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For this week, we had to visit soybean farm in University Putra
Malaysia. The location was farm 5, where it is under fruits unit. This farm

was quite small. It only included 28 hectares. The date for us to visit was
on 30 july 2015, which is a Thursday . The species for these soya crops
are Glycine max. They are usually green but can be yellow, brown or
black. Soybean plant varies in growth and habit. The height of the plant
varies from less than 0.2m to 2.0m. The pods, stems and leaves are
covered with fine brown or gray hairs. The leaves fall before the seeds are
mature. The inconspicuous, self-fertile flowers are borne in the axel of the
leaf and are white, pink or purple. The fruit is a hairy pod that grows in
clusters of three to five.
Our instructor was En. Mohd. Husni Hamid. We were asked to
remove all the weeds and grass that grown and the soybean crops. We
were divided into two groups. Gloves were not provided for us when we
were removing the weeds and grass. Therefore, we had to clear the weeds
using bare hand. We had to be very careful to prevent the soybean plants
from getting hurt during this process. There were a lot of ladybirds and
green worms. We enjoyed ourselves very much. After two hours, we
completed our tasks. Although we were tired, we were very happy and
satisfied with our duties.
En Mohd. Husni told us that soybeans grow best in full sun but
tolerate some light afternoon shade. There is a few steps that can allow
soya plants to grow healthier. At first, growing of weeds and grass around
the soybean plants must be controlled so that the soybean plants are able
to obtain enough nutrients from the soil without competition among
soybean plants and weeds. Lawn mower and grass poison are simple and
effective ways that can control the weeds. Besides, fertilizers are also
necessary for soya plants during their growing process. This is because of
fertilizers will provide sufficient nutrients to soya plants when the soil is
lack of nutrients. Soybean plants are vulnerable to a wide range of
bacterial diseases, fungal diseases and parasites. As a result, controlling
of pests is vital for keeping soybean plants healthy. Lastly, to ensure
production of soybeans, shoot of soya plants should be pruned to reduce
excessive foliage in soybean. He also said that United States, Argentina,
Brazil, China and India are the worlds largest soybean producers and
represent more than 90% of global soybean production.
In conclusion, we learnt about the important steps to make sure that
soya plants can grow healthier. Soybean plants could bring a lot of
advantages to human beings as they are high nutritional food. Soya beans
can be eaten fresh from the pod. Soybean products appear in large variety
of processed foods. Soybean oil that is made of soybean is widely used in
cooking and it is good for our health. They are also consumed as an
alternative to meat. In addition, they are basis of soya milk, tofu, miso,

tempeh and soya protein. Since the 1970s, there has been a marked
increase in the consumption of traditional soya foods and the
development of the other soya foods which stimulate traditional meat and
dairy products such as soya milk, soya sausages, soya cheese and soya
yogurts. However, Malaysia has only a few small soya farms. Therefore, I
hope that our government will put more efforts in doing research of
soybean plants to discover new species that can produce more soybeans.
Malaysia government also has to plant more soya plants as they can bring
high income to our country.


On 6 August 2015 our practical was held at the landscape nursery

which is in fertigation unit; Ladang 13. We arrived at 2 pm and then we
been introduced to Mrs. Wan Suhana Wan Taib. She did some briefing
about display/ornamental plants and our practical. Here, we learned how
to make compost soil for seedbed that is use universally for decorating
plants, about horticulture, main components of nursery, introduction to
nursery plants and managements of nursery.
The briefing started with definition of horticulture. Horticulture
means the science and art of growing fruits, vegetables, flowers, or
ornamental plants. Protected greenhouse horticulture in Malaysia has
traditionally been concentrated in the highland regions of the Cameron
Highlands, where land is scarce and production competes with tropical
rainforest. A demonstration greenhouse has been realized at Serdang in
Malaysia, under the responsibility of the Department of Agriculture (DoA).
Next, we continued with the explanation of main components that
must have in nurseries. The components are house shading, insect-proof
house, compartments and open area, soil-mixing area and working area.
Then, Mrs. Wan Suhana taught us about characteristics of
ornamental plants. Ornamental plants distinguished from utilitarian and
crop plants, such as those used for agriculture and vegetable crops, and
for forestry or as fruit trees. Thus, they do not preclude any particular type
of plant being grown both for ornamental qualities in the garden, and for
utilitarian purposes in other settings. There are two types of them; trees
and shrubs . Similarly certain trees may be called ornamental trees. This
term is used when they are used as part of a garden or landscape setting,
for instance for their flowers, their texture, form and shape, and other
aesthetic characteristics. In some countries trees in 'utilitarian' landscape
use such as screening, and roadside plantings are called amenity trees.
The trees are commonly have woody stems and diameter of 3 and height
of more than 13 feet to reach maturity. Examples of trees are Coral tree,
Tembusu, Merinjau and Saga tree.

Another one is shrubs. These long-stemmed ornamental shrubs also

known as standards make great garden features, whether placed on their
own in a large pot on the patio, or in a border. A shrub is a small to
medium-sized woody plant. It is distinguished from a tree by its multiple
stems and shorter height, usually less than 6 m (20 feet) tall. Plants of
many species may grow either into shrubs or trees, depending on their
growing conditions. Small, low shrubs, generally less than 2 m (6.6 feet)
tall, such as lavender, periwinkle and most small garden varieties of roses,
are often termed subshrubs or bushes. Examples of shrubs are Wild Tea,
Spiceberry, White butterfly and Firecracker plants.
Finally, we were told about nursery managements. On how to build,
manage and control a nursery. Nursery plants require due care and
attention after having either emerged from the seeds or have been raised
from other sources like rootstock or through tissue culture technique.
Generally they are grown in the open field under the protection of Mother
Nature where, they should be able to face the local environment. It is the
duty & main objective of a commercial nursery grower to supply the
nursery plants with suitable conditions necessary for their development &
growth. This is the major work of management in the nursery which
includes all such operations right from the emergence of young plantlet till
them are fully grown-up or are ready for uprooting & transplanting in the
main fields.
For our practical, we were divided into four groups to do the soil
composting. We replaced old plastics vases with the new vases since the
D.Y.M.M Tuanku Sultan Sharafudin Idris Shah ; Sultan Selangor will be
coming for breaking fast in Masjid Putra, UPM.
Throughout the practical, weve gained so much knowledge about
plants and nursery. I hope we not just having fun but also would apply the
information that weve got for good especially to the university and later
the country.


August 13, 2015

Mr. Rijalana Bin Abdul Ghani had given us a very detailed briefing
about beef cattle farming done in Farm 16 precisely at 2.30 apm. There
are two sectors done by Farm 16 which is farming of beef cattle and
farming of dairy cattle. These two sectors are placed under ruminant unit,
which actually also in charge on farming of goats.
The amount of the beef cattle roughly estimated was about 160
which consist of various ages. The price sold for the beef was depends on
the events. Usually the beef was sold about RM9 per kilogram but when
there are events like Eid Adha Day or Chinese New Year, the price rise
rapidly to RM30 to RM35 per kilogram. There are even times when the
demand for meat was too high, forcing the suppliers to import the beef
from other countries.
Farming of beef cattle is somehow different from farming of dairy
cattle as the cattle for beef are only raised until they are 3 to 4 years
before they are sold to the butchers. This is because when the cow
reaches the age of 5 years 1 day, the price of the cow will drop. The cows
that are raised more than 5 years (9 years maximum) are used as the

genetic donor. The male cows are used to impregnate female cows that
can produce big and healthy off-springs.
The Kedah-Kelantan is the main breed used in this farming cattle. The
Kedah-Kelantan cow is an indigenous cattle of Malaysia. A principal
component analysis was used to study size and shape as indicated by the
dependence structure among measurements. The total variation among
measurements associated with the first principal component which was
interpreted as a measure of general size was 40.8%. The second principal
component contrasted cows tall at the withers, and deep at the chest with
top line sloping downward and under line sloping upward from front to
rear with those having less wither height and chest depth and straighter
lines. This contrast accounted for 14.3% of the variation in body
dimensions. The third principal component contrasted long, narrow, and
deeper cows with a more compact type. This contrast accounted for
10.7% of the variation in body dimensions.
The breed commonly used for beef cattle was Hereford. It was chosen
because of its great genetics which are excellent meat quality, early
maturity and high perfomance on forage based diets, they are easily
adapt to their environmental conditions and good fertility. However, this
breed alone cannot survive hot and humid tropical climate of Malaysia, so
in order to produce off-springs suitable for the climate, Hereford was the
crossed breed between Brahman cow and Angges. Brahman cow are
known for their extreme tolerance of heat and they are also resistant to
insects due to their thick skin.


Date: 11 JUN 2015

Fertigation comes from two English words, namely fertilization and irrigation.
Fertigation system is one of the branches of hydroponic among others such as micro
drip system, hydroponic flows in, shallow flow hydroponics, hydroponics static ,
aeroponics and micro sprinkler .
We arrived at the fertigation center at 2.00PM and welcomed by the person
in charge at the fertigation center. We were briefed with the information about
fertigation and how to plant a tree using fertigation method. The person in charged

informed us that fertigation system is ideal for fruiting and leafy vegetables such as
tomatoes, red pepper, eggplant, melon, strawberries and ornamental plants . In
short, the system of this plant is very suitable for high value crops on the market.
She also briefed us about how to watering and fertilizing plant by using fertigation
system.We were divided into two groups.
The first group were bought to the crops that planted using fertigation
methods while the second group does the work of weeding around the fertigation
crops area.We are given futher explaination about the medium used for the purpose
of replacing the soil functions such as cocopeat, rice husk, rootwool, perlite, zeolite
and also vermiculate in crop fertigation methods. Cocopeat and husk are widely
used because they are cheap, light weight, high quality and easy to use.
Then, we are given a chances to pluck the tomotoes and classify it
according to their qualities.Were informed that the high quality tomotoes will be
brought to the sales center for sale. We were given the opportunity to taste the fresh
While plucking the tomatoes, we were given extra information about the
watering and fertilizing process. In fertigation systems, fertilizer and water given time
is between 3-6 times a day for 5-10 minutes. It depends on the weather and crop
areas.We also informed that in fertigation system, some equipment must be used to
control insect pests and grazing by creating greenhouse rain and insect-proof
After finish classifying the tomatoes according to their grades, we carried all
the tomatoes by using wheelbarrow to the fertigation center.


Practical works is a compulsoryworks that need to be done by students of

foundation in science and agriculture. We were assigned to complete our practical
work in many places, namely fertigation, gardens of herbs and aroma, beef cattle
unit, and others. We start our practical works on 4 june 2015.
In garden of herbs and aroma, students get to know different type of herbs and
uses of the herbs. Students also given opportunities to do hands on work to enhance
the understanding on agriculture.
In beef cattle unit, students were being equipped with the knowledge about type
of cow and harvesting milks from them. We get to know the way to maintain and
manage the cattles health care.
In fertigation, we were taught about how and when to harvest the small
tomatoes. Its takes once in 2 weeks to harvest it.we were aslo have given to try
fresh tomatoes. Tomatoes will sell at supermarket.
In nursery turf, students have being taught about the type of turf and the function
of it. We get to know the way to plant and manage it.
In fruit farm, students have being taught about fruit. Type of family of fruit.
Students were lucky because the practical was in fruit season so they have given to
try the fruit there. Next, deer and goat unit. Students enhance their knowledge about
type of deer and goat. They can know about the life of their and goat. This two type
of animal were separated each other and have a ratio in each fence.
In cocoa farm, students we taught about how to bounching the tree and how to
harvest the cocoa and function why we doing that things.