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# SC-116 Algebraic Structures

MidSem I Exam
Sep 12, 2015
Time: 1 hr and 30 minutes
Name:
Student I.D.:
Important theorems:
1. Generators in cyclic Groups:
If the cyclic subgroup generated by < x > is of order n then the order of |xa | =

n
.
(n,a)

2. Euler function for number of intergers less than n that are relatively prime to n:
If the prime decomposition of n is n = i pki i then (n) = ni (1 p1i )
3. Subgroups:
Let G be a group then H G is a subgroup iff xy 1 H for all x, y H.
4. Matrix groups:
GL(n, R) = n n invertible matrices with entries in R. We have for A, B GL(n, R)
det(AB) = det(A) det(B).
5. Dihedral group (D2n ):
D2n = {e, r, r2 ..., rn1 , s, sr, sr2 ..., srn1 } where rn = e, s2 = e, ri s = sri .
6. Product Groups :
Let G be a group and H and K be subgroups of G such that i)H and K have only
the identity element in common.ii) HK = G. iii) Every element of H commutes with
every element of K, then G is isomorphic to H K.
7. Cauchys theorem (Partial converse to Lagranges theorem):
If G is a finite group and if p is a prime divisor of |G| then there exists an element
x G of order p.
8. Orbit Stabilizer theorem :
If a group G acts on a set X then the orbits of an element a X, Oa = {g.a|g G}.
The stabilizer of an element a X, Ga = {g G|g.a = a}. The orbit-stabilizer
theorem says that the |Oa | = |G : Ga |. In particular this implies that |Oa |||G|.

## Section 1. True/False (2 pts. each)

Print T if the statement is true, otherwise print F. If false then give a counter
example or justification.
The rotational symmetries of the tetrahedron is isomorphic to D12 .

subgroup.

## In D10 the group < s > is a normal subgroup .

If G and H are cyclic group then the direct product group G K is also cyclic.

## Section 2. Multiple Choice (2 pts. each )

1. In S5 the number of elements that are conjugate to (12)(345) are
(a)

(b)

20

(c)

30

(d)

10

(a)

(b)

{s, sr}

(c)

(d)

{sr, sr3 }

(a)

gH = Hg

g G

(b)

ghg 1 = h

g G, h H

(c)

g G h, h0 H

(d)

gHg 1 = H

s.t.

gh = h0 g

g G

(a)

13

(b)

14

(c)

15

(d)

16

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

## Section 3. Short Answer (10 pts each)

Answer all problems in as thorough detail as possible.
1. Let : G H be a homomorphism i.e. (g1 g2 ) = (g1 ) (g2 ). Define the
Kernel and Image of as Ker() := {g G|(g) = e} and Im() := {(g)|g G}.
Show that Ker() / G (First show that it is a subgroup). Give an isomorphism from
G/Ker() to Im() (Dont have to show that it is an isomorphism).

2. Prove Wilsons theorem in number theory. That is, show that if p is a prime then
(p 1)! 1( mod p).
Hint: As in the proof of Cauchys theorem use group actions with G = Sp and the
orbit-stabilizer theorem to show that #{ Sp | p = e} 0( mod p).

## 3. Show that if G is a non-abelian group of order 6 then it is isomorphic to D6 . (Hint:

Use theorems 5 and 6 and fact 4)

## Section 1. True/False (2 pts. each)

Print T if the statement is true, otherwise print F. If false then give a counter
example or justification.
The rotational symmetries of the tetrahedron is isomorphic to D12 .

a subgroup.

## In D10 the group < s > is a normal subgroup .

If G and H are cyclic group then the direct product group G K is also cyclic.

## Section 2. Multiple Choice (2 pts. each )

1. In S5 the number of elements that are conjugate to (12)(345) are
(a)

(b)

20

(c)

30

(d)

10

(a)

(b)

{s, sr}

(c)

(d)

{sr, sr3 }

(a)

gH = Hg

(b)

ghg 1 = h

g G
g G, h H
0

(c)

g G h, h H

(d)

gHg 1 = H

s.t.

gh = h0 g

g G

(a)

13

(b)

14

(c)

15

(d)

16

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

## Section 3. Short Answer (10 pts each)

Answer all problems in as thorough detail as possible.
1. Let : G H be a homomorphism i.e. (g1 g2 ) = (g1 ) (g2 ). Define the
Kernel and Image of as Ker() := {g G|(g) = e} and Im() := {(g)|g G}.
Show that Ker() / G (First show that it is a subgroup). Give an isomorphism from
G/Ker() to Im() (Dont have to show that it is an isomorphism).

2. Prove Wilsons theorem in number theory. That is, show that if p is a prime then
(p 1)! 1( mod p).
Hint: As in the proof of Cauchys theorem use group actions with G = Sp and the
orbit-stabilizer theorem to show that #{ Sp | p = e} 0( mod p).

## 3. Show that if G is a non-abelian group of order 6 then it is isomorphic to D6 . (Hint:

Use theorems 5 and 6 and fact 4)

## SC-116 Algebraic Structures

MidSem I Exam
Sep 12, 2015
Time: 1 hr and 30 minutes
Name:
Student I.D.:
Important theorems:
1. Generators in cyclic Groups:
If the cyclic subgroup generated by < x > is of order n then the order of |xa | =

n
.
(n,a)

2. Euler function for number of intergers less than n that are relatively prime to n:
If the prime decomposition of n is n = i pki i then (n) = ni (1 p1i )
3. Subgroups:
Let G be a group then H G is a subgroup iff xy 1 H for all x, y H.
4. Matrix groups:
GL(n, R) = n n invertible matrices with entries in R. We have for A, B GL(n, R)
det(AB) = det(A) det(B).
5. Dihedral group (D2n ):
D2n = {e, r, r2 ..., rn1 , s, sr, sr2 ..., srn1 } where rn = e, s2 = e, ri s = sri .
6. Product Groups :
Let G be a group and H and K be subgroups of G such that i)H and K have only
the identity element in common.ii) HK = G. iii) Every element of H commutes with
every element of K, then G is isomorphic to H K.
7. Cauchys theorem (Partial converse to Lagranges theorem):
If G is a finite group and if p is a prime divisor of |G| then there exists an element
x G of order p.
8. Orbit Stabilizer theorem :
If a group G acts on a set X then the orbits of an element a X, Oa = {g.a|g G}.
The stabilizer of an element a X, Ga = {g G|g.a = a}. The orbit-stabilizer
theorem says that the |Oa | = |G : Ga |. In particular this implies that |Oa |||G|.

## Section 1. True/False (2 pts. each)

Print T if the statement is true, otherwise print F. If false then give a counter
example or justification.
Every group of prime order is abelian.

## The rotational symmetries of the tetrahedron is isomorphic to D12 .

If G and H are cyclic group then the direct product group G K is also cyclic.

subgroup.

## Section 2. Multiple Choice (2 pts. each )

1. If H / G then which of the following is not necessarily true
(a)

gH = Hg

g G

(b)

ghg 1 = h

g G, h H

(c)

g G h, h0 H

(d)

gHg 1 = H

s.t.

gh = h0 g

g G

(a)

13

(b)

14

(c)

15

(d)

16

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(a)

(b)

{s, sr}

(c)

(d)

{sr, sr3 }

(a)

(b)

20

(c)

30

(d)

10

## Section 3. Short Answer (10 pts each)

Answer all problems in as thorough detail as possible.
1. Prove Wilsons theorem in number theory. That is, show that if p is a prime then
(p 1)! 1( mod p).
Hint: As in the proof of Cauchys theorem use group actions with G = Sp and the
orbit-stabilizer theorem to show that #{ Sp | p = e} 0( mod p).

## 2. Let : G H be a homomorphism i.e. (g1 g2 ) = (g1 ) (g2 ). Define the

Kernel and Image of as Ker() := {g G|(g) = e} and Im() := {(g)|g G}.
Show that Ker() / G (First show that it is a subgroup). Give an isomorphism from
G/Ker() to Im() (Dont have to show that it is an isomorphism).

## 3. Show that if G is a non-abelian group of order 6 then it is isomorphic to D6 . (Hint:

Use theorems 5 and 6 and fact 4)

## Section 1. True/False (2 pts. each)

Print T if the statement is true, otherwise print F. If false then give a counter
example or justification.
Every group of prime order is abelian.

## The rotational symmetries of the tetrahedron is isomorphic to D12 .

If G and H are cyclic group then the direct product group G K is also cyclic.

a subgroup.

## Section 2. Multiple Choice (2 pts. each )

1. If H / G then which of the following is not necessarily true
(a)

gH = Hg

g G

(b)

ghg 1 = h

g G, h H

(c)

g G h, h0 H

(d)

gHg 1 = H

s.t.

gh = h0 g

g G

(a)

13

(b)

14

(c)

15

(d)

16

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(a)

(b)

{s, sr}

(c)

(d)

{sr, sr3 }

(a)

(b)

20

(c)

30

(d)

10

## Section 3. Short Answer (10 pts each)

Answer all problems in as thorough detail as possible.
1. Prove Wilsons theorem in number theory. That is, show that if p is a prime then
(p 1)! 1( mod p).
Hint: As in the proof of Cauchys theorem use group actions with G = Sp and the
orbit-stabilizer theorem to show that #{ Sp | p = e} 0( mod p).

## 2. Let : G H be a homomorphism i.e. (g1 g2 ) = (g1 ) (g2 ). Define the

Kernel and Image of as Ker() := {g G|(g) = e} and Im() := {(g)|g G}.
Show that Ker() / G (First show that it is a subgroup). Give an isomorphism from
G/Ker() to Im() (Dont have to show that it is an isomorphism).

## 3. Show that if G is a non-abelian group of order 6 then it is isomorphic to D6 . (Hint:

Use theorems 5 and 6 and fact 4)

## SC-116 Algebraic Structures

MidSem I Exam
Sep 12, 2015
Time: 1 hr and 30 minutes
Name:
Student I.D.:
Important theorems:
1. Generators in cyclic Groups:
If the cyclic subgroup generated by < x > is of order n then the order of |xa | =

n
.
(n,a)

2. Euler function for number of intergers less than n that are relatively prime to n:
If the prime decomposition of n is n = i pki i then (n) = ni (1 p1i )
3. Subgroups:
Let G be a group then H G is a subgroup iff xy 1 H for all x, y H.
4. Matrix groups:
GL(n, R) = n n invertible matrices with entries in R. We have for A, B GL(n, R)
det(AB) = det(A) det(B).
5. Dihedral group (D2n ):
D2n = {e, r, r2 ..., rn1 , s, sr, sr2 ..., srn1 } where rn = e, s2 = e, ri s = sri .
6. Product Groups :
Let G be a group and H and K be subgroups of G such that i)H and K have only
the identity element in common.ii) HK = G. iii) Every element of H commutes with
every element of K, then G is isomorphic to H K.
7. Cauchys theorem (Partial converse to Lagranges theorem):
If G is a finite group and if p is a prime divisor of |G| then there exists an element
x G of order p.
8. Orbit Stabilizer theorem :
If a group G acts on a set X then the orbits of an element a X, Oa = {g.a|g G}.
The stabilizer of an element a X, Ga = {g G|g.a = a}. The orbit-stabilizer
theorem says that the |Oa | = |G : Ga |. In particular this implies that |Oa |||G|.

## Section 1. True/False (2 pts. each)

Print T if the statement is true, otherwise print F. If false then give a counter
example or justification.
The rotational symmetries of the tetrahedron is isomorphic to D12 .

## In a group G conjugate elements have the same order.

If G and H are cyclic group then the direct product group G K is also cyclic.

subgroup.

## Section 2. Multiple Choice (2 pts. each )

1. The number of generators in the group Z60 are ?
(a)

13

(b)

14

(c)

15

(d)

16

(a)

gH = Hg

(b)

ghg

g G
g G, h H

=h
0

(c)

g G h, h H

(d)

gHg 1 = H

s.t.

gh = h0 g

g G

(a)

(b)

{s, sr}

(c)

(d)

{sr, sr3 }

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(a)

(b)

20

(c)

30

(d)

10

## Section 3. Short Answer (10 pts each)

Answer all problems in as thorough detail as possible.
1. Let : G H be a homomorphism i.e. (g1 g2 ) = (g1 ) (g2 ). Define the
Kernel and Image of as Ker() := {g G|(g) = e} and Im() := {(g)|g G}.
Show that Ker() / G (First show that it is a subgroup). Give an isomorphism from
G/Ker() to Im() (Dont have to show that it is an isomorphism).

## 2. Show that if G is a non-abelian group of order 6 then it is isomorphic to D6 . (Hint:

Use theorems 5 and 6 and fact 4)

3. Prove Wilsons theorem in number theory. That is, show that if p is a prime then
(p 1)! 1( mod p).
Hint: As in the proof of Cauchys theorem use group actions with G = Sp and the
orbit-stabilizer theorem to show that #{ Sp | p = e} 0( mod p).

## Section 1. True/False (2 pts. each)

Print T if the statement is true, otherwise print F. If false then give a counter
example or justification.
The rotational symmetries of the tetrahedron is isomorphic to D12 .

## In a group G conjugate elements have the same order.

If G and H are cyclic group then the direct product group G K is also cyclic.

a subgroup.

## Section 2. Multiple Choice (2 pts. each )

1. The number of generators in the group Z60 are ?
(a)

13

(b)

14

(c)

15

(d)

16

g G

(a)

gH = Hg

(b)

ghg

(c)

g G h, h0 H

(d)

gHg 1 = H

=h

g G, h H
s.t.

gh = h0 g

g G

(a)

(b)

{s, sr}

(c)

(d)

{sr, sr3 }

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(a)

(b)

20

(c)

30

(d)

10

## Section 3. Short Answer (10 pts each)

Answer all problems in as thorough detail as possible.
1. Let : G H be a homomorphism i.e. (g1 g2 ) = (g1 ) (g2 ). Define the
Kernel and Image of as Ker() := {g G|(g) = e} and Im() := {(g)|g G}.
Show that Ker() / G (First show that it is a subgroup). Give an isomorphism from
G/Ker() to Im() (Dont have to show that it is an isomorphism).

## 2. Show that if G is a non-abelian group of order 6 then it is isomorphic to D6 . (Hint:

Use theorems 5 and 6 and fact 4)

3. Prove Wilsons theorem in number theory. That is, show that if p is a prime then
(p 1)! 1( mod p).
Hint: As in the proof of Cauchys theorem use group actions with G = Sp and the
orbit-stabilizer theorem to show that #{ Sp | p = e} 0( mod p).

## SC-116 Algebraic Structures

MidSem I Exam
Sep 12, 2015
Time: 1 hr and 30 minutes
Name:
Student I.D.:
Important theorems:
1. Generators in cyclic Groups:
If the cyclic subgroup generated by < x > is of order n then the order of |xa | =

n
.
(n,a)

2. Euler function for number of intergers less than n that are relatively prime to n:
If the prime decomposition of n is n = i pki i then (n) = ni (1 p1i )
3. Subgroups:
Let G be a group then H G is a subgroup iff xy 1 H for all x, y H.
4. Matrix groups:
GL(n, R) = n n invertible matrices with entries in R. We have for A, B GL(n, R)
det(AB) = det(A) det(B).
5. Dihedral group (D2n ):
D2n = {e, r, r2 ..., rn1 , s, sr, sr2 ..., srn1 } where rn = e, s2 = e, ri s = sri .
6. Product Groups :
Let G be a group and H and K be subgroups of G such that i)H and K have only
the identity element in common.ii) HK = G. iii) Every element of H commutes with
every element of K, then G is isomorphic to H K.
7. Cauchys theorem (Partial converse to Lagranges theorem):
If G is a finite group and if p is a prime divisor of |G| then there exists an element
x G of order p.
8. Orbit Stabilizer theorem :
If a group G acts on a set X then the orbits of an element a X, Oa = {g.a|g G}.
The stabilizer of an element a X, Ga = {g G|g.a = a}. The orbit-stabilizer
theorem says that the |Oa | = |G : Ga |. In particular this implies that |Oa |||G|.

## Section 1. True/False (2 pts. each)

Print T if the statement is true, otherwise print F. If false then give a counter
example or justification.
The n n matrices with determinant 1 form a normal subgroup of GL(n, R).

If G and H are cyclic group then the direct product group G K is also cyclic.

subgroup.

## Section 2. Multiple Choice (2 pts. each )

1. In D8 the conjugacy class of sr is
(a)

(b)

{s, sr}

(c)

(d)

{sr, sr3 }

(a)

gH = Hg

(b)

ghg

g G
g G, h H

=h
0

(c)

g G h, h H

(d)

gHg 1 = H

s.t.

gh = h0 g

g G

(a)

13

(b)

14

(c)

15

(d)

16

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(a)

(b)

20

(c)

30

(d)

10

## Section 3. Short Answer (10 pts each)

Answer all problems in as thorough detail as possible.
1. Show that if G is a non-abelian group of order 6 then it is isomorphic to D6 . (Hint:
Use theorems 5 and 6 and fact 4)

2. Prove Wilsons theorem in number theory. That is, show that if p is a prime then
(p 1)! 1( mod p).
Hint: As in the proof of Cauchys theorem use group actions with G = Sp and the
orbit-stabilizer theorem to show that #{ Sp | p = e} 0( mod p).

## 3. Let : G H be a homomorphism i.e. (g1 g2 ) = (g1 ) (g2 ). Define the

Kernel and Image of as Ker() := {g G|(g) = e} and Im() := {(g)|g G}.
Show that Ker() / G (First show that it is a subgroup). Give an isomorphism from
G/Ker() to Im() (Dont have to show that it is an isomorphism).

## Section 1. True/False (2 pts. each)

Print T if the statement is true, otherwise print F. If false then give a counter
example or justification.
The n n matrices with determinant 1 form a normal subgroup of GL(n, R).

If G and H are cyclic group then the direct product group G K is also cyclic.

a subgroup.

## Section 2. Multiple Choice (2 pts. each )

1. In D8 the conjugacy class of sr is
(a)

(b)

{s, sr}

(c)

(d)

{sr, sr3 }

g G

(a)

gH = Hg

(b)

ghg

(c)

g G h, h0 H

(d)

gHg 1 = H

=h

g G, h H
s.t.

gh = h0 g

g G

(a)

13

(b)

14

(c)

15

(d)

16

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(a)

(b)

20

(c)

30

(d)

10

## Section 3. Short Answer (10 pts each)

Answer all problems in as thorough detail as possible.
1. Show that if G is a non-abelian group of order 6 then it is isomorphic to D6 . (Hint:
Use theorems 5 and 6 and fact 4)

2. Prove Wilsons theorem in number theory. That is, show that if p is a prime then
(p 1)! 1( mod p).
Hint: As in the proof of Cauchys theorem use group actions with G = Sp and the
orbit-stabilizer theorem to show that #{ Sp | p = e} 0( mod p).

## 3. Let : G H be a homomorphism i.e. (g1 g2 ) = (g1 ) (g2 ). Define the

Kernel and Image of as Ker() := {g G|(g) = e} and Im() := {(g)|g G}.
Show that Ker() / G (First show that it is a subgroup). Give an isomorphism from
G/Ker() to Im() (Dont have to show that it is an isomorphism).