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An applicationof the spheroidal-coordinate-based

transition
matrix: The acoustic scattering from high aspect ratio solids
RogerH. HackmanandDouglas
G. Todoroff
NavalCoastal
Systems
Center,
PanamaCity,Florida32407

(Received
29 March1984;accepted
for publication
22 April 1984}

In a previous
paper[RogerH. Hackman,
J.Aeonst.
Soe.Am.75,35-45(1984}],
a spheroidalcoordinate-based
transitionmatrix formalism was establishedfor acousticand elasticwave

scattering.
In thispaper,theacoustic
scattering
bya solidelastic
cylinder
withhemispherical
endcaps
andalength-to-diameter
ratioof10isconsidered.
Numerical
results
arepresented
forthe
backscattered
formfunctionasa functionof frequency
for variousanglesof incidence.
These
results
arecompared
withexperimental
measurements
takenattheNavalCoastal
Systems
Center
andgivena physicalinterpretation.
PACS numbers:43.20.Fn, 43.30.Gv

Thisprocedure
hasa distinct
advantage
overcompeting
approaches
in
that
it
appears
to
have
the
strongest
theoretiIn 1968,Waterman'introduced
a newtechnique
for
cal
foundation?
s
The
approach
is
formally
exact
and
comsystematically
solvingtheacoustic
diffraction
problemfor
putationally
efficient
(where
applicable),
and
both
the
an arbitrarilyshapedbody,the transitionmatrixapproach.
uniqueness
3
and
the
convergence
4'
of
the
procedure
can
be
For the sakeof completenesss,
webrieflyouthnethe develINTRODUCTION

opmentof thisformalismbelow.We assume


thattheacoustic field satisfiesthe standardHelmholtz equation

'(r')
-I-f,ds
h.[+VG
(kIr--r'l)
--G(k
Ir-=

10,

r'v,

where
3isthetotalacoustic
field,biistheincident
field,Gis
thefreespace
Green's
function
andtheintegral
isoverthe
surfaceof the scatterer.The subscript( -I- ) denotesa bound-

provenfor sound-soft
andsound-hard
scatterers
for appropriatechoices
of basisfunctions.
Thisis in markedcontrast

to the usualintegralequation
approach,
6 whichleadsto
equations
whicharesingular
at certain
discrete
frequencies
corresponding
to the interior eigenvalueproblem,and to
thoseapproaches
embodying
thead hocRayleighhypothesis.? The T-matrix formalism has been extended to elastic

wavescattering
byWaterman
sandPaoandVaratharajulu
9
andto acoustic(i.e.,scalarwave)scattering
from an elastic
targetby Bostrm.

It hasbeensubsequently
determined
thatthisapproach,
aryvalueasthesurface
isapproached
fromitsexteriorand
thetwodifferentvaluesoftheright-handsideoftheequation althoughformallyexact,suffersfroma severepracticalnurefertopoints
exterior
andinterior
tothescattering
volume, merical limitation. For scattererswhich deviate strongly
shapethenumberof termsrequiredin the
v, respectively.
We notethatthelattercase,i.e.,whenthe froma spherical
field
ofthereradiating
sources
induced
onthesurface
ofthe expansion
of the surfacefieldsincreases
dramaticallyand
scatterer
exactlycancels
theincidentfield,is oftenreferred the matrices tend to become ill conditioned. This behavior
toasthe"extinction
theorem.
" Waterman's
procedure
isto
hadbeenpredicted
by Lewin,
whosuggested
that the
source
of
this
difficulty
is
a
hypersensitivity
of
the
surface
expand
theincident
andscattered
waves,
3andb'---- -- ,
and the Ctreen'sfunctionG, in regularand outgoingsolutionsto the scalarHelmholtzequationin sphericalcoordinates.Sincethe Green'sfunctionis singularwhenthe source
andfieldpointscoincide,
for theextinction
theoremtheex-

pansion
procedure
canbeimplemented
onlyforfieldpoints

field to minute errors of the field on the inscribedsphere.


That is, assumethat the extinction theorem is satisfiedto a

givenorderof approximationon the inscribedspherewith a


givenexpansion.The further this sphericalsurfacemust be
deformed to conform to the surface of the scatterer, the

whichare interiorto the largestspherewhichcanbe in-

greatertheerrorin theextrapolated
valueof thefieldandits

scribedin the scattererand centeredon the origin. However,

derivativeson the surfaceandhence,the greaterthe induced


error in the outgoingfield.

isregular
throughout
theinteriorofthescatterer.
Thus,by
BatesandWall2werethefirstto suggest
thatthesediftheprocess
of analyticcontinuation,
it followsthat must
vanishnotjust in the interiorof the inscribing
sphere,but ficultiescouldbe alleviatedby formulatingthe scattering
throughout
theinterior
ofthescatterer.
Aninfinite,
coupled problemin alternativeexpansionfunctionswhich "better
setofequations
isdeveloped
fromthese
results
byexpanding fit" the scatterer.Theseauthorsexaminedthe efficacyof a
the unknown surfacefields in a suitablebasisset. A formal

solutionto this set of linear algebraicequationscan be

straightforwardly
obtained,givingthe expansion
coefficientsof theoutgoing
wavein termsof thoseof theincident
field.

1058

J. Acoust.Soc. Am. 78 (3), September1985

two-dimensional
elliptic-cxordinate-bascd
transitionmatrix
for the scatteringof scalarwavesfromlargeaspectratio scatterers.They observedthat choosinga coordinatesystem,
suchthat the "radial coordinate= constant"surfacelay as
closeto the surfaceof the scattereraspossible,
alleviatedthe
1058

ill-ctmdititming
problems.
In laterwork,Walll attempted
to developa transitionmatrixin prolatespheroidal
coordinatesfor vectorwavescatterg,but wasunableto construct
a Green'sfunctionexposionsuitablefor generalwaves.He
did succeed
in constructing
a Green'sfunctionfor axisym-

There havebeena numberof previousformulationsof


acousticscatteringproblemsin spheroidalcoordinates.Ko-

tani,?whoisperhaps
theearliest
example,
considered
the
acoustic
diffractionby a circulardiskin oblatespheroidal

coordinates.
Bowkamp,
s and laterSpence,
9 gavemore
metricwaves,
4andlaterapplied
thisformalism
to a cylin- thorough,rigoroustreatmentsof this problemand of the
dricalantennaproblem.
z While otherauthors
c'-2have diffraction
bya circularaperture.
Spence
andGranger
are
suggested
techniques
for improvingthe numericalstability
of the spherical-coordinzte-based
T matrix, noneof these
approaches
holdsthepromiseor theintuitiveappealof the
spheroidal-coordinate-based
formalismfor largeaspectra-

generallyaccreditedwith formulatingthe scatteringfrom a


rigid prolatespheroidasa modalharmonicsumin spheroidal coordinates.
Theseauthorspresented
numericalresults
in the form of beampatternsfor variousaspectratiosand

tio scatterers.

angles
of incidence
for lowfrequencies.
Senior
! gavenu-

The difficultyin constructinga Green'sfunctionin


spheroidal
coordinates
liesin thenonseparable
natureof the
vectorHelmholtzequationin this coordinatesystem.As a
consequence
of this nonseparability,
the vectorwavefunctitmsare not orthogonaland the standardtechniquesfor
constructingthe Green's function become intractable.
WalP4succeeds
inconstructing
anorthogonal
setofspheroi-

mericalresultsfor rigid and pressure


releasespheroids
for
axially incident acousticwaves, and Kl'schchevand

Sheiba
extended
theseresults
to oblique
incidence.
There

havbeen
a number
ofsolutions
forthediffraction
ofplane
waves
inthehighfrequency
regime?
-z7Themorepredominantapproach
z-zhasbeento useanextension
oftheWatson transformation

to convert the modal harmonic series for

sound-hardandsound-soft
spheroidalscatterers
into a resigitudinaldegrees
of freedom,andcurl(v) for thetransverse dueserieswhichconverges
morerapidlyat highfrequencies.
degrees
of freedom,where and;aresolutions
to thescalar Lauchle,
z?however,
directlyevaluated
theharmonic
series
Helmholtzequation.However,he succeeds
only at the cost by introducinghigh-frequencyasymptoticexpansions
for
of generality---as
indicatedabove,thesebasisfunctionscan- the spheroidalfunctions.
notdescribe
off-axisscattering
processes.
Silbiger
swasthefirstto consider
theacoustic
scatterAsWaterman
haspointed
out,2Huygen's
principle
is ingby a penetrablespheroidin spheroidalcoordinates.
His
the funclamcntal
conceptunderlyingthe T-matrixformal- treatmentwasincompletein that the resultwasformulated
ism, and the Green'sfunctiontechniqueoutlinedaboveis
in termsof a surfaceimpedanceoperatorZ, whichis in gensimplyonewayof obtainingthe T-matrixequations.Watereral unknown. While Z was evaluatedfor severalspecial
man23andPao havedeveloped
a simplealternative
to the cases,no attemptwasmadeto incorporatethe full complexabovedevelopment
for displayingthe mathematicalcontent ity of an elasticprolatespheroidal
scatterer.
Yeh3considof Huygen'sprinciplefor vectorwavesin sphericalcoordi- eredthe scatteringfrom penetrableliquid (i.e.,no sheardenates.Thistechnique
isbasedon Betti'sidentity
greesof freedom)prolateand oblatespheroidsand gave
numerical
resultsfor thespecialcasethat modecouplingis
= o,
not
present,
i.e., whenthe soundspeedof the scattereris
whereu andvaresolutions
tothevectorHelmholtzequation

dalvector
basis
functions
byconsiderin^g
grad(lforthelon-

and where is the assaciated stress tensor. In an earlier

identical to that of water.

paper
z (paperI), thecovariant
generalization
of thistech-

All of the abovecalculationsinvolveonly sc_


!or fields
andthe boundaryconditionscanbe implementedin a natural fashiondue to the orthogonalityof the solutionsto the
scalarHelmholtz equationin spheroidalcoordinates.Formarty,the acousticscatteringfrom elastictargetsand the

niquewasusedto establish
a transitionmatrixformalismfor
the scatteringof generalscalaror vectorwavesin prolate
spheroidalcoordinates.
For vectorwaves,this approachis
far moreconvenient
thanthatoriginallyadoptedby Waterman, especially
for coordinatesystemsin whichthe vector
Helmholtzequationis not separable,
asit obviatestheneed
forconstructing
thevectorGrecn'sfunction.Thustheorthogonality
of thevectorbasisstatesisnolongeranimportant
consideration.
In theabovework,thespheroidalvectorbasis
functions
weregenerated
byconsidering
grad()for thelon-

scatteringof elasticwaves(in elasticmedia)are far more


difficult,as the transversepolarizationdegreesof freedom
requirethe introductionof the prolatespheroidalvector
wavefunctions.
Asa consequence
ofthenonorthogonality
of
the vectorwavefunctions,
the boundaryconditionsinvolvingvectorwavesbecome
relativelyintractable
in thiscoordigitudinaldegrees
of freedom
andcurl{r) for thetransverse natesystem.Althougha numberof authorshavedealtwith
waves
inspheroidal
shells
andsolids,
- it wasnot
degrees
of freedom.Hereagain,bandygaresolutions
to the elastic
until after 1970that the acousticscattering
from an elastic
appropriatescalarHelmholtz equations.We shahrefer to
this choice of basis functions as the "standard'" choice.26

bodywastreated.In a series
of papers,
Grossman
et al.,6

Likethestandardspherical-coordinate-based
approach,this
formalismissuitablefor scattering
problems
involvingarbitrarily shapedbodies.Now however,we havethe capability
to explicifiytailor the formalismto the aspectratio requirementsof the scatterer.In the presentpaper,we considera
specificapplicationof this approachto acousticscattering
from a finite,solidelasticcylinderto determineits efficiency
in dealingwith slender,elongatedscatterers.

Gutmanand Kl'shcbev,
? and Kl'shehev
s considered
the
acousticscatteringfrom a spheroidalelasticshell. These

1059

J. Acoust.Soc.Am.,Vol. 78, No. 3, September1985

authors make the same choice for the vector basis set as the

presentauthor,in paperI.
To a considerable
extent,the historyof the formulation
of electromagnetic
scatteringin spheroidalcoordinates
parallelsthat of the acousticscatteringproblem.The earliest

attemptwasin 1927by MSglich,


9 whoconsidered
thedifR.H. Hackmanand D. G. Todoroff:Scatteringfromratiosolids

1059

fractionof a planepolarizedwaveincidenton a perfectly


conductingcirculordisk.His treatmentwasincorrect,however,andtheproblemwasnotproperlydealtwith until 1948

tensorin prolatespheroidalcoordinates
andin AppendixB,
we derivethe particularvariant of the Moore-Penroseinverseusedin the presentwork.

by Meixner.
Meixner
z andFlammer
s2laterformulated
the scattering
of an electromagnetic
waveby a conducting
prolatespheroidin spheroidal
coordinates
for the special
casethatthesourceisa dipoleorientedalongtheaxisof the
spheroid.
Bothof theaboveproblems
canbereducedto scalar form and the vectorcharacterof the electromagnetic
waveneednotbeconfronted.
The moredemanding
problem
of the scattering
of a planepolarizedelectromagnetic
wave
by a conducting
prolatespheroid,whichrequiredthe useof
the prolatespheroidalvectorwavefunctions,
was first formulatedby Schultz,
szfor end-onincidence,
and Rauch
s4

extended
thisworktooblatespheroids.
Siegel
etal? -6performedcalculationsbasedon Schultz'sformalismand presentedresultsfor several{low)frequencies.
Theseauthors
did not make the "standard" choice for the vector basis func-

tions,i.e.,thatof paperI, butinsteadchoseto represent


the
vectorfieldsin rectangularcoordinates
with eachof the
components
givena representation
in termsof thesolutions
to the scalarHeimholtzequation.There waslittle further
activityon this scatteringproblemuntil 1975,whenAsano
and Yamamoto
? formulatedthe generalproblemof the
scattering
of a planeelectromagnetic
wavewith an arbitrary
angleof incidenceon a dielectricspheroid.Theseauthors'
treatmentoftheproblemdiffersfromthatof Schultzprimarily in the useof the standardvectorbasisfunctionsto representthe E andH fields.Numericalresultswerepresented
in
theformof angulardistributions
for bothoblateandprolate
spheroidalscatterersfor severaldifferentaspectratios for
lowfrequencies.
In a subsequent
series
of papers,
Asano,
zs
Kotlarchyk
etal.,9AsanoandSato,
andAsano
6applied

dsIt(Re
)-Re
,,.
--t(Re
.).Re
0,]=0, (1)
.ds
[t(.,)-be.,
--t(e.,
)..,
]=0,
(2)
(3)

where 0 . is a real, symmetricmatrix. In easeswbe the


meaningwill not beobscured,we shalldropthe referenceto
7'.

Theserelationswere usedin conjunctionwith Betifs


third identity to derivea mathematicalrepresentation
of
Huygen'sprinciple,exteriorto

--i O..,,a.,
= ds
[t+-.
--t(.ku+
],
14)
iZo...f..
=f.ds
[t+-Re
,. --t(Re
.).u+].(Z)
and interior to

oidalfunctions,
andthelaterimprovements
of PatzandVan

Buren.
Theavaibilityof reliable,efficient
codes
for the
calculation
of thespheroidal
functions
hashada significant
impacton thepresentwork.
The firstimportantresultof the presentworkis the demonstrationthat the "standard"setof prolatespheroidal,
vectorbasisfunctionsisovercomplete.
The (r,m;l} = (e,O,O),

cnssed further in Sec. I.

thesefunctionssatisfythe relations

tioningthepioneering
workof VanBurenetal., Kinget
al.,sandKingandVanBuren
4onthegeneration
ofspher-

combinationsof the remaining(r----e,m-----0,/0) transversevectorbasisstates.It followsthat all previouscalculationsutilizingthesefunctionsare suspect.This point is dis-

The prolatespheroidal,
vectorbasisfunctions., used
hereweredefinedin paperI. We remindthe readerthat
r = 1,2refersto transverse
degrees
of freedom,r ----3, to the
longitudinaldegreeof freedom,andthat n refersto the set
(,m,l) requiredto specifytheparticularsolutionto thescalar Helmholtz equation.In that paper,it was shownthat

ds
[t(.)-Re
),,..
--t(Re
,,.)..]

the modelto an ensembleof randomlyorientedscatterers.


This brief reviewwould not be completewithout men-

r ----1,2 transversevector basisstatescan be written as linear

I. THEvECTOR
BASIS
FUNCTIONS

0--- ds
[t_.Re
o.
_t(Re
)-u
_],
- '2, b.=
1,

(6)

(7)

the scattering
region.Here, {a. }, {f. }, and {b. } are the
expansion
coefficients
of the incident,scattered,andrefractedwaves,andthesuperscript
0 denotes
quantitiespertaining
to the scatteringregion. The -I-(--) subscriptsrefer to
boundaryvaluestakenat the exterior(interior)of theboundary of the scatterer,ands denotesthat boundary.
The matrix O , is the cornerstone
of our approachand
itsdetailedproperties
areof someinterest.For r = 3, O t is
diagonalin I and independentof m, i.e.,

0 !.m
= [ ( -J-2)/kL] l,'.
(8)
In Sec.II, wediscuss
theapplication
of ourapproach
to
For thetransverse
degrees
of freedom,O .. takesthe form
the acousticscatteringfrom elasticsolids.To validatethe
theoreticalprocedures
andcomputercodes,we havemadea
O],."'
= O.' ----(p/kr)/2 '.(hr),
(9)
detailedexperimental
studyof theacousticscattering
froma
angularintegralwhichis
finite, 10:1aluminumcylinderwith hemi.pherical
endcaps where , is a parityconserving
easily
calculable
and
may
be
expressed
in termsoftheexpan(Sec.III). SectionIV is devotedto a comparison
of the presion
coefficients
of
the
angular
spheroidal
functions.In the
dictionsof our approachwith the experimental
resultsand
spherical
limit
(f--,O,
--oo
with
f-kr),
to an analysisof the elasticexcitations
underlyingthe more
prominentfeaturesin thebackscattered
form function.
lira2;.(hr)----6n',
(10)
In AppendixA wegiveexplicitexpressions
forthestress
1060

J.Acoust.
Soc.Am.,Vol.78,No.3, Septem.
ber1985

R.H.Hackman
andD.G.Todoroff:
Scattering
fromratiosolids

1060

andEq.(3)issimplyanexpression
oftheorthogenality
of the
vectorspherical
basisfunctions.
In thepresent
case,where
r is,/n genera/,nonzeroand the fnctionsare nonorthogonal,O t' isnonetheless
intimatelyinvolvedwiththelinear

independence
ofthebasis
functions
[, }. Thatis,if

a,,=i R,,,.bn.,

117)

f,, = -i Z R,,,
,.b,,.,

(18)

with

6. =0,
thenby Eq.(5),thenecessary
andsufficient
conditionfor the
v_anlshing
of the {f, } isthatO t' beinvertible.
We haveexaminedthe conditionof O t. by performing
eigenvaluedecompositionof/2 t, under varying levelsof

- xv*. .Re

],

(lO)

, = R,, (,Re ,).

120)

To ob a fo! lufion s. {17)and {18),we must


nowimse the X t = 0 unda conditionto rucc the
numar of deg of fdom of the eldtic field. It w

truncation
of theexpression
66
N

l' --0

byBm

thatts may ampHsh byusag-

e. (6) m !a the eldtic displamen, .


austic neld dispigments

withr --=1,2and0<m < 15.For sufficiently


smallvaluesofN
(theexactvaluedepends
uponhr) the eigenvalues
of/2 are
positiveand/2 isa well-conditioned
matrix.As 3/increases,

(16},to e

u+= Zc. Re,,.

however,
thesmallest
eigenvalue
of/2. decreases
tozero(to
c

machineaccuracy);
thatis,them ----0 basisfunctionsbecome

rt

is

linearly
dependent.
Theremaining/2
,arewellconditioned. As N is increasedfurther (we haveexaminedup to
N-- 40),the systemremainsstablein the sensethat thereis

121)

(22}
where

onlya singleeigenvalue
consistent
withzero.Theremaining
eigenvalues
arepositive
andasymptotically
approach
unity
withincreasing
orderat a givenlevelof truncation.
At smallvalues
ofhr, thenullstateofO ispredomin+ t(Re/2)-h
X( XRe,o.)],
(23)
antly(r,m,/)----(e,0,0).Thisperhaps
couldhavebeenanticipatedsincethisstatevanishes
identicallyin the spherical
limit. WhiletheI valueof thelargestcomponent
of thenull
stategenerally
increases
withAt, thereremains
a significant Combiningthe aboveresults,we obtainthe transitionmatrix
! ----0 component
throughout
therangeof hr to beconsid-

P,,,
= ds
[.t{Re
o,
)-Re
,o

M,,.
=f,ds
.t(Re
n),-Re
...

eredin thispaper.
The idealsolutionto thisproblemis to work with the
eigenvectors
ofO i"andremovethenullstatefromconsider-

ation.Thetechnique
weadoptin Sec.II accomplishes
this.
We note,however,that as an alternative,we may simply
removethel ----0 transverse
degrees
of freedom.The resulting,truncatedversionof O i"is well conditioned.

II. THEORETICAL

(24)

r= -

{ = g P -M,

(26}

= P-M.

(27)

Explicit
expreions
forthedisplacements
andstress
tensorsrequiredfor the evaluationof P, M, andR in Eqs.
(19),(20},(23),and (24)are givenin paperI {displacements)
and in AppendixA (stresstensors).We fix the interfocal
distance(2f) of our prolatespheroidalcoordinatesystemfor
a particularscattererby

CONSIDERATIONS

We beginby out!inigthederivationof thespheroidal-

f= [(aspect
ratio)
-- l]m/{aspect
ratio).

coordinate-based transition matrix for the acoustic scatter-

ing from an elasticsolidimmersedin an inviscidfluid of


infiniteextent.We assume
theusualboundaryconditions
-u+ = -u_,

(13)

.t+ = -t_,

(14)

With thischoice,the spheroid = l/fexacfiy inscribes


the
scatterer.

The integrations
in Eqs. (19), (20), (23),.and(24) were
performedusingGaussianquadrature.The matrixinversion
impliedin Eq. (25)wasimplementedby writing

xt_ =o,
apply at the surfaceof the scatterer.To accountfor the
acousticpenetrationof the scatterer,we introducethe expansionof theelasticdisplacement

(asuperscript
T denotes
thematrixtranspose)
andthenusing

Gauss
elimination
tosolve
forT r, afterscaling
bothQand
Q. Thisproceduretendsto benumericallymorestablethana
direct invcraionof Q followedby matrix multipUcation.

The remaininginversion

(thesuperscript
0 denotes
quantities
pertainingto the scatterer)and Eqs.(4) and (5) become
1061

J. Acoust.Soc. Am., Vol. 78, No. 3, September 1985

P -M,
in Eqs.(26}and (27)requiressomewhatgreatercare.A deR.H. Hackman and D. G. Todoroff:Scatteringfrom ratiosolids

1061

Poe"'
= 4rPo
itSol(h,
cos
0o)

tailedexamination
of P for solidspheroids
andfinitecylinderswith hemispherical
endcapsrevealsthat this matrix
tendsto beill conditioned.
A typicaleigenanalysis
ofP yields

eigenvalues
ranging
insizefrom10-26to 10+2.Holdingthe
physicaldetailsof thescattering
problemfixed,we findthat
theexactspectrum
of eigenvalues
depends
uponthenumber
of expansion
terms.Invariably,however,aftersomelevelof
truncation,increasing
thenumberof termsin theexpansion
furthermerelytendsto increasethe numberof eigenvalues
roughlyconsistent
withzero.The nonzeroelgenvalues
(and
eigenvectors)
arestable,to machineaccuracy.

X St( h,',') je, (h, '),


d

p, is the (gledt)

plitude of e t

wave

xs,.

Interestingly
enough,
thestability
of thecalculation
of
thebackscattered
formfunctionis to someextent,independentof the conditionof P. For spheroidal
bodies,the form
functionconverges
quitequicklyandis stableunderan almostarbitrarilylargeincreasein the numberof expansion
terms.The finitecylinderdisplays
a greatersensitivity
to the
conditionofP andat highaspectratios,whenthecondition
of P has deterioratedsufficiently,the calculationbecomes
unstable.
Thislatterbehaviorisprobablydueto thegreater
relianceof the cylindricalcalculationon off-diagonal
ele-

(31)

Here,(Bo,o)
and(B } e thesphec anD wMchdee
the dirtion of the incidentd scatteredwav, rctively, andtheexnsion fficients of e t
waveve

expr
in tes of the T mat (T is diagonal
and m for aymmetfic objm). ExpUcifiyintrg

dpo into.

(30)d utzing theptic

for-

mula for het v

ments in P, M, and R.

Thereis a simplerationalefor the relativeinsensitivity


of T to the condition of P. Note that those' elastic states

whichareweaklycoupled
to thenearfield
canben,.o
more
than weakly coupledto the farfield.Thus, R and R must
annihilatethe samecombinationsof the expansioncoeffi-

cients{b, } asP, andit followsthat Tis independent


of the
existenceof thesestates.The difficultywith the finite cylin-

derisitsgreaterrelianceonoff-diagonal
matrixelements.
In
general,
thefaroff-diagonal
matrixelements
areintrinsically
lessaccuratethan the diagonalelementsand this annihilation process
is not accuratelyperformed.
Sinceit is presumablythe presence
of the uncoupled(or
at most,weaklycoupled}[b, } whichis the sourceof the

In ge, we che = o = 0. s dcifion is nsnt wi e geral prfi the field and r


in a
fo cti
of unityfora d sphefictter of di
L/2 in the-fruency
it.
We have chos tt our thretic thques
ast a i cyHnd gmet for two rns. Ft,
thef wav wch pmgate ona solid,ite cylin-

der haven

extsivelystudi d e well o.

Sin a 10:1cyder is sufficientlylong at e


ndifions on e mdps shouldnot ve apprble
limited numericalstabilityfor the finite cylinder,it should
efft on th wav, ts fa hel nsiderably in the anprovenumericallyadvantageous
to removethesestatesfrom
ys. In the prmt ,
c y two ntfibung wav
ourspace.DefiningA astheoperatorwhichprojectsintothe
(1}thelower ltu&n
me, wch char
spacein whichthe matrix P is well defined,and usingA to
iy
syetfic wave with dispent
mconsistentlyobtainthe admissibleinterior elasticstatesin
nen onlyin theradi d ial rions, d (2)thelowEqs.(17)through(24),we writeQ in theform
t flexuralme, which gl
de
un
Q = RA (A rPA )-A rM.
(29) dirtions. e dision c
for th wav
Fig. 1.e gher !ontudi d fiexur m
havecutIn AppendixB we giveourprocedurefor constructing
A and
off
frum&
wch
e
beyond
the
ge
side
he
implementing
theprojection
process
in ourcalculations.
The
and
e
ion
m
not

excit
amtiy.
method is a variant of the Moore-Penrosepseudoinverse
nd,
thisgmet pmd a moresgt
t of
technique?
Oneimmediate
resultof thisprojection
procethe
fosm
t
would
a
spheroid
or
a
sur
spheroid.
A
dure is that the T matrix (for the cylinder)becomesmuch
spheroid
is
a
s
gmet
for
which

the
sphefi
morenearlysymmetric.
We findthat [Tn. -- T.]isconsisand spheroi bis functionsare ve well suit. Btentlysmallerthan10-3 or 10-n timesthemagnitude
of the
h no tt evensl deviations
froma spheroilargestdiagonaltransitionmatrix element.There is essen- t '
d
gmet
1
to
a
sight
detoration
the nutially no effecton calculations
for spheroidal
bodies.
mefi
o
of
e
sdd
sphefiTo compareourtheoreticalpredictions
withexperimental measurements,we introduce the farfield form function

,- {L/2} I

Po

I'

whereL isthe lengthof the target,Pois theamplitudeof the


incidentacousticplanewave
1062

J. Acoust.Soc. Am.,Vol. 78, No. 3, September1985

a-b

T mat.

our ml

In e

next stion

we

pur.

III. EXPERIMENTAL

Backscattered
acousticwaveformswereacquiredfrom
a 10:1solidaluminumcylinderwith hemispherical
endcaps
R.H. Hackmanand D. G. Todoroff:Scatteringfrom ratiosolids

1062

enceof a receiverhydrophone
situatedon a straightline

4.0

LONGITUDINAL

betweenthe sourcetransducerand the scatteringtarget.

WAVE

The driveandreceiveelectronics
aredepictedin Fig. 2.

A singlecyclesinewave,amplified
by a poweramplifier
(Kronhite
model
DCA-50),
provided
thedrivesignal
forthe
piezoelectric
transducer
(USRDtypeF-33).Theacoustic
signals
received
bythehydrophone
werepreamplified
and
bandpass
filtered
priortodigitizing
bytheHP-5180Awave-

3.0

2.0

FLEXURAL WAVE

form recorder.

Dataacquisition
wasunderthecontrol
of a HP-9826
microcomputer.
Digitizedrepresentation
of the analog

1.C

waveforms
wastransferred
to themicrocomputer
for off-line

.5

analysis.
Thedataanalysis
routine
allowed
forsignal
averag-

2'.o

ing,convolution,
andFouriertransformation
of thedigi-

ka

tizedwaveforms,
alongwithgraphic
displays
oftheresultant

FIG. 1. The dispersion


curvesfor the lowestlongitudinal
andflexural

operations.
All recorded
waveforms
wererepetitively
aver-

modes
onaninfinitealuminumcylinderof circularcrosssection.

agedfor 30 scans.

Waveforms
weresampled
anddigitizedsuchthat the

Nyquist
ratewasalways
exceeded.
An 8192-point
discrete
fastFouriertransformwasimplemented
witha rectangular

window
(noweighting)
toobtainintermediate
frequency
domaindata.In orderto spanthekL/2 regionof interest(5-

asa functionof aspectangleO (theanglethe acousticaxis


makeswith the longsymmetryaxisof the target).The experimental
farfieldformfunction
wasdetermined
usingthe

20),several
different
center
frequencies
wererequired.
The
3-dBdownpointswerechosen
asthecutoffpointsforthe

expression
69

contribution
of eachfrequency
bandto thecomputed
form
function.In this context,we notethat manyof the form
function
plotsrepresent
averages
ofnumerous
independent

2rg,(kL/2,t)
f. ( ,e)=72
wherer sthedistance
fromthecenterof thescattering
target

measurements.

tothemeasurement
point,g,(k/2,8) isthetransform
ofthe
backscattered
waveform,
ps(t), andg(kL/2) is the transformof theincident
pulseat thescattering
target,p,(t).
Acousticmeasurements
wereperformed
in a 10-X 10X 7-ftreinforced
concrete
testpoolfilledwitha suitable
vol-

In viewing
theindividual
backscattered
waveforms
for
analysis,
it became
apparent
thatsome
ofthereturns
persistedwellbeyond
theavailable
timewindow.Theeffectwas

umeof freshwaterastheacousticmedium.The sourcetrans-

surprising
inthatanyexperimental
measurement
hasanin-

particularly
significant
inregions
where
thetheory
predictedhighQ resonant
features.
Theseobservations
werenot

ducer,receivehydrophone,
and scatteringtarget were

herentlimitation on the resolutionof suchfeatures.Assum-

placed
along
ahorizontal
line,heldbyasystem
ofprecisioninga decay
modulus
(timerequired
fortheamplitude
todepositioning
devices.
Lateral,
longitudinal,
andvertical
align- creaseto 1/e of its initial value)equalto the available
mentofthecomponents
wasaccomplished
optically
using
a
sighting
telescope.
Therespective
positions
weresuch
asto
maximize
theshortest
reverberant
path,thusoptimizing
the

HP-g826

X-Y
PLOTTER

timedomainmeasurement
window.A 6-in.-longtargetwas

selected
based
on therequirements
thata sufficient
backscattered
returnwouldbeobserved
endon,andthata sufficientnumberofreturnsfromsurface
wavestravelingaround

MICROCOMPUTER

HP-5180A
I
I
GENERATOR
FREQUENCY BAND.PASS
WAVEFORM

GENERATOR

thetarget
would
beacquired
toyielda representative
measureoftheformfunction.
Thislattercriteriawasnotfulfilled
incertain
cases,
aswillbediscussed
attheendofthissection.

RECORDER

FILTER

Theinitialangular
orientation
(90'offaxis)
ofthescattering
target
wasdetermined
acoustically
bymaximizing
thebackscattered
signal.
Throughout
themeasurements,
theposi-

POWER i

AMPLIFIER

tionsof the transducer


and hydrophone
remainedfixed,

PREI

AMPLIFIER

whiletheaspect
angleofthetargetwasvaried.
Therelative
pressure
amplitudes
po(t)(oftheincident

waveform),
andp,(t)weremeasured
using
a common
hy-

drophone
(B& K model
8203},
placed
inthefarfield
region
of the transducer,a distancer from the scatteringtarget.

Appropriate
corrections
forspreading
andabsorption
were
made
toyieldaneffective
pressure
wavefront,p(t), incidentonthetarget.
Noattempt
wasmade
tocorrect
forthe
slight
distortion
(estimated
tobeless
than1%)bythepres1063

J.Acoust.
Sec.Am.,Vol.78,No.3,September
1985

24'

HYOROPHONE

TRANSDUCER

TARGET

FIG. 2. A schematic
representation
oftheexperimental
geometry
andapparatus.Here,8 defines
theexperimental
aspectangle.

R.H.Hackman
andD.G.Todoroff:
Scattering
fromratiosolids

1063

thatforkL/2 20,a changeAL,,,= 2 resulted


in a change

windowsize(minusthe specularreturn},we estimatethat


thesemeasurements
allow for the correctrepresentation
of
featureswith a maximumQ value of five. The particular

in the form function of less than 2%.

The calculationwasrelativelyinsensitive
to the number
of significant
figuresretainedin the orthogonalization
process,providedNo, was sufficientlylarge, and we chose
Nh ----18--20.Increasing/V by two generallyresultedin
a changein the form functionof muchlessthan 0.5%.

theoreticalresonantfeaturesof interestclearly exceedthis


value.

In order to determine the effect such artificial termina-

tion hadon the resultantform function,a simplesubtraction

Noattempt
was
made
tomeasure
thedensity
andsound

was employedfor the 30 off-axismeasurement.Surface


multipathswere removedby subtractingthe multipath
waveform(withouttarget)fromthebackscattered
targetre-

speeds
of thealuminumcylinder.Instead,thegenericvalues

riseto an interference
pattern)andsomeof the signalstill
residedoutsideof the "expanded"measurement
window,
theagreement
withtheorywasexcellent,
aswill bediscussed
in the followingsection.

calculatedformfunctionisexpected
dueto themismatchin
theelasticparameters.
To obtainsomeideaof thesensitivity
of the calculationto reasonablevariationsin theseparameters,we haveexaminedthepositionof the lowestresonance

p -- 2700kg/m3,C = 6420m/s,andC, = 3040m/swere


betweenthe measuredand
turn.Although
a residual
signal
wasclearlypresent
(giving used.Thus some chscrepancy

for end-on incidence under a 10% variation in the Lame'

parameter/t(thebarspeeddepends
stronglyon thisparam-

IV. DISCUSSION

eter).
TM
Wefindthatthepeakshiftsbynomorethan5%.

A series of calculations of the monostatic backscattered

In Fig. 3 weexhibita collection


of calculated
monostatic
beampatternswhichhavebeenselected
to displaythemore
prominentfeatures/nthe backscattered
form function.In
particular,thesingle,strong,high/2 lobeat d = 56andkL /
2 = 5.4 and the "ridge" of lobeswith d30 beginningat
kL/2 = 6.6 representsignificantdeparturesfrom rigid behavior.It is worth notingthat with two exceptions,
at /

formfunctionwasperformed
in the regionkL/2 < 20 for
comparison
with experiment.
Thereare two parameters
to
fix in the calculationof the m = 0 T matrix at a givenfrequency,the numberof termsincludedin the truncationof
theinfinitedimensional
matrixequations,
Lm in Eqs.(25)(27), and the numberof significantfiguresretainedin the
orthogonalization
of P, i.e., No (seeAppendixB). In the
frequencyrangekL/2<16, the numberof expansion
terms
wasfixedby increasing
L, until the form functionvaried
by 0.5% or lessfor a changeAL, = 2. The numberof
termsrequiredfor convergence
with this criterionvaried

2 = 5.4 and 10.8,thereis no ancillarystructure(in the beam


pattern}associated
with theseoff-axislobes.The two exceptionsdisplayon-axisresonances.
We alsonotefor futureref-

erencethatthepeakamplitudeof theridge,whichhaslarge,
high {2 peaksat k/2 = 6.7, 9.3, and 12, showsa general
tendencyto movein the directionof increasing8 with increasing
frequency.
Thesefeatures
areparticularlyrevealing

betweenten at the low-frequencyend and 30 at the upper


frequencies.
For kL/2> 16,L wasfixedat 30. We note

12.8
12.4
12.0
11.6
11.2
.9

FIG.

3. The calculated

monostatic

beam

patternsfor a 10:1finitealuminumcylinder
with hemisphericalendcaps.

10.8
10.4

102
9.8

9.3

9.0

.3

u.

8.6
6.7
5.4

5.0

.3
FORM

1064

.6

.9

FUNCTION

J. Acoust.Soc. Am., Vol. 78, No. 3, September1985

R.H. Hackmanand D. G. Todoroff:Scatteringfrom ratiosolids

1064

peaksisstillmissing.
An examination
of thetime
of theelastic
response
of thescatterer
andweshallexplore resonance
this in detail below.

In Figs.4 and5, thecalculatedbackscattered


form func-

tion (solidpoints)is comparedwith the experimental


data
(solidlines)for aspectangles0 rangingfrom 0' to 90', in 10'
increments.
In regionswherethe experimental
frequency
bandsoverlap,both setsof data are presented.The dashed
linesin Fig. 5 for 0 = 30', represent
measurements
taken
withtheexpanded
windowdiscussed
in theprevious
section.
We note that the small scale oscillations in the data taken

withtheexpanded
windowarean artifactof thesubtraction
procedure
and do not haveany underlyingphysicalsign/icance.In thisfigure,it isclearthatthelongerwindowgivesa
considerable
improvementin the agreementbetweenthe

domainwaveformshowsthatevenwith theexpanded
window,only a portionof the energyof thesepeakshasbeen
captured,i.e., the waveformhasbeenartificiallyandprematurely truncated. In the nonresonantregion, the flexural
waveis still excited,dueto the strongcouplingmechanism,
andtheelasticcylinderactsasa phasesteeredarray,firinga

highly directionaland hence,strongsignalback at the


source. This mechanismalso explains the surprising
strengthof the resonantresponse.
The singlestronglobeat 56(seethe0 ----50.and0 ----60
aspectorientations
in Fig. 5)isassociated
with thelongitudinal (i.e.,m ----0) response
ofthe cylinder.An examinationof

the elasticdisplacements
revealsa stationarylongitudinal

dataandthecalculations.
It isalsoclear
thattheveryhighQ

wave with, --- L/2 almost identical to that excited at end-on

features
in thecalculation
(e.g.,at kL/2 = 6.7and0 = 30')
arestillbeyondthecapabilities
of theexpanded
window.
Consider
firstFig. 4, i.e.,end-onincidence.
SinceT-matrix calculations
for end-onincidencerequireonlythem = 0
termin Eq. {33)andthustendto belesstimecons-mingthan

incidenceat this frequency,but approximately50% stronger.At thisangleof incidence


l0 ---56)andfrequency,
there
isexactlyonewaterwavelength
alongtheprojected
lengthof
the cylinderand it is the coherentshakingof the two ends
whichis responsible
for the relativelystrongexcitation.Unfortunately,dueto theveryhighQ natureof thislobeandthe
smallsignalstrength,evenwiththeexpanded
windowonlya

off-axis orientations,a somewhat more ambitious calcula-

tionalprogramwasundertakenherethan for moregeneral


anglesof orientation;hence,the expandedfrequencyscale
and greaterdensityof points,as comparedto Fig. 5. The
signalstrengthfromthetargetat thisanglewastoosmallto
reliablysubtractthe multipathssono attemptwasmadeto
obtainthe high Q featurespresentin the data. Given this
qualification,
the calculationis in reasonably
goodagreementwiththedata.ThethreepeaksatkL/2 -- 5.4,10.8,and
16.2are clearlythe, = L/2, L, and 3L/2 resonances
associatedwith the largelynondispersive,
lowestlongitudinal
modeof an infiniteelasticcylinder.We haveexaminedthe
elasticdisplacements
at thesurfaceof thescatterer,
andboth
thecalculated
phasespeedandthedisplacements
arein accordwith thispicture.
Considernexttheprominentridgeof lobesin thebackscattered
formfunctiondepictedin Fig. 3 andin the0 = 30'
portionof Fig. 5. This ridgeisassociated
with theexcitation
of the lowestflexuralwaveof an infinitecylinderdueto the
matchingof the tracevelocityof the incidentacousticwave
with thevelocityof propagationof theflexuralwave(seeFig.
2). An examinationof the elasticdisplacements
revealsthat
the three clearly identifiableresonancepeaksat 0 = 30. in
Fig.5areassociatedwiththeA
----2L/5, L/$,and 2L/7 resonantwavelengths.
The agreement
of thecalculation
withthe
data,particularly
thatdataobtained
withtheexpan.ded
window,isquitegood.However,theveryhighQ portionof the

small enhancement ofthe form function was observed at this

angle.Thereforethedataandcalculations
werenot included
in the figure.
Considerfinally,the broadsideform function.The frequencyregionconsidered
hereistoolow for anysignificant
elasticactivityin the broadside
or nearbroadside
direction
(70,90). It is interesting
to notethat theoff-axisbehavior in this angularregiondiffersmarkedlyfrom that obtained in studiesof the scatteringof obliquelyincident

acoustic
wavesby an infinitecylinderby Flaxetal.?However,thelobestructurein Fig. 3 in thisangularregioncanbe

simplyexplained'by
treating
a finiterigidcylinder
oflength
L as a linearphasesteeredarray excitedby the incident
acousticwave.The primary,secondary,
and tertiarylobes
areall presentandtheirposition,
angularwidthandrelative
magnitudeareconsistent
with thissimplepicture,although
the third lobe is somewhatlargerthan expected.We note
that thereissufficient
experimental
sensitivityto theangular
alignmentin thisregion,dueto the relativelynarrow(in 0 )
lobes,to accountfor the small discrepancies
betweenthe
data and calculations.

Wenote
inclosing'that,
inrelated
work,
Suetal.?2
and
Numrichetal.?3havecompared
withexperiment
thepredictionsof the standard,spherical-coordinate-based
T matrix
for a finitealuminumcylinderof smallaspectratio(2:1).

FIG. 4. The backscattered farfield form

functionsfor a 10:! finitealuminumcylinder with hemisphericalendcapsfor


end-onincidence,plottedas a function
of the dimensionless
frequency/eL/2.
The heavydot reprent calculatl vnl=
uesandthesolidlines,experimental
value Note that in someregions,several
frequency
bandsoverlap.

_o
i-

.1,3
2

1065

10

J. Acoust.Soc.Am.,VoL78, No.3, September1985

12

14

16

18'

R.H. HackmanandD. G. Todoroff:Scatteringfromratiosolids

1065

2.0
10

20'

OFF AXiS

OFF AXIS

1.0

.o
2.0--

40 OFF AXIS

30
OFF
AXIS

1.0

:.!
7

FIG. 5. The ba=kscattcred faffld


form function for a 10:1 finke alumi-

11

13

15

11

13

15

KL/2

KLJ2

num cylinder with hemispherical


endcapsfor off-axis;n.
The
notationisth=sameasin Fi& 4. The
additional

.9

OFF AXIS

OFF AXIS

dashed

fins

in

the

0- 30' graphrepresentexperlink-

.0

OFF AXI,

.9

OFF AXIS

o 3
7

11

13

15

.9

11

13

15

KL/2

KL/2

90
OFF
AXIS

11

13

15

KL

ACKNOWLEDGMEHTS
The authors are indebted to D. H. Trivett for stimulat-

ing and productiveconversationsthroughoutthe courseof

APPENDIX

In applications
of thespheroidal-coordinate-based
transitionmatrix,it is necessary
to haveexplicitexpressions
for

the vector basis functions and their associated stresstensors.


this work. One of us (RHH) wouldalsolike to thank A. L.
Van Burenfordiscussions
pertainingto thegeneration
of the Expressions
forthebasisfunctions
weregivenin paperI; we
prolatespheroidal
functionsandfor copiesof hisspheroidal givethestress
tensors
in thisAppendix.
functioncodes.In particular,the eleganteigenvalueroutine
FollowingMorseandFeshbach,
TM
we intr6ducethe in0fPatzandVanBuren served
astheheartofoureigenfunc- dependentvariables
tion routine. RHH

would also like to thank I. Dobeck for

discussions
on the Moore-Penrosepseudoinverse
and T.
Racketsfor producingthedispersion
curvesin thetext. Finally, the authorswouldlike to thank L. Flax for his continued encouragement
and support.
1066

J. Acoust.Sec.Am.,VoL78, No.3, September1985

= ',V,cos ).
The associated unit vectors

R.H. HackmanandD. G. Todoroff:Scatter'ngfromratiosolids

1066

ha= (f/sinb)[(1- /2)(2_ 1)1,/2.


definea right-handed
coordinate
system.
Thisdiffersfrom
thedefinitions
adopted
in paperI whichutilizeda left-hand- The stresstensoris definedby
ed coordinate
system.
Thus,thereare severalminussign

(,)
=ZV4i + (V, + ,V),

differences
betweenthevectorbasisfunctions
givenin paper

where

I andthoseadopted
here,andthesedifferences
arenotedin
Eq.(A4).Forcalculational
purposes,
it isconvenient
towork
witha representation
ofthevector
basis
functions
in which
the"physical"
components
areutilized,i.e.,

is theunit dyadicandwhere

__ (.),,.

(A3)

=2 Ix,-/] +b.(ln

The relationbetweenthesephysicalcomponents
andthe co-

vnziant
expressions
givenin paper! [the(.) ], is

(), = + (h,)-'(),,

x(a,a+ 6a,).
t Z = Rz(fir,t(hr,,

wheretheuppersignisfor-- 1,3 andthelower,for--- 2.


Theh denotethescalefactors

h, =f[( 2_ /2)/(2_

1067

(AS)

J.Acoust.
Sec.Am.,Vol.78,No.3,September
1985

{A7)
) denote
aprorlyno-

lution to thescal Heholtz equation


withk = kT,
d lett = z(hT) denote
theeigenvMue.
Forthetransvenedegr of freedom,
thephysical
mnents of the
strs tensor(u) e $venby

R.H.Hackman
andD.G.Todoroff:
Scattering
fromratio
solids

1067

In theabove
expressions,
wehaveeliminated
allreference
toox/v:, c9:X/oq:,
andc9:y/2 through
theuseofthedefining
differential
equations
for R., and
Using. = R,,,t(h.,g}St(ht.,I,q)
to denotea properlynormali7edsolutionto the scalarHelmholtzequationwith
k = k,., andA,t =.4,,,t(hL)tOdenotethe eigenvalue,for the irmtationaldegreeof freedom,we find

(AIS)

(AI9)

1068

J. Acoust.So(=.Am.,VoL78, No.3, September1985

R.H. HackmanandD. G. Todoroff:Scattering


fromratiosolids

1068

(A20)

f [(1-7:)
--7:)]
m

(A21)

'e-1&b
'

(A22)

APPENDIX

allofthe
remaining
columns
relative
tothis
choice.
Clearly,

thisprocedure
canbeappliedonlyN timesbeforewehave
exhausted
thepossibilities.
In practice,
weorthogonalize
all
columns,thenorderthe columnsby theirlossof significant
digits(through
thesubtraction
process)
andtruncate
at the
pointwheremorethan18significant
figures
havebeenlost.

Considerthe ill-conditionedproblem
PC=M,

whereC andM aren X m rectangular


matricesandwhereP
is an n X n real, symmetricmatrix with one or more zero
eigenvalues.
Here,C isto bedetermined.
LetZk bethek th
eigenvalue
of P andletPi(k) bethecorresponding
normal-

ThecolumnsofthenXNmatrixA

thus formed, must be

a linearcombination
oftheeigenvectors
havingI/tk[ > 0, i.e.,

ized eigenvector,i.e.,

Piplk) = Akp,(k).

Aq=__
p(k
)A

(B2)

which in matrix notation is

Thenthe transformation
matrix whichdiagonalizes
P is

A = UN.4.
Fromtheorthonormality
of thecolumnsofA it followsthat
theN XN matrixA is orthogonal.
From F_x
1.(BS),we thus

Weassume
thatP hasNnonzeroeigenvalues,
andthatthese

have

cigenvalues
areordered
bydecreasing
magnitude.
Theinconsistencies
mayberemoved
fromEq.(B1)byeliminating
thenullspace
of P. Thisis moststraightforwardly
accomplished
byperforming
aneigenvalue
decomposition
ofP and
projecting
intothespacespanned
by eigenvectors
having
nonzero
eigenvalues;
thatis,wewishtocastEq.(B1)intothe

Returningto Eq. (B4)andut'dizing

A rPA =.4 r.(2N`4

{APA)A T=A M,
c=

(B10)

we find

form

aN

(B7)

(Bll)

i.e.,thatA performsthenecessary
projectionprocess.
Note

M,

that it is not necessaryto construct`4.

The exactrelationbetweenthe lossof significant


digits
in the columnsof P duringthe orthogonalization
process
and the s. of the magnitudes
of the eigenvalucs
in 2N is
unclear.This is unimportant,however,sinceour real concernisthelinearindependence
of thecolumns
(androws)of

where

/2N
=

,li

2N

(BS)

the truncated matrix.

[A,I>O, n= 1,... r,
andwhereUNisthetruncated
diagonalization
transforma1. Acoust.
tionmatrix.However,theexplicitconstruction
of theeigen- P. C. Waterman,"New Formulationof AcousticScattering,"
Soc.Am. 45, 1471-1429(1969).
valuesandeigenvectors
tendsto betimeconsuming,
andwe
aThis
terminology
ismostgenerally
accredited
toC.W.Oseen,
Ann.Phys.
adopta somewhat
differentprocedure
here.
48, 1 (1915);
andP. P. Ewald,Ann.Phys.49, I (1916).
Fromthespectraldecomposition
P.A. Martin,"OntheNull-FieldEquations
fortheExteriorProblems
of

P,2
= i Ap,(k)p2(k),
k=l

(B6)

it is clearthat ifP is of rank N, thenP hasexactlyN linearly

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To forma basisfor thisN-dimension- G. Kristensson,
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alizationprocedure
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1070

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Here,A and,{ arethe
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A
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P4 ) = .l/,

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?4p.M. MorseandH. Feshbaeh,


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R.H. Hackmanand D. G. Tedore,f:Scatteringfrom ratiosolids

1071