Regla de GL sobre timones, calculo, diseño, construcccion, montaje y revision.

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Regla de GL sobre timones, calculo, diseño, construcccion, montaje y revision.

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GL 2009

Section 14

Chapter 1

Page 141

Section 14

Rudder and Manoeuvring Arrangement

A.

General

1.

Manoeuvring arrangement

1.1

Each ship is to be provided with a manoeuvring arrangement which will guarantee sufficient

manoeuvring capability.

1.2

The manoeuvring arrangement includes all

parts from the rudder and steering gear to the steering

position necessary for steering the ship.

the rudder carrier. If the top of the rudder trunk is

below the deepest waterline two separate stuffing

boxes are to be provided.

Note

The following measures are recommended in the GL

Technical Publication, Paper No. 05-1 "Recommendations for Preventive Measures to Avoid or Minimize

Rudder Cavitation", regarding:

Profile selection:

1.3

Rudder stock, rudder coupling, rudder bearings and the rudder body are dealt with in this Section.

The steering gear is to comply with Chapter 2 Machinery Installation, Section 14.

value of pressure coefficient for moderate angles of attack (below 5). The pressure distribution around the profile should be possibly

smooth. The maximum thickness of such profiles

is usually located at more than 35 % behind the

leading edge.

operating in propeller slips.

for rudder considering the propeller and ship

wake can be used.

1.4

The steering gear compartment shall be readily accessible and, as far as practicable, separated from

the machinery space. (See also Chapter II/1, Reg.

29.13 of SOLAS 74.)

Note

Concerning the use of non-magnetisable material in

the wheel house in way of a magnetic compass, the

requirements of the national Administration concerned are to be observed.

1.5

Round out the leading edge curve at rudder sole.

2.

Structural details

2.1

Effective means are to be provided for supporting the weight of the rudder body without excessive bearing pressure, e.g. by a rudder carrier attached

to the upper part of the rudder stock. The hull structure

in way of the rudder carrier is to be suitably strengthened.

level of the propeller hub. This nacelle functions as an

extension of the propeller hub.

2.2

Suitable arrangements are to be provided to

prevent the rudder from lifting.

are built with local thickenings (bubbles) and

dents to ease fitting of the rudder shaft. Maximum changes in profile shape should be kept to

less than two percent of profile thickness.

in forged or cast steel, which are used as rudder stock

housing, are to be suitably designed to avoid any excessive stress concentration at these areas.

2.3

The rudder stock is to be carried through the

hull either enclosed in a watertight trunk, or glands are

to be fitted above the deepest load waterline, to prevent water from entering the steering gear compart-

Gap cavitation:

Chapter 1

Page 142

3.

Section 14

the size of the movable rudder area A is recommended

to be not less than obtained from the following formula:

A = c1 c2 c3 c 4

c1

for R eH 235 [N / mm 2 ]

450 N/mm2, whichever is less. Rm = tensile

strength of the material used.

= 0,9 for bulk carriers and tankers having a

displacement of more than 50 000 t

= 1,7 for tugs and trawlers

4.3

Before significant reductions in rudder stock

diameter due to the application of steels with ReH

exceeding 235 N/mm2 are accepted, GL may require

the evaluation of the elastic rudder stock deflections.

Large deflections should be avoided in order to avoid

excessive edge pressures in way of bearings.

4.4

The permissible stresses given in E.1. are

applicable for normal strength hull structural steel.

When higher tensile steels are used, higher values may

be used which will be fixed in each individual case.

= 1,0 in general

= 0,9 for semi-spade rudders

= 0,7 for high lift rudders

c3

235

R eH

1, 75 L T

[m 2 ]

100

= 1,0 in general

c2

I - Part 1

GL 2009

5.

Definitions

c4

= 1,0 for rudders in the propeller jet

CR

QR

= total movable area of the rudder [m2], measured at the mid-plane of the rudder

than 1,35 times the projected area of the nozzle.

the rudder horn may be included into the rudder area A.

Where more than one rudder is arranged the area of

each rudder can be reduced by 20 %.

At

Af

rudder stock axis [m2]

14.1

4.

Materials

4.1

For materials for rudder stock, pintles, coupling bolts etc. see Rules II Materials and Welding,

Part 1 Metallic Materials. Special material requirements are to be observed for the ice class notations E3

and E4 as well as for the ice class notations PC7 PC1.

x2

c

4.2

In general materials having a minimum nominal upper yield point ReH of less than 200 N/mm2 and

a minimum tensile strength of less than 400 N/mm2 or

more than 900 N/mm2 shall not be used for rudder

stocks, pintles, keys and bolts.

Af

The requirements of this Section are based on a material's minimum nominal upper yield point ReH of

235 N/mm2. If material is used having a ReH differing

from 235 N/mm2, the material factor kr is to be determined as follows:

kr

235

=

R eH

0,75

2

x1

c=

x1 + x2

2

b=

A

c

I - Part 1

GL 2009

=

v0

Section 14

Table 14.1

b2

At

1, H.5.;

vmin =

Coefficient 2

2

Profile /

type of rudder

taken as

va

Chapter 1

Page 143

( v0 + 20 )

3

[kn]

va is less than 0,4 v0 or 6 kn, whichever is

less, determination of rudder force and torque

for astern condition is not required. For

greater astern speeds special evaluation of

rudder force and torque as a function of the

rudder angle may be required. If no limitations for the rudder angle at astern condition

is stipulated, the factor 2 is not to be taken

less than given in Table 14.1 for astern condition.

= material factor according to Section 2, B.2.

ahead

astern

NACA-00 series

Gttingen profiles

1,1

1,4

1,1

1,4

mixed profiles

(e. g. HSVA)

1,21

1,4

hollow profiles

1,35

1,4

1,7

to be specially

considered;

if not known:

1,7

= 1,0 normally

In special cases for thrust coefficients CTh > 1,0 determination of t according to the following formula

may be required:

t

15, B.9 and D.3.7 have to be observed.

C R (CTh )

CR (CTh = 1, 0)

1.2

The rudder torque is to be determined by the

following formula:

B.

1.

Q R = C R r [Nm]

r

= c ( k b ) [m]

= 0,33

1.1

The rudder force is to be determined according to the following formula:

C R = 132 A v 2 1 2 3 t

v

1

= v0

= va

[N]

= ( + 2)/3, where need not be taken greater

than 2

rudder and the rudder profile according to

Table 14.1

= coefficient, depending on the location of the

rudder

= 0,8 for rudders outside the propeller jet

= 1,0 elsewhere, including also rudders within

the propeller jet

= 1,15 for rudders aft of the propeller nozzle

= 0,66

= 0,75

rudder horn:

= 0,25

= 0,55

not known, = 0,40 may be used for the ahead condition

kb

=

Af

A

= 0,08

1.3

Effects of the provided type of rudder/profile

on choice and operation of the steering gear are to be

observed.

Chapter 1

Page 144

Section 14

I - Part 1

GL 2009

with cut-outs (semi-spade rudders)

and A2, see Fig. 14.2

2.1

according to 1.1. The pressure distribution over the

rudder area, upon which the determination of rudder

torque and rudder blade strength are to be based, is to

be derived as follows:

2.3

The total rudder torque is to be determined

according to the following formulae:

2.

or trapezoidal parts with areas A1 and A2, see Fig.

14.2. The resulting force of each part may be taken as:

QR

= Q R1 + QR 2

[Nm]

Q R min

= CR r1,2 min

[Nm]

r1,2min =

or

0,1

(c1 A1 + c2 A 2 ) [m]

A

for ahead condition

A1

C R1 = CR

A

[N]

A2

A

[N]

C R2 = CR

C.

1.

b1

c1

A1

A1f

1.1

The diameter of the rudder stock for transmitting the rudder torque is not to be less than:

b2

Dt

A2

A2f

QR

= 4, 2

QR k r

[mm]

c2

Fig. 14.2 Partial rudder areas A1 and A2

The resulting torque of each part may be

2.2

taken as:

Q R1 = C R1 r1

[Nm]

Q R2 = C R2 r2

[Nm]

r1

= c1 ( k b1 )

r2

= c2 ( k b2 ) [m]

k b1 =

A1f

A1

k b2 =

A 2f

A2

A1

b1

c1

c2

A

= 2

b2

[m]

t

kr

68

kr

[N / mm 2 ]

= see A.4.2

1.2

The steering gear is to be determined according to Chapter 2 Machinery Installations, Section 14

for the rudder torque QR as required in B.1.2, B.2.2 or

B.2.3 and under consideration of the frictional losses

at the rudder bearings.

1.3

In case of mechanical steering gear the diameter of the rudder stock in its upper part which is

only intended for transmission of the torsional moment from the auxiliary steering gear may be 0,9 Dt.

The length of the edge of the quadrangle for the auxiliary tiller shall not be less than 0,77 Dt and the height

not less than 0,8 Dt.

1.4

The rudder stock is to be secured against

axial sliding. The degree of the permissible axial

clearance depends on the construction of the steering

engine and on the bearing.

2.

2.1

If the rudder is so arranged that additional

bending stresses occur in the rudder stock, the stock

diameter has to be suitably increased. The increased

Section 14

I - Part 1

GL 2009

diameter is, where applicable, decisive for the scantlings of the coupling.

For the increased rudder stock diameter the equivalent

stress of bending and torsion is not to exceed the following value:

v

2b

+ 3

118

kr

Chapter 1

Page 145

pR

Mb

10, 2 M b

D13

[N / mm ]

p R10 =

Torsional stress:

D1

p R 20 =

[N / mm 2 ]

D13

[N / mm 2 ]

D1

4 Mb

= 0,1 D t 6 1 +

3 QR

QR

Dt

= see 1.1

3.1

General

A 20 103

6,18 I50

A350

support forces for the system rudder - rudder stock

may be carried out for some basic rudder types as

shown in Figs. 14.3 14.5 as outlined in 3.2 3.3.

[kN / m]

[kN / m]

Where a double-piston steering gear is fitted, additional bending moments may be transmitted from the

steering gear into the rudder stock. These additional

bending moments are to be taken into account for

determining the rudder stock diameter.

3.2

Z

fb

fb

1

+ ft

[kN / m]

unit force of 1 kN acting in the centre of support

= 0, 21

Analysis

CR1

[kN / m]

rudder horn respectively

Note

3.

A10 103

The increased rudder stock diameter may be determined by the following formula:

CR 2

Z

5,1 Q R

[kN / m]

A10 103

Bending stress:

b

CR

d3

In

In

around the x-axis at d/2 (see also Fig. 14.4)

ft

of the amount 1 e [kNm]

=

=

G

d e2

G Jt

d e2 ui ti

3,17 108 FT2

= modulus of rigity

= 7,92 107 [kN/m2] for steel

system [m]

Jt

FT

ui

the mean horn sectional area

ti

ui [mm]

the distance between lower edge of rudder body and

centre of sole piece, and I20 is the moment of inertia of

the pintle in the sole piece.

I - Part 1

GL 2009

I30

I10

Mb

B2

pR

20 I20

I40

40

B3

30

MR

I50

Z

B1

50

System

B3

40

I40

pR20

Q1

e

10

I10

B1

20

I20

B2

Mb

30

I 30

d

2

Section 14

10

Chapter 1

Page 146

pR10

System

I - Part 1

GL 2009

Section 14

Chapter 1

Page 147

30

B3

20

B2

x2

10

Mb

pR

x1

System

B3

30

20

Mb

x3

B2

MCR1

A1

Z=

CR1

x2

10

A2

x1

10

MR

pR

System

Z=0

Fig. 14.6 Spade rudders with rudder trunks inside the rudder body

3.3

3.3.1

The bending moment MR and the shear force

Q1 in the rudder body, the bending moment Mb in the

neck bearing and the support forces B1, B2, B3 are to

be evaluated.

Mb

A 30

B3

B2

= CR + B3

[N]

[N]

for the stress analyses required by 2. and E.1. of this

Section and by Section 13, C.4. and C.5.

3.3.3

For spade rudders with rudder trunks (see

Fig. 14.6) the moments and forces may be determined

by the following formulae:

3.3.2

For spade rudders the moments and forces

may be determined by the following formulae:

according to B.2.1 [N]

A (2 x1 + x 2 )

M b = CR A 20 + 10

[Nm]

3 (x1 + x 2 )

according to B.2.1 [N]

Section 14

Chapter 1

Page 148

2 x2 + x3

MCR1 = CR1 A 20 1

[Nm]

3(x

2 + x3 )

MCR2 = CR 2

A10 (2 x1 + x 2 )

3 (x1 + x 2 )

MR

Mb

= MCR2 MCR1

B3

B2

= CR + B3

4.

Mb

A 20 + A 30

[Nm]

[Nm]

[N]

I - Part 1

GL 2009

heat treatment and inspection procedures. This welding procedure is to be supported by approval tests in

accordance with the applicable requirements of materials and welding sections of the rules.

The manufacturer is to maintain records of welding,

subsequent heat treatment and inspections traceable

to the welds. These records are to be submitted to the

Surveyor.

Non destructive tests are to be conducted at least 24

hours after completion of the welding. The welds are

to be 100 % magnetic particle tested and 100 % ultrasonic tested.

[N]

Rudder trunk

4.1

In case where the rudder stock is fitted with a

rudder trunk welded in such a way the rudder trunk is

loaded by the pressure induced on the rudder blade, as

given in B.1.1, the bending stress in the rudder trunk,

in N/mm2, is to be in compliance with the following

formula:

80 / k

where the material factor k for the rudder trunk is not

to be taken less than 0,7.

For the calculation of the bending stress, the span to

be considered is the distance between the mid-height

of the lower rudder stock bearing and the point where

the trunk is clamped into the shell or the bottom of the

skeg.

4.2

The weld at the connection between the rudder trunk and the shell or the bottom of the skeg is to

be full penetration.

practicable and to comply with the following formulae:

r = 60

when 40 / k N/mm2

r = 0,1 D1

D.

Rudder Couplings

1.

General

1.1

The couplings are to be designed in such a

way as to enable them to transmit the full torque of the

rudder stock.

1.2

The distance of the bolt axis from the edges

of the flange is not to be less than 1,2 times the diameter of the bolt. In horizontal couplings, at least 2 bolts

are to be arranged forward of the stock axis.

1.3

The coupling bolts are to be fitted bolts. The

bolts and nuts are to be effectively secured against

loosening.

1.4

For spade rudders horizontal couplings according to 2. are permissible only where the required

thickness of the coupling flanges tf is less than 50 mm,

otherwise cone couplings according to 4. are to be

applied. For spade rudders of the high lift type, only

cone couplings according to 4. are permitted.

2.

Horizontal couplings

2.1

The diameter of coupling bolts is not to be

less than:

db

Note

= 0, 62

D3 k b

kr n e

[mm]

The radius may be obtained by grinding. If disk grinding is carried out, score marks are to be avoided in

the direction of the weld.

The radius is to be checked with a template for accuracy. Four profiles at least are to be checked. A report

is to be submitted to the Surveyor.

than 6

= mean distance of the bolt axes from the centre of bolt system [mm]

kr

in A.4.2

kb

the weld preparation, welding positions, welding parameters, welding consumables, preheating, post weld

Section 14

I - Part 1

GL 2009

Chapter 1

Page 149

d0

2.2

The thickness of the coupling flanges is not

to be less than determined by the following formulae:

tf

= 0, 62

D3 k f

kr n e

insulation

liner

[mm]

sealing/

insulation

tfmin = 0,9 db

kf

da

dm

holes is not to be less than 0,65 tf.

du

hn

be less than 0,67 db.

2.3

The coupling flanges are to be equipped with

a fitted key according to DIN 6885 or equivalent standard for relieving the bolts.

dg

securing

plate for nut

dn

of the bolts is increased by 10 %.

plate

2.4

Horizontal coupling flanges shall either be

forged together with the rudder stock or be welded to

the rudder stock as outlined in Section 19, B.4.4.3.

3.1.4

rounded edges) between key and rudder stock or cone

coupling is not to be less than:

2.5

For the connection of the coupling flanges

with the rudder body see also Section 19, B.4.4.

3.

Cone couplings

3.1

3.1.1

Cone couplings shall have a taper c on diameter of 1 : 8 - 1 : 12. c = (d0 du)/A according to Fig.

14.7.

ak

16 Q F

d k R eH1

[cm 2 ]

QF

according to F.

dk

stock [mm] at the key

key material [N/mm2]

height:

hn = 0,6 dg

3.1.2

The coupling length A shall, in general, not be

less than 1,5 d0.

[cm 2 ]

3.1.5

The dimensions of the slugging nut are to be

as follows, see Fig. 14.7:

as

5 QF

d k R eH2

key, stock or coupling material [N/mm2],

whichever is less.

carefully secured, e.g. by a securing plate as shown in

Fig. 14.7.

3.1.3

For couplings between stock and rudder a key

is to be provided, the shear area of which is not to be

less than:

dn = 1,2 du or dn = 1,5 dg

external thread diameter:

dg = 0,65 d0

3.1.6

It is to be proved that 50 % of the design yield

moment will be solely transmitted by friction in the

cone couplings. This can be done by calculating the

required push-up pressure and push-up length according to 3.2.3 for a torsional moment Q'F = 0,5 QF.

3.2

for mounting and dismounting the couplings

3.2.1

the press fit is recommended to be effected by a hydraulic pressure connection. In such cases the cone

shall be more slender, c 1 : 12 to 1 : 20.

Chapter 1

Page 1410

Section 14

3.2.2

In case of hydraulic pressure connections the

nut is to be effectively secured against the rudder stock

or the pintle. A securing plate for securing the nut against

the rudder body is not to be provided, see Fig. 14.8.

I - Part 1

GL 2009

p req1 =

p req2 =

Securing

flat bar

2 QF 103

6 M b 103

A dm

QF

dm

Mb

case of spade rudders) [Nm]

d1

securing flat bar

p perm =

0,8 R eH 1 2

securing device of the nut, if its shear area is not less

than:

Ps

gudgeon

[ mm ]

Pe

1 1 0,6

dg

dm

da

than:

3 + 4

Note

As

[N / mm 2 ]

exceed the permissible surface pressure in the cone.

The permissible surface pressure is to be determined

by the following formula:

dg

Ps 3

ReH

[N / mm 2 ]

d 2m A 0

da

[N]

Pe

body, normally 1 = 0,3

d1

nut and rudder body, see Fig. 14.8

dg

material

3.2.3

For the safe transmission of the torsional

moment by the coupling between rudder stock and

rudder body the push-up length and the push-up pressure are to be determined by the following formulae.

A1 =

preq dm

1

E

2

0,8 R tm

c

[mm]

0,01 mm

c

greater than:

of the two following values:

= 1,5 d m [mm]

A 2 =

1,6 R eH d m

3 +

E c

0,8 R tm

c

[mm]

Section 14

I - Part 1

GL 2009

Note

push-up force Pe for the cone may be determined by

the following formula:

2

using oil pressure. It varies and depends on the mechanical treatment and roughness of the details to be fixed.

Where due to the fitting procedure a partial push-up

effect caused by the rudder weight is given, this may

be taken into account when fixing the required pushup length, subject to approval by GL.

1.4

In rudder bodies with cut-outs (semi-spade

rudders) the following stress values are not to be exceeded:

d 2m A

d0

= 50 N / mm 2

equivalent stress due to bending and shear and equivalent stress due to bending and torsion:

[N / mm 2 ]

also Fig. 14.4

= 50 N / mm 2

v1 =

2b + 32 = 120 N / mm 2

v2 =

b2 + 3t2 = 100 N / mm 2

M R = CR2 f1 + B1

Q1

= CR2

f2

2

[Nm]

[N]

The torsional stress may be calculated in a simplified

manner as follows:

E.

1.

1.1

The rudder body is to be stiffened by horizontal and vertical webs in such a manner that the

rudder body will be effective as a beam. The rudder

shall be additionally stiffened at the aft edge.

t

Mt

1.3

For rudder bodies without cut-outs the permissible stress are limited to:

= 110 N / mm 2

Mt

[N / mm 2 ]

2 A h t

= CR2 e [Nm]

area A2 below the cross section under consideration

e

1.2

The strength of the rudder body is to be

proved by direct calculation according to C.3.

(horizontal distance between the centre of

pressure of area A2 and the centre line a-a of

the effective cross sectional area under consideration, see Fig. 14.9. The centre of pressure is to be assumed at 0,33 c2 aft of the

forward edge of area A2, where c2 = mean

breadth of area A2).

= 50 N / mm 2

A-B

b2 + 32 = 120 N / mm 2

cone coupling or pintle nut the permissible stresses

according to 1.4 apply. Smaller permissible stress

values may be required if the corner radii are less than

0,15 ho, where ho = height of opening.

A

a

2

a

f2

A2

f1

a

r

B1

B1 d0

= 90 N / mm 2

3.2.4

The required push-up pressure for pintle bearings is to be determined by the following formula:

p req = 0, 4

Chapter 1

Page 1411

Chapter 1

Page 1412

Section 14

exceed 1,2 h.

The radii in the rudder plating are not to be less than

4 5 times the plate thickness, but in no case less than

50 mm.

2.

4.

Rudder bearings

4.1

fitted. Their minimum thickness is

tmin =

Rudder plating

= 1, 74 a

pR k + 2,5 [mm]

CR

pR

= 10 T +

panel [m]

10 A

synthetic material

2.1

determined according to the following formula:

t

I - Part 1

GL 2009

[kN / m 2 ]

Where in case of small ships bushes are not fitted, the rudder stock is to be suitably increased in diameter in way of

bearings enabling the stock to be re-machined later.

4.2

4.3

The bearing forces result from the direct calculation mentioned in C.3. As a first approximation the

bearing force may be determined without taking account

of the elastic supports. This can be done as follows:

may be taken into account as given in Section 3, A.3.

The thickness shall, however, not be less than the

thickness tmin according to Section 6, B.3.1.

supports according to their vertical distances

from the centre of gravity of the rudder area.

semi-spade rudders:

frequency criterion as defined in Section 12, A.8.3

( < 60) for shell structures applies analogously.

has to be observed in addition.

B1 = CR

b

c

B2 = CR B1

2.2

For connecting the side plating of the rudder

to the webs tenon welding is not to be used. Where

application of fillet welding is not practicable, the side

plating is to be connected by means of slot welding to

flat bars which are welded to the webs.

2.3

The thickness of the webs is not to be less

than 70 % of the thickness of the rudder plating according to 2.1, but not less than:

t min = 8 k [mm]

Webs exposed to seawater shall be dimensioned according to 2.1.

Transmitting of the rudder torque

3.1

plating according to 2.1 is to be increased by 25 % in

way of the coupling. A sufficient number of vertical

webs is to be fitted in way of the coupling.

3.2

If the torque is transmitted by a prolonged

shaft extended into the rudder, the latter shall have the

diameter Dt or D1, whichever is greater, at the upper

10 % of the intersection length. Downwards it may be

tapered to 0,6 Dt, in spade rudders to 0,4 times the

strengthened diameter, if sufficient support is provided

for.

[N]

4.4

The projected bearing surface Ab (bearing

height external diameter of liner) is not to be less than

Ab =

B

[mm 2 ]

q

Table 14.2

Bearing material

3.

[N]

q [N/mm2]

lignum vitae

2,5

4,5

synthetic material 1

5,5

bronze-graphite materials

7,0

Surface pressures exceeding 5,5 N/mm2 may be accepted

in accordance with bearing manufacturer's specification

and tests, but in no case more than 10 N/mm2.

Stainless and wear resistant steel in an approved combination with stock liner. Higher surface pressures than

7 N/mm2 may be accepted if verified by tests.

I - Part 1

GL 2009

Section 14

Chapter 1

Page 1413

4.5

Stainless and wear resistant steels, bronze and

hot-pressed bronze-graphit materials have a considerable difference in potential to non-alloyed steel. Respective preventive measures are required.

6.3

The clearance is not to be taken less than

1,5 mm on diameter. In case of self lubricating bushes

going down below this value can be agreed to on the

basis of the manufacturer's specification.

4.6

The bearing height shall be equal to the bearing diameter, however, is not to exceed 1,2 times the

bearing diameter. Where the bearing depth is less than

the bearing diameter, higher specific surface pressures

may be allowed.

F.

determined by the following formula:

4.7

The wall thickness of pintle bearings in sole

piece and rudder horn shall be approximately of the

pintle diameter.

Q F = 0, 02664

Dt

5.

d = 0,35

B1 k r

= see A.4.2

= 0, 01 B1

[mm]

5.3

Where pintles are of conical shape, they are

to comply with the following

taper on diameter

1 : 8 to 1 : 12

if keyed by slugging nut

taper on diameter

1 : 12 to 1 : 20

if mounted with oil injection and hydraulic nut

5.4

The pintles are to be arranged in such a manner

as to prevent unintentional loosening and falling out.

3.2.2 apply accordingly.

Where the actual diameter Dta is greater than the calculated diameter Dt, the diameter Dta is to be used. However, Dta need not be taken greater than 1,145 Dt.

G.

1.

Stopper

either side by stoppers. The stoppers and their foundations connected to the ship's hull are to be of strong

construction so that the yield point of the applied

materials is not exceeded at the design yield moment

of the rudder stock.

2.

Locking device

device in order to keep the rudder fixed at any position. This device as well as the foundation in the ship's

hull are to be of strong construction so that the yield

point of the applied materials is not exceeded at the

design yield moment of the rudder stock as specified

in F. Where the ship's speed exceeds 12 kn, the design

yield moment need only be calculated for a stock

diameter based on a speed v0 = 12 kn.

3.

Regarding stopper and locking device see

also Chapter 2 Machinery Installations, Section 14.

6.1

clearance shall generally not be less than:

db

+ 1, 0 [mm]

1000

db

[Nm]

[mm]

5.2

The thickness of any liner or bush shall not

be less than:

6.

D3t

kr

Pintles

5.1

the conditions given in 4.4 and 4.6. The pintle diameter is not to be less than:

B1

kr

6.2

If non-metallic bearing material is applied,

the bearing clearance is to be specially determined

considering the material's swelling and thermal expansion properties.

H.

Propeller Nozzles

1.

General

1.1

The following requirements are applicable to

propeller nozzles having an inner diameter of up to

5 m. Nozzles with larger diameters will be specially

considered.

1.2

Special attention is to be given to the support

of fixed nozzles at the hull structure.

Chapter 1

Page 1414

2.

Section 14

3.

Design pressure

determined by the following formula:

I - Part 1

GL 2009

Plate thickness

3.1

The thickness of the nozzle shell plating is

not to be less than:

pd = c pd0 [kN / m 2 ]

t

pd0

N

=

Ap

Ap

4

= propeller diameter [m]

[kN / m ]

= 0, 21 2 10

[mm]

N

Ap

= 1,0

= 0,5

in zones 1 and 3

= 0,35

in zone 4

4.

W = n d 2 b v 02

[cm3 ]

zone 4

5.

zone 2

Section modulus

Fig. 14.10 around its neutral axis is not to be less

than:

min. b/4

3.2

The web thickness of the internal stiffening

rings shall not be less than the nozzle plating for zone

3, however, in no case be less than 7,5 mm.

min = 0,10

zone 3

pd + t K

t min = 7,5 mm

= D2

= 5 a

zone 1

Welding

welded to the internal stiffening rings as far as practicable by double continuous welds. Plug welding is

only permissible for the outer nozzle plating.

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