204 vues

Transféré par Ivan Fauzi Ryanto

Automotive PID Controller

- AEI504
- PID Controllers
- [IJET-V1I3P18] Authors :Galal Ali Hassaan.
- M. a. Abido and Y. L. Abdel-Magid
- IRJET-Multi scale control scheme for designing of Feedback-feedforward control system
- PID Discussion
- Chapter 12 Chang
- Tutorial-5-Vancouver.pdf
- Automatic Load Frequency Control of Two Area Power System With Conventional and Fuzzy Logic Control
- Exp1 Process Dynamic & Control
- How PID Works
- A Stable Self-Tuning Fuzzy Logic Control System for Industrial Temperature Regulation
- Control System Design Steps
- Model-based Tuning.pdf
- 13_Modelling and Simulation -good.pdf
- PID Control
- Frequency Stabilization Using Fuzzy Logic Based Controller
- Shafique_asu_0010N_11158
- Chen4352 Pdc Lab Manual
- Paper Mechatronics r

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 15

6, NOVEMBER 2007

1137

Implementation of Nonlinear Automotive

Idle Speed Control SystemsAn Overview

Zhengmao Ye, Senior Member, IEEE

challenging aspects in engine control fields. Essentially it is a highly

nonlinear, time-varying, complicated, and uncertain dynamic control problem. As the typical automotive transient operation, the

quality of the ISC has a significant impact on fuel economy, emission levels (HC, CO, and NOx), combustion stability, transient

response, and noise, vibration, and harshness characteristics. This

paper presents a thorough review of various dynamic control technologies which have been successfully applied to ISC systems. In

particular, practical implementations on a variety of different engine types are provided, which cover broad areas of control, including classical control, modern control, and intelligent control.

Over 90 selected papers published during the last two decades

are reviewed and then summarized from a control point of view.

These control approaches can be generalized to the control of other

automotive, electrical, mechanical, and aeronautical systems.

Index TermsAdaptive control, artificial intelligence, fuzzy control, intelligent control, internal combustion engines, neural networks, nonlinear systems, optimal control.

A/F

BDC

BIBO

BP

GA

GDI

IAC

ISC

LQ

LQG

LQI

LQR

LSE

MAP

MIMO

MRAC

NVH

PID

PFI

RBF

RLS

RPM

NOMENCLATURE

Air to fuel (ratio).

Bottom dead center.

Bounded input bounded output.

Backpropagation.

Genetic algorithm.

Gasoline direct injection (engine).

Idle air control.

Idle speed control.

Linear quadratic.

Linear quadratic Gaussian.

Linear quadratic integral.

Linear quadratic regulator.

Least squares estimation.

Manifold absolute pressure.

Multiple input multiple output.

Model reference adaptive control.

Noise, vibration, and harshness.

Proportional, derivative, and integral.

Port fuel injection (engine).

Radial basis function.

Recursive least squares.

Revolution per minute.

Manuscript received January 9, 2006; revised March 20, 2006 and July 6,

2006. This paper was recommended by Associate Editor P. Horacek.

The author is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA (e-mail: zhengmaoye@engr.subr.edu).

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TSMCC.2007.905810

SSR

STR

SVD

TDC

TWC

Self-tuning regulator.

Singular value decomposition.

Top dead center.

Three-way catalyst.

I. INTRODUCTION

UTOMOTIVE idle speed control (ISC) is a multiobjective

and multivariable control issue. The selection of target idle

speed corresponds to a tradeoff among fuel consumption, idle

operation stability, and emission levels. The idle speed control

mechanism of different engine types varies. For a typical port

fuel injection (PFI) engine, the ISC system uses a controlled

bypass valve to regulate the flow rate of bypass air around a

closed throttle, using a solenoid, stepper motor, or controlled

duty-cycle valve. The throttle bypass valve is used to adjust the

intake manifold air flow around the primary throttle plate at idle.

Its secondary function is to prevent stalling and produce smooth

throttle tip in and tip out by providing extra air during idling

and acting as an electronic dashpot during sudden deceleration.

Another category of ISC systems uses a direct throttle actuator. The air volume at idle comes through a slight throttle

opening, which is controlled by a dc motor, stepper motor, or

solenoid. On average, about 30% of fuel consumption in a city

driving is spent at idle [36], and it continues to increase with

increasing traffic levels.

A reasonable target idle speed needs to be maintained in

order to overcome mechanical frictions, misfiring, and load disturbances to prevent engines oscillation, vibration, hunting, and

stalling under a variety of circumstances. At idle, both rich air

to fuel (A/F) mixture and incomplete combustion are present

due to in-cylinder residual gas fraction and low engine speed,

giving rise to higher levels of HC and CO emissions. Basic

requirements for ISC systems are listed as follows.

1) Low idle speed set point is needed for good fuel economy.

2) Low idle speed set point is needed for the reduction of HC

and CO emissions.

3) The ISC stability is of the upmost importance. Regarding

target idle speed, if it is too low, stalling may occur; if it

is too high, harsh gear engagement may occur.

4) ISC nonlinear delays need to be compensated for.

It is clear that some requirements are conflicting. As a result,

multiobjective modeling, control, and optimization for dynamic

ISC systems are necessary. From literature surveys, virtually all

existing control theories have been successfully implemented to

1138

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICSPART C: APPLICATIONS AND REVIEWS, VOL. 37, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2007

nearly all areas of control fields are encompassed. Therefore, a

well-prepared control engineering researcher should be familiar

with the practical aspects of classical control, modern control,

and intelligent control; a well-prepared automotive researcher

should be familiar with idle speed control problems of PFI

engines, gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, diesel engines

and potentially natural gas engines, and hybrid vehicles.

To optimize engine operations during idling, miscellaneous

load disturbances must be taken into account. In general, there

are four basic types of external disturbances: air conditioning,

power steering, gear shifting between neutral and drive positions, as well as the alternator.

1) The accessory load from air conditioning is about 10 Nm

for most midsize vehicles, which roughly equals to 10%

of the maximum torque or is around 20% of torque at idle.

2) With the presence of power steering, it acts as another

major disturbance. The peak steering wheel load occurs

at low-vehicle speed, especially when a steering wheel

reaches its full travel limits.

3) The alternator provides the power, which supplies all

electrical components (e.g., ECU, electric fan, defrosters,

power locks, power windows, headlights, radio, etc.) on a

vehicle, while battery charging is needed to store energy.

Alternator load is normally 24 Nm [24].

4) During transient engagements of the transmission, gear

shifting between neutral and drive induces an additional

load disturbance to engine ISC dynamic control systems.

5) Moreover, an ISC system should be robust against varying

ambient temperature, barometric pressure, fuel composition, lubricant type, air humidity, cycle-to-cycle combustion variations, manufacturing tolerances, and component

aging. ISC systems should also be applicable across different engine types [1].

Engine coolant temperature is a dominating factor in the target

idle speed set point determination. The analysis of an ISC system

can be conducted either on a time basis or on a crank-angle basis.

For instance, the differential equation for intake manifold filling

dynamics can be formulated in a time domain, while engine

rotational dynamics can be formulated as a function of either

time or crank angle.

A sound former survey of ISC dynamic systems has been

made [33], with a focus on applications of idle speed control

problems to PFI engines at Ford Motor Company using many

modern control theories. In view of the diversities of both engine types and control methodologies, its scope, is however,

relatively limited, especially compared with the rapid development of engine and control technologies.

An orderly sequence is conformed in this review of over

90 publications. In terms of engine types, a survey on ISC of

PFI engines is conducted at first, followed by GDI engines,

diesel engines, and natural gas engines. In terms of control theories, methodologies are discussed among which are classical

control, modern control, and intelligent control, respectively.

Classical control is based on transfer function methods; modern

control is based on state space methods and intelligent control includes fuzzy logic control, artificial neural networks, and

genetic algorithms. Fuzzy logic is rule based, whose knowledge base consists of fuzzy ifthen rules characterized by a

set of membership functions. Neural networks employ learning

algorithms to modify weights on the connection links among

multiple layers. In most cases, hybridization has to be used to

enhance control performance, such as in ISC fuzzy PID control. Sometimes there might also be no distinctive borderlines

between different control types. As an example, neither optimal

control nor adaptive control can be grouped as classical control

or modern control exclusively.

II. PFI ENGINE IDLE SPEED CONTROL APPROACHES (AZ)

It is inevitable that engine dynamics is related to nonlinear

phenomena, such as fuel transport lag, intake charging delay,

and induction-to-power stroke delay. A well-known fact is the

wall wetting effect. These phenomena are induced by both periodic speed fluctuations and aperiodic load disturbances. Periodic speed fluctuations can be examined by the intake manifold

filling dynamic, combustion dynamics, and engine rotational

dynamics. Idle speed quality degradation can arise from the

combustion roughness and aperiodic loads imposed by air conditioning, power steering, alternators, and neutral-drive transitions [6], [55].

A. ISC Feedforward Control

An ISC system with the feedforward compensation has been

designed at Mitsubishi [35]. With the presence of alternator load

current, the feedforward compensation method is derived based

on a linearized engine model. It is used to suppress the idle

speed fluctuation generated by some electric load disturbances.

This ISC dynamic model consists of alternator dynamics, intake manifold filling dynamics, and engine rotational dynamics.

In feedforward control, a voltage regulator is used to change

the field current by adjusting the intake air flow rate. All control parameters of this ISC system are identified using sensing

information from the airflow sensor, hall element load current

sensor, and so on. As a result, idle speed fluctuation has been

suppressed. Under measurable disturbances from air conditioning and power steering, the ISC feedforward controller can also

be used for load disturbance rejection [17], [28], [87], [88].

Feedforward control is simple to implement at a low cost. As

an open loop approach, its control authority is limited. The ISC

feedforward controller is usually combined with some other control approaches, such as optimal control and neural networks, to

further improve the quality of an ISC system.

B. ISC Fundamental PID Control

Engine speed oscillations are caused by the pulsating nature of the engine torque [27], due to fuel detonation in the

cylinders. In idle regime, these oscillations are of special concern when the inertia of the vehicle is not connected to the

engine. Damping of idle speed oscillations is considered using

a reversible alternator. This reversible alternator applies control

torque to the crankshaft to improve the uniformity of the speed.

Practical parameterizations of controllers are conducted by

Fig. 1.

1139

1 T 2

1 T 2

v (t)dt;Jq =

q (t)dt.

(1)

Jv =

T 0

T 0

PID and Youla parameterization are used to evaluate the performance metrics, such as the mean square of velocity and the

mean square of control torque in (1). Engine idle speed oscillations can be substantially reduced using this method. It also has

the potential to reduce engine size and weight by using a lighter

flywheel. The major advantages of PID parameterizations lie in

the simplicity and the low dynamic order, while the stability is

not guaranteed. Youla parameterization provides the guaranteed

internal stability, while the selections of rational stable functions

are not unique. Thus, software package has been developed to

evaluate the performance on the design charts.

PID tuning systems are widely used with no need to obtain a dynamic model [31] (see Fig. 1). Continuous-action

reinforcement-algorithm-based online PID tuning has been

tested on a Ford 1.8-L engine. It is used to simultaneously

tune the parameters of the three-term controller to minimize its

performance objective. The cost is evaluated online according

to time and speed error during transient operations. This technique does not require a priori knowledge of system dynamics.

It can provide the optimized control to the complex nonlinear

systems. PID control of the ISC systems can be improved by

combining with fuzzy control [79]. To avoid engine stalling

and to suppress engine speed fluctuations upon switching of air

conditioning (on/off), a fuzzy PID controller has been applied

onboard to a 1.3-L PFI engine. The magnitude of the speed

fluctuation is substantially reduced. The ISC PID control is regarded as a reliable approach, where low control complexity is

involved. On the other hand, there is no general rule to follow

for parameterizations of the three-term coefficients.

of u(.) from its nominal operating point, and is a positive constant. The LQI tracking controller [70] contains an observer by

which state variables are estimated from this observer dynamic

model, thus control variables are determined in turn. This simple

design is easy to implement with no extra sensor requirement. At

transient states that are subject to various torque disturbances,

the prompt response tracking can still be maintained. For a

complex LQ engine model with five state variables, additional

spark advance feedback loop is used [89]. Spark timing control

improves idle speed stability by compensating for the delay in

torque generations [2]. It has been indicated that the performance of both LQ optimization and fuzzy control is superior

to that of regular PID controllers in practical implementations.

An experimental comparison of the ISC PID controller, linear

quadratic regulator (LQR), inputoutput linearization, and sliding mode controller is made via an electronic throttle control

system [39]. PID controller is a reliable approach, which provides the proper tuning time and adequate control performance.

LQR controller gives rise to better fuel economy than that of

PID control. Both PID and LQR are subject to the disturbance

rejection and reduction of speed variations. That is, the reason

that nonlinear approaches are introduced where inputoutput

linearization is presented to solve this problem. Continuous

sliding mode control gives rise to good fuel economy and disturbance rejection capability against additional load disturbances

from power steering pumps and air-conditioning compressors.

However, the induction-to-power delay and finite response time

problems still need to be solved. LQ control approach is not

difficult to design from a control point of view. It also results

in relatively good control performance, while its performance

depends on the accuracy of the ISC modeling and performance

index formulation.

Another traditional ISC scheme is the LQ optimization. In

modern control theory, an exact model is required, so control

methodologies can be very complex. Accordingly, a relatively

simple linear quadratic integral (LQI) control approach has been

proposed. Its performance index is defined as

[e2 (k) + u2 (k)]

(2)

J=

0

Engine dynamic systems at idle can be modeled as nonlinear

ordinary differential equations with some variable-time-delay

elements (e.g., time constant in a wall-wetting model). The ISC

nonlinear optimal control problem has been formulated [69],

which employs a quadratic function as the performance index

in terms of engine speed, throttle angle, and spark advance, with

1140

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICSPART C: APPLICATIONS AND REVIEWS, VOL. 37, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2007

T

2 }dt

J=

{(N N 0 )2 + ( 0 )2 + ()

(3)

angle, N 0 and 0 are set points. Mathematical programming is

proposed based on the projected Newtons method. Backward

Euler scheme is used for difference equation approximation on

the differential algebraic systems. This optimal approach can

bring about suitable idle speed control design based on engine

models. Compared with the PID controller, the settling time is

reduced to a half using the optimal control. Robustness of this

controller should be investigated considering uncertainties of

engine models. Feedforward control and feedback control are

usually applied simultaneously [17]. For an application on a

4.6-L V8 Ford engine, L1 feedforward control is selected

for the transient tracking, while the linear quadratic Gaussian

(LQG) optimal feedback control is designed for the steady-state

tracking. The set-point tracking and closed loop stabilization depend on the LQG design and integral feedback controller. This

L1 optimization seeks for a transfer function that minimizes the

tracking term (L1 norm) of the closed loop transfer function. L1

optimal design method uses an internally stabilizing controller

to reduce the peak speed excursion by load disturbance rejection. The coordination of spark ignition control and A/F ratio

control will enhance the dynamic performance. The frequency

response of the L1 feedforward control functions as a lead compensator for time delays of ISC systems. It is shown that a L1

optimal feedforward controller satisfies the transient tracking

requirement.

E. ISC H Control

Compared with the LQ optimization, the H synthesis can

provide an accurate modeling via system identification. Appropriate weighting functions are crucial to the H control

design. This ISC H design approach [77] has been applied

to a typical V6 engine. Control variables, such as the coolant

temperature, mass air flow, and engine speed, are monitored to

determine the actual A/F ratio, mass fuel flow, spark advance

angle, and bypass air flow. The aim of this H controller is

to achieve desirable performance, where the controller is robust against the parameter perturbations. This H design cycle

involves the specification of weighting functions, synthesis of

controller, controller model reduction, and closed-loop system

evaluation. The key point for the H design is the iteration of

weighting functions for bypass valve control, ignition control,

and control sensitivity formulation. The rule of weight changing is to provide a broad bandwidth by penalizing the ignition

timing less at low frequencies and penalizing the idle air flow

less at high frequencies. Integral action is introduced into the

idle valve control loop, so as to keep steady-state spark timing

for the engine combustion. The simple reduced model consists of only three state control loops; however, performance

and robustness are guaranteed. Another ISC H method [90]

requires trial-and-error weight adjustments to penalize the excessive actuator actions and sensitivity terms . Its controller

spark advance PD controller. The focus of H controller is the

robustness of ISC systems. From testing results, this ISC H

controller has produced a slightly faster response than the LQ

controller.

F. ISC Synthesis Control

The feasibility of a synthesis robust ISC design has been

investigated on a 2.9-L Scorpio engine model [32]. synthesis

control acts as a natural extension of H control. The inputs of

bypass valve opening and spark advance are used to maintain

the desired idle speed. Its basic idea is as follows: for an ISC

nominal plant and a perturbed plant with several delay terms,

transfer functions of the spark advance bypass valve opening

and sensitivity are designed in advance

u = diag{1 Ir 1 , . . . , r Ir r , . . . , 1 , . . . , F }.

(4)

the statespace representation of error signals between nominal

and perturbed functions, all singular values can be determined.

Then, both structured uncertainty matrix and controller matrix

are subject to examination. Particularly, structured uncertainty

matrix is expressed in (4), where () denotes maximum singular value of , i represents repeated scalar complex uncertainties, i represents full complex block uncertainties. The

overall matrix consists of the scalar repeated complex uncertainties (individual diagonal matrices) and full complex uncertainties (individual block matrices). For each individual matrix,

the maximum singular value is calculated. Afterward, every

maximum singular values (upper bound) from each individual

matrix are computed, where is defined as the reciprocator

of the minima among all maximum singular values. The optimal is determined via iterations to guarantee the robustness.

Hence, the synthesis technique overcomes the influences of

perturbations and uncertainties through the combination of separated models. The superiority of an ISC synthesis controller

over a H controller is that being a robust design, synthesis control also leads to the low idle speed set point. In

the mean while, its formulation is more complicated, however

worthwhile.

G. ISC Robust Control

Uncertainties of ISC nonlinear systems are classified into two

categories: internal varying factors (slowly and rapidly) and external disturbances. The robustness analysis of the ISC stability

could be conducted using analyzing tools [1], where the robust

stability issue based on the polynomial formulation is converted

to a problem whether the roots locate at the left half complex

plane or not. The block diagram of a linearized engine model

contains intake manifold filling dynamics, combustion dynamics, and engine rotational dynamics. The regular engine model

is simplified using the signal flow graph analysis and the Mason

rule, which results in two inputs (throttle valve duty cycle, spark

angle) and two outputs (engine speed, intake manifold absolute

pressure). Considering the uncertainty issue, the Fiat intermediate value models are used to coordinate with the engine models.

to ensure the zero-steady-state deviation while, the derivative

compensator for the spark advance is to ensure that fast corrections are made with no state offset. A closed-loop characteristic

polynomial is used for this robust stability analysis. With the

presence of a digital controller, the hybrid system is generated

by combining the continuous engine models, thereby sampling

rates are determined. A recent study of the robust idle speed

regulation is based on the directly identified nonlinear inverse

of a stable system [56]. Identification is conducted for ISC problems using linear robust control techniques in parameter spaces.

Genetic algorithms are then introduced into robust control systems to evaluate error performance functions. The ISC stability

is maintained by robust control approaches against uncertainties and load disturbances, where classical control theories have

also been applied to improve other aspects of the ISC system

performance.

H. ISC Least Squares Estimation (LSE)

Suitable idle speed controllers depend on the proper engine

modeling. Models should not only represent highly nonlinear

and complex engine dynamics, but also be simple enough for

the control synthesis. In a nonlinear identification model, the

intake air actuator position and spark advance angle are inputs

while intake manifold pressure and engine speed are outputs.

The LQ technique is applied to the model synthesis of a 1.4-L

commercial engine [54]. Assuming that N observations have

been measured, a regressive LSE approach has been used so

that the variable predictions can be made simultaneously. The

sum of squared residuals (SSR) will be minimized for the optimal estimation. This method saves up to 50% of the tuning

time of the controller gain. It is shown that this approach can

be extended to the more robust nonlinear models. For an ISC

adaptive fuzzy control design, its direct adaptive law is formulated using the least mean squares, from which satisfied results

are obtained. The linearized engine ISC model can be identified using a generalized least squares method with respect to

the nominal operating points [29]. The identified parameters are

then used as initial values of a linear quadratic optimal controller. This optimal controller is applied to a Chrysler 2.0-L

neon engine. The idle speed set points have been selected as

840, 780, and 720 rpm, respectively. Experimental results indicate that the optimal controller has the capability of effectively

adjusting engine idle speed under various types of load disturbances, such as from a cooling fan and power steering. Tracking

errors are substantially reduced via optimal control, but it takes

longer time. The least squares estimation is simple, and there

is no computation complexity for applications in high-order

cases. It can also be used for prediction control. The restriction of the LSE applications is that ISC systems are highly

nonlinear, in most cases the linearization can not be reached

directly.

I. Model Following Control and Gain Scheduling Control

Due to its wide adaptability and robustness under various

environmental conditions, model reference adaptive control

1141

complex control laws are required for MRAC implementation.

On the other hand, a model following control could be much

simpler by combining with a torque estimation model and an intake air dynamics model [75]. So the torque model and collector

filling model are proposed and included into a model following

ISC system. The opening of the air passage, which bypasses the

throttle valve, is controlled to suppress engine speed variations.

This ISC model with estimated torque signals can provide a

quick response to load disturbances, so that the feedback control

systems can follow the model output rapidly. The phase difference due to intake nonlinear dynamics has been compensated

for. Using model following control onboard, ISC performance

has been improved under different load disturbances of power

steering, air conditioning, or headlights.

The engine hunting phenomenon is related to vibrations at

a fundamental frequency [12], ranging roughly from 7 (800

rpm) to 50 Hz (6000 rpm). The ISC stability against harmonic

disturbances at a time-varying fundamental frequency is a direction of active control of engine vibrations. The standard state

feedback control can be employed in this case. A load disturbance can be modeled as the output of statespace model and

its time varying state observer is used to estimate states from

the actual model. The disturbance is then remodeled and used

as a control input. Thus, an alternative nonadaptive algorithm is

developed for the active vibration and noise control against load

disturbances at harmonic frequency. Time-varying frequency is

used as a scheduling variable. The stabilizing observer gain is

calculated from the observer gain scheduling mechanism. It is

shown from testing that the engine vibration is reduced significantly at idle.

It is not difficult to design the ISC model following control

and gain schedule control algorithms. However, the resulting

ISC performance strongly relies on the modeling accuracy.

J. ISC Fundamental Adaptive Control

The primary goal of an ISC system is to maintain idle speed

operations at a feasible minimum speed [51] without affecting

the ISC quality and emissions. By adjusting operating points

adaptively in response to operating conditions and environmental conditions, emission levels, fuel economy, and roughness

level (idle quality) can be improved. An ISC system in the

pioneering research consists of four feedback loops: load compensation loop, speed control loop, roughness control loop, and

adaptive roughness control loop. Engine speed is controlled by

adjusting the throttle position through a stepper motor. The initial roughness set point is modified by the adaptive roughness

loop to adapt to operating conditions and environmental conditions. The response from the inner adaptive roughness loop

is slow in comparison with other loops of the ISC system to

modify the roughness set point according to the slowly varying parameters, e.g., ambient temperature. The second loop is

to reduce the roughness level. The third loop is much faster,

which keeps the engine idle speed at a specified value. The

outer loop sends out the command to the throttle actuator for a

fixed step increment. Optimal operating points with respect to

1142

Fig. 2.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICSPART C: APPLICATIONS AND REVIEWS, VOL. 37, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2007

of the variations in operating conditions. In a recent study, spark

ignition control depending on the adaptive strategy has been developed to stabilize the idle speed fluctuations [76]. Adaptation

of the spark advance angle gives rise to a tradeoff between the

operating speed and estimation accuracy. The success of this

adaptive controller has been indicated. An adaptive controller

tracks the engine speed set point tightly, and it is robust to load

disturbances. The adaptive control flowchart (Fig. 2) shows a

well designed ISC control approach. It in fact reflects various

demands of ISC systems, whose physical mechanisms are also

straightforward. The drawback lies in that its complexity is increased and its optimality is not guaranteed. Nevertheless, this

approach has provided a general picture what actually an ISC

system is about.

K. ISC Controller and Observer Design

A group of uncertain time delays of an ISC system has been

investigated [10]. This dynamic control system is modeled as

an observer-based controller with delays. The linear matrix inequality is formulated in both the delay-independent and delaydependent cases. Sufficient conditions regarding the existence

of the controller and observer matrices are obtained to guarantee

the asymptotic stability in a former case. A standard toolbox is

used to find the solutions to the inequality in a latter case, when

the observer-controller design is applied to the ISC system

h

Z T ()P1 Z()d.

(5)

V (z, t) = Z T P0 Z +

th

design methodology, the ISC system is guaranteed to be asymptotically stable with the feedback using estimated states. Furthermore, dynamics of the state estimator is guaranteed to be

asymptotically stable. Its stability issue can be tested by defining

quadratic and radial unbounded Lyapunov functions (5), where

P0 and P1 are two positive definite matrices. The aforementioned design of observers and controllers will give rise to a

control theories, where the ISC performance depends on both

the controller design and the observer design.

A nonlinear model is designed for the calibration of an ISC

system where the full state feedback is applied, considering

the nonlinearity of engine dynamics at idle [52]. The nonlinear

model is used for the ISC design and for prediction through

a broad range of the operating conditions. Under load disturbances, this ISC system takes advantage of both spark advance

adjustment and idle air actuating to reduce variations of the idle

speed. The intake manifold filling time delay is modeled as a

function of engine parameters, idle air actuator position, ambient pressure, and temperature. Engine torque is a function of

manifold absolute pressure (MAP), engine speed, spark, fuel,

and a time delay in combustion dynamics. Rotational dynamics results from the inertia of the mechanical systems. Each of

them is represented as the first-order system. All together the

ISC system is formulated as a nonlinear MIMO model. This

simple nonlinear engine model is applied to the optimal controller design to enhance the capability of disturbance rejection

during gear transitions (from/to idling). The prediction for the

idle speed on a 4.3-L GM V6 engine has been made. The range

of the idle air control (IAC) actuator position is from 30 to

60 steps. The range of the spark advance angle is from 0

30 . Using the full state feedback control, the results indicate

that the prediction error of the idle speed is very small (10

rpm) under different operating conditions. In a similar case,

an ISC control law for the real-time applications is investigated [26], where the finite time delays between the inputs

(MAP, spark advance angle) and output (torque) are counted

explicitly. To maintain a target idle speed against the nonmeasurable torque disturbances of power steering or air conditioning

using the output feedback, the bypass valve position, and spark

advance angle are used as control signals, where two time delays

(intake-to-power stroke delay, toque generation lag) are taken

law is discretized according to the sampling rate of the measuring signals. This linear time-invariant control law has shown

adequate performance. It is also robust against the parameter

perturbations.

In order to design the state feedback and output feedback,

the assumption is that an ISC system represents a linear system,

where all linear control theories can be applied. In fact, these

two approaches can only be applied to some simple cases via

linearization, although the state feedback and output feedback

have the accurate mathematical formulations.

1143

excursion. This design is used to evaluate the dynamic programming approach in the nonlinear environment. Satisfactory transient performance of the ISC neural network controller can be

reached. In addition, the real-time adaptation capability allows

the neural network controller to be further refined and improved

by continuous learning and adaptation. The trained controller

has the potential to outperform the existing controllers. The ISC

performance optimization can be accomplished using discrete

dynamic programming in a finite time horizon. However, the

cost function being selected will affect performance of the ISC

system, which varies among different designers.

A variable structure control scheme has been proposed for

ISC systems under the unknown time-varying disturbances [68].

Control laws for the throttle opening and spark advance are

designed individually to tune the idle speed. The throttle opening

is used as a primary source of control for the torque generation.

Spark timing control is to compensate for the intake-to-torque

generation delay

Je 2 1 2

+ ep .

(6)

2

2

The disturbance estimator is designed to reconstruct the

torque disturbance. The stability of this system is proved via

a Lyapunov function method. Its control objective is reached

by constructing a Lyapunov function candidate, consisting of

the quadratic terms corresponding to engine speed and engine

load (6), where is engine speed (rad/s), Je is engine inertia

moment, eP = (p/p0 ) (p/p0 ) , p and p0 are engine load and

atmosphere pressure.

A Lyapunov function serves as a candidate itself to analyze the

stability issue. It has been applied to a neural network controller

or a discrete adaptive sliding mode controller for the idle speed

regulation, which authorizes the controller to be adaptive to

the system parameter uncertainties and external disturbances.

In fact, the Lyapunov function can not be used independently

for ISC systems. It must be applied together with other control

approaches.

V =

Multiple objectives should be taken into account at the same

time for ISC systems [42], e.g., engine performance, emission

levels, and robustness under different operating conditions. Discrete dynamic programming can be applied to simple and small

scale control problems, whose cost function is defined as the

summation of a utility function from present to future. Using

testing data from a 5.3-L GM V8 engine, a neural network

model is developed, and then dynamic programming is combined with the neural network controller to obtain optimization

via self-learning

1

1

[T (t) T (t)]2 + [(A/F ) (A/F ) ]2 .

(7)

2

2

Both engine torque control and exhaust A/F ratio control are

conducted to track torque command and regulate A/F ratio. The

cost function of the engine torque and A/F ratio tracking control

U (t) =

To solve the engine induction-to-power delay problem, a continuous sliding-mode control approach is presented for an engine control system with time delays, which has been applied

to the upstream side of the idle actuator of a 4.6-L Ford V8

engine [45]. A linear transformation is conducted in order to

transit a delayed system to a delay-free system, where all the

unstable poles of original systems are involved. Sliding mode

control is designed based on the delay-free system. A suitable

control law is selected to satisfy the global stability of a switching surface S = 0, where a Lyapunov function is defined as

V = ST S/2, whose derivative term is negative so as to be stable.

Its asymptotic stability is ensured by a delay-free system and

a delayed system under bounded and matched disturbances. A

state observer is also presented to estimate both intake manifold

pressure and engine torque. Solid disturbance rejection capability has been observed. Another adaptive sliding-mode control

design is applied to a discrete nonlinear system, where the three

layer feedforward neural networks are used to approximate unknown dynamics, which is tuned by a sliding surface approach

using gradient methods [43]. The control goal is to lower the

target idle speed and reduce speed variations against load disturbances. The target idle speed is set to be 611 rpm for the

concern of fuel economy instead of the production idle speed of

740 rpm. A discrete sliding surface is defined as a stable polynomial of system tracking errors. The sliding mode control laws are

designed as: s(k + d) = C(q 1 )e(k + d), where q 1 is the unit

delay operator; e(k + d) = y(k + d) r(k + d), which is the

speed tracking error and C(q 1 ) = 1 + C0 q 1 + +CL q L ,

which is the Hurwitz polynomial. The state trajectories of the

discrete mode are shown to converge within a small sliding sector, which actually deviates a little from the continuous sliding

manifold except for all sampling points. The state trajectories

are initialized along the sliding surface when the system is at

the sliding mode. When a disturbance is applied, the state trajectory returns to the surface after a short transient period and

remain there until the load is released. The time delay problem

is formulated as a high order system. This ISC controller has the

capability to maintain a low idle speed against load disturbances

ss < 0. |s(k)| . |s(k + 1)| < |s(k)| .

(8)

condition is also applied to a 2.4-L DaimlerChrysler engine.

1144

and local linearization [47]. Both the reachability condition and

control laws (8) should be satisfied. This design guarantees that

the system motion reaches the sliding manifold smoothly and

remains on it for a finite time. With regard to the speed tracking

performance and disturbance rejection, sliding mode control is

found to be superior to PID control and LQG control [37]. Considering the nonlinearity of ISC systems, a sliding mode controller provides more robust performance when it is combined

with nonlinear H robust control. For the robustness issue, the

ISC sliding mode control leads to satisfied results, which is better than most regular control approaches. On the other hand, its

application depends on other control methodologies.

P. ISC Nonlinear Describing Function Approach

Power steering is a common nonmeasurable external torque

disturbance in an ISC system. The desired idle speed of a Ford

V8 engine is set to be 600 rpm, whose allowable tolerance is

140 rpm. The input to the ISC system is a voltage signal. It is sent

to the bypass air valve that is bounded by 0.8 V. For steady-state

operations, inputs are not subject to saturation. For transient

states, saturation must be considered [30]. In this ISC system,

air control and ignition control are used in parallel to reach the

desired idle speed. The ignition control loop usually has a much

wider bandwidth than the air control loop. However, the control

authority of the air control loop is much greater than that of the

ignition control loop. Consequently, the bypass air valve that

regulates the air flow into the engine is applied to the ISC system. Also, actuator saturation is considered to achieve enhanced

regulation so as to satisfy stringent performance specifications

1

N (A) = {2 sin1 (B/A) sin[2sin1 (B/A)]}

4

+ (B/A)cos[sin1 (B/A)].

An adaptive Kalman filter has been proposed to design the

engine load torque estimator [19]. It can be extended to the second order nonlinear stochastic model of the torque, based on a

linear inertia model. Kalman filter has been used as a part of the

load torque compensator combined with the idle speed PI controller and linearized engine model. This adaptive Kalman filter

can provide the stable response and disturbance rejection. It has

the advantage in suppressing the engine speed fluctuation after a

sudden change of the engine load disturbance. Kalman filter has

also been applied to the recurrent neural network training [59].

An engine ISC model selects the throttle angle and spark advance as inputs. The measured outputs of this ISC system are

RPM and MAP, both of which are recorded four times per engine revolution. Outputs are easily corrupted by Gaussian noise,

so the objective of this ISC system is to maintain the idle speed

at 750 rpm against the unmeasured torque disturbances. The

extended back propagation is selected as the real-time recurrent

learning algorithm for neurocontroller training. The dynamic

gradients of the on line training algorithm are calculated by

the truncated back propagation to update both derivatives and

weights in a real time. The decoupled Kalman filter algorithm

has been demonstrated to be a satisfactory controller for this

nonlinear ISC problem. Kalman filter itself acts as an optimal

observer. The merit of the ISC Kalman filter design is shown

from the optimal estimations of outputs.

R. Hybrid Control (Continuous Time and Discrete Event)

(9)

which uses the describing function analysis to enhance the regulating performance. In (9), A is the input amplitude to the

saturation element and B is the maximum output of a unity

slope saturation element. Under the large step disturbances, it

depends on the controller design, which saturates the actuator. It

operates linearly under the small step disturbances. By Nichols

chart analysis, a closed-loop system is bounded input, bounded

output (BIBO) stable

N (A)Gu GC = 1.

appropriate for real-time ISC systems.

(10)

In the mean while, the limit cycle analysis has been applied,

where Gu is the transfer function of the engine model and GC

is the pseudolinearized open loop transfer function (10). It is

likely that the closed loop system can get away from the limit

cycle. This ISC nonlinear control approach has resulted in better performance than that of the regular linear control approach.

The describing function approach is an alternative to analyze

ISC nonlinear systems, which provides a shortcut between linear systems and nonlinear systems. It works in certain case, but

obviously this approach lacks accuracy due to saturations. Be-

The problem of the fast output torque delivery [91] is investigated by means of a throttle valve position controller with

the drive-by-wire electronics, based on a multipoint port injection manifold. This optimal control problem is solved using

the cyclic hybrid modeling and control approach, which is subject to the constraint that A/F ratio stays as close as possible

to the stoichiometric value of 14.64. Air dynamics is modeled

as a function of the quantity of air flow entering the cylinders

through intake manifold. At the same time, powertrain dynamics is modeled as a linear system, whose state variables are the

axle torsion angle, engine speed, and wheel revolution speed. A

single-state hybrid system reaches the dead point of a control

event whenever pistons reach either top dead center or bottom

dead center. The behavior of each cylinder is represented by

a finite state machine and a discrete event system for torque

generation. Every ith injection system is represented by a hybrid system. Then, the generalized model consists of four hybrid

systems representing behaviors of four cylinders, while the powertrain and intake manifold models are applied to each cylinder.

The dead-points are synchronous and one step delay is assumed

with respect to the previous cycle event. The optimal A/F ratio can be achieved by this hybrid control design. At idle, the

same approach is applied, while powertrain dynamics has been

simplified from a three-variable case to a two-variable case.

1145

phenomena (e.g., torque generation and spark ignition) and continuous operations (e.g., powertrain evolution and intake air dynamics). It is reasonable to build a hybrid engine model that

captures both types of interactions [8]. In order to achieve the

best fuel economy, the target idle speed must be chosen to be

possibly low as long as the acceptable combustion, emission

levels, and NVH characteristics are maintained. With the ISC

hybrid control closed loop system, the continuous and discrete

variables retain their own distinct natures. To satisfy the performance specifications, a maximal robust control invariant set is

determined and an optimal ISC controller is presented. It can

be used to locate the allowable maximum range of the torque

disturbance and the allowable minimum range of engine speed

under disturbances. The ISC hybrid control approach combines

the merits of the continuous time and discrete time control systems. On the other hand, it increases the complexity of the ISC

controller. As an engine system essentially includes various

types of dynamics coupled together, the practical implementation of this hybrid control approach needs to be tested case by

case.

nonlinear engine ISC model has two states (speed, load) [73].

Two crisp finite constant values of throttle angle (5 35 ) and

spark advance (10 45 ) are fuzzified, whose finite points in

the state space are chosen to anticipate the trajectory from one

subspace to another. Data are collected to the rule base for the

feedback regulation. By applying the fixed control, a set of transitional fuzzy relations are obtained. By changing values of the

fuzzy control pairs, a finite number of the transition relations

are chosen. Then, the performance index is defined as the sum

of the squared error, squared control signal, and delay function in each cell group. Besides, the same end-up value always

serves as the source for the next transition, which eventually

leads to an invariant manifold (countless trajectory). The target cell group must be an invariant manifold to guarantee the

asymptotic stability, similar to the concept of the reachability in

modern control theories. The phase portrait assignment results

in suboptimal conditions for fuzzy clusters. By employing this

method on an ISC engine model with 56 fuzzy rules, the desirable stability and robustness under accessory load perturbations

have been shown. With the presence of heavy load disturbances,

i.e., sudden switching of air conditioning on/off, a fuzzy PID

controller [79] has been designed and implemented on a 1.36-L

EFI engine. The speed error signal away from its target idle

speed set point (750 rpm) is fed back into the fuzzy controller,

where proportional, integral, and derivative terms are calculated

via procedures of fuzzification, fuzzy inference, and defuzzification, the fuzzy PID controller then sends out a command to

the stepper motor, which then adjusts its pintle position accordingly, so as to change bypass air flow rate into the engine to

control the idle speed. The ultimate goal is to avoid the engine

stalling and idle speed fluctuation against the sudden load disturbances. On-board testing results indicate that overshoot and

undershoot are reduced considerably during the switching of air

conditioning (on/off).

In a similar case of idle speed control [3] against power

steering load disturbances using air valve duty cycle control,

a 64-rule based fuzzy PI controller leads to more stable engine

performance than PID controllers upon loading and releasing of

power steering. From earlier experimental studies (Fig. 3), the

magnitude of the idle speed fluctuation decreases greatly, while

the ripple frequency of the fuzzy controller increases slightly.

The ISC fuzzy control is the first artificial intelligence approach

successfully applied to the ISC system. It has a strong impact

on concepts of the ISC system used in the conventional control

approaches. It achieves the primary ISC goals of the low speed

set point and disturbance rejection. As fuzzy control is empirical

based, its overall performance compared with all other types of

ISC controllers is still subject to testing.

A hybrid neural-fuzzy system for the vehicle ISC system has

been proposed, where the fuzzy controller is trained by neural

networks based procedure [58]. A nonlinear ISC model with a

nonignorable power delay is investigated and the testing results

are measured by sampling at controller update frequencies. The

neural network training is conducted by imposing various types

of torque disturbances, where an extensive recurrent layer of

eight nodes is used. Outputs are computed by using a sigmoid

activation function at output nodes. This approach can be regarded as one step toward the online training of ISC systems.

The properly designed controller extracts required useful information from available data. It also has sufficient control authority to train the weighting functions of the preprocessing layer,

so as to recover the priori state information [13]. Although the

hybrid neuro-fuzzy control could be a feasible control approach,

in most cases, fuzzy control and neural networks are applied

individually. It is possible that outcomes from two approaches

are similar. For instance, characteristics of three-way-catalyst

(TWC) at idle has been studied using both fuzzy control and

neural networks to predict the catalyst performance instead

of the onboard diagnosing. Emission levels of HC, CO, and

CO2 are calculated. The catalyst inlet-outlet temperature difference is used as an input to the fuzzy controller and neural network controller. If inputs and outputs of the catalyst

system are known, controllers can directly estimate catalyst

performance at steady states. Two types of intelligent control

approaches are based on expert systems or experiment data.

The hybrid neural-fuzzy control approach is promising. The

difficulty lies in the lack of an accurate engine mathematical

model.

Due to mechanical frictions, misfiring, and sensitivity to load

disturbances, the ISC stability is difficult to maintain [15], especially at the low speed to satisfy requirements of emission levels

1146

air control and the spark advance control has been formulated.

Using the ISC fuzzy control on a basis of equality relations, the

engine speed fluctuation has been reduced remarkably to prevent the engine oscillation against the load disturbances from

the air conditioning. This Mamdani fuzzy ISC system represents

a simple case of idle speed fuzzy control. There is no difficulty

essentially in its practical implementation; however its control

authority is limited.

Fig. 3.

and vibration might occur frequently. Considering numerous

engine variables and time-varying processes, the fuzzy sliding mode controller is proposed, which employs the antecedent

knowledge to reduce the tuning time and to be robust against

load disturbances. It is indicated that the nonlinear control structure presented by this fuzzy controller is robust to the conditions

of the internal and external disturbances. However, the engine

constraints have to be omitted. For this reason, the sliding mode

control is combined with fuzzy control for this ISC system.

The sliding line is defined in the phase plane, which aims to

bring control variable back to this line, and remains there using

positive or negative control action: s = + = 0, where is

the engine speed error. Control laws are designed for a 16-valve

Renault engine with power steering applied, the idle speed is

found to react quickly back to the nominal set point. Control laws

for the saturated and nonsaturated areas are designed separately.

The fuzzy control inputs are the speed error and the derivative

of the speed error. The control variable of sliding mode fuzzy

control laws is equal to zero on the diagonal line and positive

(negative) above (below) this line. Fuzzy sliding mode control

has the advantages of both fuzzy control and sliding mode control. It becomes a new research direction. On the other hand,

the formulation of the sliding mode restricts the scope of fuzzy

control applications.

Real-world ISC applications are not always coherent with

the understanding of control rules similar to some logical statements. In most cases, fuzzy control is viewed as an interpolation

of a partially specified control function in the vague environment [40]. A fuzzy controller is interpreted as vague descriptions

of crisp control actions on the crisp situation. It is a natural way

to represent the vague environment using a suitable interpolation

method. The ISC system of a Volkswagen engine has been presented, where Mamdani fuzzy model is selected along with the

design of the defuzzification strategies. This approach provides

a semantical base and a clear explanation of fuzzy control and

fuzzy rules. The flexible control mechanism for the idle bypass

among cylinders [38]. This mismatch affects the idle stability

by generating fluctuation ripples of engine speed. Genetic algorithms have been used to reduce engine speed fluctuation at

idle, which is based on neural network training of spark timing.

The resulting optimal spark timing is applied to the ISC system. Particularly, the neural network training of spark timing

will suppress the uneven combustion among cylinders, so as to

maintain uniform and steady engine speed. Genetic algorithms

are employed in a neural network structure with oscillatory neurons at sensor arrays in order to reduce engine speed fluctuations

efficiently. Additional efforts are necessary for this ISC control

approach when multiple inputs are considered, such as the throttle angle, airflow rate, and fueling rate. In another application,

a finite difference model is used to represent engine nonlinear

inverse dynamics between engine speed and throttle duty cycle signals [57]. An inverse model of a time shifting system is

identified directly, using inputoutput data when unstable zero

dynamics is taken into account via a stable compensator. This

method is conducted by minimizing the prediction error using

genetic algorithms-based optimal search method. The ISC stability is tested in the experiments using an electric dynamometer.

Genetic algorithms are the global optimization approaches. A

key problem is still pending how to select a stochastic fitness

function properly that can cover every aspect of engine performance under various constraints.

A static and temporal multilayer neural network controller is

developed to track the desired engine speed and engine load,

where the throttle opening and spark advance angle are used

as control signals [61]. The neural networks are trained to learn

inputoutput relationship of ISC models to present relationships

of inverse functions. Back-propagation (BP) learning rules are

employed, where the second-order filter is used to adjust the

gain with an integrator in a series connection to minimize the

back-propagation error. Output tracking is made by the necessary control signals. This control structure is simple to filter out

state error signals. In a case mentioned in Kalman Filter approach [59], Gaussian noise of the observer can be estimated by

back-propagation algorithms. Dynamic gradients are computed

by the recurrent learning algorithm (extended back-propagation)

to train the neurocontroller. Because forward computation of the

dynamic derivatives has some practical difficulties, the truncated

1147

which also adapts quickly to the RBF network weights. Being

one of the artificial neural network methodologies, the RBF approach also possesses the online optimization capability. It can

be used as both the feedforward controller and one part of the

feedback controller. The RBF approach is successful in solving

some ISC problems. It also has the potential to create synthesis design with other typical controllers, such as PID control,

adaptive control, and fuzzy control. So far, the RBF approach

is the most promising ISC control approach among those based

on neural networks.

Fig. 4.

back-propagation is used to approximate the dynamic derivatives. A truncated BP approach decouples the cycling time to

update both the derivatives and weights. Combined with the

Kalman filter algorithm, an effective neural network controller is

created. This ISC back-propagation approach is flexible, whose

main role is to filter out the error signals. Thus, it can serve as

either an idle speed controller itself or a potential part of an ISC

system.

Z. Neural NetworksISC Radial Basis Function Approach

ISC systems Fig. 4 are nonlinear systems that are subject to

disturbance rejection [58]. Engines typically are of high nonlinearity at idle. Two control variables presented differ in both

the operating range and temporal characteristics. Spark advance

gives a prompt action but it is of a limit control authority, while

the throttle opening has a dominating control authority but it is

of a slow response. These problems stem from intake manifold

filling dynamics and intake to power stroke delay. The spark

timing variable outside its effective range will have a negative

effect, so nonlinear controllers are needed. The objective of

feedforward control is to minimize the quadratic performance

index. Thus, nonlinear adaptive feedforward control is used to

makeup for external load disturbances via radial basis function

(RBF) networks. Optimization is then achieved using a weight

matrix of RBF multilayered sigmoidal neural networks. RBF

networks with fixed centers are linear in terms of weights and

its online training is a special case of adaptive control with linearly parameterized nonlinearities. The number of the nonlinear

computations in RBF networks is not related to the output dimension. This approach can also be extended to other cases

under various load disturbances, even though the ISC neural

network control is still in its initial stage.

The ISC issues can be formulated as the phenomenological

engine model [28] (see Fig. 4). An ISC system is highly nonlinear owing to delays in the control loop, thus an online parametric

optimization technique uses RBF networks to estimate nonlinear vector fields for an adaptive feedforward controller design.

The feedforward controller and feedback controller have been

combined. The combination compensates for unknown disturbances and improves the transient response quality in comparison with the pure feedback control. This neural network

architecture is trained online adaptively to be robust against

various engine delays. Simulation results show that the feedfor-

A. GDI Engine Idle Speed Feedforward Control

GDI engines operate at dual modes. The stratified mode is

for lean burn operation, which results in good fuel economy.

The A/F ratio can reach as high as 50 : 1 at the stratified mode.

On the other hand, the homogeneous mode is concerned with

emissions and exhaust gas aftertreatment. The operation at the

stratified mode leads to the improved fuel economy and reduced

CO2 emission. Engine delays restrict the potential to improve

the transient response of the ISC system. Therefore, reference

feedforward control has been proposed [64], which is applied to

the ISC system of GDI engines during lean burn. Feedforward

control will improve the transient responses of engine speed

and A/F ratio under load disturbances. The speed response is

enhanced following an increased throttle airflow using the feedforward control. On the other hand, an increased cylinder flow

helps to adjust the in-cylinder A/F ratio to approach its set point

rapidly. With the feedforward control, the brake torque can be

nearly equivalent to the desired value in spite of the saturation

in the speed loop. It is also shown that the speed fluctuation

decrease more than 20% and A/F ratio control is improved as

well. This controller can reduce the constraint effects within the

allowable A/F ratio range, which in turn, adjusts the baseline

controller to regulate speed and A/F ratio. The nonlinear transient response of this ISC system is also improved considerably.

B. GDI Engine Idle Speed Nonlinear Hybrid Control

An accurate nonlinear hybrid model for the stratified mode

operation of GDI engines has been used to design a lowdimensional discrete-time linear system [4]. Due to the presence of predictable load disturbances, a hybrid command governor unit has been designed. It uses two switching LQ optimal

controllers to ensure the closed-loop stability and performance

in the linear regime. The idle speed control for GDI engines is

formulated as hybrid engine models for the constrained optimal

control problem, so that both load variations and constraints are

explicitly taken into account. The major objective is the fuel

consumption minimization. A suboptimal solution is also obtained by the command governor methodology from the hybrid

model. This approach proposes to use the prescribed constraints

at the design phase to avoid optimality degradation. The fuel

consumption at idle has been reduced to 50%, while the total

1148

fuel consumption reduction is about 2% when the allowable constraints from the command governor algorithm are used. It can

also be formulated as a robust constrained optimization problem

for hybrid GDI engines. Its suboptimal controller is designed

by the command governor methodology for the discrete time relaxation of hybrid models, which reflects the multirate nature of

engine input signals. As a result, transient fuel consumption is

reduced compared with the LQ optimal controller. No constraint

is necessary for tuning the optimal LQ switching controller. Its

robustness is guaranteed in this case. The ISC hybrid control

design conforms to the physical mechanisms (both continuous

and discrete) of engines. That is, the reason that it has been

applied successfully to both PFI and GDI engines. However, its

computational complexity has been increased instead.

IV. DIESEL ENGINE IDLE SPEED CONTROL

troller, which will then adjust the controller algorithm accordingly. For the stability concern, recursive least-squares estimation (RLS) is used for parameter identification, whose samples

synchronize to the discrete events of diesel engine injection.

Both the minimum variance self-tuning and the pole placement

self-tuning regulator are developed. Simulations based on this

nonlinear diesel engine model are conducted by tuning the adaptive controller, which converges within 30 s. By comparisons,

the minimum variance algorithm results in a faster settling time

at the expense of the slightly higher overshoot via the adaptive

idle speed control, unavoidable parameter variations resulted

from manufacturing tolerances can be successfully reduced using self-tuning algorithms by adjusting the idle governor to the

engine set points. This example has shown the success of ISC

adaptive control applications on diesel engines instead of on

gasoline engines exclusively.

A discrete time controller is designed using the reference governors for the ISC system of a turbocharged diesel engine [41].

The supplemental torque source control has been presented.

The reference governor generates the torque during the transients caused by a load disturbance (e.g., air conditioning, power

steering) to keep engine speed and A/F ratio within the specified range. By enforcing these limits, engine stalling and visible smoke emissions can be avoided. The torque disturbance

of the engine crankshaft is expressed as a sum of the known

component and the unknown component. The reference governor is a first-order discrete-time nonlinear filter with a scalar

state variable and a scalar adjustable parameter. Engine rotational dynamics is concerned with the torque balance on the

crankshaft. Airflow dynamics is expressed as a second-order

model owing to turbocharger dynamics and intake manifold

filling dynamics. Then, the continuous time engine mean-value

model is discretized, so that a third-order discrete time system

is obtained. So, the general discrete time constrained system

is formulated as a combination of a third-order engine discrete

time system under constraints (A/F ratio and engine speed), the

known and unknown disturbances and a first-order nonlinear filter of the reference governor. The role of the reference governor

is to enhance the ISC robustness against large load disturbances

during transient operations. Engine speed fluctuation and A/F

ratio are restricted within allowable limits by increasing adjustable parameters gradually from zero to one. The nonstationary sequence permits the reference governor to take advantage

of decay rates, which results in a less conservative reference

governor.

B. Diesel Engine Idle Speed Adaptive Control

Two self-tuning adaptive algorithms are proposed for a heavyduty diesel engine, in order to tune the idle governor to the specified parameters [50]. Engine parameters, typically vary across

engines and vary over time due to aging, which causes negative

effects on idle speed performance. Both the Self-tuning Regulator (STR) and MRAC can be used for this complex problem.

The specific engine parameters are tuned by the self-tuning con-

A. Natural Gas Engine Idle Speed PI Tuning Control

A multivariable PI tuning [25] is presented, whose major objective is the effective disturbance rejection rather than the set

point tracking. PI control handles interactions to achieve the better disturbance rejection instead of decoupling all interactions

within multivariable plants. To achieve less speed fluctuation

during transient operations at idle, this tuning technique has

been applied to speed control and A/F ratio control of the leanburn natural gas engine. The control design focuses on a regulation problem at the proportional part of the algorithm. Static

decoupling tests of the closed-loop plant are also conducted using the integral functions. The proportional matrix serves as the

gain to the state feedback of this multivariable system, while the

integral gain matrix is used for the fine tuning. The augmented

system with PI controller is stable, if a fine tuner is chosen

to stabilize the system with the proportional feedback. This PI

controller can be used to achieve better idle performance on natural gas engines using existing actuators by coordinating idle

speed control and A/F ratio control. The fast idle speed recovery

from sudden load disturbances has been indicated, based on the

linearized models of natural gas engines.

B. Natural Gas Engine Idle Speed Expert System Tuning

Expert system methodology [67] has been applied to the ISC

system of natural gas engines. The gain tuning method is designed for a multivariable nondecoupling PI controller. In regard

to the disturbance rejection problem, it is designed to improve

performance of one variable by trading off the other. The proposed gain tuning makes it possible to select control options

among engine variables with flexibility. Essentially, in order to

meet the specified performance, an expert system approach is

used numerically to find optimal control gains needed for the

closed loop system. This tuning method is desirable for engine

idle speed control and A/F ratio control. The performance varies

among different options of individual weighting functions. Actual influences from the undesirable variables in the desirable

ones can be minimized by the proper weight selections. PI controller is shown to be successful in the idle speed tuning of

natural gas engines.

VI. CONCLUSION

A comprehensive overview on nonlinear idle speed control

systems has been presented, involving various types of automotive engines. The selection of the idle speed set point takes

an important role in each aspect of ISC performance, i.e., idle

speed stability, fuel economy, emissions, nonlinear delays, vehicle NVH, robustness, and so on. A variety of idle speed control

applications are investigated, which have been applied successfully to PFI engines, GDI engines, diesel engines, and natural

gas engines. Over 30 types of the ISC controllers are discussed

in this article, covering virtually all practical aspects of classical control, modern control, and intelligent control. These ISC

approaches also have the potential on the hybrid vehicle application. Automotive idle speed control provides a typical example

to implement the cutting edge and diversified control methodologies on the complex engineering problems. There is no doubt

that these control technologies can also contribute to many other

challenging areas of automotive, electrical, mechanical, robotic,

aeronautical, and biomedical nonlinear systems.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The author would like to thank three anonymous referees and the Associate Editor for their constructive comments

and valuable suggestions. The author is also grateful to Prof.

S. Shi and Prof. D. Zheng, the two Chief Scientists of China on

Engine and Control, respectively, who have directed this author

into these two challenging fields of automotive engineering and

control science.

REFERENCES

[1] M. Abate, B. Barmish, C. Sanchez, and R. Tempo, Application of some

new tools to robust stability analysis of spark ignition engines: A case

study, IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 2230, Mar.

1994.

[2] M. Abate and V. Dinunzio, Idle speed control using optimal regulation,

Soc. Automotive Eng., Warrendale, PA, Tech. Rep. 905008, 1990.

[3] M. Abate and N. Dosio, Use of fuzzy logic for engine idle speed control,

Soc. Automotive Eng., Warrendale, PA, Tech. Rep. 900594, 1990.

[4] L. Albertoni, A. Balluchi, A. Casavola, C. Gambelli, E. Mosca, and

A. L. Sangiovanni, Hybrid command governors for idle speed control

in gasoline direct injection engines, in Proc. 2003 Amer. Control Conf.,

Denver, CO, vol. 1, pp. 773778.

[5] L. Albertoni, A. Balluchi, A. Casavola, C. Gambelli, E. Mosca, and

A. L. Sangiovanni, Idle speed control for GDI engines using robust

multirate hybrid command governors, in Proc. 2003 IEEE Int. Conf.

Control Appl., Istanbul, Turkey, vol. 1, pp. 237242.

[6] H. Ando and M. Motomochi, Contribution of fuel transport lag and

statistical perturbation in combustion to oscillation of SI engine speed

at idle, Soc. Automotive Eng., Warrendale, PA, Tech. Rep. 870545,

1987.

[7] B. Badreddine, A. Zaremba, F. Lin, and J. Sun, Active damping of engine

idle speed oscillation by applying adaptive PID control, Soc. Automotive

Eng., Warrendale, PA, Tech. Rep. 2001-01-0261, 2001.

[8] A. Balluchi, L. Benvenuti, T. Villa, H. Wong-Toi, and A. L. Sangiovanni,

Hybrid controller synthesis for idle speed management of an automotive

engine, in Proc. Amer. Control Conf., Chicago, IL, vol. 2, Jun. 2000,

pp. 11811185.

1149

Engine idle speed control via maximal safe set computation in the crankangle domain, in Proc. 2002 IEEE Int. Symp. Ind. Electron., Sevilla,

Spain, vol. 2, pp. 618622.

[10] S. Bengea, X. Li, and R. Decarlo, Combined controller-observer design

for uncertain time delay systems with application to engine idle speed

control, J. Dynam., Syst., Meas. Control, vol. 126, pp. 772780, Dec.

2004.

[11] P. Bidan and L. Kouadio, Electrical assistance for S.I. engine idle-speed

control, Control Eng. Pract., vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 829836, 1998.

[12] C. Bohn, A. Cortabarria, V. Hartel, and K. Kowalczyk, Active control

of engine-induced vibrations in automotive vehicles using disturbance

observer gain scheduling, Control Eng. Pract., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1029

1039, 2004.

[13] P. Botsaris, D. Bechrakis, and P. Sparis, An estimation of 3-way catalyst

performance using artificial neural networks during idle speed, in Proc.

2004 Fall Tech. Conf. ASME Intern. Combust. Engine Div., Long Beach,

CA, pp. 123129.

[14] S. Boverie, B. Demaya, J. Lequellec, and A. Titli, Contribution of fuzzy

logic control to the improvement of modern car performance, Control

Eng. Pract., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 291297, Apr. 1993.

[15] S. Boverie, C. Patrice, and M. Jean, Fuzzy sliding mode control application to idle speed control speed, in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Fuzzy Syst.,

Orlando, FL, vol. 2, Jun. 1994, pp. 974977.

[16] P. Bromnick, Development of a model predictive controller for engine

idle speed using Cpower, Soc. Automotive Eng., Warrendale, PA, Tech.

Rep. 199901-1171, 1999.

[17] K. Butts, N. Sivashankar, and J. Sun, Feedforward and feedback

design for engine idle speed control using l1 optimization, in

Proc. Amer. Control Conf., Seattle, WA, vol. 4, Jun.1995, pp. 2587

2590.

[18] K. Butts, N. Sivashankar, and J. Sun, Application of L1 optimal control

to the engine idle speed control problem, IEEE Trans. Control Syst.

Technol., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 258270, Mar. 1999.

[19] P. Danijel and D. Hrovat, SI engine load torque estimator based

on adaptive kalman filter and its application to idle speed control,

Soc. Automotive Eng., Warrendale, PA, Tech. Rep. 200501-0036,

2005.

[20] J. Deur, M. Jansz, D. Pavkovic, and M. Jansz, Identification and speed

control of SI engine for idle operating mode, Soc. Automotive Eng.,

Warrendale, PA, Tech. Rep. 2004-01-0898, 2004.

[21] L. Feldkemp and G. Puskorius, Trainable fuzzy and neural-fuzzy systems

for idle-speed control, in Proc. 2nd IEEE Int. Conf. Fuzzy Syst., San

Francisco, CA, vol. 1, Mar. 1999, pp. 4551.

[22] R. Ford, Robust automotive idle speed control in a novel framework,

Ph.D thesis, Cambridge Univ., Cambridge, U.K., 2000.

[23] R. Ford and N. Collings, Dynamic effect of residual gas temperature on

combustion torque at idle, presented at the SAE Fall Fuels Lubes Conf.,

2001.

[24] R. Ford and K. Glover, An application of coprime factor based antiwindup and bumpless transfer control to the spark ignition engine idle

speed control problem, in Proc. 39th IEEE Conf. Decision Control,

Sydney, Australia, vol. 2, Dec. 2000, pp. 10691074.

[25] A. Gangopadhyay and P. Meckl, Multivariable PI tuning and application

to engine idle speed control, in Proc. Amer. Control Conf., San Diego,

CA, Jun. 1999, pp. 26782682.

[26] L. Glielmo, S. Santini, and I. Cascella, Idle speed control through output feedback stabilization for finite time delay systems, in Proc. Amer.

Control Conf., Chicago, IL, vol. 1, Jun. 2000, pp. 4549.

[27] C. GokCek and P. Kabamba, Damping of idle engine speed oscillations

using a reversible alternator, in Proc. Amer. Control Conf., Philadelphia,

PA, vol. 3, Jun. 1998, pp. 14001404.

[28] D. Gorinevsky and L. Feldkamp, On-line optimization of RBF network

feedforward compensation load disturbance in idle speed control of automotive engine, in Proc. 1996 IEEE Int. Conf. Control Appl., Dearborn,

MI, pp. 764769.

[29] M. Han, R. Loh, and L. Wang, Optimal idle speed control of an automotive engine, Soc. Automotive Eng., Warrendale, PA, Tech. Rep. 981059,

1998.

[30] P. Herman and M. Franchek, Engine idle speed control using actuator

saturation, IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 192199,

Jan. 2000.

[31] M. Howell and M. Best, On-line PID tuning for engine idle-speed control

using continuous action reinforcement learning automata, Control Eng.

Pract., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 147154, Feb. 2000.

1150

design based on -synthesis, in Proc. Amer. Control Conf., San Francisco,

CA, vol. 4, 1993, pp. 17781783.

[33] D. Hrovat and J. Sun, Models and control methodologies for IC engine

idle speed control design, Control Eng. Pract., vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 1093

1100, 1997.

[34] D. Hrovat and W. Powers, Computer control systems for automotive

powertrains, IEEE Control Syst. Mag., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 310, Aug.

1988.

[35] H. Inoue and S. Washino, A performance improvement in idle speed control system with feedforward compensation for alternator load current,

Soc. Automotive Eng., Warrendale, PA, Tech. Rep. 900777, 1990.

[36] R. Jurgen, Automobile Electronics Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill,

1995.

[37] M. Kajitani and K. Nonami, High performance idle speed control applying the sliding mode control with H robust hyperplane, Soc. Automotive

Eng., Warrendale, PA, Tech. Rep. 2001-01-0263, 2001.

[38] D. Kim and J. Park, Neural network control for reducing engine speed

fluctuation at idle, in Proc. 1999 IEEE Int. Conf. Syst., Man, Cybern.,

Tokyo, Japan, vol. 4, pp. 629634.

[39] L. Kjergaard, S. Nielsen, T. Vesterholm, and E. Hendricks, Advanced

nonlinear engine idle speed control systems, Soc. Automotive Eng.,

Warrendale, PA, Tech. Rep. 940974, 1994.

[40] F. Klawonn, J. Gebhardt, and R. Kruse, Fuzzy control on the basis of

equality relations with an example from idle speed control, IEEE Trans.

Fuzzy Syst., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 336350, Aug. 1995.

[41] I. Kolmanovsky, E. Gilbert, and J. Cook, Reference governors for supplemental torque source control in turbocharged diesel engines, in Proc.

Amer. Control Conf., Albuquerque, NM, vol. 1, Jun.1997, pp. 652656.

[42] O. Kovalenko, D. Liu, and H. Javaherin, Neural network modeling and

adaptive critic control of automotive fuel injection system, in Proc. 2004

IEEE Int. Symp. Intell. Control, Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 368373.

[43] X. Li and S. Yurkovich, Discrete adaptive sliding mode control for idle

speed regulation in IC engines, in Proc. 2000 IEEE Int. Conf. Control

Appl., Anchorage, AK, pp. 237242.

[44] X. Li and S. Yurkovich, Neural network based, discrete adaptive sliding

mode control for idle speed regulation in IC engines, J. Dynam. Syst.,

Meas. Control, vol. 122, pp. 269275, Jun. 2000.

[45] X. Li and S. Yurkovich, Sliding mode control of delayed systems with

application to engine idle speed control, IEEE Trans. Control Syst.

Technol., vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 802810, Nov. 2001.

[46] M. Livshitz and D. Sanvido, Absolute stability of idle speed control

system, Soc. Automotive Eng., Warrendale, PA, Tech. Rep. 860412,

1986.

[47] M. Lu and R. Loh, Modeling, design and implementation of discrete

sliding mode control for an engine idle speed control system, in Proc.

Amer. Control Conf., Anchorage, AK, vol. 3, May 2002, pp. 1984

1989.

[48] C. Manzie and H. Watson, A novel approach to disturbance rejection in

idle speed control towards reduced idle fuel consumption, in Proc. Inst.

Mech. Eng., Part D: J. Automob. Eng., 2003, vol. 217, no. 8, pp. 677

690.

[49] A. Martinez and M. Jamshidi, Design of fuzzy logic based engine idlespeed controllers, in Proc. 36th Midwest Symp. Circuits Syst., Detroit,

MI, Aug. 1993, vol. 2, pp. 15441547.

[50] D. Memering and P. Meckl, Comparison of adaptive control technique

applied to diesel engine idle speed regulation, J. Dynam. Syst., Meas.

Control, vol. 124, pp. 682688, Dec. 2000.

[51] M. Mihelc and S. Citron, An adaptive idle mode control system, Soc.

Automotive Eng., Warrendale, PA, Tech. Rep. 840443, 1984.

[52] M. Livshiz, D. Sanvido, and S. Stiles, Nonlinear engine model for idle

speed control, in Proc. 33rd Conf. Decision Control, Lake Buena Vista,

FL, Dec. 1994, vol. 3, pp. 24492451.

[53] H. Mohamed, S. Munzir, M. Abdulmuin, and S. Hameida, Fuzzy modeling and control of a spark ignition engine idle mode, in Proc. IEEE

Intell. Syst. Technol. New Millennium, 2000, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 586591.

[54] D. Nicolao, G. Rossi, R. Scattolini, and M. Suffritti, Identification and

idle speed control of internal combustion engines, Control Eng. Pract.,

vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 10611069, Sep. 1999.

[55] Y. Nishimura and K. Ishii, Engine idle stability analysis and control, Soc. Automotive Eng., Warrendale, PA, Tech. Rep. 860415,

1986.

[56] A. Petridis and A. Shenton, Linear robust control of identified nonlinear

inverse compensated SI engine, J. Dynam. Syst., Meas. Control, vol. 125,

no. 1, pp. 6973, Mar. 2003.

applied to SI engine idle-speed regulation, Control Eng. Pract., vol. 11,

no. 3, pp. 279290, 2003.

[58] G. Puskorius and L. Feldkamp, Automotive engine idle speed control

with recurrent neural networks, in Proc. 1993 Amer. Control Conf., San

Francisco, CA, vol. 1, pp. 311316.

[59] G. Puskorius and L. Feldkemp, Truncated backpropagation through time

and Kalman filter training for neurocontrol, in Proc. 1994 IEEE Int. Conf.

Neural Netw., Orlando, FL, vol. 4, pp. 24882493.

[60] A. Raffari, L. Y. Wang, and O. Daniel, Optimal H-infinity decoupling

of engine idle speed and emission subsystems, in Proc. Annu. Southeastern Symp. Syst. Theory, Baton Rouge, LA, Mar./Apr. 1996, pp. 7

11.

[61] F. Salam and A. Gharbi, Temporal neuro-control of idle engine speed,

in Proc. 1996 IEEE Int. Symp. Intell. Control, Dearborn, MI, pp. 396

401.

[62] R. Scattolini and C. Siviero, Modeling and identification of an electromechanical internal combustion engine throttle body, Control Eng.

Pract., vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 12531259, Sep. 1997.

[63] J. Scillieri, J. Buckland, and J. Fredenberg, Use of feedforward in idle

speed control for a direct injection spark ignition engine during lean

burn, in Proc. Amer. Control Conf., Anchorage, AK, May 2002, vol. 2,

pp. 14191424.

[64] J. Scillieri and J. Buckland, Reference feedforward in the idle speed

control of a direct-injection spark-ignition engine, IEEE Trans. Veh.

Technol., vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 5161, Jan. 2005.

[65] D. Shim, J. Park, P. Khargonekar, and W. Ribbens, Engine idle speed

control, in Proc. Amer. Control Conf., Seattle, WA, Jun. 1995, vol. 4,

pp. 25822586.

[66] D. Shim, J. Park, P. Khargonekar, and W. Ribbens, Reducing automotive

engine speed fluctuation at idle, IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol.,

vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 404410, Jul. 1996.

[67] A. Sivasubramanian and P. Meckl, Numerical solution for multivariable idle speed control of a lean burn natural gas engine, in Proc.

Amer. Control Conf., Boston, MA, Jun./Jul. 2004, vol. 1, pp. 138

143.

[68] A. Stotsky, B. Egardt, and S. Eriksson, Variable structure control of engine idle speed with estimation of unmeasurable disturbances, J. Dynam.

Syst., Meas. Control, vol. 122, pp. 599603, Dec. 2000.

[69] P. Sun, P. Barry, and H. Davor, Optimal idle speed control of an automotive engine, in Proc. Amer. Control Conf., Chicago, IL, Jun. 2000, vol. 2,

pp. 10181126.

[70] T. Takahashi and T. Ueno, A simple engine model for idle speed control,

Soc. Automotive Eng., Warrendale, PA, Tech. Rep. 850291, 1985.

[71] M. Thornhill and S. Thompson, A comparison of idle speed control schemes, Control Eng. Pract., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 519530, May

2000.

[72] G. Vachtsevanos, Idle speed control of an automotive engine using systematic fuzzy logic methodology, in Proc. 12th Triennial World Congr.

Int. Fed. Autom. Control, Sydney, Australia, Jul. 1994, vol. 3, pp. 29

34.

[73] G. Vachtsevanos, S. Farinwata, and H. Kang, A systematic design method

for fuzzy logic control with application to automotive idle speed control,

in Proc. 31st Conf. Decision Control, Tucson, AZ, Dec. 1992, vol. 3,

pp. 25472548.

[74] Y. Wang, A. Stefanopoulou, and M. Levin, Idle speed control: An old

problem in a new engine design, in Proc. Amer. Control Conf., San Diego,

CA, Jun. 1999, vol. 2, pp. 12171221.

[75] S. Watanabe and M. Imamura, Development of model-following idle

speed control system incorporating engine torque models, Soc. Automotive Eng., Warrendale, PA, Tech. Rep. 920160, 1992.

[76] M. Wendeker and J. Czarnigowski, Adaptive control of the idle speed,

in Proc. ASME Intern. Combust. Engine Div. 2003 Spring Tech. Conf.,

Salzburg, Austria, pp. 559563.

[77] S. Williams, D. Hrovat, C. Davey, D Maclay, J. Crevel, and L. Chen, Idle

speed control design using an H-infinity approach, Soc. Automotive Eng.,

Warrendale, PA, Tech. Rep. 930770, 1993.

[78] H. Yamaguchi and S. Takizawa, Analysis on idle speed stability in port

fuel injection engine, Soc. Automotive Eng., Warrendale, PA, Tech. Rep.

861389, 1986.

[79] Z. Ye, Research on idle speed control of gasoline engine and its fuzzy

control implementation, M.S. thesis, Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China, Jun.

1996.

[80] Z. Ye, Temperature impact on modeling and control of lean NOx trap,

J. Fuels Lubricants, vol. 112114, pp. 790795, Sep. 2004.

[81] Z. Ye, Automotive hybrid system optimization using dynamic programming, Soc. Automotive Eng., Warrendale, PA, Tech. Rep. 2003-01-0847,

2003.

[82] Z. Ye, GDI engine exhaust aftertreatment system analysis and oxygen

sensor based identification, modeling and control of lean NOx trap,

in Proc. ASME Intern. Combust. Engine Div. 2003 Spring Tech. Conf.,

Salzburg, Austria, 2007, pp. 713719.

[83] Z. Ye and M. Lai, Genetic algorithm optimization of fuel economy for

PFI engine with VVT-VCR, in Proc. 2004 IEEE Int. Conf. Control Appl.,

Taiwan, China, vol. 1, pp. 364369.

[84] Z. Ye and L. Li, Control options for exhaust gas aftertreatment and fuel

economy of GDI Engine Systems, in Proc. 2003 IEEE Conf. Decision

Control, Maui, HI, vol. 2, pp. 17831788.

[85] S. Yurkovich and M. Simpson, Crank angle domain modeling and control for idle speed, Soc. Automotive Eng., Warrendale, PA, Tech. Rep.

970027, 1997.

[86] S. Yurkovich and M. Simpson, Comparative analysis for idle speed control: A crank-angle domain viewpoint, in Proc. Amer. Control Conf.,

Albuquerque, NM, Jun. 1997, vol. 1, pp. 278283.

[87] B. K. Powell, J. A. Cook, and J. W. Grizzle, Modeling and analysis of

an inherently multi-rate sampling fuel injected engine idle speed control

loop, Trans. ASME, J. Dyn. Syst., Meas. Control, vol. 109, pp. 405409,

Dec. 1987.

[88] B. K. Powell, J. A. Cook, and J. W. Grizzle, Modeling and analysis of

an inherently multi-rate sampling fuel injected engine idle speed control

loop, in Proc 1987 Am. Control Conf., 1987, vol. 3, pp. 15431548.

[89] B. K. Powell and W. F. Powers, Linear quadratic control design for

nonlinear IC engine systems, in Proc. 10th Anniversary Int. Symp. Autom.

Technol. Autom., 1981, vol. 1, pp. 118.

[90] C. Carnevale and A. Moschetti, Idle speed control with H-infinity technique, 1993, SAE Technical Paper 930770.

[91] A. Balluchi, L. Benvenuti, M.D. D. Benedetto, S. Cardellino, C. Rossi,

and A. L. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Hybrid control of the airfuel ratio

in force transients for multi-point injection engines, in Proc. 38th IEEE

Conf. Decis. Control, 1999, vol. 1, pp. 316321.

1151

Zhengmao Ye (M03SM07) received the B.E. degree in thermal engineering from Tianjin University,

Tianjin, China, in 1992, the M.S. degree in automotive engineering from Tsinghua University, Beijing,

China, in 1996, and the second M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, in 1999 and 2001, respectively,

next to his Chinese Ph.D. being pursued under the

Academician Advisor Dr. Shaoxi Shi (Past President

of Tianjin University, Tianjin, China and the Chinese

Chief Scientist on Internal Combustion Engines) in

the School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University.

He is currently an Assistant Professor in the Electrical Engineering Department, Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA, where he is the Founder and

Director of the System and Control Laboratory. In 1992 and from 1996 to 1997,

he was with the National Key Laboratory of Engines, Tianjin University, and

from 1993 to 1996 with the National Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety

and Energy, Tsinghua University where he was engaged in research activities.

He served as Departmental Chief Student Leader at both Tianjin and Tsinghua

Universities. His current research interests include modeling, control, and optimization with diverse applications on automotive, electrical, mechanical, and

biomedical systems, as well as signal processing and image processing. Among

very few cross-disciplinary researchers worldwide, he has the first author publications in broad fields covering all the leading control proceedings in three

most prestigious engineering societies, specifically, IEEE, ASME, and SAE,

such as IEEE (SMC, CDC, CCA, ACC, ISIC, FUZZ, IJCNN, CASE, ICCA,

ICCC, SOSE, and CCECE), ASME (Congress IMECE, ICES, JRCICE), SAE

(Congress USA, EAEC, JSAE). He was also the academic reviewer for 45

published articles submitted to the IEEE, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and some international

journals.

Dr. Ye is the recipient of the Chinese National Fellowship (First Prize) at

Tianjin University, the USA Allied Signal Fellowship (First Prize) at Tsinghua

University, and Most Outstanding Faculty of Electrical Engineering at Southern

University.

- AEI504Transféré parapi-26787131
- PID ControllersTransféré parHải Nguyễn
- [IJET-V1I3P18] Authors :Galal Ali Hassaan.Transféré parInternational Journal of Engineering and Techniques
- M. a. Abido and Y. L. Abdel-MagidTransféré parwaaloo
- IRJET-Multi scale control scheme for designing of Feedback-feedforward control systemTransféré parIRJET Journal
- PID DiscussionTransféré parSingAnn
- Chapter 12 ChangTransféré parsatya sagar
- Tutorial-5-Vancouver.pdfTransféré parRabah Amidi
- Automatic Load Frequency Control of Two Area Power System With Conventional and Fuzzy Logic ControlTransféré parInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Exp1 Process Dynamic & ControlTransféré parFarihah Eyfa
- How PID WorksTransféré parRavi Negi
- A Stable Self-Tuning Fuzzy Logic Control System for Industrial Temperature RegulationTransféré parSaravanakumardevaraj
- Control System Design StepsTransféré parminhdang
- Model-based Tuning.pdfTransféré parCecep Atmega
- 13_Modelling and Simulation -good.pdfTransféré parsjrjanakiraman6870
- PID ControlTransféré parUma Mageshwari
- Frequency Stabilization Using Fuzzy Logic Based ControllerTransféré paryogi_sikar
- Shafique_asu_0010N_11158Transféré parsuman saha
- Chen4352 Pdc Lab ManualTransféré parmohammed
- Paper Mechatronics rTransféré parRubenHernandez
- Electronic Analog Computing for Feedback ControlTransféré parfaridrahman
- A_REVIEW_OF_INTELLIGENT_CONTROL_SYSTEMS.pdfTransféré parDeivid3g
- drones.docxTransféré parDaniela Ozuna
- 16-Bit DSP Servo Control With the MC68HC16Z1Transféré paremnt2007
- PID controllerTransféré parenggsabi
- ytrttyTransféré parsandeepbabu28
- 01105dfstrgssfsfhdh238Transféré parsumitkrbarnwalgmailcom
- Ejemplo de RevistaTransféré parDavid Guillen
- UAV Flight TestTransféré parSri Irawan
- Control of IC Engine: Design a Novel MIMO Fuzzy Backstepping Adaptive Based Fuzzy Estimator Variable Structure ControlTransféré parAI Coordinator - CSC Journals

- Air PreheaterTransféré paranup_nair
- Rotary Dryer BrochureTransféré parjanob7
- beasiswa ITSTransféré parIvan Fauzi Ryanto
- 11 TurningTransféré parIvan Fauzi Ryanto
- 1509344298_171025_PESERTA TES HK 1Transféré parIvan Fauzi Ryanto
- Cold storageTransféré parIvan Fauzi Ryanto
- Studi Potensi PLTSampahTransféré parApri Apriyanto
- Variasi Konsentrasi HCL pada Drilling ECMTransféré parIvan Fauzi Ryanto
- daftar-matakuliah-prasyaratTransféré parBagus Wahyu Sutrisno
- Tabel Bunga Untuk Ekonomi TeknikTransféré parElvina Noviarni Chandra
- Use Excel for Non-Linear RegressionTransféré parAli Zareeforoush
- 165779.EuroSun2004 Trp Lenic FrankovicTransféré parIvan Fauzi Ryanto
- 165779.EuroSun2004 Trp Lenic FrankovicTransféré parIvan Fauzi Ryanto
- Chapter 09 - Maintenance and InstrumentationTransféré parIvan Fauzi Ryanto
- ch12.pptTransféré parIvan Fauzi Ryanto
- EKONOMI TEKNIK DIKTATTransféré parRaraBe
- 07 f Bab6 KinematikaTransféré parPaul Sa Karepe
- 07 f Bab6 KinematikaTransféré parPaul Sa Karepe
- Common Irregular Verb ListTransféré parapi-27488371
- Sekilas Tentang MERSTransféré parIvan Fauzi Ryanto
- Portfoliobox How ToTransféré parIvan Fauzi Ryanto
- Chapter 2 - Mechanical DesignTransféré parIvan Fauzi Ryanto
- Chapter 2 - Mechanical DesignTransféré parIvan Fauzi Ryanto
- Kesetimbangan KimiaTransféré parIvan Fauzi Ryanto
- TermodinamikaTransféré parIvan Fauzi Ryanto
- Grammar Simplesentence GANJILTransféré parIvan Fauzi Ryanto
- Pic ConTransféré parMohamad Syafiq
- Helum Nang NgalamTransféré parIvan Fauzi Ryanto

- IMC-OLA CabTransféré parAkshayAgarwal
- OFDM for Optical Communications (2)Transféré parVanessa Gironda
- Fee TeacherTransféré parChiraG ArorA
- Neilsoft - BIM Services for Owners and RepresentativesTransféré parNeilsoft
- A Distributed Self Spreading Algorithm_for Mobile Wireless Sensor NetworksTransféré parash
- BirDog Meter Guidelines v1.6Transféré parJennifer Stanley
- DataManagement InboundTransféré parSagar Patnaik
- B Tech-CS-III-Guidelined for Technical SeminarTransféré parAkshay Balia
- POM 16 - MRPTransféré parNikhil Aggarwal
- Cat® D11T vs.Komatsu D475A-5Transféré parMónica Rada Urbina
- Calibrating Brymen MultimeterTransféré parmatkop
- ClarityAM6000Transféré parPayphone.com
- Competitive Exams_ Electronics MCQs (Practice Test 4 of 13)- ExamraceTransféré parDurga Devi
- Kellton Tech to establish its EMEA HQ in Drogheda, creating 100 jobs [Company Update]Transféré parShyam Sunder
- Wrap a BAT or VBS Into an EXETransféré parmdoctor15
- CSA_CCM_v.3.0.1-10-06-2016.xlsxTransféré parmails4vips
- Realization of FPGA Based Data Acquisition System Based on Soft Core Embedded Processor And Network ModuleTransféré parInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- YD109Transféré parsoimos
- 8051 Chap3 Instruction Ver 02Transféré parTron Phan
- panasonic_th_32a400h_chassis_km25_sm.pdfTransféré pardrdr61
- Honeywell Lynx Touch l5210 z Wave Compatibility ChartTransféré parjunkmail2k
- Project SynopsisTransféré parSarlaJaiswal
- Supply Chain Metrics That MatterTransféré parsappz3545448
- Supply Chain EducationTransféré parthao_t
- lab3Transféré parnurul auni
- ARINC 429Transféré parSanjeev Kumar
- DFX-9000Transféré parmichael_john16
- Voice Over IP (VoIP) SecurityTransféré parRashed Sobuj
- Maintenance Management of EquipmentTransféré parPrasannaVenkatesan
- 36W72_landmark_63755_0111Transféré parnpinzon26