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SC-116 Algebraic Structures

MidSem I Exam
Sep 12, 2015
Time: 1 hr and 30 minutes
Name:
Student I.D.:
Important theorems:
1. Generators in cyclic Groups:
If the cyclic subgroup generated by < x > is of order n then the order of |xa | =

n
.
(n,a)

2. Euler function for number of intergers less than n that are relatively prime to n:
If the prime decomposition of n is n = i pki i then (n) = ni (1 p1i )
3. Subgroups:
Let G be a group then H G is a subgroup iff xy 1 H for all x, y H.
4. Matrix groups:
GL(n, R) = n n invertible matrices with entries in R. We have for A, B GL(n, R)
det(AB) = det(A) det(B).
5. Dihedral group (D2n ):
D2n = {e, r, r2 ..., rn1 , s, sr, sr2 ..., srn1 } where rn = e, s2 = e, ri s = sri .
6. Product Groups :
Let G be a group and H and K be subgroups of G such that i)H and K have only
the identity element in common.ii) HK = G. iii) Every element of H commutes with
every element of K, then G is isomorphic to H K.
7. Cauchys theorem (Partial converse to Lagranges theorem):
If G is a finite group and if p is a prime divisor of |G| then there exists an element
x G of order p.
8. Orbit Stabilizer theorem :
If a group G acts on a set X then the orbits of an element a X, Oa = {g.a|g G}.
The stabilizer of an element a X, Ga = {g G|g.a = a}. The orbit-stabilizer
theorem says that the |Oa | = |G : Ga |. In particular this implies that |Oa |||G|.

Section 1. True/False (2 pts. each)


Print T if the statement is true, otherwise print F. If false then give a counter
example or justification.
The rotational symmetries of the tetrahedron is isomorphic to D12 .

If H and K are subgroups of a group G then the set HK = {hk|h H, k K} is a


subgroup.

The n n matrices with determinant 1 form a normal subgroup of GL(n, R).

The group Sn is generated by the two cycles.

Every group of prime order is abelian.

In D10 the group < s > is a normal subgroup .

If G and H are cyclic group then the direct product group G K is also cyclic.

In a group G conjugate elements have the same order.

Zm is a cyclic group for all m.

Section 2. Multiple Choice (2 pts. each )


1. In S5 the number of elements that are conjugate to (12)(345) are
(a)

(b)

20

(c)

30

(d)

10

2. In D8 the conjugacy class of sr is


(a)

{sr, sr2 , sr3 }

(b)

{s, sr}

(c)

{s, sr, sr2 , sr3 }

(d)

{sr, sr3 }

3. If H / G then which of the following is not necessarily true


(a)

gH = Hg

g G

(b)

ghg 1 = h

g G, h H

(c)

g G h, h0 H

(d)

gHg 1 = H

s.t.

gh = h0 g

g G

4. The number of generators in the group Z60 are ?


(a)

13

(b)

14

(c)

15

(d)

16

5. The number of groups (up to isomorphism) of order 4 are


(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Section 3. Short Answer (10 pts each)


Answer all problems in as thorough detail as possible.
1. Let : G H be a homomorphism i.e. (g1 g2 ) = (g1 ) (g2 ). Define the
Kernel and Image of as Ker() := {g G|(g) = e} and Im() := {(g)|g G}.
Show that Ker() / G (First show that it is a subgroup). Give an isomorphism from
G/Ker() to Im() (Dont have to show that it is an isomorphism).

2. Prove Wilsons theorem in number theory. That is, show that if p is a prime then
(p 1)! 1( mod p).
Hint: As in the proof of Cauchys theorem use group actions with G = Sp and the
orbit-stabilizer theorem to show that #{ Sp | p = e} 0( mod p).

3. Show that if G is a non-abelian group of order 6 then it is isomorphic to D6 . (Hint:


Use theorems 5 and 6 and fact 4)

Answer Key for Exam A

Section 1. True/False (2 pts. each)


Print T if the statement is true, otherwise print F. If false then give a counter
example or justification.
The rotational symmetries of the tetrahedron is isomorphic to D12 .

If H and K are subgroups of a group G then the set HK = {hk|h H, k K} is


a subgroup.

The n n matrices with determinant 1 form a normal subgroup of GL(n, R).

The group Sn is generated by the two cycles.

Every group of prime order is abelian.

In D10 the group < s > is a normal subgroup .

If G and H are cyclic group then the direct product group G K is also cyclic.

In a group G conjugate elements have the same order.

Zm is a cyclic group for all m.

Section 2. Multiple Choice (2 pts. each )


1. In S5 the number of elements that are conjugate to (12)(345) are
(a)

(b)

20

(c)

30

(d)

10

2. In D8 the conjugacy class of sr is


(a)

{sr, sr2 , sr3 }

(b)

{s, sr}

(c)

{s, sr, sr2 , sr3 }

(d)

{sr, sr3 }

3. If H / G then which of the following is not necessarily true


(a)

gH = Hg

(b)

ghg 1 = h

g G
g G, h H
0

(c)

g G h, h H

(d)

gHg 1 = H

s.t.

gh = h0 g

g G

4. The number of generators in the group Z60 are ?


(a)

13

(b)

14

(c)

15

(d)

16

5. The number of groups (up to isomorphism) of order 4 are


(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Section 3. Short Answer (10 pts each)


Answer all problems in as thorough detail as possible.
1. Let : G H be a homomorphism i.e. (g1 g2 ) = (g1 ) (g2 ). Define the
Kernel and Image of as Ker() := {g G|(g) = e} and Im() := {(g)|g G}.
Show that Ker() / G (First show that it is a subgroup). Give an isomorphism from
G/Ker() to Im() (Dont have to show that it is an isomorphism).

2. Prove Wilsons theorem in number theory. That is, show that if p is a prime then
(p 1)! 1( mod p).
Hint: As in the proof of Cauchys theorem use group actions with G = Sp and the
orbit-stabilizer theorem to show that #{ Sp | p = e} 0( mod p).

3. Show that if G is a non-abelian group of order 6 then it is isomorphic to D6 . (Hint:


Use theorems 5 and 6 and fact 4)

SC-116 Algebraic Structures


MidSem I Exam
Sep 12, 2015
Time: 1 hr and 30 minutes
Name:
Student I.D.:
Important theorems:
1. Generators in cyclic Groups:
If the cyclic subgroup generated by < x > is of order n then the order of |xa | =

n
.
(n,a)

2. Euler function for number of intergers less than n that are relatively prime to n:
If the prime decomposition of n is n = i pki i then (n) = ni (1 p1i )
3. Subgroups:
Let G be a group then H G is a subgroup iff xy 1 H for all x, y H.
4. Matrix groups:
GL(n, R) = n n invertible matrices with entries in R. We have for A, B GL(n, R)
det(AB) = det(A) det(B).
5. Dihedral group (D2n ):
D2n = {e, r, r2 ..., rn1 , s, sr, sr2 ..., srn1 } where rn = e, s2 = e, ri s = sri .
6. Product Groups :
Let G be a group and H and K be subgroups of G such that i)H and K have only
the identity element in common.ii) HK = G. iii) Every element of H commutes with
every element of K, then G is isomorphic to H K.
7. Cauchys theorem (Partial converse to Lagranges theorem):
If G is a finite group and if p is a prime divisor of |G| then there exists an element
x G of order p.
8. Orbit Stabilizer theorem :
If a group G acts on a set X then the orbits of an element a X, Oa = {g.a|g G}.
The stabilizer of an element a X, Ga = {g G|g.a = a}. The orbit-stabilizer
theorem says that the |Oa | = |G : Ga |. In particular this implies that |Oa |||G|.

Section 1. True/False (2 pts. each)


Print T if the statement is true, otherwise print F. If false then give a counter
example or justification.
Every group of prime order is abelian.

Zm is a cyclic group for all m.

In a group G conjugate elements have the same order.

The group Sn is generated by the two cycles.

The rotational symmetries of the tetrahedron is isomorphic to D12 .

If G and H are cyclic group then the direct product group G K is also cyclic.

If H and K are subgroups of a group G then the set HK = {hk|h H, k K} is a


subgroup.

In D10 the group < s > is a normal subgroup .

The n n matrices with determinant 1 form a normal subgroup of GL(n, R).

Section 2. Multiple Choice (2 pts. each )


1. If H / G then which of the following is not necessarily true
(a)

gH = Hg

g G

(b)

ghg 1 = h

g G, h H

(c)

g G h, h0 H

(d)

gHg 1 = H

s.t.

gh = h0 g

g G

2. The number of generators in the group Z60 are ?


(a)

13

(b)

14

(c)

15

(d)

16

3. The number of groups (up to isomorphism) of order 4 are


(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

4. In D8 the conjugacy class of sr is


(a)

{sr, sr2 , sr3 }

(b)

{s, sr}

(c)

{s, sr, sr2 , sr3 }

(d)

{sr, sr3 }

5. In S5 the number of elements that are conjugate to (12)(345) are


(a)

(b)

20

(c)

30

(d)

10

Section 3. Short Answer (10 pts each)


Answer all problems in as thorough detail as possible.
1. Prove Wilsons theorem in number theory. That is, show that if p is a prime then
(p 1)! 1( mod p).
Hint: As in the proof of Cauchys theorem use group actions with G = Sp and the
orbit-stabilizer theorem to show that #{ Sp | p = e} 0( mod p).

2. Let : G H be a homomorphism i.e. (g1 g2 ) = (g1 ) (g2 ). Define the


Kernel and Image of as Ker() := {g G|(g) = e} and Im() := {(g)|g G}.
Show that Ker() / G (First show that it is a subgroup). Give an isomorphism from
G/Ker() to Im() (Dont have to show that it is an isomorphism).

3. Show that if G is a non-abelian group of order 6 then it is isomorphic to D6 . (Hint:


Use theorems 5 and 6 and fact 4)

Answer Key for Exam B

Section 1. True/False (2 pts. each)


Print T if the statement is true, otherwise print F. If false then give a counter
example or justification.
Every group of prime order is abelian.

Zm is a cyclic group for all m.

In a group G conjugate elements have the same order.

The group Sn is generated by the two cycles.

The rotational symmetries of the tetrahedron is isomorphic to D12 .

If G and H are cyclic group then the direct product group G K is also cyclic.

If H and K are subgroups of a group G then the set HK = {hk|h H, k K} is


a subgroup.

In D10 the group < s > is a normal subgroup .

The n n matrices with determinant 1 form a normal subgroup of GL(n, R).

Section 2. Multiple Choice (2 pts. each )


1. If H / G then which of the following is not necessarily true
(a)

gH = Hg

g G

(b)

ghg 1 = h

g G, h H

(c)

g G h, h0 H

(d)

gHg 1 = H

s.t.

gh = h0 g

g G

2. The number of generators in the group Z60 are ?


(a)

13

(b)

14

(c)

15

(d)

16

3. The number of groups (up to isomorphism) of order 4 are


(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

4. In D8 the conjugacy class of sr is


(a)

{sr, sr2 , sr3 }

(b)

{s, sr}

(c)

{s, sr, sr2 , sr3 }

(d)

{sr, sr3 }

5. In S5 the number of elements that are conjugate to (12)(345) are


(a)

(b)

20

(c)

30

(d)

10

Section 3. Short Answer (10 pts each)


Answer all problems in as thorough detail as possible.
1. Prove Wilsons theorem in number theory. That is, show that if p is a prime then
(p 1)! 1( mod p).
Hint: As in the proof of Cauchys theorem use group actions with G = Sp and the
orbit-stabilizer theorem to show that #{ Sp | p = e} 0( mod p).

2. Let : G H be a homomorphism i.e. (g1 g2 ) = (g1 ) (g2 ). Define the


Kernel and Image of as Ker() := {g G|(g) = e} and Im() := {(g)|g G}.
Show that Ker() / G (First show that it is a subgroup). Give an isomorphism from
G/Ker() to Im() (Dont have to show that it is an isomorphism).

3. Show that if G is a non-abelian group of order 6 then it is isomorphic to D6 . (Hint:


Use theorems 5 and 6 and fact 4)

SC-116 Algebraic Structures


MidSem I Exam
Sep 12, 2015
Time: 1 hr and 30 minutes
Name:
Student I.D.:
Important theorems:
1. Generators in cyclic Groups:
If the cyclic subgroup generated by < x > is of order n then the order of |xa | =

n
.
(n,a)

2. Euler function for number of intergers less than n that are relatively prime to n:
If the prime decomposition of n is n = i pki i then (n) = ni (1 p1i )
3. Subgroups:
Let G be a group then H G is a subgroup iff xy 1 H for all x, y H.
4. Matrix groups:
GL(n, R) = n n invertible matrices with entries in R. We have for A, B GL(n, R)
det(AB) = det(A) det(B).
5. Dihedral group (D2n ):
D2n = {e, r, r2 ..., rn1 , s, sr, sr2 ..., srn1 } where rn = e, s2 = e, ri s = sri .
6. Product Groups :
Let G be a group and H and K be subgroups of G such that i)H and K have only
the identity element in common.ii) HK = G. iii) Every element of H commutes with
every element of K, then G is isomorphic to H K.
7. Cauchys theorem (Partial converse to Lagranges theorem):
If G is a finite group and if p is a prime divisor of |G| then there exists an element
x G of order p.
8. Orbit Stabilizer theorem :
If a group G acts on a set X then the orbits of an element a X, Oa = {g.a|g G}.
The stabilizer of an element a X, Ga = {g G|g.a = a}. The orbit-stabilizer
theorem says that the |Oa | = |G : Ga |. In particular this implies that |Oa |||G|.

Section 1. True/False (2 pts. each)


Print T if the statement is true, otherwise print F. If false then give a counter
example or justification.
The rotational symmetries of the tetrahedron is isomorphic to D12 .

In a group G conjugate elements have the same order.

If G and H are cyclic group then the direct product group G K is also cyclic.

The group Sn is generated by the two cycles.

Every group of prime order is abelian.

In D10 the group < s > is a normal subgroup .

The n n matrices with determinant 1 form a normal subgroup of GL(n, R).

If H and K are subgroups of a group G then the set HK = {hk|h H, k K} is a


subgroup.

Zm is a cyclic group for all m.

Section 2. Multiple Choice (2 pts. each )


1. The number of generators in the group Z60 are ?
(a)

13

(b)

14

(c)

15

(d)

16

2. If H / G then which of the following is not necessarily true


(a)

gH = Hg

(b)

ghg

g G
g G, h H

=h
0

(c)

g G h, h H

(d)

gHg 1 = H

s.t.

gh = h0 g

g G

3. In D8 the conjugacy class of sr is


(a)

{sr, sr2 , sr3 }

(b)

{s, sr}

(c)

{s, sr, sr2 , sr3 }

(d)

{sr, sr3 }

4. The number of groups (up to isomorphism) of order 4 are


(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

5. In S5 the number of elements that are conjugate to (12)(345) are


(a)

(b)

20

(c)

30

(d)

10

Section 3. Short Answer (10 pts each)


Answer all problems in as thorough detail as possible.
1. Let : G H be a homomorphism i.e. (g1 g2 ) = (g1 ) (g2 ). Define the
Kernel and Image of as Ker() := {g G|(g) = e} and Im() := {(g)|g G}.
Show that Ker() / G (First show that it is a subgroup). Give an isomorphism from
G/Ker() to Im() (Dont have to show that it is an isomorphism).

2. Show that if G is a non-abelian group of order 6 then it is isomorphic to D6 . (Hint:


Use theorems 5 and 6 and fact 4)

3. Prove Wilsons theorem in number theory. That is, show that if p is a prime then
(p 1)! 1( mod p).
Hint: As in the proof of Cauchys theorem use group actions with G = Sp and the
orbit-stabilizer theorem to show that #{ Sp | p = e} 0( mod p).

Answer Key for Exam C

Section 1. True/False (2 pts. each)


Print T if the statement is true, otherwise print F. If false then give a counter
example or justification.
The rotational symmetries of the tetrahedron is isomorphic to D12 .

In a group G conjugate elements have the same order.

If G and H are cyclic group then the direct product group G K is also cyclic.

The group Sn is generated by the two cycles.

Every group of prime order is abelian.

In D10 the group < s > is a normal subgroup .

The n n matrices with determinant 1 form a normal subgroup of GL(n, R).

If H and K are subgroups of a group G then the set HK = {hk|h H, k K} is


a subgroup.

Zm is a cyclic group for all m.

Section 2. Multiple Choice (2 pts. each )


1. The number of generators in the group Z60 are ?
(a)

13

(b)

14

(c)

15

(d)

16

2. If H / G then which of the following is not necessarily true


g G

(a)

gH = Hg

(b)

ghg

(c)

g G h, h0 H

(d)

gHg 1 = H

=h

g G, h H
s.t.

gh = h0 g

g G

3. In D8 the conjugacy class of sr is


(a)

{sr, sr2 , sr3 }

(b)

{s, sr}

(c)

{s, sr, sr2 , sr3 }

(d)

{sr, sr3 }

4. The number of groups (up to isomorphism) of order 4 are


(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

5. In S5 the number of elements that are conjugate to (12)(345) are


(a)

(b)

20

(c)

30

(d)

10

Section 3. Short Answer (10 pts each)


Answer all problems in as thorough detail as possible.
1. Let : G H be a homomorphism i.e. (g1 g2 ) = (g1 ) (g2 ). Define the
Kernel and Image of as Ker() := {g G|(g) = e} and Im() := {(g)|g G}.
Show that Ker() / G (First show that it is a subgroup). Give an isomorphism from
G/Ker() to Im() (Dont have to show that it is an isomorphism).

2. Show that if G is a non-abelian group of order 6 then it is isomorphic to D6 . (Hint:


Use theorems 5 and 6 and fact 4)

3. Prove Wilsons theorem in number theory. That is, show that if p is a prime then
(p 1)! 1( mod p).
Hint: As in the proof of Cauchys theorem use group actions with G = Sp and the
orbit-stabilizer theorem to show that #{ Sp | p = e} 0( mod p).

SC-116 Algebraic Structures


MidSem I Exam
Sep 12, 2015
Time: 1 hr and 30 minutes
Name:
Student I.D.:
Important theorems:
1. Generators in cyclic Groups:
If the cyclic subgroup generated by < x > is of order n then the order of |xa | =

n
.
(n,a)

2. Euler function for number of intergers less than n that are relatively prime to n:
If the prime decomposition of n is n = i pki i then (n) = ni (1 p1i )
3. Subgroups:
Let G be a group then H G is a subgroup iff xy 1 H for all x, y H.
4. Matrix groups:
GL(n, R) = n n invertible matrices with entries in R. We have for A, B GL(n, R)
det(AB) = det(A) det(B).
5. Dihedral group (D2n ):
D2n = {e, r, r2 ..., rn1 , s, sr, sr2 ..., srn1 } where rn = e, s2 = e, ri s = sri .
6. Product Groups :
Let G be a group and H and K be subgroups of G such that i)H and K have only
the identity element in common.ii) HK = G. iii) Every element of H commutes with
every element of K, then G is isomorphic to H K.
7. Cauchys theorem (Partial converse to Lagranges theorem):
If G is a finite group and if p is a prime divisor of |G| then there exists an element
x G of order p.
8. Orbit Stabilizer theorem :
If a group G acts on a set X then the orbits of an element a X, Oa = {g.a|g G}.
The stabilizer of an element a X, Ga = {g G|g.a = a}. The orbit-stabilizer
theorem says that the |Oa | = |G : Ga |. In particular this implies that |Oa |||G|.

Section 1. True/False (2 pts. each)


Print T if the statement is true, otherwise print F. If false then give a counter
example or justification.
The n n matrices with determinant 1 form a normal subgroup of GL(n, R).

If G and H are cyclic group then the direct product group G K is also cyclic.

If H and K are subgroups of a group G then the set HK = {hk|h H, k K} is a


subgroup.

Every group of prime order is abelian.

In D10 the group < s > is a normal subgroup .

Zm is a cyclic group for all m.

The group Sn is generated by the two cycles.

The rotational symmetries of the tetrahedron is isomorphic to D12 .

In a group G conjugate elements have the same order.

Section 2. Multiple Choice (2 pts. each )


1. In D8 the conjugacy class of sr is
(a)

{sr, sr2 , sr3 }

(b)

{s, sr}

(c)

{s, sr, sr2 , sr3 }

(d)

{sr, sr3 }

2. If H / G then which of the following is not necessarily true


(a)

gH = Hg

(b)

ghg

g G
g G, h H

=h
0

(c)

g G h, h H

(d)

gHg 1 = H

s.t.

gh = h0 g

g G

3. The number of generators in the group Z60 are ?


(a)

13

(b)

14

(c)

15

(d)

16

4. The number of groups (up to isomorphism) of order 4 are


(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

5. In S5 the number of elements that are conjugate to (12)(345) are


(a)

(b)

20

(c)

30

(d)

10

Section 3. Short Answer (10 pts each)


Answer all problems in as thorough detail as possible.
1. Show that if G is a non-abelian group of order 6 then it is isomorphic to D6 . (Hint:
Use theorems 5 and 6 and fact 4)

2. Prove Wilsons theorem in number theory. That is, show that if p is a prime then
(p 1)! 1( mod p).
Hint: As in the proof of Cauchys theorem use group actions with G = Sp and the
orbit-stabilizer theorem to show that #{ Sp | p = e} 0( mod p).

3. Let : G H be a homomorphism i.e. (g1 g2 ) = (g1 ) (g2 ). Define the


Kernel and Image of as Ker() := {g G|(g) = e} and Im() := {(g)|g G}.
Show that Ker() / G (First show that it is a subgroup). Give an isomorphism from
G/Ker() to Im() (Dont have to show that it is an isomorphism).

Answer Key for Exam D

Section 1. True/False (2 pts. each)


Print T if the statement is true, otherwise print F. If false then give a counter
example or justification.
The n n matrices with determinant 1 form a normal subgroup of GL(n, R).

If G and H are cyclic group then the direct product group G K is also cyclic.

If H and K are subgroups of a group G then the set HK = {hk|h H, k K} is


a subgroup.

Every group of prime order is abelian.

In D10 the group < s > is a normal subgroup .

Zm is a cyclic group for all m.

The group Sn is generated by the two cycles.

The rotational symmetries of the tetrahedron is isomorphic to D12 .

In a group G conjugate elements have the same order.

Section 2. Multiple Choice (2 pts. each )


1. In D8 the conjugacy class of sr is
(a)

{sr, sr2 , sr3 }

(b)

{s, sr}

(c)

{s, sr, sr2 , sr3 }

(d)

{sr, sr3 }

2. If H / G then which of the following is not necessarily true


g G

(a)

gH = Hg

(b)

ghg

(c)

g G h, h0 H

(d)

gHg 1 = H

=h

g G, h H
s.t.

gh = h0 g

g G

3. The number of generators in the group Z60 are ?


(a)

13

(b)

14

(c)

15

(d)

16

4. The number of groups (up to isomorphism) of order 4 are


(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

5. In S5 the number of elements that are conjugate to (12)(345) are


(a)

(b)

20

(c)

30

(d)

10

Section 3. Short Answer (10 pts each)


Answer all problems in as thorough detail as possible.
1. Show that if G is a non-abelian group of order 6 then it is isomorphic to D6 . (Hint:
Use theorems 5 and 6 and fact 4)

2. Prove Wilsons theorem in number theory. That is, show that if p is a prime then
(p 1)! 1( mod p).
Hint: As in the proof of Cauchys theorem use group actions with G = Sp and the
orbit-stabilizer theorem to show that #{ Sp | p = e} 0( mod p).

3. Let : G H be a homomorphism i.e. (g1 g2 ) = (g1 ) (g2 ). Define the


Kernel and Image of as Ker() := {g G|(g) = e} and Im() := {(g)|g G}.
Show that Ker() / G (First show that it is a subgroup). Give an isomorphism from
G/Ker() to Im() (Dont have to show that it is an isomorphism).