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Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines

Prof. Rolf D. Reitz,


Engine Research Center,
University of Wisconsin-Madison
2012 Princeton-CEFRC
Summer Program on Combustion
Course Length: 9 hrs
(Wed., Thur., Fri., June 27-29)
Hour 2

Copyright 2012 by Rolf D. Reitz.


This material is not to be sold, reproduced or distributed without
prior written permission of the owner, Rolf D. Reitz.

CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics


Short course outine:
Engine fundamentals and performance metrics, computer modeling supported
by in-depth understanding of fundamental engine processes and detailed
experiments in engine design optimization.
Day 1 (Engine fundamentals)
Hour 1: IC Engine Review, 0, 1 and 3-D modeling
Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics
Hour 3: Chemical Kinetics, HCCI & SI Combustion
Day 2 (Spray combustion modeling)
Hour 4: Atomization, Drop Breakup/Coalescence
Hour 5: Drop Drag/Wall Impinge/Vaporization
Hour 6: Heat transfer, NOx and Soot Emissions
Day 3 (Applications)
Hour 7: Diesel combustion and SI knock modeling
Hour 8: Optimization and Low Temperature Combustion
Hour 9: Automotive applications and the Future

CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Turbocharging

Improved

CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Turbocharging
Purpose of turbocharging or supercharging is to increase inlet air density,
- increase amount of air in the cylinder.
Mechanical supercharging
- driven directly by power from engine.
Turbocharger - connected compressor/turbine
- energy in exhaust used to drive turbine.
Supercharging necessary in two-strokes
for effective scavenging:
- intake P > exhaust P
- crankcase used as a pump
Some engines combine engine-driven and
mechanical (e.g., in two-stage configuration).
Intercooler after compressor
- controls combustion air temperature.

CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Turbocharging
Energy in exhaust is used to drive
turbine which drives compressor

Wastegate used to by-pass turbine


Charge air cooling after compressor
further increases air density
- more air for combustion
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CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Regulated Two-Stage Turbocharger


Duplicated Configuration per Cylinder Bank

LP stage Turbo-Charger
with Bypass
Compressor
Bypass
Charge Air
Cooler

HP stage Turbo
charger
Regulating valve

EGR Cooler
EGR Valve

GT-Power R2S Turbo Circuit


HP TURBINE

EGR Valve

Compressor Bypass

EGR Cooler

Charge Air
Cooler
Compressor
Bypass

Regulating valve

HP stage Turbo
charger
LP stage Turbo-Charger
with Bypass

Regulating Valve
LP Stage Bypass
LP TURBINE

CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Variable Valve Timing - IVC control

Isentropic

P
V
IVC
PIVC V

Reduced Peak Temp (NOx)


Improved phasing
(
1)

T
V

IVC
TIVC V

ln P
ln T

Pressure
/time of
ignition

Compressor

Boost

T ign

TDC

IVC

TDC

IVC

ln V
Boost explains 20% of the improved fuel efficiency of diesel vs. SI
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CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

ln V

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Automotive Compressor
Centrifugal compressor typically used in
automotive applications
Provides high mass flow rate at
relatively low pressure ratio ~ 3.5
Rotates at high angular speeds
- direct coupled with exhaust-driven
turbine
- less suited for mechanical
supercharging
Consists of:
stationary inlet casing,
rotating bladed impeller,
stationary diffuser (w or w/o vanes)
collector - connects to intake system

CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Isentropic compressible flow theory


T0
1 2
1
M1
T1
2

Anderson, 1990

P0
1 2 1
(1
M1 )
P1
2

Ex. Flow past throttle plate

P0

P=Pb

Choked flow for P 2 < 53.5 kPa = 40.1cmHg

ambient

reservoir

WOT
ed
s pe

Choked

Pb

P/P0

0.528
M=1

40.1

76

Manifold pressure, P 2 cmHg

0
x

CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Application to turbomachinery

Anderson, 1990

Fliegners Formula:
P V
mAV A
RT
RT c

P0
AM ( P / P0 ) /(T / T0 ) 1/ 2
RT0

Variable Geometry Compressor/


turbine performance map

2 2( 1)
m

(
)
P0 A*
M
1
1
RT0
Corrected mass
flow rate

Increased speed

Choked flow

m Tref / T0
P0 / Pref

A measure of effective flow


area

Reduced flow passage


area
1.0

1/0.528=1.89

P0 /P
Total/static pressure ratio
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CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Compressor

Heywood, 1988

(T
T )
c out isen in
(Tout Tin )
P03
T

P3 = Pout
P2

Heywood, Fig. 6-43

Air at stagnation state 0,in accelerates to


inlet pressure, P1, and velocity V1.
Compression in impeller passages
increases pressure to P2 , and velocity V2.

P0 = P0,in
V12/2cP

P1

Diffuser between states 2 and out,


recovers air kinetic energy at exit of impeller
producing pressure rise to, Pout and
low velocity Vout

W
hout hin
c m
a

S
Note: use exit static pressure and inlet total
pressure, because kinetic energy of gas
leaving compressor is usually not recovered
11

T
pout
a
Pa
in
W

c
p0, in

a 1
a

CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Compressor Maps

Work transfer to gas occurs in impeller via change in gas


angular momentum in rotating blade passage

Surge limit line


reduced mass flow
due to periodic flow
reversal/reattachment in
passage boundary layers.
Unstable flow can lead
to damage

Speed/pressure limit line


Non-dimensionalize blade
tip speed (~ND) by speed
of sound
At high air flow rate,
operation is limited by
choking at the minimum
area point within compressor

Pressure ratio evaluated


using total-to-static
pressures since exit flow
kinetic energy is not
recovered

Supersonic flow

Shock
wave

Heywood, 1988

Heywood, Fig. 6-46

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CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Compressor maps
3.0

GM 1.9L diesel engine

Pressure
Ratio (t/t)
2.8

0.8

35000

40000

50000

70000

90000

110000

130000

150000

170000

180000

190000

190000

2.6

2.4

2.2

Efficiency
(T/T)

2.0

180000

0.7

170000
1.8
150000

0.6

1.6

Corrected Air Flow (kg/s)


0.5
0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14

130000
1.4
110000

0.16 0.18
1.2

90000
35000

50000 70000
40000

1.0
0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08

Corrected Air Flow (kg/s)


0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18

Serrano, 2007
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CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Turbochargers
Radial flow automotive;
axial flow locomotive, marine

P0 = P0,in
T
2

V1 /2cP

P1
P2

m corrected mg

N corrected

P03

T3

T3
p3

T0
p0

out
T0

P3 = Pout

(T T )
t out in
(Tout isen Tin )
S
14

CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Automotive Turbines
Reitz & Hoag, 2007

Naturally aspirated:
Pintake=Pexhst =Patm (5-7-8-9-1)
Boosted operation:
Negative pumping work:
P7<P1 but hurts scavenging

W
t m g ( hin h0,out )
g 1

g
P0, out

m
c
T

1
t
g P in t
Pin

P
3

Expansion

Blowdown

Available work
(area 5-6-7)
6

Compression

Compressor

Pintake
Pexhst

6
8

Pamb
TDC

Turbine
6

BDC

P-V diagram showing available exhaust energy


- turbocharging, turbocompounding, bottoming cycles and
thermoelectric generators further utilize this available energy
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CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Compressor Selection
To select compressor, first determine engine breathing lines.
The mass flow rate of air through engine for a given pressure ratio is:

= IMP = PR * atmospheric pressure (no losses)


= IMT = Roughly constant for given Speed

16

CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Engine Breathing Lines


Engine Breathing Lines
1.4L Diesel, Air-to-Air AfterCooled, Turbocharged

3.8
3.6

Torque Peak (1700rpm)


Trq Peak Operating Pnt

3.4

Rated (2300rpm)

3.2

Rated Operating Pnt

Compressor Pressure Ratio

3
2.8
2.6
2.4
2.2
2
1.8
1.6

Parameter
Horsepower
BSFC
A/F

1.4
1.2
1
0.000

1.000

2.000

3.000

4.000

5.000

6.000

7.000

8.000

9.000

10.000

Torque Peak
48
0.377
23.8
11.000

12.000

Rated
69
0.401
24.5
13.000

Units
hp
lb/hp-hr
none

14.000

Intake Mass Flow Rate (lb/min)

17

CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

a
a
1

g 1

p4 g
T3 m fuel
p2 Cp g

c
mech
t

p Cp
p

1
a T1
3
mair

Heywood, 1988

Wt = W c

18

CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Ideal Engine Efficiency Otto cycle


Maximum possible closed-cycle
efficiency (ideal efficiency)
State (1) to (2) isentropic
(i.e., adiabatic and reversible)
compression from max (V1) to
min cylinder volume (V2)
Compression ratio rc = V1/V2.
State (2) to (3) adiabatic
and isochoric (constant volume)
combustion,
State (3) to (4) isentropic
expansion.
State (4) to (1) exhaust process
- available energy is rejected
- can be converted to mechanical
or electrical work:
Heywood, 1988
19

CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

ideal Function of only two variables, compression ratio (rc)


and ratio of specific heats ()
Increasing rc increases operating volume for compression and expansion
Increasing increases pressure rise during combustion and increases work
extraction during expansion stroke.
Both effects result in an increase in net system work for a given energy release
and thereby increase engine efficiency.
Actual closed-cycle efficiencies to deviate from ideal:
1.) Assumption of isochoric combustion:
Finite duration combustion in realistic engines.
Kinetically controlled combustion has shorter combustion duration than diesel or SI
- duration limited by mechanical constraints, high pressure rise rates with audible
engine noise and high mechanical stresses

2.) Assumption of calorically perfect fluid:


Specific heats decrease with increasing gas temperature; species conversion during
combustion causes to decrease

3.) Adiabatic assumption:


Large temperature gradient near walls results in energy being lost to heat transfer
rather than being converted to crank work
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CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Other Assumptions:
In engine system models, compressors, supercharger, turbines modeled with
constant isentropic efficiency instead of using performance map.
- typically, compressors, superchargers, and fixed geometry turbines have isentropic
efficiencies of 0.7. VGT has isentropic efficiency of 0.65.

Charge coolers - intercooler, aftercooler, and EGR cooler modeled with zero
pressure drop, a fixed effectiveness of 0.9, constant coolant temperature of 350 K.

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CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Zero-dimensional closed-cycle analysis:


Combustion represented as energy addition to closed system
Fuel injection mass addition from user-specified start of injection crank angle
(SOI) and injection duration (inj).
Pressure and mass integrated over the closed portion of cycle with specified
initial conditions at IVC of pressure (p0), temperature (T0), and composition
(xn,0 for all species considered - N2, O2, Ar, CO2, and H2O) and initial trapped
mass (m0), including trapped residual mass
Post-combustion composition determined assuming complete combustion of
delivered fuel mass.
Minor species resulting from dissociation during combustion not considered

Herold, SAE 2011-01-2216


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CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

First law energy balance: du=dq+pdv

Combustion:

Wall heat transfer:


Combustion model - Wiebe function

Heat transfer model - Woschni

Herold, SAE 2011-01-2216


23

CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Engine brake thermal efficiency BTE

70
150 bar PCP Limit

BTE*LHV=IMEPg-PMEP-FMEP

60

DOE goal BTE=55%


BTE [%]

55

Friction model

50

UW Dyno limit

45

PMEP = 0.4 bar


FMEP = 1 bar

40

Chen-Flynn model ( SAE 650733).


UW RCCI
SCOTE
results
(Exp/Sim)

30

FMEP = C + (PF*Pmax) + (MPSF*Speedmp)


+ (MPSSF*Speedmp2)
where:

PMEP FMEP
BTE GIE{1
}
IMEPg

20

C = constant part of FMEP (0.25 bar)

GIE = 55%
GIE = 60%
GIE = 65%

10
15
20
Load -- Gross IMEP [bar]

25

30

PF = Peak Cylinder Pressure Factor (0.005)


Pmax = Maximum Cylinder Pressure
MPSF = Mean Piston Speed Factor (0.1)
MPSSF = Mean Piston Speed Squared Factor (0)
Speedmp = Mean Piston Speed
Chen-Flynn SAE 650733).
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CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

1-D modeling for engine performance analysis Lavoie et al. (2012)

Lavoie, 2012
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CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics


Mid load

Lavoie, 2012

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CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics


Lavoie, 2012

Woshni, 1967

Turbocharger equation

Burn duration

Heat transfer

m~0.8, Re increases with Bore and


(boost)

Friction
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CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Effect of combustion phasing on efficiency

Lavoie, 2012

Constant volume combustion

Cumulative heat release

10-90 Burn
100%
90%

50%

CA50

10%

Crank angle

Without HT: Best efficiency CA50~TDC


With HT: best efficiency with CA50~10 deg tradeoff between heat loss/late expansion
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CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Energy budget
0 air standard efficiency
63%

Adiabatic

Lavoie, 2012

Decreasing
29

Incomplete combustion
CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Effect of dilution

Lavoie, 2012

Burned gas temperature

Fuel-to-charge equivalence ratio,

ranges from 0.2 to 1 with air, EGR ranges from 0 to 80% with =1
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CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Effect of boost on efficiency

Lavoie, 2012

Reduced heat transfer loss

Reduced friction losses

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CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Potential brake efficiencies for naturally aspirated engines

Increased pumping losses

Lavoie, 2012
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CEFRC2 June 27, 2012

Hour 2: Turbochargers, Engine Performance Metrics

Summary
Turbocharging can increase engine efficiency by using available energy in exhaust
and by reducing pumping work
Air standard ideal cycle analysis provides a bound on engine efficiency
estimates.
0-D engine system models provide estimates of engine system efficiencies,
if combustion details (e.g., timing and duration) and heat transfer losses are assumed
The goal of multi-dimensional models (to be discussed next) is to predict the
combustion details

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CEFRC2 June 27, 2012