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Interfacing of temperature Sensor LM 35:

The LM35 series sensors are precision integrated-circuit temperature sensors, whose output
voltage is linearly proportional to the Centigrade temperature. It gives 10mV of output voltage
for every 10C. The LM35 does not require any external calibration or trimming to provide typical
accuracies of C at room temperature and C over a full -55 to +150C temperature range.
The LM35's low output impedance, linear output, and precise inherent calibration make
interfacing to readout or control circuitry especially easy. It can be used with single power
supplies, or with dual supplies. As it draws only 60 A from its supply, it has very low selfheating, less than 0.1C in still air. The LM35 is rated to operate over a -55 to +150C
temperature range. The LM35 IC sensor is available at a Low cost .
LM35 is a three terminal IC with ,Vcc ,Ground & Vout .

The LM 35 IC gives

a 10mV analog output voltage for every degree Celsius change in

temperature. The Output of the temperature sensor is analog in nature so we need an analog to
digital converter for converting the analog input to its equivalent binary output.
Since the output of LM35 is analog voltage, it should be converted into digital before it is
applied to a microcontroller port pin. So,with proper circuitry an ADC chip is used as shown
below.

As shown in the circuit ADC0809 is used to convert the analog voltage into its equivalent digital
voltage.For this necessary signal conditioning circuit is developed using an operational
amplifier.The ADC0809 is an 8-input channel system. A clock signal of 100KHz is applied.The
voltage drop across the LM Zener is buffered by an op-amp LM741to produce a Vcc and Vref
of around 5V to 12Vfor the A/D converter .With this reference voltage the A/D converter will
have 256 steps of 20mV each. Since the temperature sensor signal is amplified by 2 ,each degree
Celsius of temperature change will produce an output change of 20mV.or one step on the A/D
converter. This gives us a resolution of 10C ,which is about the typical accuracy of the
sensor.The advantage of using Vref as Vcc for the device is that this voltage will not have the
switching noise that the digital Vcc lines have. The control inputs and data outputs of the ADC
are connected to the Ports of the Microcontroller as shown in the circuit.
A relay is used to control the temperature. When the temperature of the bath is reached a set
temperature, the microcontroller sends a High bit to the relay so that the Relay will switch off the
power supply to the heater and automatically the temperature starts decreasing. The vice- versa
takes place when the temperature falls below the set value.

A 2x16 LCD module is interfaced to the Microcontroller to display the temperature .Suitable
program is developed to control and measure the temperature. The temperature at which the
water bath is to be maintained is set as (Ts).The measured temperature is compared with this Ts
and if measured temperature is higher than the set temperature, a signal is sent to the relay to
switch-off the power. Otherwise the power is switched on. This temperature is displayed on
the LCD module.
Interfacing of Pressure Sensor :
Pressure Sensors convert absolute atmospheric pressure into a linear, proportional voltage, which
may be used in any meteorological application. Pressure sensors can be classified in terms of
pressure ranges they measure, temperature ranges of operation, and most importantly the type of
pressure they measure.In terms of pressure type, pressure sensors can be divided into five
categories.

Absolute pressure sensor


This sensor measures the pressure relative to perfect vacuum pressure (0 PSI or no
pressure). Atmospheric pressure, is 101.325 kPa (14.7 PSI) at sea level with reference to
vacuum.

Gauge pressure sensor


This sensor is used in different applications because it can be calibrated to measure the

pressure relative to a given atmospheric pressure at a given location. A tire pressure gauge is an
example of gauge pressure indication. When the tire pressure gauge reads 0 PSI, there is really
14.7 PSI (atmospheric pressure) in the tire.

Vacuum pressure sensor


This sensor is used to measure pressure less than the atmospheric pressure at a given

location. This has the potential to cause some confusion as industry may refer to a vacuum
sensor as one which is referenced to either atmospheric pressure (i.e. measure Negative gauge
pressure) or relative to absolute vacuum.

Differential pressure sensor


This sensor measures the difference between two or more pressures introduced as inputs
to the sensing unit, for example, measuring the pressure drop across an oil filter. Differential
pressure is also used to measure flow or level in pressurized vessels.

Sealed pressure sensor


This sensor is the same as the gauge pressure sensor except that it is previously calibrated

by manufacturers to measure pressure relative to sea level pressure.


The NPC-1220 is a solid state IC Pressure Sensor used to measure pressure.series of solid state
pressure sensors are designed to provide a cost effective solution for applications that require
calibrated performance over a wide temperature range. Packaged in a dual-in-line configuration,
the NPC-1220 series is intended for printed circuit board mounting. The NPC-1220 offers the
added advantage of superior temperature performance over the temperature compensated range
of 0C to +60C.
NPC-1220 sensor is available as an 8-pin DIP chip and the circuit connections of this pressure
sensor are given below.

To interface the pressure sensor with a microcontroller ,a signal conditioning circuit is


necessary. The signal conditioning circuit is shown below. The signal conditioning of the
pressure sensor

consists of LM324 operational amplifiers, which are high gain, internally

frequency compensated amplifiers designed specifically to operate from a single power supply
over a wide voltage range. The analog output voltage of the sensor is given to ADC. The
pressure sensor generates 0 to 50 mV of output voltage for a 0- to 15-psi pressure range.

The interfacing circuit of the Pressure sensor NPC1220 to the Microcontroller using ADC0809 is
shown below.

Introduction
Sensors are sophisticated devices which will detect and measure any non-electrical physical
quantity .A Sensor converts the physical parameter (for example: temperature, blood pressure,
humidity, speed, etc.) into a signal which can be measured electrically.
Sensor is sometimes called a primary measuring element, which can be found simply as a
mercury thermometer to measure the temperature. It may be embedded in the transducer to
perform its function. That means the transducer consists of a primary element (sensor) plus a
secondary element (signal conditioning circuit) that transforms the passive change or small
voltage signal into active signal range that can be easily used in other chains of the control loop.
So, we can write that
Transducer = Sensor + Signal conditioning circuit
The important characteristics of sensors are

Accuracy :High accuracy is needed


Environmental condition The performance of the sensor should not depend on
environmental conditions like temperature or humidity etc..
Wide Range .Measurement limit of sensor . The range should be high.
Calibration - Essential for most of the measuring devices as the readings changes with
time
Resolution Sensor must be able to detect even small changes in the input signal.
Cost- Sensor should not be very expensive.
Repeatability The sensor must be able to reproduce the same output at similar
conditions.
Linearity : The output of the sensor must be linear .

There are various types of sensors available , which measures various physical parameters.
Sensor type

Physical Parameter

Temperature

Temperature

Light

Light / dark

Pressure

Pressure or barometric pressure or blood


pressure

Moisture

amount of moisture present in air

Water-level

How full / empty a container is

Movement

Movement nearby

Proximity

How close or far something is

Types of Sensors : Based on the principle of working the sensors are divided into

Resistor type
Capacitor Type &
Inductor type etc..

Resistor type Sensors: A sensor whose resistance changes with the input signal .i.e based on the
vatiation of the resistance of the sensor element , the physical parameter is detected.
For example , Themistor , Platinum resistance thermometer or Thermocouple etc.. are used to
measure the temperature with respect to the variation in the resistance of the material. In the case
of a thermistor the temperature is given by
Rt = R0.e

(1/T - 1/T )
0

Here , is the constant of the thermistor. Rt is the

resistance of the thermistor at a temperature t. The variation of resistance of a thermistor with


temperature is given by the following graph.

A strain gauge is a thin metal foil that changes resistance with applied strain. Strain gauges are
the preferred choice in stress analysis due to their small size and relatively low cost. Strain
gauges can measure strain levels from a few micro-strain (e) to over 100,000 micro-strain.

The changes of resistance associated with strain gauges are small and present measurement
situation. A Wheatstone bridge arrangement is commonly used to measure the small changes
in resistance associated with strain gauges.

Capacitive type Sensors: These sensors work on the principle of variation of capacitance with
the external input signal.
The basic operation of capacitive type sensors can be seen from the familiar equation for a
parallel-plate capacitor.
C = K0 A /d
Here K is the dielectric constant of the material, 0 is the permittivity of the free space and d is
the distance between the parallel plates and A is the area of cross section.
The capacitive type sensors are used to detect the physical parameters like Humidity or pressure
or proximity etc..
Inductive type Sensors: These sensors are based on the principle that the inductance of a coil
varies with the change input signal.
For example, if a permeable core is inserted into an inductor the net inductance is increases.
The best example is the LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transducer) which is used to
measure displacements accurately. LVDTs can measure displacements from a few microns to
several feet in a wide variety of environments.
Inductive proximity sensors use an electromagnetic field to detect the presence of metal objects.
Inductive proximity sensors are available in a variety of sizes and configurations to meet varying
applications. The sensor incorporates an electromagnetic coil which is used to detect the
presence of a conductive metal object. The sensor will ignore the presence of an object if it is not
metal.
Limitations of Sensors : The sensors have certain limitations based on their working and
construction.

Some sensors require complex signal conditioning circuitry.


The output of the certain ssensors is not linear and hence additional circuitry is needed.
The response time of sensors is some times very high

The size of some sensors is large and occupies more space.


Many times a sensor may respond to more than to one parameter. For example, gas
sensors respond to more than one gas at a time.
Reliability of a sensor is also a serious problem in some cases.

Need and Advantages of IC sensors: With the developments in semiconductor technology and
with the advent of high speed processors ,the need of IC sensors is rapidly increasing. The
Integrated sensors provide significant advantages in terms of overall size and the ability to use
small signals from the transduction element.
(i)They do not require complicated signal conditioning circuitry.
(ii).The response time of IC sensors is low.
(iii).The IC sensors are also more stable and accurate.
(iv).The response of IC sensors is more linear than normal sensors.
(v).The IC sensors support many latest communication protocols(I2C , SPI ,Single wire pulse
width modulation etc..), so that they can be interfaced easily with microprocessors and
microcontrollers.
(vi).Provide better noise immunity.
(vii)The smart sensors available today will also provide an alert when the sensed value exceeds
certain critical value.
(viii).IC Sensors are relatively simple and inexpensive.