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Experiment 303: Transverse Wave: Frequency of Vibration

Raagas, Michelle Mae G.


School of Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Biological Engineering, and Material
Science Engineering
Mapua Institute of Technology, 658 Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila City, Philippines
michellemaeraagas@gmail.com

OBJECTIVE:
The purpose of this experiment is to analyze the
concept of frequency of vibration with respect to the
transverse wave. To verify each stretched strings
frequency of vibration is the main goal of this
experiment. In addition, it also aims to identify how
the tension and linear mass density affects the
vibrating strings frequency.

On this experiment, each group is given a specific


frequency and the assigned frequency on our group
is 96.30 Hz. First thing to do after the set-up of the
apparatus is to adjust the amplitude and frequency
depending on the assigned frequency given by the
professor. It can modify using the two knobs located
at the upper right of the sine wave generator. See
figure 2.

METHODOLOGY:
For the objective to be accomplished. The use of
equipment is necessary for this experiment. It will
help us to collect different sets of data which will be
useful to achieve the objectives. Below are the
materials used in this experiment.

Figure 2. Sine wave generator

Figure 1. Materials used for the experiment


transverse wave: frequency of vibration (string
vibrator, sine wave generator, iron stand with clamp,
pulley, weights, mass hanger, extension cord, meter
stick, and guitar string).

The goal of the part 1 of this experiment is to


determine the frequency of vibration with constant
linear mass density which means that the diameter of
the wire is constant and also its linear mass density.
To do so, choose the size of the string to be used for
this entire part of the experiment, carefully tie the end
of the guitar string on the string vibrator and the other
end is attached with a mass hanger and is then hanged
over a pulley. The next step is to add a certain mass
on the mass hanger. Observe the string until it forms

a segment. You can adjust it using the amplitude


knob or by adjusting the distance between the two
iron stand.

Repeat the said step for five times but this time,
increase the mass that is added on the mass hanger
every trial.
Notice if the string has a curve edges because it can
cause errors and more difficult to form a standing
wave. See the figure below.

Figure 3. Adjusting the distance and amplitude until


the string forms a standing waves
When you see a standing wave (refer to figure 4)
measure its length and record it also the number of
segment that is formed.

Figure 5. Curved edges


After getting all the data, you can now solve the
frequency of vibration that has a constant linear mass
density.
The process on the part two of the experiment is the
same as the part one but unlike in the part one that
you will only use one string, here in part two, you
will use five different strings with different diameter
and linear mass density. You will use the same mass
on the mass hanger for every trial. The linear mass
density of the string is already given depending on
the diameter of the string that is used. After you
gather all the data that is needed, you are now able to
solve the frequency of vibration with variable linear
mass density.
Figure 4. Standing waves

DATA and SAMPLE COMPUTATIONS


Table 1. determining the frequency of vibration
(constant linear mass density)
Diameter of wire: 0.022 in. Linear Mass Density= 0.0184

Trial Tension, T

(mass of pan) x
980 cm/ 2

Frequency of
vibration

(cm)
=

1
24500 dynes
1
6
2
29400 dynes
1
7
3
34300 dynes
1
8.5
4
39200 dynes
1
9
5
44100 dynes
1
9
Average frequency of vibration
Actual value
Percentage error

19.16 Hz
90.29 Hz
80.31 Hz
81.09 Hz
86.01 Hz
86.77 Hz
96.30 Hz
9.89 %

86.77 96.16
= |
| = 9.89 %
96.16
Table 2:

39200

Trial 1: = 2 = 2(18) 0.0184 = 88.07


Average frequency =

88.07+93.41+93.54+89.81+81.09
5

= 89.18 Hz

= |
|

89.18 96.16
= |
| = 7.4 %
96.16

GRAPH
Table 2. Determining the frequency of vibration
(variable linear mass density)
n L
1
1
1
1
1

18
12
10
9
9

f
Hz
88.07
93.41
93.54
89.81
81.09
89.18
96.30
7.4%

Tension (T)

dynes
g/cm
1
0.010 in 0.0039 39200
2
0.014 in 0.0078 39200
3
0.017 in 0.0112 39200
4
0.020 in 0.0150 39200
5
0.022 in 0.0184 39200
Average frequency of vibration
Actual value
Percentage error
Sample computation
Trial diameter

Tension vs. Frequency of vibration

24500

Trial 1: = 2 = 2(6) 0.0184 = 96.16


Average frequency =

96.16+90.29+80.31+81.09+86.01
5

= 86.77 Hz

= |
|

34300

39200

80.31

81.09

44100
29400

24500

90.29

96.16

20000
0
86.01

Frequency of vibration

Graph 1. Frequency of vibration with constant linear


mass density

Linear mass density

40000

Frequency (Hz)

Actual value of frequency of vibration: 96.30 Hz


Table 1:

60000

Linear mass density vs. Frequency


of vibration
0.0184

0.02

0.015
0.0039

0.0078

0.0112

93.41

93.54

0
81.09

88.07

89.81

Frequency (Hz)
Frequency of vibration

Graph 2. Frequency of vibration with variable linear


mass density.

ANALYSIS OF DATA

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

On the part 1 of the experiment, we used the string


that is 0.022 inches in diameter since one of my
groupmates suggested it.

I would like to thank everyone for helping me in my


studies especially God for guiding me. Also, I would
like to thank my group mates for the participation
and for making this experiment fun and interesting
just like when the string is starting to form standing
wave we were like whoa great. I would also like to
thank our professor Mr. Ricardo De Leon for
teaching us the process in this experiment and for
being my professor also on my physics lecture that
helps me to understand the concept behind the
experiment. I would also like to recognize the effort
of the lab assistant who provides us the experiment
and for explaining the proper way to handle it.
Lastly, I would like to thank my friend for making
me a cup of coffee while I was doing this lab report.
Thank you so much!

Based on the gathered data, since the diameter and


the linear mass density of the wire is constant, we
observed that as we add mass to the pan, the tension
also increases as well as the length of string that
forms segment of wave. It is because we adjusted the
distance between the two iron stand until it forms
wave. From the time that we change the tension of
the string, the number of segment and the length of it
will also change.
On the second part of the experiment, the mass on the
pan for each trial and so is the tension. This time, the
one that is changing is the diameter of the wire and
the linear mass density, and we also observed that as
the diameter of the wire increases, the length of the
strings standing wave decreases.
There are factors that can affect the experiment and
can cause earlier. One of these are the strings that are
used. As I said earlier, it is more difficult for the
string to form standing waves if it has some curve
edges.

CONCLUSION
By performing this experiment, the two objectives of
the experiment were obtained by applying the
concept of transverse wave and relating it on our
experimentation. By using different kind of string,
we are able to determine the strings frequency of
vibration. The second objective of this experiment
which is to determine how the linear mass density
and the tension can affect the vibrating strings
frequency was attained by performing the two parts
of the experiment. The first one is the effect of
tension with constant linear mass density and the
second is the reverse of it which is the tension is
constant and the linear mass density is the one that is
changing. In addition, I therefore conclude that
1
.

REFERENCES
[1] Halliday, F., Fundamentals Of Physics, 9th
Edition, 2011
[2] King, G., Vibrations and waves, p.137