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Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines


Prof. Rolf D. Reitz
Engine Research Center
University of Wisconsin-Madison
2014 Princeton-CEFRC
Summer School on Combustion
Course Length: 15 hrs
(Mon.- Fri., June 23 27, 2014)

Copyright 2014 by Rolf D. Reitz.


This material is not to be sold, reproduced or distributed without
prior written permission of the owner, Rolf D. Reitz.

CEFRC1-2 , 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics


Short course outine:
Engine fundamentals and performance metrics, computer modeling supported
by in-depth understanding of fundamental engine processes and detailed
experiments in engine design optimization.
Day 1 (Engine fundamentals)
Part 1: IC Engine Review, 0, 1 and 3-D modeling
Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics
Day 2 (Combustion Modeling)
Part 3: Chemical Kinetics, HCCI & SI Combustion
Part 4: Heat transfer, NOx and Soot Emissions
Day 3 (Spray Modeling)
Part 5: Atomization, Drop Breakup/Coalescence
Part 6: Drop Drag/Wall Impinge/Vaporization/Sprays
Day 4 (Engine Optimization)
Part 7: Diesel combustion and SI knock modeling
Part 8: Optimization and Low Temperature Combustion
Day 5 (Applications and the Future)
Part 9: Fuels, After-treatment and Controls
Part 10: Vehicle Applications, Future of IC Engines

CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Turbocharging
Pulse-driven turbine was invented and
patented in 1925 by Bchi to increase
the amount of air inducted into the engine.
- Increased engine power more than offsets
losses due to increased back pressure
- Need to deal with turbocharger lag

Improved

CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Turbocharging
Purpose of turbocharging or supercharging is to increase inlet air density,
- increase amount of air in the cylinder.
Mechanical supercharging
- driven directly by power from engine.
Turbocharger - connected compressor/turbine
- energy in exhaust used to drive turbine.
Supercharging necessary in two-strokes
for effective scavenging:
- intake P > exhaust P
- crankcase used as a pump
Some engines combine engine-driven and
mechanical (e.g., in two-stage configuration).
Intercooler after compressor
- controls combustion air temperature.

CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Turbocharging
Energy in exhaust is used to drive
turbine which drives compressor

Wastegate used to by-pass turbine

Charge air cooling after compressor


further increases air density
- more air for combustion
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CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Regulated two-stage turbocharger


Duplicated Configuration per Cylinder Bank

LP stage Turbo-Charger
with Bypass
Compressor
Bypass
Charge Air
Cooler

HP stage Turbo
charger
Regulating valve

EGR Cooler
EGR Valve

GT-Power R2S Turbo Circuit


HP TURBINE

EGR Valve

Compressor Bypass

EGR Cooler

Charge Air
Cooler
Compressor
Bypass

Regulating valve

HP stage Turbo
charger
LP stage Turbo-Charger
with Bypass

Regulating Valve
LP Stage Bypass
LP TURBINE

CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Intercooler for IVC temperature control

Isentropic

P
V
IVC
PIVC V

Reduced Peak Temp (NOx)


Improved phasing
T
V
IVC
TIVC V

ln P
ln T

Pressure
/time of
ignition

Compressor

Boost

( 1)

Tign

TDC

IVC

IVC

TDC

ln V
Boost explains 20% of the improved fuel efficiency of diesel vs. SI
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CEFRC1-2, 2014

ln V

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Automotive compressor
Centrifugal compressor typically used in
automotive applications
Provides high mass flow rate at
relatively low pressure ratio ~ 3.5
Rotates at high angular speeds
- direct coupled with exhaust-driven
turbine
- less suited for mechanical
supercharging
Consists of:
stationary inlet casing,
rotating bladed impeller,
stationary diffuser (w or w/o vanes)
collector - connects to intake system

CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Anderson, 1990

Compressible flow A review


Gibbs

Tds dh dp /

Energy

Euler

AV Const

Area-velocity relations

for

M<1

for

M>1

dh VdV
dP VdV
d

dA dV

0
A V

Subsonic nozzle Subsonic diffuser Supersonic diffuser Supersonic nozzle


dA<0
dA >0
dA <0
dA >0
from AV dV>0
dV <0
dV <0
dV >0
from Euler dP<0
dP >0
dP >0
dP <0
kinetic energy
pressure recovery
kinetic energy

dA
dV
2
( M 1)
A
V

dA (1 M 2 )

dP
2
A
V
Traffic flow behaves like a supersonic flow!
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CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Anderson, 1990

Model passages as compressible flow in converging-diverging nozzles


m AV
P0

RT0

P V
A
RT
RT c

A*

P0

AM ( P / P0 ) /(T / T0 ) 1/ 2

With M=1: Fliegners formula

2
mM 1 (
)
1

1
2( 1)

RT0

Minimum area point

Choked flow, M=1


1

P0 A*

Area Mach number relations

A
1 2
( 1) 2

(1
M )

*
A
M 1
2

A*/A
Subsonic

Supersonic

2 solutions for
same area

1
2( 1)

1/ 2

1
1

A
P 2
P 1 1
( )
1 ( )

A*
P0 1
P0
2

0
1 reservoir
0

10

0.528 throat
1

P/P0 exit 0
M

CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Anderson, 1990

Isentropic nozzle flows


T0
1 2
1
M1
T1
2

P0
1 2 1
(1
M1 )
P1
2

Ex. Flow past throttle plate


P0

P0

P=Pb

P1

Choked flow for P2 < 53.5 kPa = 40.1cmHg

ambient

reservoir

WOT
Choked

m
1

Pb

P/P0

y
0.528

40.1

M=1

76

Manifold pressure, P1 cmHg

0
x

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CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Anderson, 1990

Application to turbomachinery
Fliegners Formula:
1

2 2( 1)
mM 1 (
)
P0 A*
1
RT0

Variable Geometry Compressor/


turbine performance map
Increased speed

Corrected mass
flow rate

Choked flow

m Tref / T0
P0 / Pref

A measure of effective flow


area

Reduced flow passage


area
1.0

1/0.528=1.89

P0 /P
Total/static pressure ratio
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CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Heywood, 1988

Compressor
c

(Toutisen Tin )
(Tout Tin )
P03

P3 = Pout
P2

Heywood, Fig. 6-43

Air at stagnation state 0,in accelerates to


inlet pressure, P1, and velocity V1.
Compression in impeller passages
increases pressure to P2, and velocity V2.

P0 = P0,in
V12/2cP

P1

Diffuser between states 2 and out,


recovers air kinetic energy at exit of impeller
producing pressure rise to, Pout and
low velocity Vout

Wc ma hout hin

S
Note: use exit static pressure and inlet total
pressure, because kinetic energy of gas
leaving compressor is usually not recovered
13

a 1

ma cPa Tin pout a

Wc

c
0,in

CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Compressor maps

Heywood, 1988

Work transfer to gas occurs in impeller via change in gas


angular momentum in rotating blade passage

Surge limit line


reduced mass flow
due to periodic flow
reversal/reattachment in
passage boundary layers.
Unstable flow can lead
to damage

Speed/pressure limit line


Non-dimensionalize blade
tip speed (~ND) by speed
of sound
At high air flow rate,
operation is limited by
choking at the minimum
area point within compressor

Pressure ratio evaluated


using total-to-static
pressures since exit flow
kinetic energy is not
recovered

Supersonic flow

Shock
wave

Heywood, Fig. 6-46

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CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Serrano, 2007

Compressor maps
3.0

GM 1.9L diesel engine

Pressure
Ratio (t/t)
2.8

0.8

35000

40000

50000

70000

90000

110000

130000

150000

170000

180000

190000

190000

2.6

2.4

2.2

Efficiency
(T/T)

2.0

180000

0.7

170000
1.8
150000

0.6

1.6

Corrected Air Flow (kg/s)

0.5
0.00 0.02

0.04 0.06

0.08 0.10

0.12 0.14

130000
1.4
110000

0.16 0.18
1.2

90000
35000

50000 70000
40000

1.0
0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08

15

Corrected Air Flow (kg/s)


0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18

CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Reitz, 2007

Automotive turbines
Naturally aspirated:
Pintake=Pexhst=Patm (5-7-8-9-1)
Boosted operation:
Negative pumping work:
P7<P1 but hurts scavenging

Wt mg (hin h0,out )
g 1

g
P
Wt mg cPTint 1 0,out
Pin

P
3

Expansion

Blowdown

Available work
(area 5-6-7)
6

Compression

Compressor

Pintake
Pexhst

6
8

Pamb
TDC

Turbine

BDC

P-V diagram showing available exhaust energy


- turbocharging, turbocompounding, bottoming cycles and
thermoelectric generators further utilize this available energy
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CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Turbochargers
Radial flow automotive;
axial flow locomotive, marine

P0 = P0,in

T
2

P1

V1 /2cP
P2

T3

m corrected mg
N corrected

P03

p3

T0
p0

out

N
T3
T0

P3 = Pout

(Tout Tin )
(Toutisen Tin )
S
17

CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Compressor selection
To select compressor, first determine engine breathing lines.
The mass flow rate of air through engine for a given pressure ratio is:

= IMP = PR * atmospheric pressure (no losses)


= IMT = Roughly constant for given Speed

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CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Engine breathing lines


Engine Breathing Lines
1.4L Diesel, Air-to-Air AfterCooled, Turbocharged

3.8
3.6

Torque Peak (1700rpm)


Trq Peak Operating Pnt

3.4

Rated (2300rpm)

3.2

Rated Operating Pnt

Compressor Pressure Ratio

3
2.8
2.6
2.4
2.2
2
1.8
1.6

Parameter
Horsepower
BSFC
A/F

1.4
1.2
1
0.000

1.000

2.000

3.000

4.000

5.000

6.000

7.000

8.000

9.000

10.000

Torque Peak
48
0.377
23.8
11.000

12.000

Rated
69
0.401
24.5
13.000

Units
hp
lb/hp-hr
none

14.000

Intake Mass Flow Rate (lb/min)

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CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Heywood, 1988

W t = Wc

p2 Cp g T3 m fuel
1
1
p1 Cpa T1
mair

g 1

p4

t c mech p

20

a
a 1

CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Heywood, 1988

Ideal engine efficiency Otto cycle


Maximum possible closed-cycle
efficiency (ideal efficiency)
State (1) to (2) isentropic
(i.e., adiabatic and reversible)
compression from max (V1) to
min cylinder volume (V2)
Compression ratio rc = V1/V2.
State (2) to (3) adiabatic
and isochoric (constant volume)
combustion,
State (3) to (4) isentropic
expansion.
State (4) to (1) exhaust process
- available energy is rejected
- can be converted to mechanical
or electrical work:

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CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Ideal engine efficiency Otto cycle

Otto

Efficiency = net work / energy supplied

[(T 3 T 4) (T 2 T 1)] /(T 3 T 2)

Heywood, 1988

1 (T 4 T 1) /(T 3 T 2)

Wexpansion

However,
1

T 2 / T 1 (V 1 / V 2)

rc

(V 4 / V 3)

Wcompression

T3/T 4

4
1

=1.4
1.3

0.8

0.6
1.25

1 1 / rc

0.4
0.2

16

24

rc
22

CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

ideal Function of only two variables, compression ratio (rc)


and ratio of specific heats ()

Increasing rc increases operating volume for compression and expansion


Increasing increases pressure rise during combustion and increases work
extraction during expansion stroke.
Both effects result in an increase in net system work for a given energy release
and thereby increase engine efficiency.
Actual closed-cycle efficiencies to deviate from ideal:
1.) Assumption of isochoric (constant volume) combustion:
Finite duration combustion in realistic engines.
Kinetically controlled combustion has shorter combustion duration than diesel or SI
- duration limited by mechanical constraints, high pressure rise rates with audible
engine noise and high mechanical stresses

2.) Assumption of calorically perfect fluid:


Specific heats decrease with increasing gas temperature; species conversion during
combustion causes to decrease

3.) Adiabatic assumption:


Large temperature gradient near walls results in energy being lost to heat transfer
rather than being converted to crank work
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CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Herold, 2011

Other assumptions:
In engine system models, compressors, supercharger, turbines modeled with
constant isentropic efficiency instead of using performance map.
- typically, compressors, superchargers, and fixed geometry turbines have isentropic
efficiencies of 0.7. VGT has isentropic efficiency of 0.65.

Charge coolers - intercooler, aftercooler, and EGR cooler modeled with zero
pressure drop, a fixed effectiveness of 0.9, constant coolant temperature of 350 K.

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CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Herold, 2011

Zero-dimensional closed-cycle analysis:


Combustion represented as energy addition to closed system
Fuel injection mass addition from user-specified start of injection crank angle
(SOI) and injection duration (inj).

Pressure and mass integrated over the closed portion of cycle with specified
initial conditions at IVC of pressure (p0), temperature (T0), and composition
(xn,0 for all species considered - N2, O2, Ar, CO2, and H2O) and initial trapped
mass (m0), including trapped residual mass
Post-combustion composition determined assuming complete combustion of
delivered fuel mass.
Minor species resulting from dissociation during combustion not considered

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CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Herold, 2011

First law energy balance: de=dq - Pdv

Combustion:

Wall heat transfer:


Combustion model - Wiebe function

Heat transfer model - Woschni

26

CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Engine brake thermal efficiency BTE

70

BTE GIE{1

150 bar PCP Limit

BTE*LHV=IMEPg-PMEP-FMEP

PMEP FMEP
}
IMEPg

60

DOE goal BTE=55%


BTE [%]

55

Friction model

50

UW Dyno limit

45

PMEP = 0.4 bar


FMEP = 1 bar

40

Chen-Flynn model ( SAE 650733).


UW RCCI
SCOTE
results
(Exp/Sim)

30

FMEP = C + (PF*Pmax) + (MPSF*Speedmp)


+ (MPSSF*Speedmp2)
where:

Chen-Flynn, 1965

20
0

C = constant part of FMEP (0.25 bar)

GIE = 55%
GIE = 60%
GIE = 65%

10
15
20
Load -- Gross IMEP [bar]

PF = Peak Cylinder Pressure Factor (0.005)


Pmax = Maximum Cylinder Pressure
MPSF = Mean Piston Speed Factor (0.1)
MPSSF = Mean Piston Speed Squared Factor (0)
Speedmp = Mean Piston Speed

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25

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Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Lavoie, 2012

1-D modeling for engine performance analysis

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CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Lavoie, 2012

Mid load

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CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Lavoie, 2012

Woshni, 1967

Turbocharger equation

Burn duration

Heat transfer

m~0.8, Re increases with Bore and (boost)

Friction
30

CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Lavoie, 2012

Effect of combustion phasing on efficiency


Constant volume combustion

Cumulative heat release

10-90 Burn
100%
90%

50%

CA50

10%

Crank angle

Without HT: Best efficiency CA50~TDC


With HT: best efficiency with CA50~10 deg tradeoff between heat loss/late expansion
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CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Lavoie, 2012

Energy budget
F0 air standard efficiency
63%

Adiabatic

Decreasing
32

Incomplete combustion
CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Lavoie, 2012

Effect of dilution

Burned gas temperature

Fuel-to-charge equivalence ratio, f

f ranges from 0.2 to 1 with air, EGR ranges from 0 to 80% with f=1
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Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Lavoie, 2012

Effect of boost on efficiency


Reduced heat transfer loss

Reduced friction losses

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CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Lavoie, 2012

Potential brake efficiencies of naturally aspirated engines

Increased pumping losses

35

CEFRC1-2, 2014

Part 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Summary
Turbocharging can increase engine efficiency by using available energy in exhaust
and by reducing pumping work
Air standard ideal cycle analysis provides a bound on engine efficiency
estimates.

0-D engine system models provide estimates of engine system efficiencies,


if combustion details (e.g., timing and duration) and heat transfer losses are assumed
The goal of multi-dimensional models (to be discussed next) is to predict the
combustion details

36

CEFRC1-2, 2014