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Refresher Course
Prepared by: Prof. Minerva Atanacio-Brillante


Focus: Elements and Organization of Visual Arts, Artists and their works.
1. Distinguish and analyze the different elements, principles, and mediums of different visual
2. Identify and classify the different themes of visual arts in the Philippines
3. Appreciate and be proud of Philippine visual art masterpieces as part of cultural


I. Definition of Terms
1. Painting - refers to the application of color, pigment, or paint to a surface or support.
These surfaces may include paper, wood, canvas, metal, or walls. Paint is made of
pigment mixed in a binder.
2. Sculpture - a three-dimensional artwork which may be made through different
processes, such as carving, modeling, assembling, or casting. It may be executed as a
free-standing object, in relief, or in environments, and a variety of media may be used.
3. Architecture the art and science of designing and constructing buildings (structures),
and other environmental features.
II. The Elements of Visual Arts
1. Line - The most basic of all the elements. A line is an identifiable path traced by a moving
point. Lines vary in types. They can be horizontal, vertical, diagonal, straight or curved,
thick or thin. Different lines are used to signify different feelings, for example:

Horizontal line suggests a feeling of rest, serenity, or perfect stability

Vertical line dominance, height, power
Diagonal line uncertainty, unrest, movement, or action
Curved line flow, softness, flexibility, grace

2. Shape - Shapes and forms are figures which define objects in a space. A shape is a twodimensional figure. Circles, triangles, and squares are common examples of shapes.
Forms exist in three dimensions. Examples of forms include cubes, cylinders, and
pyramids, among others.
3. Value it is the relative degree of lightness or darkness in anything that is visible. It gives
an impression of solidity, distance, and depth. Early European artists used a technique
which is defined by a strong contrast between light and dark. This is called chiaroscuro.
4. Color it is the product of light reflected off objects. We see different colors because of
lights various intrinsic qualities, specifically, because of its different wavelengths. In
visual arts, the relationship of colors is best seen in a color wheel.
Primary colors Red, Yellow, and Blue (Red, Green, Blue in light)
Secondary colors Orange, Green, and Violet
Tertiary colors Yellow Green, Blue Green, Blue Violet, Red Violet, Red Orange,
and Yellow Orange
Artists usually use color harmonies. These are combinations of colors which the artist
uses to convey his or her message through the element of color.

Monochromatic the use of a single color tint in different values or shades

Analogous 3 to 4 neighboring colors with one color in all mixtures
Complementary any two opposite colors on the color wheel
Split complementary any three colors wherein two of which are beside the
complement of the third color.
Double split complementary or tetradic this color scheme uses four colors
arranged into two complementary pairs
Triad three colors that form an equilateral triangle in a color wheel

Properties of color:

Hue identity or the quality by which we distinguish colors

Cool colors colors which possess the dominance of blue
Warm colors colors which possess the dominance of red or yellow
Value lightness or darkness of a hue
Intensity or Saturation refers to the strength of a hue

5. Texture refers to surface characteristics. A surface may be rough, smooth, glossy,

coarse, irregular, etc.
6. Space refers to the area in which an artist arranges elements in a composition. Space
can be two-dimensional (2D) such as in painting and photography, or three-dimensional
(3D), such as in sculpture and installations. Depth can also be suggested in twodimensional works, by the application of linear perspective a graphing of distances
between objects.
Types of perspective:
One-point a representation of distance by means of converging lines.
Two-point There are two points in line with each other in a horizontal position.
All lines converge on these two points.
Foreshortening the modification of an established scale in a drawing of the
human figure to represent perspective.
III. The Principles of Design
1. Balance - the idea of visual equilibrium which gives an impression of stability or

Symmetrical Balance it has equal visual weight on either side of the canvas. It
is visually stable.
Asymmetrical Balance an uneven balance.
Radial Balance a symmetrical balance wherein elements are distributed evenly
around a central point.

2. Proportion (or scale) refers to the size relationships of one part to another, and of the
parts to the whole.
3. Rhythm a visual rhythm is characterized by the repetition or alternation of elements.
Rhythm can be:
Regular repetition of a single motif
Alternating use of two different motifs alternately
Progressing motifs may be presented in a gradual shift in characteristics, like
size (from small to large)
4. Emphasis and Subordination to emphasize means to draw attention to certain parts
of a composition. An emphasis is the focal point that rests on the subordinate space and
easily attracts the attention of the viewer.
5. Unity (also called Harmony) refers to the coherence of the elements of a work to the

IV. The Visual Arts (Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture)

A. Painting
Early mediums in painting

Encaustic this is a mixture of pigment, wax (beeswax), and resin.

Fresco pigment mixed with water and applied to thin layers o either dry plaster
or wet plaster.
Tempera a fast-drying medium which is pigment mixed with a glutinous material
(usually egg yolk).

Common mediums used in contemporary painting

Oil paint consists of pigment mixed with oil (linseed oil) as its binder. It dries
slowly, but lasts long.
Watercolor consists of pigment combined with water and gum arabic. Colors
are less luminous, and transparent.
Acrylic a quick-drying synthetic medium with emulsion as its binder. It is
favored by a lot of artists because of its ease of use and its versatility.

Styles/ Movements in Western Art

Realism a naturalistic approach to subject matter.

Impressionism paintings are usually done outdoors. Brushstrokes are fast and
colors used are light or pastel.
Expressionism a style that centers on the expression of inner emotions. Colors
used are more vibrant and artists use distortion.
Abstract non-representational or non-figurative imagery. It could also be a
simplification of forms.
Dada or Dadaism an aggressive reaction against conventional art. Dadaists
produced art objects by unconventional methods.
Surrealism an art movement where artists gathered inspiration from the depths
of the subconscious mind.
Pop Art an art movement which is centered on, or inspired from familiar images
of popular culture, such as advertisements, comics, and commercial products.
Social Realism an art movement which portrays social and racial injustice and
economic hardship, marked by its realistic depiction of social problems

Notable Philippine painters and their works:

19th century
Jose Honorato Lozano known for paintings of letras y figures.
Damian Domingo He headed the Academia de Dibujo y Pintura in 1821. He is
known for his paintings of tipos del pais.
Juan Luna His work Spoliarium won the gold medal in the 1884 Exposicion
Nacional de Bellas Artes.
Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo Las Virgenes Cristianas Expuestas al Populacho
20th century
Genre painters
Fabian dela Rosa Women working in a Rice Field (1902)
Fernando Amorsolo Fruit Gatherer (1950), Sunday Morning going to Church
The Triumvirate of modern art
Victorio Edades The Builders (1928)
Galo Ocampo Brown Madonna (1938), The River of Life (1954)
Carlos Botong Francisco Harana (1957)
Other Modernists
Hernando Ocampo Homage to Tandang Sora (1977)
Diosdado Lorenzo Ilog ng Cabiao (1970)

Vicente Manansala Madonna of the Slums (1950)

Cesar Legaspi Gadgets II (1949)
Anita Magsaysay-Ho Fruit Vendors (1975)
Jose Joya Pagdiriwang (1976)
Arturo Luz Black Form, White Space (1976)

Selected contemporary artists

Antipas Delotavo Itak sa Puso ni Mang Juan (1977)
Benedicto Cabrera EDSA Event (1986)
Danilo Dalena Komedya sa Pakil
Onib Olmedo Mother and Child
Brenda Fajardo Baraha ng Buhay Pilipino (1989)
B. Other related Visual Arts

Mosaic small pieces of colored stone or glass glued on the surface

Tapestry fabrics with colored designs which are woven in a pattern.
Tnalak - an indigenous woven fabric made from abaca by the T'boli tribe
of South Cotabato
Printmaking creation of a picture or design by printing from a plate that holds
ink or color.
Photography the art of creating pictures by recording light into a sensitive
medium, such as film.

C. Sculpture
Mediums used in sculpture

Wood, metal, stone, granite, marble, wood, jade, ivory, brass, gold, lead,
aluminum, glass, clay, plastic, bronze and others.

Processes/Techniques used in sculpture

Modeling process of creating a form through altering the figure of a
medium, such as clay.
Molding and Casting a complex process of creating a negative and positive
replica from a model. It is ideal for mass production.
Assemblage putting together found objects
Welding process of joining metals
Mobile kinetic or moving sculpture
Pottery the process of shaping a material to produce earthenware,
stoneware, or porcelain.

Carving cutting away pieces of material until the desired form is

Notable Philippine sculptors:

Mariano Madrinian a santero from Paete, Laguna

Guillermo Tolentino Bonifacio Monument, UP Oblation
Napoleon Abueva Judas Kiss (1955), Allegorical Harpoon (1964)
Lamberto Hechanova Crucifix
Abdulmari Imao Sarimanok (1975)
Eduardo Castrillo Pieta (1966)
Solomon Saprid Tikbalang (1971)
Ramon Orlina Venus V (2006)
Roberto Feleo Tau-Tao (1994)

D. Architecture
Architectural styles depend on different conditions, such as regional climate,
geographical location, and different aspects of life social, political, economic, spiritual,
ideological, and technological.

Commonly used materials:

Organic wood, bamboo, yakal, sawali, etc.

Construction cement, sand, gravel, reinforced concrete
Stone adobe, granite
Fabricated materials bricks, tiles, glass
Metal structural steel, steel bars
Synthetic materials plastic

Brief history of Philippine architecture:

Pre-colonial period
Native houses were single-room constructions built using indigenous materials
(bamboo, palm leaves, etc.) Roofs were typically pyramidal, windows were wide
and the floor was raised above the ground.
Spanish colonial period
The Spaniards introduced European styles in architecture and started the
construction of numerous churches. Some of todays famous churches include
the San Agustin Church in Intramuros, the Paoay Church in Ilocos, and the Miagao Church in Iloilo.
The bahay na bato was also formed.
This period also marked the construction of the walls of Intramuros.
American occupation
The arrival of the Americans signaled the emergence of monumental neoclassical structures.
Daniel H. Burnham was sent by the US government to create urban plans for
Manila and Baguio.
Juan Arellano designed the Manila Post Office, Legislative building, and the
Manila Metropolitan Theater.
Antonio Toledo designed the Manila City Hall, and the Agriculture and Finance
buildings at the Agrifina circle in Luneta
Tomas Mapua designed the Philippine General Hospital and the Normal School
Juan Nakpil responsible for the rebuilding of the Quiapo Church in 1930
Middle to late 20th century
Leandro V. Locsin was commissioned by the Marcos administration to design
numerous edifices for the government. Among these are: The Cultural Center of
the Philippines (CCP), and the Philippine International Convention Center
Locsin also designed the Church of the Holy Sacrifice at UP Diliman.
Froilan Hong Manila Film Center
Francisco Maosa Coconut Palace
Maosa Brothers San Miguel Building, Ortigas
Some famous architecture in Asia

Cambodia Angkor Wat (Hindu temple)

Indonesia Borobudur (Buddhist temple), Prambanan (Hindu temple)
Thailand Wat Phra Kaew, Wat Arun (Buddhist temples)
Myanmar Shwedagon Pagoda (Buddhist pagoda, also a stupa)
India Taj Mahal (Mughal architecture)
China The Forbidden City (Palace complex), The Great Wall of China
Japan Himeji Castle, traditional Japanese gardens
Malaysia Zahir Mosque (Islamic)


1. Needs of people are provided for in high-rise buildings but in very minimal spaces. How is
space maximized in the most comprehensive manner?
A. Reinforced concrete, structural and pre-fabricated units are assembled with finishing
touches like plastic, glass and other synthetic materials.
B. High-rise structures contain technological equipment like air-conditioning units,
elevators, and fire protection systems.
C. The building is built with all functional needs like commercial establishments, offices,
residential areas, parking spaces, and other multi-functional features.
D. Massive and monumental structures are evidences of progress and modernization
The correct answer is C. High-rise structures possess limited space but are extended upward to
house different functional features in one area, such as residential, recreational, commercial,
business, and others.
Option A pertains to materials only used in construction
Option B is the use of technology in building construction
Option D are the kinds of buildings during the Marcos Regime
2. When a painting is categorized as Art for the People, what particular issue is the main focus
of the artist?
A. Early religious art commissioned by the church
b. Traditional forms rejected by Modernist trends
C. An adaptation of impressionistic and abstract idioms
D. The connection of art works to various nationalistic struggles, social realism and
The correct answer is D. Art for the people is interwoven to the societys social, economic, and
political fabric.
Option A is an issue about the beginnings
Option B is traditional associated with the communities and nation
Option C is about issues classified as figures and spaces
3. From the different techniques in sculpting, carving is considered the most painstaking and time
consuming process. What makes it so?
A. Different tools are used and the artist slowly chips off pieces of the medium little by
little until the desired image is achieved.
B. It involves adding or building up pieces of the medium to form the desired image
C. Firing and glazing are needed at the end of the whole process.
D. The process is composed of two stages: creating a negative, then a positive
The answer is A Carving involves a slow but precise process of cutting away parts of a medium.
Option B is a process of additive specifically assemblage or modeling
Option C is about steps used as finishing touches in pottery
Option D is a process used in casting
4. If perspective helps to give the position of an object in a space, what kind of perspective
represents distance by means of converging lines?
A. Foreshortening perspective
C.. One point perspective

B. Aerial perspective

D. Two-point perspective

5. Perspective has many functions in art particularly in the use of space. What type of linear
perspective is applied when we draw or illustrate a figure on a surface?
A. one-point
C. aerial
B. two-point
D. foreshortening
6.When complementary colors are mixed together in equal amounts, what is the resulting color?
A. black
B. brown
D. white
7. In drawing the human figure, what is the term for the modification of an established scale to
represent perspective?
A. one-point
C. aerial
B. two-point
D. foreshortening
8. Lines, when used by an artist, may suggest meanings. What meaning may be associated with
a vertical line?
A. Depression
C. Motion and mobilization
B. Dominance
D. Continuity and grace
9.Which of the following suggest rigidity?
A. vertical lines
B. diagonal line

C. horizontal lines
D. straight lines

10. What is the resulting color if we combine of all primary-colored lights?

A. gray
C. white
B. black
D. brown
11. If an artist uses yellow and violet for his composition, what type of color harmony is he using?
A. Triad
C. Double complementary
B. Complementary
D. Split complementary
12. The use of one color with different tints or shades is seen in some works of art. What is the
term for using one color with different shades?
A. Light and shadow
C. Monochromatic
B. Analogous
D. Complementary
13.Artwork created primarily for aesthetic reason
A. Decorative art
C. Visual Art
B. Fine art
D. Plastic art
14. Volume adds beauty to an art work. What is volume?
A. area, size and distance of an object
C. The thickness, height and width of
an object
B. The radius, diameter and arc of an object
D. The angle, degree and feature of an
15. When an architect designs a building, he wants to answer ____________________.
A. the needs of men
C. the demands of men
B. the satisfaction of men
D. all can be considered
16. There are many mediums used in painting. What kind of paint uses egg yolk as its binder?
A. water color
C. oil paint
B. fresco
D. tempera
17. Two processes are used in sculpting. One is additive and the other is subtractive. What type
of additive technique is used if you put together different objects or scraps?
A. casting
C. welding
B. molding
D. assemblage
18. When contour lines move across the form of an object, what does it indicate?
A. distance and space
C.. mass and volume
B. solid and void
D. strength and stability
19. What kind of style in the arts is an unembellished, naturalistic approach to subject matter?

A. Impressionism
B. Modernism

C. Realism
D. Expressionism

20. After World War I, there were artists who started an aggressive reaction against established
conventions in art and aesthetics. What is the name of this art movement?
A. Fauvism
C. Expressionism
B. Modernism
D. Dadaism
21. Which western art movement was inspired from familiar images of popular culture, such as
advertisements, comics, and commercial products?
A. Expressionism
C. Romanticism
B. Pop art
D. Commercialism
22. Which of the following principles of design pertains to the recurring elements in a
A. Contrast
C.. Repetition
B. Variation
D. Symmetry
23. Philippine modern sculptors use different mediums and styles in their pieces. Who is the
sculptor who usually finished his welded sculpture without smoothening its surface, as seen in his
works Tikbakang and Penitensiya?
A. Napoleon Abueva
C. Solomon Saprid
B. Arturo Luz
D. Eduardo Castrillo
24. A painter/muralist from Angono, Rizal, who is fond of folk scenes. He is also known as
A. Fernando Amorsolo
C. Vicente Manansala
B. Victorio Edades
D. Carlos Francisco
25. A sculptor from Mindanao known for his sculpture Sarimanok.
A. Abdul Mohammed
C. Haji Aram
B. Abdulmari Imao
D. Abdul Keate
26. The practice of incising a design on a hard flat surface by cutting grooves into it.
A. Engraving
C. silk screen
B.. lithography
D. T-shirt printing
27. If a composition uses overlapping shapes, receding color intensity, and lack of detail in the
distance, the artist is probably attempting to
A. incorporate elements of solid and void
C. control space by using the rules of
B. create an abstract landscape or
D. create a flat, one-dimensional
28. The small angel figurines for sale in malls are sculptures which are identically produced. What
process is used to create these items?
A. welding
C. casting
B. modeling
D. mobile
29. The Triumvirate of Modern Art is composed of three popular artists who are promoters of
mural painting. Two of whom are Carlos Francisco and Victorio Edades, Who is the third one?
A. Fabian dela Rosa
C. Arturo Luz
B. Galo Ocampo
D. Vicente Manansala
30. Which of the following best characterizes an asymmetrical composition?
A. Unity is easily attained through the repetition of similar elements.
B. A featured point is shown in contrast with its surrounding area.
c. Balance can be achieved through the use of unequal elements.
d. The eye of the viewer is not focused on any particular feature.
31. This is a multi-storeyed religious structure originating in China where each level diminishes as
it gets higher. This structure is always polygonal in form.
A. stupa
C. pagoda

B. temple

D. castle

32. Which Filipino sculptor was known for the Bonifacio Monument in Caloocan, and the UP
A. Napoleon Abueva
C. Guillermo Tolentino
B. Solomon Saprid
D. Ramon Orlina
33. It includes contemporary forms of expression such as assemblage, collage, and performing
A.. Plastic art
B.. Fine arts
C.. Visual arts
D.. Decorative arts
34. Which of the following is true about a fresco?
A. A fresco allows the painter maximum flexibility in applying colors.
B. The binding material in fresco paint is egg yolk or some other viscous material.
C.A fresco is associated with meticulous brush techniques and is usually applied
on wooden surfaces.
D. The colors of a fresco are generally limited to earth tones because these
pigments are usually not affected by the calcium in plaster.
35. Painting in China is popularized with the use of two painting instruments. What are these
A. pen and ink
C. stencil and tempera
B. oil and canvas
D. silk and brush


1. When you create a three-dimensional artwork through different processes such as carving,
modeling, assembling, or casting, the visual art being considered is___________.
A. architecture
C. painting
B. sculpture
D. printmaking
2. Which is the most basic of all the elements of art?
A. shape
C. space
B. color
D. line
3. Which of the following least describes the guiding philosophy of Art Education?
A.. Art education emphasizes the human dimension in education.
B. Art education should be taught not just for the sake of the end products.
C. Art education must concentrate on the teaching of specific concepts and skills about
the elements of the arts.
D. Art education should find its climax in the mature individual, who, because of his
experiences, has developed greater awareness of the self and others.
4.It involves the applications of aesthetic designs to everyday functions of aesthetic designs to
everyday functional objects.
A. Fine arts
C. Decorative arts
B. Visual arts
D. Applied arts
5. Lines may be used to create an impression of flow and gracefulness. Which line best suits the
characteristic mentioned?
A. diagonal
C. straight
B. horizontal
D. curved
6. Mr. Gomez in his art class is teaching some works of great visual artists. He shows a painting
pertaining to various nationalistic or class struggles producing varied strands, activism and artistic
claims. Which classification of painting can this theme reflect?
A. tradition
C. communities
B. figures and Space
D. art for the people

7. Which of the following is considered as warm colors?

A. blue, green, pink
C. brown, violet, purple
B. yellow, red, orange
D. lavender, lilac, carnation

8. Colors can be cool or warm. Which color dominates cool colors?

A. yellow
C. blue
B. green
D. red
9. The complimentary color of red orange is____
A. blue green
C. yellow orange
B. orange
D. red violet
10. The element of art which helps create an illusion of depth is _____________.
A. shape
C. texture
B. value
D. line
11. This principle of design is the most important of all. It refers to the coherence of the elements
of a work to the whole.
A. rhythm
C. balance
B. proportion
D. unity
12. We like to see things in proper scale. When we see objects having the proper relationships to
each other (in size), the principle of art that we are referring to is_____________.
A. rhythm
C. balance
B. proportion
D. harmony
13. . Ms. Joy draws a vertical line to represent an electric post in her art class. Which meaning
of a vertical line does Ms. Joy want to emphasize?
A. dignity
C. motion
B. sadness
D. continuity
14. The great work of Juan Lunas Spolarium depicts interpretation of war. He exerted much
effort to express his design. What style of painting did he use?
a. Impressionistic
b. Modernistic
c. Expressionistic
d. Naturalistic
15. To attract attention, the emphasis should rest or lie on the subject. The space that helps to
intensify focus on the emphasis is called______________.
A. interest
C. action
B. subordinate
D. attraction
16. This painting medium is a mixture of pigment and water, applied to wet or dry plaster.
A. fresco
C. oil
B. tempera
D. water color

It symbolizes hope and freshness

A. Blue
B. Green

C. White

18. Some contemporary artists prefer this new painting medium because of its ease of use. It is
synthetic and uses emulsion as its binder. What medium in painting are we referring to?
A. encaustic
C. watercolor
B. acrylic
D. charcoal
19. It is a broad movement in the arts which encompasses the activities and output of those who
felt that "traditional" forms of art are outdated.
A. realism
C. surrealism
B. cubism
D. modernism
20. It features element of surprise
A. Dadaism

C. Surrealism

B. Impressionism

D. Expressionism

21.This style is totally free in form. The artist can drip or throw colors to fill a space, or roll on a
canvas with paint on the body.
A. impressionism
C. abstract expressionism
B. expressionism
D. pop art
22. After classical trends in Philippine sculpture, later sculptors began to embrace the styles of
modernism in their artworks. Which modern sculptor was known for his works Judas' Kiss and
A. Eduardo Castrillo
C. Napoleon Abueva
B. Guillermo Tolentino
D. Roberto Feleo
23. Filipinos are widely known for skills in wood carving. If Paete and Pakil are famous for their
crafts in the south, which town in Central Luzon is recognized for its exquisite woodworks?
A. Bocaue, Bulacan
C. Betis, Pampanga
B. Orani, Bataan
D. Iba, Zambales

. What element of art is used to define certain spatial qualities of a composition?

A. Color
C. Line
B. Texture
D. Value


. A modernistic movement expressing emotional experience rather than reality

A. Dadaism
C.. Surrealism
B. Impressionism
D. Expressionism

26. Styles and designs of architectural works reflect the demands of different aspects in life.
Which are considered before designing a structure?
A. Social and economic
C. Technological and geographical
B. Political and ideological
D. All of the above
27. Bamboo, palm leaves, and wood are examples of what classification of architectural material?
A. hybrid
C. metal
B. organic
D. synthetic


28.Which are considered unbalanced?

A. curve lines
B. horizontal lines

C. vertical lines
D. diagonal lines

29. It is about dominance and influence or "Center of Interest."

A. Opposition
C. Harmony
B. Emphasis
D. Unity

30. Some native Philippine architecture possesses motifs, like the naga, which may be seen in
other countries. Where did we get this influence?
A. Southeast Asia
C. America
B. Spain
D. Japan
31. The design of the San Agustin Church in Intramuros is heavily influenced by which Western
architectural style?
A. Romanesque
C. Gothic
B. Renaissance
D. Baroque
32. A 19th century art movement characterized by small, thin yet visible brush strokes
A. Dadaism
B. Surrealism
C. Impressionism
D. Expressionism
33. One of the pioneers in Philippine architecture; he was responsible for the rebuilding of the
Quiapo Church in 1930. He is ___________.
A. Juan Arellano
C. Jose Manosa
B. Juan Nakpil
D. Leandro Locsin
34. What is the term in art used for a technique in painting which is utilized to illustrate a striking
contrast between light and dark?

A. Contrapposto
B. Chiaroscuro

C. Caravaggio
D. Sfumato

35.Which among the following creates dynamism, excitement but can imply danger?
A. Zigzag lines
C. broken lines
B. straight lines
D. curve lines
36. 36. Both sides of the painting or picture are similar in visual weight and almost mirrored and
often looks more stiff and formal.
A. assymetrical balance
C. proportion
B. symmetrical balance
D. emphasis
37. Which among these Filipino painters is not a modernist?
A. Victorio Edades
C. Damian Domingo
B. Arturo Luz
D. Vicente Manansala
38. In the 1840s, Jose Honorato Lozano was known for this unique Filipino art form, wherein a
name is painted with letters contrived with people and objects.
A. Miniaturismo
C. Genre painting
B. Letras y Figuras
D. Modernist painting
39. If you were to build a structure in accordance with the Modernist style, which of the following
would best describe your design?
A. It possesses Greco-Roman motifs. C. It is energetic and ornamented.
B. It is straightforward and minimal.
D. All of the above
40. 40. To symbolize life, courage and strength we use___
A. green
C. yellow
B. orange
D. red
41.This is a kind of woven fabric made by the Tboli tribe in South Cotabato.
A. hagabi
C. bulul
B. tnalak
D. kulintang

The amount of light and dark areas in a composition is called____

A. Complementary combination
B. Value

43. It began as an anti-art movement

A. Dadaism
B. Impressionism

C. Analogous combination
D. None of the above
C. Surrealism
D. Expressionism

44. Some artists paint images from their dreams. Which is a Western art movement where artists
gathered inspiration from the depths of the subconscious mind?
A. Surrealism
C. Abstract
B. Expressionism
D. Cubism
45.What color symbolizes royalty?
A. Yellow
B. Blue

C. Violet
D. Red