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Mostafa Kamal Mokhtar (PhD)

Faculty of Social Science and Humanities,
UKM Bangi
E-mail: mostafa@ukm.edu.my

Tuesday, March 24, 2015

Mostafa Kamal Mokhtar

Good n Bad!

Tuesday, March 24, 2015

Mostafa Kamal Mokhtar

Axiology (value theory)

the Greek axia (, value, worth), is the

study of PT or Wet-John. It is often
thought to include ethics and aesthetics
philosophical fields that depend crucially
on notions of valueand sometimes it is
held to lay the groundwork for these fields,
and thus to be similar to value theory and

Tuesday, March 24, 2015

Mostafa Kamal Mokhtar

Etymology: Ethics

Middle English ethik, from Old French ethique

(from Late Latin thica, from Greek thika,
ethics) and from Latin thic (from Greek
thik), both from Greek thikos, ethical, from
thos, character.];
( ,) ) ()
Branch of philosophy concerned with the nature
of ultimate value and the standards by which
human actions can be judged right or wrong.
The term is also applied to any system or theory
of moral values or principles; moral philosophy.

Tuesday, March 24, 2015

Mostafa Kamal Mokhtar


the concept of human ethics which pertains

to matters of good and evil also referred
to as "right or wrong
used within three contexts: individual
conscience; systems of principles and
judgments sometimes called moral
values shared within a cultural, religious,
secular, Humanist, or philosophical
codes of behavior or conduct morality

Tuesday, March 24, 2015

Mostafa Kamal Mokhtar

Law & Jurisprudence

The law is considered a living governing system

constructed by present and historical debate and moral
consensus among juries, and more generally, all citizens
under the system.
This system is used to maintain order, righteousness,
and justice in everyday life. Individual actions or events
can be summoned to court for review, investigation, and
prosecution if it is believed that there has been a breach
of morality (meaning, a violation of the law) or if a law's
moral implication is questioned.
A verdict is a lawful determination of guilt, and a guilty
party is one that has committed an immoral act. In most
systems, the lack of morality of the individual can also be
a sufficient cause for punishment, or can be an element
for the grading of the punishment.

Tuesday, March 24, 2015

Mostafa Kamal Mokhtar

Axiology: Value debates




Law &


Tuesday, March 24, 2015

Mostafa Kamal Mokhtar

Scope of Ethics
Meta-ethics (the study of the concept of
ethics, value); what is the fundamental
nature of ethics or morality itself, including
whether it has any objective justification
Applied ethics (the study of the use of
ethical values); how a moral outcome can
be achieved in a specific situation
Moral Psychology (how moral capacity or
moral agency develops and its nature)

Tuesday, March 24, 2015

Mostafa Kamal Mokhtar

Meta Ethic Theory: How do we

know what should we behave?
Meta Ethic Theory

vs. Supernaturalism

vs. Absolutism

vs. Cognitive

vs. Descriptive

Tuesday, March 24, 2015

Mostafa Kamal Mokhtar


Naturalism vs. Supernaturalism

Relativism vs. absolutism

the view of the world that takes account only of natural elements and
forces, excluding the supernatural or spiritual
doctrine of supernatural or divine agency as manifested in the world, in
human events, religious revelation, etc
The doctrine that no ideas or beliefs are universally true but that all are,
instead, relative that is, their validity depends on the circumstances
in which they are applied
theory holding that values, principles, etc., are absolute and not relative,
dependent, or changeable

Cognitive vs. Emotive

pertaining to the mental processes of perception, memory, judgment,

and reasoning
Pertaining to the emotional and volitional processes.

Normative vs. Descriptive

propose an Ideal values (what they ought to do)

explain an actual practiced values (what they do)

Tuesday, March 24, 2015

Mostafa Kamal Mokhtar


Normative Ethic Theory: how

should we behave?
Normative Ethic Theory
Macro value (ideal)
How should one live?

Tuesday, March 24, 2015

Micro value (practical); human action

what is right and wrong?

Value-based Theory

Intention based Theory


Divine Command Theory

or Duty-based theory

Consequence-based Theory

Mostafa Kamal Mokhtar


Type of moral theory: value theory

Value-based theory: Macro value (general

action), not micro value (particular action), the
value that guide the individuals life as a whole,
like a question of How should I live? for an
answer is to cultivate the virtue or achieving a
true happiness

on Aristotles Nicomachean ethics which leads

to neo-Aristotelianism to grow.
Great virtues are truth, generosity, courage, wisdom
The proper living is only based on moral excellence

Tuesday, March 24, 2015

Mostafa Kamal Mokhtar


Religious Ethic or Divine Command


The Divine Command Theory is the metaethical theory that moral values are commanded
by a god or gods; top-down moral
Christian believes that right means Gods will,
wrong means Gods wrath. Therefore moral is
an issue of following absolute commands of God
through the divine Words (revelation) or it is a
religious duty.

Tuesday, March 24, 2015

Mostafa Kamal Mokhtar


Micro Value (practical): What is

right and wrong?
Sense of human duty


(Deontology or
act purely with intention of good)

(Teleology or
act with double intention)



(universal maxim)

Tuesday, March 24, 2015


Mostafa Kamal Mokhtar


Type of moral theory: Deontology

Intention-based theories (deontology or obligation): a

value of action is measured according to pure intention
(maxims). Kantian ethics
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804): just a human sense of
duty, not because of self-interest. Meaning the motive
(intention) of action was far more important that the
action itself and its consequences. For example we
help people because the act of helping is good by
itself, not because of gaining popularity or achieve
There are four vital elements in Kantian values
Maxims as a pure human intention and universal
The moral duty is known as categorical
(certain/unconditional) imperative (important)
(as end) vs. hypothetical one (as means)

Tuesday, March 24, 2015

Mostafa Kamal Mokhtar


Type of moral theory:


Consequence-based Theory (effect): an action

is right or wrong not on the intentions of the
person performing the action, but rather on the
consequences of that action

(John Stuart Mill 1806-1873), more

toward hedonism (happiness), i.e. good is whatever
brings about the greatest amount of pleasure
(happiness) for the greatest number of people or The
Greatest total of Happiness Principle or the principle
of utility

Tuesday, March 24, 2015

Mostafa Kamal Mokhtar



Warburton, Nigel. 1992. Philosophy: The Basic.

London: Routledge (p. 37-64)
Pojman, Louis P. Introduction to Philosophy:
Classical and Contemporary Readings.
California: Wadsworth Publishing Company
Kessler, Gary E. Voices of Wisdom: A
Multicultural Philosophy Reader. California:
Wadsworth Publishing Company (p. 78-115)
Stewart, David & Blocker, H Gene. 1996.
Fundamentals of Philosophy. 4th Edition. New
Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Tuesday, March 24, 2015

Mostafa Kamal Mokhtar