirt
from the underside of the filters.
To remove the filter (1), release the retaining straps
(2) and remove the filter element.
Ensure the element, and sealing faces are not damaged on removal.
IMPORTANT: in humid conditions, such as occur
on most early mornings, do not switch on the blower
prior to servicing the filters. Damp particles drawn
into the filter may solidify and prove difficult to
remove without washing.
The filter element is made of specially treated paper
with a sealing strip bonded to the outer face.
Clean this element by blowing with compressed air
from the clean side through to the dirty side. The
compressed air should not exceed 2 bar (29 psi)
and the air line nozzle should be at least 300 mm
(11.8 in) from the element.
HEATER RADIATOR
The heater radiator (1) is fitted in a housing under
the cab seat to guarantee a uniform distribution of
warm or cold air flow.
IMPORTANT: to ensure a good flow of air through
the heater radiator the filter should be cleaned more
frequently when operating in extremely dusty conditions.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

AIR FLOW DIFFUSERS


Air flow diffusers are connected to the heating system and receive air from the blower, to direct warm
or cold air onto the windshield and side windows or
into the cab, as required.
Each diffuser may be swivelled and adjusted to control the flow of air.
To open a diffuser, press one side of the disc and
turn it, as required, to direct the air flow.
The diffusers are located as follows:
- two on the top of the front control panels (A);
- two to the rear of the seat (C);
- two under the seat, one in front, the other on the
rear (D);
- two on the cab posts, right and left (B);
- two on the ceiling, in front and back of operators
head (E).
NOTE: the diffusers (B) and (E) are mounted only
when air conditioning (optional) is fitted.

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8

SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

ELECTRIC HEATER VALVE


The electric valve is equipped with a software that,
each time the supply of the cock is delayed (therefore also at backhoe loader start), carries out the
momentary positioning of the cock to completely
closed and returns to the position set by the temperature regulation handle located on the control
dashboard.
This enables the software to carry out a self-control
on the cock drive so as to always obtain an optimal
regulation of the ball for the water flow.
This is part of the cock normal operation and is not
to be considered as a fault.
Valve release
IMPORTANT: the release of the valve has to be performed if this valve remains idle for long periods.
Carry out this operation observing the following procedure:
- disconnect the electric connectors (1);
- loosen the screws (2) and extract the electric
valve (3) from the evaporator;
- loosen and remove the screws (4);

- separate the driving unit (5) from the cock (6);


- by means of a wrench, turn the pin (A) of the cock
to unlock it.

WARNING
Once this operation is complete, reset pin (A) in the
correct start position.

Reinstall the heater valve, repeating the previously


carried out operations in reverse order.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

OVERHAUL
IMPORTANT: when overhauling the heating system
remember that, with the engine running or shortly
after it is turned off, the system will be at engine
temperature and therefore the water will be hot and
under pressure.
To carry out the different checks and operations, it
is necessary to drain the system.
To drain the cooling system, disconnect either hose
at the union tee (1) found behind the engine oil filter,
mounted to the left-hand side of the engine.

RADIATOR CHECK
With the system drained, remove the heater radiator hose connections, the attaching screws and
remove the radiator from the vehicle.
Inspect the radiator (2).
Check that the water flows freely through the heater
line (otherwise, clear any obstruction).
Fins must be free from debris and not damaged:
clean and/or repair.
Clean the heater radiator using compressed air not
exceeding 7 bar (102 psi) taking care not to damage the radiator fins.
Make sure that the radiator is not leaking under
pressure.
Clean the chamber with a damp, cloth and reassemble the housing filter element with the seal
facing the inside of the cover.

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10

SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

BLOWER MOTOR CHECKS


The blower motor (3) can be removed by removing
the attaching screws and disconnecting the electric
connector.
Check that the fan operates correctly.
Otherwise, check the fuse and the continuity of the
fan motor. If defective, replace the blower unit as an
assembly.

HEATING VALVE
To service the control valve (4), disconnect the
hoses and the control tie rod and remove it.
Check its operation and replace it, if worn.

CONTROL PANEL
Check for the correct operation of the control knobs
(5) and (6).

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

11

TROUBLESHOOTING
Items that may cause trouble are listed in the table
below. Anyway, as a general rule, we recommend
carrying out some preliminary checks.
Ensure water flow to the heater radiator is steady
and all air has been removed from the system.
Hoses are unrestricted and not leaking.
Check the electric connections are good and the
blower motor is operational.
The operating cable to the heater valve and valve is
operational.
TROUBLE
Dust enters the cab.

Low blower motor air flow.

CAUSE

ACTION

Improper seal around filter element.

Check the seal condition.

Restricted filter.

Clean or replace the filter.

Defective filter.

Replace the filter.

Excessive air leak(s) around doors


and windows.

Repair and seal air leak(s).

Blocked filter or air recirculation filter. Clean or replace the filter(s).


Heater radiator core blocked.

Clean radiator core thoroughly.

Blower motor not working.

Blown fuse.

Replace fuse.

Cab does not heat up.

Engine not reaching operating


Replace the temperature switch.
temperature. Thermostat stuck open.

Cab does not cool down.

Temperature not stable.

Heater hose from engine to cab


radiator kinked or blocked.

Ensure water flow to heater radiator


is adequate and not restricted.

Heater control turned on.

Turn the temperature control knob


fully counterclockwise for maximum
cooling.

Heater control valve stuck in open


position.

Free up valve or change as required.

Low engine coolant level.

Top up coolant recovery tank.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

AIR CONDITIONING
PRINCIPLES OF AIR CONDITIONING
The function of the air conditioning system is to
improve the operators comfort by cooling down the
air temperature inside the cab and reducing the
humidity level.
In order to achieve this heat transfer the following
principals of heat generation and transfer are
applied within the air conditioning system.
When two bodies with a different temperature come
together, heat is transferred from one to the other.
On air conditioning systems, an evaporator is used
to maintain the low temperature of the coolant,
which absorbs the heat from the air within the cab.

When a gas is pressurized the temperature of the


gas will rise.
In air conditioning systems the increase in pressure
is achieved using a compressor.

When a gas is cooled it will condense into a liquid.


In the air conditioning system a condenser is used
to cool the gas and the resulting liquid is stored in a
receiver dryer.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

When a liquid is atomized through an orifice, the


temperature of the resultant vapour will lower.
The low temperature of the atomized liquid will then
absorb heat from its surrounding.
On air conditioning systems, coolant is atomized
using an expansion valve.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

OPERATING DIAGRAM

1. Expansion valve-atomizes liquid coolant before


passing to evaporator

3. Compressor-compresses and raises temperature of coolant gas

2. Evaporator-absorbs heat from air in cab

4. Condenser and receiver dryer-converts coolant


from gas to a liquid

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

LOW PRESSURE SIDE

15

HIGH PRESSURE SIDE

EXPANSION
VALVE
LOW
TEMPERATURE
HIGH PRESSURE
LIQUID FILTERED
AND MOISTURE
REMOVED

LIQUID ATOMIZED
AT A LOWER
TEMPERATURE

RECEIVER DRYER

LOWER
TEMPERATURE
HIGH PRESSURE
LIQUID

EVAPORATOR

CONDENSER

WARM LOW
PRESSURE
VAPOUR

HIGH
TEMPERATURE
HIGH PRESSURE
VAPOUR

COMPRESSOR
HEAT FROM INSIDE
CAB MOVES TO
COOLANT

HEAT MOVES TO
OUTSIDE AIR FROM
COOLANT

Air conditioning flow diagram

It can now be seen that the principal components of


an air conditioning system are:
- Coolant
- Compressor
- Condenser
- Receiver dryer
- Expansion valve
- Evaporator

Coolant is drawn into the compressor as a cool, low


pressure vapour which is compressed and then
pumped out as a hot, high pressure vapour to the
condenser.
As the hot, high pressure vapour passes through
the condenser core it gives off heat to the cooler
outside air, being drawn past the fins by the engine
cooling fan.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

By giving off heat to the outside air, the vapour is


condensed to a liquid which moves under high pressure to the receiver dryer where it is stored until
released to the evaporator by the temperature sensing expansion valve.
As liquid coolant passes through the metered orifice
in the expansion valve the coolant changes from a
high pressure liquid to a low pressure atomized liquid with a lower temperature.
This low pressure, low temperature, atomized liquid
enters the evaporator coils and absorbs heat from
the cab warm air blown across the coils and fins by
the cab blower motor.
The coolant now changes from a cold low pressure
atomized liquid to a warm low pressure vapour and
leaves the evaporator outlet, moving to the suction
(low pressure) side of the compressor to repeat the
cycle.
As this heat loss is taking place, moisture (humidity)
in the cab air will condense on the outside of the
evaporator and drain off as water through the drain
hoses attached to the evaporator drain pan, thereby
reducing the humidity level of the cab.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

CONTROLS
CONTROLS (580T)
The air conditioning control can be adjusted to
obtain the desired temperature in the cab.
To activate air conditioning, turn the selector (2).
Upon activation, the lamp (3) turns on. The selector
(1) allows choosing the ideal temperature according
to your requirements.
Positioning selector (1) to 0 and turning selector
(2) you will obtain more or less cold according to the
selector (2) position.
By positioning selector (1) to any other position different from 0, you will obtain instead a mixture of
warm and cold air and the desired climate inside the
cab.
NOTE: the air conditioning can be operated only if
the ventilation selector (4) is not set to the stop position.
Turn the selector (4) for air capacity according to
your requirements.

CONTROLS
(580ST - 590ST - 695ST)
The air conditioning control can be adjusted to
obtain the desired temperature in the cab.
To activate air conditioning, turn the selector (2).
Upon activation, the lamp (4) on the side instrument
cluster turns on. The selector (1) allows choosing
the ideal temperature according to your requirements.
Positioning selector (1) to 0 and turning selector
(2) you will obtain more or less cold according to the
selector (2) position.
By positioning selector (1) to any other position different from 0, you will obtain instead a mixture of
warm and cold air and the desired climate inside the
cab.
NOTE: the air conditioning can be operated only if
the ventilation selector (3) is not set to the stop position.
Turn the selector (3) for air capacity according to
your requirements.

17

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

OPERATION
COOLANT
To achieve the absorption and the release of heat
which is, in essence, the function of an air conditioning system, requires the use of a suitable coolant a liquid that has a relatively low temperature
boiling point, plus certain desirable safety and stability features.
The coolant used in the air conditioning system is
coolant HFC 134a.
NOTE: to help protect the environment legislation
has been introduced in most territories banning the
release into the atmosphere of coolants, including
HFC 134a. All service procedures contained in this
manual can be carried out without the need to
release coolant into the atmosphere.
In order to prevent the incorrect type of coolant
being charged to the system the service valves fitted to the Backhoe Loader and necessary to connect up coolant recovery, evacuation and recycling/
re-charging equipment will be of two different sizes
as recognized and specified by the air conditioning
industry.

WARNING
Coolant HFC 134a is not compatible with coolant
R-12. Do not try to replace coolant HFC 134a with
coolant R-12 or to test the system using instruments or tools previously used with R12, as the
system could get damaged.
HFC 134a coolant is stable at all operating temperatures and able to absorb great quantities of heat.
The boiling point of HFC 134a is -22 C (-7.6 F) at
atmospheric pressure.
If the pressure is increased, HFC 134a will readily vaporize to absorb heat at temperatures
between -11.7 C (10.94 F) at 1.9 bar (28 psi)
and 0 C (32 F) at 2.9 bar (42 psi) in the evaporator.
At higher pressures, HFC 134a will condense and
give off heat at temperatures between 48 C
(118.4 F) at 12.4 bar (180 psi) and 58 C
(136.4 F) at 15.85 bar (230 psi) in the condenser.

WARNING
HFC 134a can be dangerous if improperly handled.
Therefore it is important the following warning and
directions are adhered to.
Never expose any part of the air-conditioner system
to flame or excessive heat because of risk of fire or
explosion, and the production of phosgene gas.
Never disconnect or disassemble any part of the airconditioning system as escaping coolant can cause
frostbite.

WARNING
If coolant should contact the skin use the same
treatment as for frostbite.
Warm the area with your hand or lukewarm water
32 C (89.6 F), cover the area loosely with a bandage to protect affected area against infection and
consult a doctor immediately.
If coolant should contact the eyes wash immediately in cold clean water for at least 5 minutes and
consult a doctor immediately.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

COMPRESSOR
The compressor is mounted on the left-hand side of
the engine and is belt driven by the crankshaft pulley.
The compressor separates the low and high pressure sides of the system and has two functions:
- raising the coolant temperature by compressing
to a higher degree of temperature than the ambient (outside air) temperature;
- circulating the required volume of coolant through
the system.
The compressor is a 7-cylinder wobble plate unit,
housed in a die-cast aluminium housing.
The drive to the wobble plate comes from the pulley, through the clutch to the main driveshaft.
Attached to the driveshaft, there is a cam rotor
which oscillates the wobble plate.
The wobble plate is prevented from rotating by a
static gear engaging with teeth formed in the face of
the plate.
The seven pistons are connected to the wobble
plate by rods located in ball sockets.
Coolant is drawn in on the downward stroke of a piston through the reed valves located either end of the
cylinder assembly.
Coolant enters the cylinder assembly through a gallery in the outer circumference of the cylinder
assembly.
During the upward stroke, the piston compresses
the coolant and expels it through another reed valve
into an inner gallery in the cylinder and, from here,
out into the coolant system.
The compressor is lubricated with a Polyalklene
Glycol (PAG) oil Type SP20. This oil can be mixed
with coolant and is carried around in the coolant
system itself.
During the operation of the air conditioning system,
the compressor is activated by a clutch which
engages or disengages it as required.

19

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

TEMPERATURE SENSOR
The air conditioner temperature adjusting sensor is
mounted on the blower motor.
It is a device which turns the compressor clutch on
and off to maintain a constant average evaporator
temperature and senses the evaporator temperature using a thermistor (1).
The sensor compares the voltage of the thermistor,
which depends on the temperature of the evaporator, with the voltage across the potentiometer of the
in-cab temperature control switch.
The switch upon comparing the two voltages determines whether the compressor clutch should be
switched on or off in order to maintain the
desired in cab temperature control.
LOW-PRESSURE CUT-OUT SENSOR
The low-pressure sensor (1) is on the upper part of
the filter, situated in front of the radiator.
The purpose of the sensor is to shut off the compressor in case of low pressure in the cooling system.
Low coolant pressure may occur due to a faulty
expansion valve, icing up of the expansion valve
orifice or coolant loss.
Low coolant pressure may result in damage to the
compressor pump.
The low-pressure sensor is set by the Manufacturer.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

CONDENSER
The condenser (1), located at the front of the
machine in front of the engine radiator consists of a
number of turns of continuous coil mounted in a
series of thin cooling fins to provide a maximum of
heat transfer in a minimum amount of space.
The condenser receives the hot, high pressure
coolant vapour from the compressor.
The hot vapour passes through the condenser coils
and outside air is drawn through the condenser by
the engine cooling fan.
Heat moves from the hot coolant vapour into the
cooler outside air flowing across the condenser
coils and fins.
When the coolant vapour reaches the pressure and
temperature that will induce a change of state, a
large quantity of heat is transferred to the outside
air and the coolant changes to a high pressure
warm liquid.
The warm liquid coolant continues onto the
receiver/drier where it is filtered and desiccated, to
remove any moisture, before passing through an
outlet line to the thermostatic expansion valve.

RECEIVER DRYER
The receiver/dryer (1) stores the liquid coolant to
make sure that a steady flow to the expansion valve
is maintained also under extremely different operating conditions.
The drier contains a desiccant (molecular sieve)
which absorbs any moisture within the system, and
a filter which prevents the entry of foreign particles.
NOTE: any moisture in the air conditioning system
is extremely harmful. Moisture not absorbed by the
dehydrator will circulate with the coolant and droplets may collect and freeze in the thermostatic
expansion valve orifice. This action will block the
coolant flow and stop the cooling action. Moisture
will also react with coolant HFC 134a and the lubricant to form a corrosive acid.
The desiccant can only absorb a limited amount of
moisture before reaching saturation point. Because
of this, after any system component replacement or
repairs requiring entry into the system, the receiver/
dryer should be replaced.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

EXPANSION VALVE
The expansion valve (1) is located underneath the
evaporator in the pressure line coming from the
receiver/dryer and performs the following functions:
- metering action
(a metering orifice changes the liquid coolant from
a high-pressure low-temperature liquid to a lowpressure, lower-temperature atomized liquid);
- modulating action
(a thermostatically controlled valve within the
expansion valve body controls the volume of liquid coolant passing through the orifice and makes
sure that the coolant is fully vaporized within the
evaporator; the liquid coolant could damage the
compressor reed valves or freeze the pistons);
- control action
(the valve responds to changes in the cooling
requirements; when an increased cooling is
required, the valve opens to increase the coolant
flow, and when less cooling is required, the valve
closes and decreases the coolant flow).

Operation
All of the needed temperature sensing and pressure
sensing functions are consolidated into this basic
unit and no external tubes are required for these
purposes.
The coolant from the condenser and receiver dryer
enters the thermostatic expansion valve as a high
pressure warm liquid.
Upon passing through the ball and spring controlled
metering orifice, the pressure and temperature of
the coolant is reduced and the coolant leaves the
thermostatic expansion valve as a low pressure,
lower temperature atomized liquid.
The atomized liquid now passes through the evaporator where it absorbs heat before returning via the
expansion valve to the compressor as a warm low
pressure vapour.
There are two coolant passages in the valve.
One passage is in the coolant line from the condenser to the evaporator and contains the ball and
spring type orifice valve.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

The other passage is in the coolant line from the


evaporator to the compressor and contains the
valves temperature sensing element.
Liquid coolant flow from the condenser and receiver
dryer is controlled by a push-rod forcing the orifice
valve ball off its seat and the spring exerting pressure on the ball to keep it on its seat.
During stabilized (vehicle shutdown) conditions, the
pressure on the bottom of the expansion valve diaphragm rises above the pressure on the top of the
diaphragm allowing the valve spring to close the orifice.
When the system is started, the pressure on the bottom of the diaphragm lowers rapidly, allowing the
orifice to open and metre atomized liquid coolant to
the evaporator where it begins to vaporize.
Suction from the compressor draws the vaporized
coolant out of the evaporator and back through a
gallery in the top of the valve which asses the temperature sensor.
The temperature sensor reacts to variations in coolant gas pressure returning from the evaporator.
When heat from the passenger compartment is
absorbed by the coolant the pressure of the gas
increases causing a differential pressure above and
below the temperature sensor diaphragm.
The diaphragm reacts to this pressure differential
and a push rod forces the ball in the expansion
valve orifice further off its seat.
This reaction allows an increase in the atomized
coolant to flow through the valve, to the evaporator,
so that more heat can be absorbed by the air conditioning system.
Similarly when the temperature of the gas returning
from the evaporator decreases the pressure of the
gas decreases.
This causes the diaphragm to react accordingly and
allow the ball in the orifice to move closer towards its
seat thus reducing the flow of coolant through the
valve to the evaporator.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

EVAPORATOR
The evaporator is located beneath the cab seat and
consists of a number of turns of continuous coils
mounted in a series of thin cooling fins to provide a
maximum of heat transfer in a minimum amount of
space.
Low temperature coolant in the evaporator absorbs
heat from the hotter air in the operators compartment, thereby cooling the air.

An intake grille is located on the left side of the seat


base.
A portion of the air flow will recirculate through the
evaporator.

AIR FILTER
The blower fan draws warm air from outside the cab
through the intake filter (2) below the cab floor and a
ready cooled dehumidified air through the recirculation grille (1).
The air passes over the evaporator then into the
cab through the six louvered diffusers.
Two diffusers are located on the front instrument
panel to direct air onto the windshield.
Two are located at the base of the rear posts to
direct air onto the rear window.
Two additional vents are located at the front and
rear of the seat base to direct air at the operators
feet.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

25

TROUBLESHOOTING AND TESTING


Overhaul of the air conditioning system should only
be undertaken by a certified specialist refrigeration
engineer using a comprehensive air conditioning
test kit, including a gas leak detector, suitable for
HFC 134a coolant gas.

WARNING
Before dismantling an air conditioning system for
repair the gas within the system must be discharged and recovered using a certified recovery
unit designed for the type of coolant gas used in the
system.
NEVER release coolant gas into the atmosphere.
ALWAYS wear safety goggles and gloves when
servicing any part of the air conditioning system.
To prevent the entry of any foreign material, it is
necessary to observe some precautions.
Ensure all tools, gauges, hoses and replacement
parts are kept clean and dry and are suitable for the
type of coolant gas used in the system.

PRELIMINARY CHECKS
Always conduct the preliminary fault finding checks
before performance testing the system.
Run the engine at 1000-1200 rpm for 10 minutes
with the air conditioner set to maximum cooling and
the blower at high speed.
Check that the heater temperature control is
switched OFF.
Check that the blower fan is operating at all
speeds.
Check that the compressor clutch engages when
the temperature control switch is turned from OFF
to ON position. A clicking sound indicates the clutch
is engaging. If the clutch fails to operate it may indicate an electric problem in the high low pressure
cut out switches or malfunction of the electric drive
clutch on the compressor.
Check the engine cooling fan is drawing cool air
through the condenser.

Clean all hoses and fittings before disconnecting.

Check the compressor drive belt tension.

Cap or plug all openings when disconnected.

Check the condenser core and grid is clean and


free of obstruction.

When adding lubricating oil to the system always


uncap and re-cap the oil container immediately
before and after use. Always ensure the oil remains
free of moisture.

Check the cab air filter is clean and free of obstruction.


Check the evaporator fins are not plugged or
excessively dirty.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

1. Low side gauge

6. Test hose to low side service connector

2. High side gauge

7. Shut-off valve

3. Shut-off valve

8. Low pressure (suction) side service valve

4. Test hose to high side service connector

9. High pressure (discharge) side service valve

5. Centre hose (not used)

Performance testing the air conditioning system


The manifold gauge set is the most important tool
used in testing and servicing the air conditioning
system.
NOTE: for Dealers who posses the latest design
level of coolant recovery, recycling and recharging
station, these gauges are an integral part of the
machine.
The following instructions for performance testing
the air conditioning system is based on the use of
the gauge set shown. The principal of operation is
however similar when testing the system using a
recovery and recharging station with integral
gauges.
When using this type of equipment always consult
the manufacturers operating instructions.

Operating precautions
IMPORTANT: always ensure the shut-off valves
are closed (turn clockwise until seated) during all
test operations.
In the closed position, coolant circulates around the
valve stems to the gauges. Therefore, when the
manifold gauge set is connected into a system,
pressure is registered on both gauges.
- NEVER open the HIGH SIDE shut off valve when
the system is operating.
- ALWAYS open the LOW SIDE shut off valve
when adding coolant.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

27

Attaching the gauge set to the backhoe loader

WARNING
To avoid personal injury, stop the backhoe loader
engine during connection of the manifold gauge set.
Check that the gauge set shut off valves are closed
(turned fully clockwise).
Connect the high side gauge hose (normally red) to
the high pressure (discharge) side service valve
and the low side gauge hose (normally blue) to the
low pressure (suction) side service valve on the
backhoe loader. Ensure the hose connections are
fully tightened.
IMPORTANT: prior to connection of the manifold
gauge set, identify the suction (low pressure) and
discharge (high pressure) service gauge ports. The
high pressure service valve is always in the line
from the compressor to the condenser.
The high and low pressure service valves on the
backhoe loader are spring-loaded valves and will be
automatically opened when the test hose is connected.
NOTE: the test hose must incorporate a valve
depressor to actuate this type of valve.
The service valves have a protective cap. This cap
must be removed for test gauge connections and
replaced when service operations are completed.
Test procedure

Re-check that both the high and low side shut off
valves on the manifold gauge set are fully closed.
Run the engine at 1000 1200 rpm.
Turn the heater temperature control OFF.
Operate the system at maximum cooling, with the
blower fan at high speed for 10 minutes to stabilize
all components.
Check the manifold low pressure gauge reading
is within the specified range of approximately
0.28 2.48 bar (4.06 35.97 psi).
Check the manifold high pressure gauge reading
and compare the reading to the pressure indicated
on the pressure temperature chart below.
Measure and compare the temperature of conditioned
air entering the cab through the louvered air diffusers
with the ambient air at the air intake filters on the outside of the cab.
If the system is operating correctly, the conditioned air
entering the cab should be 6 - 9 C (42.8 - 48.2 F)
cooler than the ambient temperature of the outside
air.
If it is confirmed that the system is not operating
correctly refer to the fault diagnostic charts and performance test gauge reading examples on the following pages for possible corrective action.

WARNING

After the manifold gauge set has been connected


and before pressure tests can be made, the system
must be stabilized as follows:
Apply the parking brake, check the gearshift levers
are in neutral and close the cab windows and
doors.

A significant amount of coolant vapour may have


condensed to a liquid at the service fitting at the high
side of the compressor. Use a cloth or other protective material when disconnecting the manifold hose
from this fitting to prevent personal injury to hands
and face.

APPROXIMATE HIGH PRESSURE GAUGE READINGS


Ambient air temperature

High pressure gauge reading

C (F)

bar (psi)

27 (80.6)

10.0 / 11.6 (145 / 168)

29 (84.2)

11.2 / 12.7 (162 / 184)

32 (89.6)

12.3 / 13.8 (178 / 200)

35 (95)

13.3 / 15.2 (193 / 220)

38 (100.4)

14.5 / 16.7 (210 / 242)

41 (105.8)

16.0 / 18.3 (232 / 265)

43 (109.4)

17.3 / 20.0 (251 / 290)

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

PERFORMANCE TEST DIAGNOSIS


Pressure gauge values:

Low pressure - Low


High Pressure - Low

TROUBLE
Evaporator air not cold.

CAUSE
Low coolant charge.

ACTION
Perform leak tests and repair.
Drain the system.
Charge system, re-test system.

Evaporator air warm.

Very low coolant charge.

Perform leak tests and repair.


Drain the system.
Charge system, re-test system.

Evaporator air cool, but not Expansion valve not permitting


sufficiently cold.
sufficient flow.

Check expansion valve as follows:

Low pressure switch


cutting out.

Low pressure gauge should lower


slowly.

Expansion valve to
evaporator tube shows
considerable condensation
or frost.
Too cold to touch.

Stuck valve.

Set for maximum cooling.

If expansion valve is defective:


Discharge the system.
Replace the expansion valve.
Drain the system.
Charge the system.
Re-test.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

29

PERFORMANCE TEST DIAGNOSIS CHART


Pressure gauge values:

TROUBLE
Evaporator air warm.

Low pressure - High


High Pressure - High
CAUSE
Improper operation of condenser.

Liquid line hot (condenser


outlet to expansion valve
tube).
High pressure switch
cutting out.

ACTION
Inspect for dirty condenser restricting
air flow and cooling.
Check operation of condenser cooling
fans. Repair or replace as needed.

Overcharged with coolant.

Check for overcharge as follows:

Air in the system.

Stop the engine. Recover and recycle


the charge using correct recovery
equipment.
Recharge the system with the correct
quantity of coolant, replacing any lost
lubricant. Recheck performance of air
conditioning system.

Evaporator air not cold.

Expansion valve allowing too much


Check expansion valve as follows:
coolant to flow through the evaporator.
Set for maximum cooling.
Low pressure gauge should lower
slowly.
If expansion valve is defective:
Discharge the system.
Replace the expansion valve.
Drain the system.
Charge the system.
Re-test.

PERFORMANCE TEST DIAGNOSIS CHART


Pressure gauge values:

Low pressure - Low


High Pressure - High

TROUBLE

CAUSE

Insufficient cooling.

Restriction in liquid line.

ACTION
Discharge the system.
Replace receiver/drier.
Inspect all lines and tubing from
compressor outlet to expansion valve.
Replace if needed.
Drain the system.
Charge the system.
Re-test.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

PERFORMANCE TEST DIAGNOSIS CHART


Pressure gauge values:

Low pressure - High


High Pressure - Low

TROUBLE

CAUSE

Evaporator air not cold.

Internal leak in compressor (reed


valves, gasket, worn or scored piston
rings or cylinder).

ACTION
Discharge the system.
Replace the compressor.
Drain the system.
Charge the system.
Re-test.

PERFORMANCE TEST DIAGNOSIS CHART


Pressure gauge values:

Low pressure - Normal


High Pressure - Normal

TROUBLE

CAUSE

Insufficient cooling.
Low pressure reading does
not fluctuate with changes in
temperature control switch
(pressure should lower until
compressor cycles).

System low on charge. Air or


moisture in system.

ACTION
Perform leak test.
Discharge the system.
Repair leaks.
Replace receiver/drier.
Check oil level.
Drain the system.

Evaporator air not cold

Charge the system.


Re-test.

PERFORMANCE TEST DIAGNOSIS CHART


Pressure gauge values:

TROUBLE
Compressor cycles ON and
OFF too frequently.

Low pressure - High


High Pressure - Normal
CAUSE
Defective temperature control
(thermostatic) switch.

ACTION
Stop engine and shut off air
conditioning.
Replace temperature control switch.
Re-test system and check
compressor cycling.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

31

EXAMPLES OF MANIFOLD GAUGE READINGS AND INTERPRETATIONS


The following examples show typical low and high pressure gauge readings obtained when performance testing the air conditioning system with an ambient temperature of 35 C (95 F).
The recommended corrective action is based on a similar fault as identified in the performance test diagnosis
charts.
Performance Test Example 1

1. High side low


2. High side hand valve closed
3. High side hose connected to high side service
connector

5. Low side hose connected to low side service


connector
6. Low side hand valve closed
7. Low side low

4. Not used

Problem
Little or no cooling.
Cause
Coolant slightly low.
Conditions*
Too low pressure on low-pressure side.
The gauge should read 1 2 bar (14.5 29 psi).

Repair leaks. (Discharge and recover the coolant


from the system; replace lines or components).
Check compressor oil to ensure no loss.
Drain the system.
Charge the system.
Performance test the system.
Diagnostic
System coolant is low. May be caused by a small
leak.

Too low pressure on high-pressure side.


The gauge should read 13.3 14.8 bar ((193 215
psi)).
Evaporator air not cold.

Corrective procedures
Leak test the system.

NOTE: * test procedure based upon ambient temperature of 35 C (95 F).


For proper high side gauge reading for other ambient temperatures, refer to the pressure temperature
chart.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

Performance Test Example 2

1. High side low


2. High side hand valve closed
3. High side hose connected to high side service
connector

5. Low side hose connected to low side service


connector
6. Low side hand valve closed
7. Low side normal

4. Not used

Problem

Corrective procedures

Insufficient cooling.

Leak test the system.

Cause

Discharge and recover the coolant from the system.

Coolant excessively low.


Conditions*
Low side pressure very low.
The gauge should read 1 2 bar (14.5 29 psi).
Too low pressure on high-pressure side.

Repair leaks.
Check compressor oil to ensure no loss.
Drain the system.
Charge the system.

The gauge should read 13.3 14.8 bar ((193 215


psi)).

Performance test the system.

Evaporator air warm.

System coolant is extremely low. A serious leak is


indicated.

Low pressure switch cutting out.

Diagnostic

NOTE: * test procedure based upon ambient temperature of 35 C (95 F).


For proper high side gauge reading for other ambient temperatures, refer to the pressure temperature
chart.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

33

Performance Test Example 3

1. High side normal


2. High side hand valve closed
3. High side hose connected to high side service
connector

5. Low side hose connected to low side service


connector
6. Low side hand valve closed
7. Low side low

4. Not used

Problem

Corrective procedures

Insufficient cooling.

Leak test the system. Give special attention to the


compressor seal area.

Cause
Air in the system.
Conditions*
Low side pressure reading does not change when
compressor cycles ON and OFF.
High side pressure slightly high or slightly low. The
gauge should read 13.3 14.8 bar ((193 215
psi)).
Evaporator air not cold.

Discharge and recover the coolant from the system.


Repair leaks.
Replace receiver/drier.
Check compressor oil to ensure no loss.
Drain the system.
Charge the system.
Performance test the system.
Diagnostic
Air or moisture in system. System not fully charged.
NOTE: * test procedure based upon ambient temperature of 35 C (95 F).
For proper high side gauge reading for other ambient temperatures, refer to the pressure temperature
chart.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

Performance Test Example 4

1. High side low


2. High side hand valve closed
3. High side hose connected to high side service
connector

5. Low side hose connected to low side service


connector
6. Low side hand valve closed
7. Low side high

4. Not used

Problem

Corrective procedures

Insufficient cooling.

Replace the compressor.

Cause

Diagnostic

Compressor malfunction.

Internal leak in compressor caused by worn or


scored pistons, rings, or cylinders.

Conditions*
Low side pressure too high. The gauge should read
1 2 bar (14.5 29 psi).
Too low pressure on high-pressure side. The gauge
should read 13.3 14.8 bar ((193 215 psi)).
Evaporator air not cold.

NOTE: * test procedure based upon ambient temperature of 35 C (95 F).


For proper high side gauge reading for other ambient temperatures, refer to the pressure temperature
chart.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

35

Performance Test Example 5

1. High side high


2. High side hand valve closed
3. High side hose connected to high side service
connector

5. Low side hose connected to low side service


connector
6. Low side hand valve closed
7. Low side high

4. Not used

Problem
Little or no cooling. Engine overheats in some
cases.
Cause
Condenser not functioning properly.
Conditions*
Low side pressure too high. The gauge should read
1 2 bar (14.5 29 psi).
High side pressure too high. The gauge should
read 13.3 14.8 bar (193 215 psi).
Liquid line hot.
Evaporator air warm.
High pressure switch cutting out.
Corrective procedures
Check belt. Loose or worn drive belts could cause
excessive pressures in the compressor head.
Look for clogged passages between the condenser
fins and coil, or other obstructions that could reduce
condenser airflow.
If engine is overheating replace engine thermostat
and radiator pressure cap.

At this point, operate the system and check its performance.


If still unsatisfactory, proceed as follows:
- discharge and recover the coolant from the system;
- remove the condenser, clean and flush it to
ensure a free flow of coolant. Otherwise, if the
condenser appears to be particularly dirty or
obstructed, replace it;
- replace the receiver/drier;
- drain the system and recharge it with the correct
quantity of coolant;
- carry out the performance test of the system.
Diagnostic
Lack of cooling caused by pressure that is too high
on the high side, resulting from improper operation
of condenser. (Coolant charge may be normal or
excessive).
NOTE: * test procedure based upon ambient temperature of 35 C (95 F).
For proper high side gauge reading for other ambient temperatures, refer to the pressure temperature
chart.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

Performance Test Example 6

1. High side normal


2. High side hand valve closed
3. High side hose connected to high side service
connector

5. Low side hose connected to low side service


connector
6. Low side hand valve closed
7. Low side normal

4. Not used

Problem

Corrective procedures

Little or no cooling.

Discharge and recover the coolant from the system.

Cause
Large amount of air in system.
Conditions*
Low side pressure too high. The gauge should read
1 2 bar (14.5 29 psi).
Too low pressure on high-pressure side. The gauge
should read 13.3 14.8 bar (193 215 psi).
Evaporator air not cold.

Replace receiver/drier.
Drain the system.
Charge the system.
Performance test the system.
Diagnostic
Air in the system. Air and humidity contained in it
contaminate the system: therefore, it will operate
incorrectly.
NOTE: * test procedure based upon ambient temperature of 35 C (95 F).
For proper high side gauge reading for other ambient temperatures, refer to the pressure temperature
chart.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

37

Performance Test Example 7

1. High side high


2. High side hand valve closed
3. High side hose connected to high side service
connector

5. Low side hose connected to low side service


connector
6. Low side hand valve closed
7. Low side high

4. Not used

Problem
Little or no cooling.

If the test indicates that the expansion valve is


defective, proceed as follows:

Cause

- discharge and recover the coolant from the system;

Improper operation of thermostatic expansion valve


(stuck open).

- replace the expansion valve;

Conditions*
Low side pressure too high. The gauge should read
1 2 bar (14.5 29 psi).
High side pressure too high. The gauge should
read 13.3 14.8 bar (193 215 psi).
Evaporator air warm.
Evaporator and suction hose (to compressor) surfaces show considerable moisture.
Corrective procedures
Check for sticking expansion valve as follows:
- operate the system at maximum cooling;
- check the low-pressure side gauge. The pressure
should lower slowly.

- drain the system;


- charge the system;
- carry out the performance test of the system.
Diagnostic
Thermostatic expansion valve is allowing too much
coolant to flow through the evaporator coils. Valve
may be stuck open.
NOTE: * test procedure based upon ambient temperature of 35 C (95 F).
For proper high side gauge reading for other ambient temperatures, refer to the pressure temperature
chart.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

Performance Test Example 8

1. High side low


2. High side hand valve closed
3. High side hose connected to high side service
connector

5. Low side hose connected to low side service


connector
6. Low side hand valve closed
7. Low side low

4. Not used

Problem

- operate the system at maximum cooling;

Insufficient cooling.

- check the low-pressure side gauge. The pressure


should lower slowly.

Cause
Improper operation of thermostatic expansion valve
(stuck open).
Conditions*

If the previous procedure indicates that the expansion valve is defective, proceed as follows:
- discharge the system;
- replace the expansion valve;

Low side pressure too low (zero or vacuum). The


gauge should read 1 2 bar (14.5 29 psi).

- drain the system;

High side low. The gauge should read 13.3 14.8 bar
((193 215 psi)).

- carry out the performance test of the system.

Evaporator air cool, but not sufficiently cold.


Evaporator inlet pipe surface shows considerable
moisture or frost.
Low pressure switch cutting out.
Corrective procedures
Place finger on expansion valve to evaporator tube.
If too cold to touch, proceed as follows:

- charge the system;


Diagnostic
Expansion valve is not permitting a sufficient flow of
coolant. May be caused by valve stuck in restricted
or closed position.
NOTE: * test procedure based upon ambient temperature of 35 C (95 F).
For proper high side gauge reading for other ambient temperatures, refer to the pressure temperature
chart.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

39

Performance Test Example 9

1. High side low


2. High side hand valve closed
3. High side hose connected to high side service
connector

5. Low side hose connected to low side service


connector
6. Low side hand valve closed
7. Low side low

4. Not used

Problem
Little or no cooling.
Cause
Restriction in high side of system.
Conditions*
Too low pressure on low-pressure side. The gauge
should read 1 2 bar (14.5 29 psi).

- check the low-pressure side gauge. The pressure


should lower slowly.
If the test indicates that the expansion valve is
defective, proceed as follows:
- discharge and recover the coolant from the system;
- replace the expansion valve;

Too low pressure on high-pressure side. The gauge


should read 13.3 14.8 bar ((193 215 psi)).

- drain the system;

NOTE: a normal or high reading of the high side


pressure gauge under these conditions indicates
the system is overcharged or the condenser or
receiver/dryer is too small.

- carry out the performance test of the system.

Evaporator only slightly cool.


Liquid line and receiver/dryer are cool to touch and
show frost or considerable moisture.
Corrective procedures
Check for sticking expansion valve as follows:
- operate the system at maximum cooling;

- charge the system;


Diagnostic
Thermostatic expansion valve is allowing too much
coolant to flow through the evaporator coils. Valve
may be stuck open.
NOTE: * test procedure based upon ambient temperature of 35 C (95 F).
For proper high side gauge reading for other ambient temperatures, refer to the pressure temperature
chart.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

Performance Test Example 10

1. High side normal


2. High side hand valve closed
3. High side hose connected to high side service
connector

5. Low side hose connected to low side service


connector
6. Low side hand valve closed

4. Not used

7. Low side gauge


Compressor cycles on at 2.3 bar (33.36 psi)
Compressor cycles off at 1.9 bar (27.56 psi)

Problem

Corrective procedures

Compressor cycles (cuts in and out) too rapidly.

Stop engine and shut off air conditioning.

Cause

Replace thermostatic switch with switch of same


type.

Thermostatic switch defective.


Conditions*
Low-pressure side readings are too high during
both ON and OFF compressor cycles and between
cycles.
Readings should be:
0.8 1.0 bar (11.60 14.50 psi) - OFF cycle
2.5 2.7 bar (36.26 39.16 psi) - ON cycle
1.7 1.9 bar (24.65 27.56 psi) - between cycles
The pressure on the high-pressure side is normal. The
gauge should read 13.3 14.8 bar (193 215 psi).

Make sure the switchs temperature sensor is


installed in the same position and depth (in evaporator core) as previous.
Performance test the system.
Diagnostic
Defective thermostatic switch.
NOTE: * test procedure based upon ambient temperature of 35 C (95 F).
For proper high side gauge reading for other ambient temperatures, refer to the pressure temperature
chart.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

LEAK TESTING, DISCHARGING AND CHARGING THE AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


Leak testing
To perform a leak test if coolant leakage is suspected, use a leak detector following the manufacturers instructions.
Leak detectors use light or sound dependent upon
the type used to alert the operator of a leak. If the
leak detectors sensitivity is adjustable, be sure you
calibrate the detector according to the manufacturers instructions before use.
When using a leak detector, keep in mind that a
very slight amount of leakage in the compressor
pulley area is normal and does not necessarily indicate a repair is required.
When a leak is located, follow these steps.
- Discharge the system using a certified coolant
recovery system.
- Repair the leak.
- Drain the system.
- Partially charge the system with 400 g (0.88 lb) of
coolant.
- Check system for leaks.
- Fully charge the system.
Always check the system for leaks as a final test
after evacuating and before recharging. Refer to
Evacuating the system.
Discharging the system
Legislation has been introduced banning the
release of coolant into the atmosphere.
Whenever overhauling the air conditioning system
or performing other tasks which require the air conditioning system to be dismantled it is necessary to
discharge the coolant gas before commencing
repair.
Before you can dismantle an air conditioning system for repairs, you must discharge and recover the
coolant using a certified recovery unit in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.
Shown is a combined coolant recovery, evacuation
and recycling/charging station. This equipment
removes HFC 134a coolant from the air conditioning system, recycles and recharges all in one hook
up.
The unit is designed to be used with the manifold
gauge set built into the control panel.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

1. Built in manifold gauge set

3. Low side (suction) service valve (blue hose)

2. Recovery/recharging unit

4. High side (discharge) service valve (red hose)

Other recovery systems are available where the


manifold gauges are not an integral part of the
machine. When this type of equipment is used a
separate manifold gauge set must be used.

ting and the blue (low side) hose to the low side
(suction) fitting.

The following is a summary of the steps for discharging the system using a recovery/recycling
unit.

WARNING
Never discharge coolant gas into the atmosphere.
Always wear safety goggles and gloves when working with coolant. Only use authorized coolant tanks.
IMPORTANT: always follow the manufactures
instructions when operating recovery equipment.
Run the vehicles air conditioning system for a few
minutes.
Set up the recovery unit following manufacturers
instructions. Ensure that the units red (high side)
hose is connected to the high side (discharge) fit-

NOTE: if a unit requiring the manifold gauge set is


being used, the low and high sides of the manifold
set are connected to the low and high sides of the
backhoe loader air conditioning system. The hose
from the recovery unit is then connected to the
manifold centre port.
To recover coolant, open both high and low side
valves on the control panel or the valves on the
manifold gauge set if being used.
Open the valves labelled gas and liquid on the
recovery unit coolant tank.
Plug in the units power cord.
Operate the recovery system in accordance with
the manufacturers instructions.
The compressor will shut off automatically when the
recovery is complete.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

FLUSHING THE SYSTEM

1. High side gauge

5. Low side hose

2. High side shut-off valve

6. Low side shut-off valve

3. High side hose

7. Low side gauge

4. Centre service hose

Air conditioning systems may occasionally become


contaminated with solid particles. This contamination may be the result of allowing dirt to enter the
system while it was open, from aluminium corrosion
or sludge, or from disintegrated compressor reed
plates. Contamination of this nature can result in
plugged evaporators, condensers and expansion
valves.
Flush System with dry nitrogen.
Each individual component must be flushed after
disconnecting every hose fitting.
The compressor and expansion valve can not be
flushed, therefore, the compressor should be disassembled and cleaned or replaced and the expansion valve should be replaced. When flushing the
system always replace the receiver/drier.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

NOTE: for flushing the air conditioning system,


never use any solvent other than the special flushing solvent specifically produced for air conditioning
systems. Always follow the manufacturers recommendations and directions for using the flushing
equipment and solvent.
Re-assemble and evacuate the system to remove
air and moisture as described in Evacuating the
System.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

45

DRAINING THE SYSTEM


IMPORTANT: a system in which coolant has been
recovered to facilitate repairs must be drained
before new coolant is filled in.
Air and moisture are removed by evacuating the
system using a vacuum pump.

If a combined recovery/evacuation unit is to be


used attach the unit to the air conditioning system
in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.
Be sure to read all installation and operating
instructions carefully before starting the unit.

The automatic recycling, recharge and evacuation


stations or evacuating and charging stations available throughout the air conditioning industry incorporate a vacuum pump within the assembly. If this
type of equipment is not available a separate vacuum pump and manifold gauge set must be used.

After starting the evacuation cycle, note the low


side gauge to be sure the system pulls down into a
vacuum.

As the system is evacuated the boiling point of any


moisture within the system is similarly lowered. As
the vacuum increases the boiling reduces to below
that of the ambient temperate and the moisture is
subsequently boiled away.
The relationship of system vacuum to the boiling
temperature at which the water vapour is removed
from the system is as follows:
System
Vacuum

System
Vacuum

Temperature

In mercury

Cm (in) of
mercury

C (F)

28.0

71.0 (28.9)

38 (100.4)

28.9

73.4 (29.0)

27 (80.6)

29.4

74.6 (29.4)

16 (60.8)

29.7

75.4 (29.7)

5 (41)

29.8

75.7 (29.8)

-7 (19.4)

29.9

75.9 (29.9)

-18 (-0.4)

NOTE: for every 305 m (1000 ft) above sea level,


the vacuum gauge reading must be corrected by
adding 2.54 cm (1 in) of mercury to compensate for
the change in atmospheric pressure.
IMPORTANT: be sure the system is completely discharged as coolant will damage the vacuum pump.
If the manifold gauge set is being used connect the
low and high sides of the manifold to the low and
high sides of the vehicle air conditioning system as
described for discharging the system.
Connect the manifold centre hose to the vacuum
pump suction port as per the manufacturers
instructions.
Fully open both the low and high side gauge shut
off valves.

Time the evacuation for a minimum of 30 minutes


from the point when lowest vacuum is attained.
Thirty minutes later when the low side gauge
attains the lowest steady vacuum, stop the evacuation process.
NOTE: the vacuum pump achieves ultimate vacuum with the vented exhaust valve closed. Do not
evacuate too quickly as oil may be drawn from the
system.
Check the system by closing the gauge shut-off
valves, turning the vacuum pump off and noting the
low side gauge reading. A loss of more than 5 cm
(1.97 in) of vacuum in 5 minutes indicates either a
leak or moisture in the system.
If the gauge needle remains stationary and the vacuum is maintained for 3-5 minutes, close both the
high and low side manifold hand valves, turn off
and disconnect the centre hose from the pump. The
system is now ready for charging.
If a leak is detected, charge the system with
approximately 400 g (0.88 lb) of coolant, see charging the system and locate the leak using a leak
detector.
Once the leak is located discharge and recover the
coolant in the system, repair the leak, then repeat
the evacuation procedure.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

CHARGING THE SYSTEM


IMPORTANT: make sure that there are no leaks in
the system and that the system has been fully
drained. Observe all safety recommendations when
handling coolant HFC 134a, see Precautions when
Handling coolant HFC 134a in this Section.
Ensure the charging unit is correctly connected to
the backhoe loader air conditioning system in
accordance with the manufacturers instructions.
If a charging unit, in conjunction with the manifold
gauge set is used, open the high and low side hand
valves on the manifold.
Charge the system with 0.75 kg (1.65 lb) of coolant
as per the manufacturers instructions.
If the charging rate becomes very slow close the
high side valve carefully, start the backhoe loader
and set engine speed to idle. Turn ON the air conditioning so that the compressor can pull the remainder of the coolant into the system.

If the coolant charge will not completely transfer to


the air conditioning system, recover and recharge
the system.
Close the high and low side valves on the unit control panel, or on the gauge assy if being used, and
test the air conditioning as described in the paragraph relevant to the performance test of the air
conditioning system.
NOTE: after charging a system use the following
start up procedure to ensure the lubricating oil is
properly dispersed around the system.
- Ensure air conditioning is switched OFF.
- Start the engine and bring speed down to idle.
- Turn the air conditioning ON and allow system to
operate for at least one minute before increasing
engine speed.

1. Built in manifold gauge set

3. Low side (suction) service valve (blue hose)

2. Recovery/recharging unit

4. High side (discharge) service valve (red hose)

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

OVERHAUL
WARNING
Before disconnecting components in the air conditioning system the coolant gas must be discharged
and recovered using a certified recovery system.
Refer to Discharging the system. Do Not discharge
the gas into the atmosphere.
If an air conditioning component is to be replaced
during a system overhaul it is necessary to drain
any coolant oil that has collected in the component
being replaced into a clean calibrated container.
A volume of clean coolant oil equivalent to that
removed from the replaced component must then
be added to the new item before being installed onto
the backhoe loader.
Upon completion of the repair evacuate, recharge,
leak test and performance test the system to ensure
correct operation.

EXPANSION VALVE
The expansion valve is not a serviceable item and
must be replaced if defective.
Fully discharge the air conditioning system.
Remove the seat to gain access to the valve.
To gain access to the expansion valve partially lift
the evaporator core from its position in the cab floor.
Remove the screw securing the inlet and outlet connections to the valve and pull valve from tubing.
Replace the O-ring seals and lubricate with coolant
oil prior to installing the valve using disassembly
procedure in reverse.
Evacuate, leak test and recharge the system.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

EVAPORATOR
Discharge and recover coolant gas using certified
recovery systems.
Remove the seat and cover plate to reveal evaporator assembly (1).
Remove temperature cycling control thermocouple.
Disconnect tubing to expansion valve.
Remove evaporator.
Check the evaporator assembly fins for damage.
Straighten fins if necessary.
Clean the evaporator core of all foreign material to
be sure it is free of obstructions.
Check the evaporator assembly for indications of
coolant leakage. If damage or leaks are evident,
replace the evaporator core.
If a new evaporator is to be installed drain the coolant oil in the evaporator into a clean calibrated container.
Measure the quantity of oil obtained and add the
same quantity of new coolant oil directly into the
replacement evaporator core.
Install evaporator using disassembly procedure in
reverse.
Evacuate, leak test and recharge the system.
ADJUSTING SENSOR OF AIR CONDITIONER
TEMPERATURE
Remove the seat mounting plate.
The temperature adjusting sensor (2) is mounted to
the side of the blower motor assembly.
Carefully pull and disconnect the switch wiring at the
connector.
Remove temperature control switch and replace as
required.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

LOW-PRESSURE CUT-OUT SENSOR


With the engine OFF check continuity across the
switch contacts.
If the sensor (1) indicates an open circuit, replace it
as described below.
IMPORTANT: the sensor cannot be replaced without discharging the system.
Remove the sensor by unscrewing it from the valve.
Replace with new switch and connect to harness.

BLOWER MOTOR ASSEMBLY


The blower motor (2) can if required be removed
without discharging the system as follows:
Remove the cab seat mounting plate.
NOTE: take care not to damage hoses during this
operation. If the cab heater hoses restrict movement of the housing drain the heater assembly and
disconnect the hoses.
Disconnect the motor wiring connector block.
Remove the remaining motor securing screws and
withdraw motor.
Re-assembly follows the disassembly procedure in
reverse.
RECEIVER DRYER
The receiver/dryer (1) cannot be overhauled and
must be replaced as an assembly. The receiver/
dryer assembly should be replaced if it is suspected
that moisture is in the system.
The receiver dryer must also be replaced if the system has been discharged and the air conditioning
joints disconnected.
Discharge and recover coolant gas using certified
recovery systems.
Disconnect the hoses and switch and remove the
dryer from the backhoe loader.
Drain the coolant oil from the receiver dryer into a
clean calibrated container. Measure the quantity of
oil obtained and add the same quantity of new coolant oil directly into the new item.
Cap and plug all fittings to prevent any dirt entering
the system.
Install a new receiver dryer.

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CONDENSER
Loosen and remove the fixing screws (2).
Remove the front grill (1).

Unscrew and remove the nut (3).


Remove the horn (4).
Unscrew and remove the nut (5).
Remove the fuel cooler (6).

Unscrew and remove the fixing upper nut (7) and


loosen the fixing lower nut.
Move the dryer filter (8) to the right side.

Unscrew and remove the nuts (9).

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

Move the condenser (10) forward.


Clean the condenser (10) by compressor air.

AIR FILTER
Before servicing the filter (1), switch off the blower
and close all windows and one door.
Slam the final door closed and the resulting back
pressure will dislodge most of the loose dirt from the
underside of the filter.
Remove the filter (1) and clean it by blowing with
compressed air not exceeding 2 bar (29 psi).
IMPORTANT: make sure you protect your face
before using compressed air.
Blow the dust from the upper surface through the
element to the lower surface. Hold the nozzle at
least 300 mm (11.8 in) from the element to prevent
damage to the paper pleats.
Clean both filter chambers with a damp, lint free
cloth.
Replace the filter element with the rubber seal
uppermost and re-install the covers.

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

COMPRESSOR
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Basic compressor specifications
Displacement ......................................................................................................................... 155 cm3 (9.46 in3)
Weight ............................................................................................................................................ 9.9 kg (22 lb)
Oil type ....................................................................................................................................................... SP20
Rotation .............................................................................................................................. CW (Clockwise only)
Compressor clutch and pulley air gap ............................................................... 0.9 0.8 mm (0.035 0.031 in)
Belt tension
Measure at the widest gap ...... 10 mm (0.40 in) deflection with 1 kg (2.2 lb) force applied midway between the pulleys
Speed rating
Constant............................................................................................................................................... 6000 rpm
Downshift ............................................................................................................................................. 8000 rpm
Tightening torque
M8 armature retaining nut .....................................................................................17.7 2.9 Nm (13 2.1 lbfft)
M6 cylinder head screws.......................................................................................13.7 2.9 Nm (10 2.1 lbfft)
M8 cylinder head screws....................................................................................34.3 4.9 Nm (25.3 3.6 lbfft)
Clutch dust cover screw ...............................................................................................9 2 Nm (6.6 1.5 lbfft)
Oil filler plug .......................................................................................................19.6 4.9 Nm (14.5 3.6 lbfft)

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION

REMOVAL
Discharge the air conditioning system. Disconnect
the wiring harness of the compressor (12) from the
wiring harness of the engine.
Disconnect tubing to compressor.
Remove the washer (7) and the screw (1).
Remove the protective guard (13). Remove the
screw (11).
Remove the nut (14) and the screw (9).

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SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

Remove the washers (5), the nut (6), the screw (2)
and the block (8).
Remove the screw (1), the washers (3) and the belt
tensioner (4).
Remove the screw (10), the washers (2) and the
compressor (12).

INSTALLATION
To install, follow the removal procedure in reverse
order.
Torque the fastening screws to 40 51 Nm
(29 38 lbfft).
NOTE: it is recommended that a new receiver/drier
assembly is installed after any system component
replacement or any repair that requires entry into
the system.
Drain the oil from the new compressor to be fitted
into a clean container, or if the old compressor is to
be refitted, obtain a new can of coolant oil.
Calculate the amount of oil to be installed and refill
the compressor.
Reconnect the hoses to the compressor and tighten
all screws and hoses.

Copyright
SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

BELT ADJUSTMENT
The compressor drive belt (1) can be tensioned by
rotating the idler arm (2).
Slacken the idler arm screw and adjust the arm to a
belt deflection of 16 mm (0.63 in).
Once adjusted re-torque the tension arm screw to
33.9 Nm (25 lbfft).

OVERHAUL
Before any internal repair is done, drain the oil from
the compressor:
Remove the oil plug and drain as much oil as possible into a suitable container.
Remove the caps (if present) from suction and discharge ports.
Drain oil from the section and discharge ports into
suitable container while turning the shaft clockwise
only with a socket wrench on the armature retaining
nut.

Measure and record the amount of oil discharged.


Inspect the oil for signs of contamination such as
discoloration of foreign material.

55

Copyright
56

SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY


CLUTCH

1. Screw

6. Cover

2. Dust cover

7. Snap ring

3. Nut

8. Rotor

4. Plate

9. Snap ring

5. Shims

10. Coil

Disassembly
All clutch servicing should be done with the compressor removed from the vehicle. Support the
compressor. If using a vice, do not hold on to the
housing.
If a dust cover (2) is present, remove the 3 or 6
screws (1) holding it in place and remove the cover.
If auxiliary sheet metal pulley is present, remove the
screws holding it in place.
Then remove pulley.
Attach the tool to the cover in front of the clutch disc
and remove the nut (3) using a wrench.

Copyright
SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

Using the front plate tool and a prybar, hold the


clutch plate stationary.
Place the screw into the tool and by tightening the
screw onto the end of the shaft the front plate will be
extracted from the shaft.
If shims (5) are above shaft key, remove them now.
If shims (5) are below shaft key, the key and bearing
dust cover (if present) must be removed before
shims can be removed.
Remove dust cover (6) (if present). Use caution to
prevent distorting cover when removing it.
Remove shaft key by tapping loose with a flat blade
screwdriver and hammer.
Remove shims (5).
Use a pointed tool and a small screwdriver to prevent the shims from binding on the shaft.
Remove the snap ring (7), remove the shaft key and
lift the pulley assembly from the compressor.

Check the rotor assembly (8) for wear and replace


the assembly as necessary.

57

Copyright
58

SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

Remove the field coil wire retaining clip.

Remove the snap ring (9) of the coil.

Lift the coil (10) from the housing and replace as


required.

Copyright
SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

Assembly
Install the coil (10), making sure that the wire is
located behind the clip on the outside of the body
and that the snap ring (9) is located in the groove.

Position the rotor (8) on the housing hub and carefully slide the rotor (8) down the shaft.

Install the snap ring (7).

Reposition the plate (4) and the retaining nut (3).


Tighten the nut to the prescribed torque of 18 Nm
(13 lbfft).

59

Copyright
60

SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

Check the clearance between the plate (4) and the


rotor (8). This should be consistent around the circumference and be between 0.4 0.8 mm
(0.015 0.031 in).
NOTE: if the air gap is not consistent, lightly pry up
on the counter weighted front plate at the low spots
or lightly tap down at the high spots.

If the clearance is not within specification, the shims


(5) under the front plate should be added or
removed, until the correct clearance is obtained.
NOTE: new shims are available in the following
sizes: 1.00, 0.50 and 0.13 mm (0.04, 0.02 and
0.005 in).

Reposition the dust cover (2), if present, and torque


the 3 or 6 screws (1).

Copyright
SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

COMPRESSOR

1. Shaft key

6. Gasket

2. Ring

7. Plate

3. Snap ring

8. Head gasket

4. Gasket

9. Cylinder head

5. Plug

10. Screw

Disassembly
Remove the armature plate, as detailed in the steps
of clutch disassembly.
Remove the shaft key (1) and the ring (2) to expose
the snap ring (3).
Remove the snap ring (3).

Insert the seal (A) remover/installer tool.


Turn the tool to engage the slots in the seal.
Pull up to remove and discard the seal (4).

61

Copyright
62

SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

Assembly
Thoroughly clean the seal cavity in the hub.
Use lint free cloth only.
Ensure the new shaft seal O-ring is installed onto
the seal assembly.
Dip the new seal assembly in clean coolant oil and
attach to the seal remover/installer tool.

Completely insert the new seal (4).


NOTE: if remover/installer tool (A) is not available,
position the seal squarely in the hub and tap gently
until fully seated.

Install the snap ring (3).


If the snap ring has a bevelled edge, this should
face outwards.

Install the new ring (2) and push into position.

Copyright
SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

Position the shims over the shaft and refit the shaft
key.
Reinstall the plate as described in clutch reassembly.

CYLINDER HEAD
Disassembly
Drain the coolant oil from the compressor into a
clean graduated container.
Measure and record the quantity of oil obtained.
This information is required during installation of the
new or overhauled unit.
Remove the six cylinder head screws (10) and
using a hide mallet, gently tap the cylinder head (9)
free.
The use of a gasket scraper may also be required
to free the cylinder head from the compressor body.

If the plate (7) and/or cylinder head are to be


reused, carefully remove the gasket (8) using a suitable scraper.

63

Copyright
64

SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

Gently pry the plate (7) free from the cylinder block
and remove the gasket (6).
Inspect the plate (7) for damage.

Assembly
Coat the top of the valve plate with clean coolant oil
and reassemble the cylinder head following the
removal procedure in reverse order.
When installing the gaskets and valve plate ensure
they are correctly positioned over the locating pins
in the cylinder block.
Install the cylinder head screws and tighten using
the sequence shown.
Torque initially to 20 Nm (15 lbfft).
When the overhaul is complete add to the compressor a volume of oil equivalent to that drained prior to
disassembly, or as the reclaim measured fill.

Copyright
SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

65

TROUBLESHOOTING
TROUBLE
Unusually high suction
pressure with unusually low
discharge pressure.

CAUSE
Valve plate test.

ACTION
Replace or repair:
Broken head or block gasket.
Broken or deformed reed valve.
Foreign substance under reed valve
or gasket.

Unusually low suction and


discharge pressure.

Check for low coolant charge.

Replace or repair:
Shaft seal leak.

Compressor leak check.

Cylinder head leak.


Gasket leak.

Leak check and diagnostic system.

Oil filler plug leak.


Cracked cylinder block.
Front housing O-ring leak.

Intermittent or inoperative.

Check belt tension.

Replace.

Check clutch air gap.

Adjust air gap.

Check voltage, amperage, coil lead


wire of the clutch.

Replace or repair:
Broken lead wire.
Internal clutch coil defect.
System ground (see system
manual).

Difficult start.

Shaft turning smoothness test.

Internal compressor failure.

Clutch engaged.

Check compressor mounting


components.

Replace or repair.

Check engine components.

Replace or repair.

Check for intermittent or slipping


clutch.

Adjust air gap - defective coil.

Check for proper coolant charge.

Recharge and recheck.

Check clutch bearing.

Replace rotor / armature assembly.

Oil level procedure.

Fill to proper level.

Shaft turning smoothness test.

Internal compressor failure.

Remove valve plate and inspect.

Replace or repair:
Broken discharge valve reed or
retainer.
Broken suction valve reed.
Broken gasket.

Chattering disengaged
clutch.

Check air gap.

Replace or repair:
Adjust air gap.
Defective clutch pulley or front plate.

Copyright
66

NOTES:

SECTION 50 - CAB HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING

Copyright

580T
580ST
590ST
695ST

SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM


ELECTRIC DIAGRAMS .................................................................................................................................... 3
ELECTRIC DIAGRAMS - POWERSHUTTLE ROPS (580T mechanical engine) ........................................ 3
ELECTRIC DIAGRAMS - POWERSHUTTLE CAB (580T mechanical engine)......................................... 18
ELECTRIC DIAGRAMS - POWERSHUTTLE CAB (580ST - 590ST electronic engine) ........................... 36
ELECTRIC DIAGRAMS - POWERSHIFT CAB (2WS) .............................................................................. 54
ELECTRIC DIAGRAMS - POWERSHIFT CAB (4WS) .............................................................................. 73
CONTROLS AND INSTRUMENTS ................................................................................................................ 92
FRONT CONTROL PANELS (580T - 580ST - 590ST).............................................................................. 92
FRONT CONTROL PANELS (695ST)....................................................................................................... 94
CONTROL PANEL AND SIDE INSTRUMENT CLUSTER (580T mechanical engine).............................. 96
CONTROL PANEL AND SIDE INSTRUMENT CLUSTER (580ST - 590ST - 695ST electronic engine) ............. 98
SIDE INSTRUMENT CLUSTER (580T)................................................................................................... 100
SIDE INSTRUMENT CLUSTER (580ST - 590ST - 695ST)..................................................................... 102
ANTI-START SYSTEM ............................................................................................................................ 104
DIAGNOSTIC DISPLAY (580ST - 590ST - 695ST)...................................................................................... 105
SYMBOLS................................................................................................................................................ 107
SETUP MENU ......................................................................................................................................... 108
PROCEDURE ABOUT SELF TEST ........................................................................................................ 109
ON BOARD ERROR CODE RETRIEVAL ............................................................................................... 110
BACKLIGHTING AND DIMMING............................................................................................................. 111
WORK HOURS........................................................................................................................................ 112
OPERATION............................................................................................................................................ 113
WARNING SYSTEM................................................................................................................................ 117
MAINTENANCE....................................................................................................................................... 118
WARNING MESSAGES .......................................................................................................................... 119
STARTING SYSTEM .................................................................................................................................... 125
OPERATION............................................................................................................................................ 125
STARTER MOTOR.................................................................................................................................. 128
TROUBLESHOOTING............................................................................................................................. 133

Copyright
2

SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM

ALTERNATOR .............................................................................................................................................. 135


TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS.............................................................................................................. 135
OPERATION ............................................................................................................................................ 136
TROUBLESHOOTING ............................................................................................................................. 137
BATTERY...................................................................................................................................................... 138
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS.............................................................................................................. 138
OPERATION ............................................................................................................................................ 138
REPLACEMENT ...................................................................................................................................... 139
CHARGE AND ELECTROLYTE LEVEL CHECK .................................................................................... 140
CONNECTING A BOOSTER BATTERY ................................................................................................. 141
BATTERY MASTER SWITCH ................................................................................................................. 141
TROUBLESHOOTING .................................................................................................................................. 142

Copyright
SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM

ELECTRIC DIAGRAMS
ELECTRIC DIAGRAMS - POWERSHUTTLE ROPS (580T mechanical engine)
FUSES AND RELAYS
Fuse
no.

Rating

Function

F1B

7.5 A

Engine stop, (+15) anti-theft device, grid


heater

F1C

10 A

Stop light switch

F2A

15 A

Instrument supply, speed sensor, buzzer

F2C

15 A

Pilot control

F3A

3A

Rear right/front left-side lights, instrument


backlighting, air conditioning switch

F3B

3A

Rear left/front right side lights, number


plate light

F3C

10 A

Front work light switch, side work light


switch, 4x1 bucket handgrip

F4A

5A

Reverse travel buzzer, gearshift lever,


forward gear, reverse gear

F4B

10 A

Backhoe hammer button, sensor + bucket level solenoid valve, transmission disconnect button and differential lock
button

F4C

10 A

Backhoe attachment lock, backhoe attachment travel lock, rear work light
switch

F5A

15 A

Outer front work light relay

F5B

10 A

Low beams

F5C

15 A

Main beams

F6A

7.5 A

Rotating beacon

F6B

7.5 A

(+15) hazard warning light power supply

F6C

7.5 A

Hand hammer, 4WD

F1A

F2B

K5

Low and main beam relay

K6

Outer front work light relay

K7

Outer rear work light relay

K8

Inner front work light relay

K9

Inner rear work light relay

K10 Reverse travel relay


K11 Forward travel relay
K12 Hazard warning lights

(+30) power supply for hazard lights, antitheft device, horn

F7A
F7B
F7C
F8A

15 A

Outer rear work lights

F8B

15 A

Outer front work lights

F8C

15 A

Inner rear work lights

K1

Forward-reverse travel control relay

K2

Horn relay

K3

Starting relay

K4

Bucket level solenoid valve relay

Copyright
4

SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM

COMPONENTS
NAME

DESCRIPTION

NAME

DESCRIPTION

A2

Pre-heating for cold start (optional)

G1

Battery

A14

Antitheft unit

G67

Alternator

B4

Air filter blocked switch

H2

Horn

B5

Fuel level sensor

H4

Rear left light

B26

Bucket sensor

H5

Number plate light

B30

Parking brake microswitch

H6

Rear right light

B56

Transmission oil temperature switch

H26

B68

Cold start temperature switch

Backhoe attachment lock warning light


(optional)

B69

Air conditioning pressure switch

HA3

Optional buzzer

B70

Engine water temperature sender

H420

Reverse buzzer

B73

Engine oil low pressure switch

K209

Air conditioning relay

B411

Speed sensor

K211

Starting relay

E2

Front left light

K224

Differential lock relay

E3

Front right light

K226

4WD relay

E38

Outer rear work light

K605

Side work light relay

E40

Inner rear work light

M1

Starter motor

E44

Outer front work light

M17

Pneumo-electric seat (optional)

E45

Inner front work light

M64

Air conditioning compressor

E46

Inner rear work light

P2

Side instrument cluster panel

E47

Outer rear work light

P125

Speedometer (optional)

E50

Inner front work light

S0

Battery master switch

E51

Outer front work light

S2

4WD switch

E53

Rotating beacon

S3

Hand hammer switch

E54

Rotating beacon

S5

Ride control switch

E407

Right side work light

S7

Backhoe attachment travel lock switch

E409

Left side work light

S15

Rotating beacon switch

F1

Side work light relay fuse, 15 A

S19

Gearshift lever

F2

Pneumatic seat fuse, 7.5 A

S32

Stop light switch

F3

Ride control, speedometer and valve block


fuse, 7.5 A

S33

Stop light switch

S36

Rear hammer button

F4

Quick coupler fuse, 7.5 A

S41

Light-windshield wiper control lever

F208

Air conditioning fuse, 10 A

S42

Warning switch

F500

General fuse

S54

Horn button

Copyright
SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM

NAME

DESCRIPTION

CONNECTORS

S100

Quick coupler switch (optional)

NAME

S101

Quick coupler switch (optional)

X1

18-way general line - engine line connector

S126

Lights switch

X2

6-way cold start connector

S135

Vertical backhoe attachment lock switch

X3

1-way engine stop connector

S127

Inner and outer rear work light switch

X4

2-way air filter connector

S141

Inner and outer front work light switch

X6

2-way forward travel connector

S210

Transmission disconnect button

X7

2-way reverse travel connector

S404

Side work light switch

X8

2-way 4WD solenoid valve connector

X10

31-way solenoid valve line - general line


connector

X13

17-way general line - front instrument


panel connector

X14

11-way antitheft connector

S15.1 Starting panel


S205a Transmission disconnect button
S205b Differential lock switch
ST3

4x1 bucket control lever

Y3

Fuel shut off solenoid valve

Y6

Forward travel solenoid valve

Y7

Reverse speed solenoid valve

Y8

4WD solenoid valve (optional)

Y12

Proportional solenoid valves

Y34

Ride control solenoid valve (optional)

Y35

Hand hammer control valve (optional)

Y74

Differential lock solenoid valve

Y105

Quick coupler solenoid valve

Y106

Load sensor solenoid valve

Y202

Backhoe attachment travel solenoid valve

Y203

Backhoe attachment lock solenoid valve


(optional)

Y206

Bucket level solenoid valve

Y207

Double delivery solenoid valve (optional)

Y209

Backhoe hammer control valve (optional)

DESCRIPTION

X15.1 Starting panel connector


X15.2 Starting panel connector
X17

4-way pneumo-electric seat connector

X19

Gearshift lever connector

X21

7-way left work light / horn connector

X22

5-way right work light connector

X24

Lock valve interface connector

X26

3-way bucket sensor connector

X27

2-way number plate light connector

X28

4-way rear right light connector

X29

4-way rear left light connector

X31

General line fuse box connector

X34

2-way ride control solenoid valve


connector

X35

2-way hand hammer solenoid valve


connector

X36

2-way backhoe hammer button connector

X38

2-way rear right work light connector

X40

2-way rear right work light connector


(optional)

X44

2-way front right work light connector

Copyright
6

NAME

SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM

DESCRIPTION

X45

2-way front right work light connector


(optional)

X46

2-way rear left work light connector


(optional)

X47

2-way rear left work light connector

X50

2-way front left work light connector


(optional)

X51

2-way front left work light connector

X53

2-way rotating beacon connector

X54

2-way rotating beacon connector

X64

1-way air conditioning compressor


connector

X67

3-way alternator connector

X68

3-way engine water temperature switch


connector

X69

2-way air conditioning pressure switch


connector

NAME

DESCRIPTION

X205

4-way lever button connector

X206

2-way bucket levelling connector

X207

2-way delivery doubling solenoid valve


connector

X208

4x1 bucket control lever connector

X209

2-way backhoe hammer solenoid valve


connector

X210

2-way clutch disengage button connector

X411

Speed sensor connector

X420

2-way reverse travel buzzer connector

X421

2-way engine stop diode connector

X600

1-way general line - engine line connector

X603

Front instrument panel - quick coupler kit


connector

X603/1 Quick coupler kit connector


XC1

Control unit 11-way connector

X72

1-way pilot control line connector

XC2

Control unit 7-way connector

X73

1-way engine oil low pressure switch


connector

XC3

Control unit 21-way connector

XC4

Control unit 21-way connector

X82

Control unit 10-way connector

XC5

Control unit 17-way connector

X83

Relay 2-way connector

XC6

Control unit 13-way connector

X87

13-way general line - left side instrument


cluster line connector

X01

2-way parking brake diode connector

X102

Diode connector

XX

Diode connector

X103

Diode connector

XST2 36-way multifunctional side panel


connector

X104

Diode connector

X105

2-way quick coupler solenoid valve


connector

X106

Load sensor solenoid valve connector

X125

Front instrument cluster connector

X140

Diode connector

X202

2-way backhoe attachment travel lock


solenoid valve connector

X203

2-way backhoe attachment lock solenoid


valve connector

X204

2-way horn button connector

Copyright
SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM
ENGINE LINE DIAGRAM

Copyright
8

SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM

SOLENOID VALVE LINE DIAGRAM

Copyright
SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM

Copyright
10
LIGHT LINE DIAGRAM

SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM

Copyright
SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM
REAR LIGHT LINE DIAGRAM

11

Copyright
12
WORK LIGHT LINE DIAGRAM

SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM

Copyright
SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM
ROTATING BEACON LINE DIAGRAM

13

Copyright
14

SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM

BACKHOE ATTACHMENT QUICK COUPLER LINE DIAGRAM

Quick coupler (optional)


See solenoid valve line

Copyright
SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM
COLD START DIAGRAM

15

Copyright
16

SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM

SIDE INSTRUMENT CLUSTER

INSTRUMENT

Speedometer

Level fuel

Transmission
temperature

Coolant
temperature

Battery charge

INPUT

READING

TOLERANCE

INPUT
TOLERANCE

CALIBRATION
DIRECTION

0 Hz

0 rpm

3 rpm

N/A

Descending

307 Hz

1000 rpm

N/A

60 rpm

Ascending

736 Hz

2400 rpm

N/A

60 rpm

Ascending

240 Ohm

Empty

+0/-6 Ohm

230-240 Ohm

Descending

102 Ohm

1/2 Tank

3 Ohm

98 108 Ohm

Descending

33 Ohm

Full

+4/-2 Ohm

33 42 Ohm

Ascending

900 Ohm

Point B

+0/-6 C (32/21.2 F)

N/A

Descending

114 Ohm

106 C (223 F)
(Red/green line)

5 C (41 F)

111 117 Ohm

Ascending

700 Ohm

Point A

+0/-5 C (32/23 F)

N/A

Descending

95 Ohm

106 C (223 F)
(Red/green line)

93 97 Ohm

Ascending

11 V

Red/green left line

10.7 11.3 V

Descending

15.9 V

Red/green right line

15.0 15.6 V

Ascending

Copyright
SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM

PIN

NAME

17

FUNCTION

Ignition

10 V 16 V INPUT

Low oil pressure

Low side switch input

Air filter restriction

Low side switch input

Parking brake

Low side switch input

Alternator/battery

Alternator D+ input

Not used

Not used

Neutral

High side switch input

Seat switch

Low side switch input

10

Air conditioning system pressure

High side switch input

11

Not used

12

Driving lights

13

Not used

14

Not used

15

Engine pre-heat

16

Not used

17

Not used

18

Not used

19

Speedometer

20

Level fuel

21

Water temperature

22

Transmission temperature

23

Not used

24

Driving lights

25

Not used

26

Not used

27

Not used

28

Not used

29

Not used

30

Not used

31

Transmission oil temperature

32

Not used

33

Not used

34

Not used

35

Horn

36

Grounding

High side switch input

High side switch input

High side switch input

Alternator w input

High side switch input

Low side switch input

Grounding

Copyright
18

SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM

ELECTRIC DIAGRAMS - POWERSHUTTLE CAB (580T mechanical engine)


FUSES AND RELAYS
Fuse
no.

Rating

Function

F1A

15 A

Rear windshield wiper and washer

F1B

7.5 A

Engine stop, (+15) anti-theft device, grid


heater

F1C

10 A

Stop light switch

F2A

15 A

Instrument supply, speed sensor, buzzer

F2B

15 A

Air conditioning

F2C

15 A

Pilot control

F3A

3A

Rear right/front left-side lights, instrument


backlighting, air conditioning switch

F3B

3A

Rear left/front right side lights, number


plate light

F3C

10 A

Front work light switch, side work light


switch, 4x1 bucket handgrip

F4A

5A

Reverse travel buzzer, gearshift lever,


forward gear, reverse gear

F4B

10 A

Backhoe hammer button, sensor + bucket level solenoid valve, transmission disconnect button and differential lock
button

F4C

10 A

Backhoe attachment lock, backhoe attachment travel lock, rear work light
switch

F5A

15 A

Outer front work light relay

F5B

10 A

Low beams

F5C

15 A

Main beams

F6A

7.5 A

Rotating beacon

F6B

7.5 A

(+15) hazard warning light power supply

F6C

7.5 A

Hand hammer, 4WD

F7A

10 A

(+30) power supply for hazard lights, antitheft device, horn

F7B

10 A

Electric socket, radio, roof lamp

F7C

6A

Front windshield wiper

F8A

15 A

Outer rear work lights

F8B

15 A

Outer front work lights

F8C

15 A

Inner rear work lights

K1

Forward-reverse travel control relay

K2

Horn relay

K3

Starting relay

K4

Bucket level solenoid valve relay

K5

Low and main beam relay

K6

Outer front work light relay

K7

Outer rear work light relay

K8

Inner front work light relay

K9

Inner rear work light relay

K10

Reverse travel relay

K11

Forward travel relay

K12

Hazard warning lights

Copyright
SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM

19

COMPONENTS
NAME

DESCRIPTION

NAME

DESCRIPTION

F4

Ride control, speedometer and lock valve


fuse, 7.5 A

F208

Air conditioning fuse, 10 A

F500

General fuse

G1

Battery

G67

Alternator

H2

Horn

H4

Rear left light

H5

Number plate light

H6

Rear right light

H18

Roof lamp

H26

Backhoe attachment lock warning light


(optional)

Speed sensor

HA3

Optional buzzer

BS1

Right speaker (optional)

H420

Reverse buzzer

BS2

Left speaker (optional)

K209

Air conditioning relay

E2

Front left light

K211

Starting relay

E3

Front right light

K224

Differential lock relay

E38

Outer rear work light

K226

4WD relay

E40

Inner rear work light

K230

Hand hammer relay

E44

Outer front work light

K605

Side work light relay

E45

Inner front work light

M1

Starter motor

E46

Inner rear work light

M17

Pneumo-electric seat (optional)

E47

Outer rear work light

M39

Rear windshield wiper motor

E50

Inner front work light

M41

Blower motor (optional)

E51

Outer front work light

M49

Front windshield wiper motor

E55

Current intake illumination

M56

Front windshield washer pump

E406

Rotating beacon

M57

Rear windshield washer pump

E407

Right side work light

M64

Air conditioning compressor

E409

Left side work light

P2

Side instrument cluster panel

E412

Rotating beacon

P125

Speedometer (optional)

F1

Side work light relay fuse, 15 A

S0

Battery master switch

F2

Quick coupler fuse, 7.5 A

S2

4WD switch

F3

Pneumo-electric seat fuse, 7.5 A

S3

Hand hammer switch

A2

Pre-heating for cold start (optional)

A14

Antitheft unit

B4

Air filter blocked switch

B5

Fuel level sensor

B26

Bucket sensor

B30

Parking brake microswitch

B53

Radio (optional)

B65

Transmission oil temperature switch

B68

Cold start temperature switch

B69

Air conditioning pressure switch

B70

Engine water temperature sender

B73

Engine oil low pressure switch

B411

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SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM

NAME

DESCRIPTION

NAME

DESCRIPTION

S5

Ride control switch

Y74

Differential lock solenoid valve

S15

Rotating beacon switch

Y105

Quick coupler solenoid valve

S19

Gearshift lever

Y106

Load sensor solenoid valve

S32

Stop light switch

Y202

Backhoe attachment travel solenoid valve

S33

Stop light switch

Y203

S34

Port left microswitch

Backhoe attachment lock solenoid valve


(optional)

S35

Port right microswitch

Y206

Bucket level solenoid valve

S36

Rear hammer button

Y207

Double delivery solenoid valve (optional)

S41

Light-windshield wiper control lever

Y209

Backhoe hammer control valve (optional)

S42

Warning switch

S100

Quick coupler A switch (optional)

S101

Quick coupler B switch (optional)

S126

Lights switch

S135

Vertical backhoe attachment lock switch

S137

Inner and outer rear work light switch

S138

Windshield wiper + pump switch

S140

Backhoe attachment travel lock switch

S141

Inner and outer front work light switch

S210

Clutch disconnect button

S404

Side work light switch

CONNECTORS
NAME
X1

18-way general line - engine line connector

X2

6-way cold start connector

X3

1-way engine stop connector

X4

2-way air filter connector

X6

2-way forward travel connector

X7

2-way reverse travel connector

X8

2-way 4WD solenoid valve connector

X10

31-way solenoid valve line - general line


connector

X12

9-way general line - upper cab line


connector

X13

17-way general line - front instrument


panel connector

X14

11-way antitheft connector

S15.1 Starting panel


S205a Clutch disconnect button
S205b Differential lock switch
ST3

4x1 bucket control lever

X55

Current intake

Y3

Fuel shut off solenoid valve

Y6

Forward travel solenoid valve

Y7

Reverse speed solenoid valve

Y8

4WD solenoid valve (optional)

Y12

Proportional solenoid valves

Y34

Ride control solenoid valve (optional)

Y35

Hand hammer control valve (optional)

DESCRIPTION

X15.1 Starting panel connector


X15.2 Starting panel connector
X17

4-way pneumo-electric seat connector

X19

Gearshift lever connector

X21

7-way left light / horn connector

X22

5-way right light connector

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SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM

NAME

DESCRIPTION

X24

Lock valve interface connector

X26

3-way bucket sensor connector

X27

2-way number plate light connector

X28

4-way rear right light connector

X29

4-way rear left light connector

X31

General line fuse box connector

X34

2-way ride control solenoid valve


connector

X35

2-way hand hammer solenoid valve


connector

X36

2-way backhoe hammer button connector

X38

2-way rear right work light connector

X39

4-way rear windshield wiper connector

X40

2-way rear right work light connector


(optional)

X44

2-way front right work light connector

X45

2-way front right work light connector


(optional)

X46

2-way rear left work light connector


(optional)

NAME

21

DESCRIPTION

X69

2-way air conditioning pressure switch


connector

X72

1-way pilot control line connector

X73

1-way engine oil low pressure switch


connector

X82

Control unit 10-way connector

X83

Relay 2-way connector

X87

13-way general line - left side instrument


cluster line connector

X88

9-way general line - right side instrument


cluster line connector

X102

Diode connector

X103

Diode connector

X104

Diode connector

X105

2-way quick coupler solenoid valve


connector

X106

Load sensor solenoid valve connector

X110

2-way air conditioner connector

X111

9-way air conditioner connector

X125

Front instrument cluster connector

X47

2-way rear left work light connector

X140

Diode connector

X49

6-way front windshield wiper connector

X202

X50

2-way front left work light connector


(optional)

2-way backhoe attachment travel lock


solenoid valve connector

X203

2-way backhoe attachment lock solenoid


valve connector

X204

2-way horn button on pilot control


connector

X205

4-way lever button connector

X206

2-way bucket levelling connector

X207

2-way delivery doubling solenoid valve


connector

X208

4x1 bucket control lever connector

X209

2-way backhoe hammer solenoid valve


connector

X210

2-way clutch disengage button connector

X406

2-way rotating beacon connector

X411

Speed sensor connector

X412

2-way rotating beacon connector

X51

2-way front left work light connector

X53

8-way radio connector (brown)

X54

8-way radio connector (black)

X55

2-way electric socket connector

X56

2-way front windshield washer connector

X57

2-way rear windshield washer connector

X64

1-way air conditioning compressor


connector

X67

3-way alternator connector

X68

3-way engine water temperature switch


connector

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NAME

SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM

DESCRIPTION

X420

2-way reverse travel buzzer connector

X421

2-way engine stop diode connector

X600

1-way general line - engine line connector

X603

Front instrument panel - quick coupler kit


connector

X603/1 Quick coupler kit connector


XC1

Control unit 11-way connector

XC2

Control unit 7-way connector

XC3

Control unit 21-way connector

XC4

Control unit 21-way connector

XC5

Control unit 17-way connector

XC6

Control unit 13-way connector

X01

2-way parking brake diode connector

XX

Diode connector

XST2 36-way multifunctional side panel


connector

Copyright
SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM
ENGINE LINE DIAGRAM

23

Copyright
24

SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM

SOLENOID VALVE LINE DIAGRAM

Copyright
SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM

25

Copyright
26
LIGHT LINE DIAGRAM

SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM

Copyright
SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM
REAR LIGHT LINE DIAGRAM

27

Copyright
28
WORK LIGHT LINE DIAGRAM

SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM

Copyright
SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM
WINDSHIELD WIPER - WASHER LINE DIAGRAM

29

Copyright
30
CAB LINE DIAGRAM

SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM

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SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM
AIR CONDITIONER DIAGRAM

Evaporator box

S45

11-way connector

3rd speed relay

Potentiometer

Fuse 25 A

10

Speed switch

Blower motor

11

Temperature switch

1 and 2 speed resistor

12

12 V light

Electric cock

2-way waterproof connection

X111

9-way connector

5-way waterproof connection

X110

2-way power connector

31

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32

SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM

BACKHOE ATTACHMENT QUICK COUPLER LINE DIAGRAM

See Solenoid valve line


Quick coupler (optional)

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SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM
COLD START LINE DIAGRAM

33

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34

SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM

SIDE INSTRUMENT CLUSTER

INSTRUMENT

Speedometer

Level fuel

Transmission
temperature

Coolant
temperature

Battery charge

INPUT

READING

TOLERANCE

INPUT
TOLERANCE

CALIBRATION
DIRECTION

0 Hz

0 rpm

3 rpm

N/A

Descending

307 Hz

1000 rpm

N/A

60 rpm

Ascending

736 Hz

2400 rpm

N/A

60 rpm

Ascending

240 Ohm

Empty

+0/-6 Ohm

230-240 Ohm

Descending

102 Ohm

1/2 Tank

3 Ohm

98 108 Ohm

Descending

33 Ohm

Full

+4/-2 Ohm

33 42 Ohm

Ascending

900 Ohm

Point B

+0/-6 C (32/21.2
F)

N/A

Descending

114 Ohm

106 C (223 F)
(Red/green line)

5 C (41 F)

111 117 Ohm

Ascending

700 Ohm

Point A

+0/-5 C (32/23 F)

N/A

Descending

95 Ohm

106 C (223 F)
(Red/green line)

93 97 Ohm

Ascending

11 V

Red/green left line

10.7 11.3 V

Descending

15.9 V

Red/green right line

15.0 15.6 V

Ascending

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SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM

PIN

NAME

35

FUNCTION

Ignition

10 V 16 V INPUT

Low oil pressure

Low side switch input

Air filter restriction

Low side switch input

Parking brake

Low side switch input

Alternator/battery

Alternator D+ input

Not used

Not used

Neutral

High side switch input

Seat switch

Low side switch input

10

Air conditioning system pressure

High side switch input

11

Not used

12

Driving lights

13

Not used

14

Not used

15

Engine pre-heat

16

Not used

17

Direction

18

Not used

19

Speedometer

20

Level fuel

21

Water temperature

22

Transmission temperature

23

Not used

24

Driving lights

25

Not used

26

Not used

27

Not used

28

Not used

29

Not used

30

Not used

31

Transmission oil temperature

32

Not used

33

Not used

34

Not used

35

Horn

36

Grounding

High side switch input

High side switch input

High side switch input

Alternator w input

High side switch input

Low side switch input

Grounding

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SECTION 55 - ELECTRIC SYSTEM

ELECTRIC DIAGRAMS - POWERSHUTTLE CAB (580ST - 590ST electronic engine)


FUSES AND RELAYS
Fuse
no.

Rating

Function

F1A

15 A

Rear windshield wiper and washer

F1B

7.5 A

(+15) anti-theft device, (+15) ECU power


supply

F1C

10 A

Stop light switch

F2A

15 A

Instrument power supply, pneumo-electric seat, speed sensor, start up

F2B

15 A

Air conditioning

F2C

15 A

Pilot control

F3A

3A

Rear right/front left side light, instrument


backlighting

F3B

3A

Rear left/front right side lights, number


plate