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FACULTY OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL

ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF INFRASTRUCTURE AND
GEOMATIC ENGINEERING

LABORATORY SHEET

SUBJECT CODE

BFC 20703

PARTIAL CODE

MG 03

PRACTICAL NAME

TRAVERSE (HORIZONTAL CONTROL)

COURSE CODE

BFC 20703

FACULTY OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING


DEPARTMENT OF INFRASTRUCTURE AND GEOMATIC
ENGINEERING
GEOMATIC LAB
FULL REPORT
Subject Code
Practical Name
Course Code
Practical Date
Group
Group Leader
Name

Lecturers name/
Instructor/ Tutor
Marks

BFC 20703
TRAVERSE ( HORIZONTAL CONTROL )
BFC 20703
6
Faizzatul Aqma binti Md. Noor ( AF130096 )
1. Fasha Farhana binti Karim ( AF130140 )
2. Hanif bin Kormain ( CF130177 )
3. Sharifah Shahida binti Syed Idrus ( AF130140 )
4. Wahyu Hidayat bin Usman ( AF130083 )
Dr. Mustaffa bin Anjang Ahmad

Introduction
Objective
Theory
Instrument
Procedure
Data / Table
Data Analysis
Discussion
Presentation / Ploting
Calculation /
Recommendation
Reference
Total Mark
Comments by Examiner
Received

/ 5%
/ 5%
/ 10%
/ 5%
/ 5%
/ 10%
/ 20%
/ 15%
/ 10%
/ 10%
/ 5%
/ 100%

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Horizontal control is a form of a control survey that requires the establishment of a series of
stations that are linked together by angles and distances. The used of horizontal control is
very fundamental and has become one of the most common methods in civil engineering
work.
2.0 OBJECTIVE
To expose students in field work procedures of establishing horizontal control network.
3.0 THEORY
In survey, traverse is defined as the field operation of measuring the lengths and directions of
a series of straight lines connecting a series of points on the earth. Each of these straight lines
is called a traverse line, and each point is called a traverse station. Traverse stations are
commonly marked with wooden peg, stake, nail or iron pipe.
Traverse lines are measured using the total station. Traversing need to start from reference
datum (coordinate, bearing and distance are known). At each traverse station, a horizontal
angle is measured and used to determine the bearing and bearing of the next traverse line.
These measurements are used to compute the relative horizontal position of each unknown
traverse station. The main purposes of traverse are:

Property surveys to locate and establish boundaries


Supplementary horizontal control for topographic mapping surveys
Location and construction layout surveys for highways, railways and other private or

public works
4.0 PRACTICE EQUIPMENTS
All groups will be issued with the following equipment:
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Items
Total Station
Prisms
Pegs
Nails
Tripod
Hammer

5.0 FIELDWORK PROCEDURES

Quantity
1
2
3
1

I.

Planning and Reconnaissance: Walked over the area in the field and the suitable

II.

traverse for survey work were looked out.


Pegging traverse station: Since they will remain for the duration of the survey
camp, the line of sight of each control point and its susceptibility to disturbance
were considered.
Establish datum: The survey need to be start with three known control points. The

III.

distance were measured to the nearest 10 mm and the angle were measured to the
nearest 10. If the measurements differ by more than 30 mm / 20, the survey
IV.

must be repeated or the other control point must be find.


There are several steps which should be followed and will lead to a smooth
traverse.
a) First, the instrument was set up over the station.
b) The instrument was levelled and centred.
c) The instrument was set to the required datum.
d) Face left horizontal reading to backsight station was recorded.
(bearing & distance)
e) The instrument and sight foresight station was turned.
f) Face left horizontal reading to foresight station was recorded.
(bearing & distance)
g) The instrument was transited from Face Left to Face Right.
h) The required datum (bearing) to backsight station was set.
i) Face left horizontal reading to backsight station was recorded.
(bearing & distance)
j) The instrument was turned to face foresight station.
k) Face left horizontal reading to foresight station was recorded.
l) The mean bearing foresight station was calculated.
m) The instrument was moved to the next station (foresight station).
n) The next traverse line bearing were respect or correspond to the previous
mean bearing.

DATA ANALYSIS AND CALCULATION


-

Bearing shoud be read = 3060835


Bearing read = 3060830
Misclosure = 3060835 - 3060830
= 05
Correction = 5/4 = 1.25

DISCUSSION

Our group has been given a site to observe the area to measure the length and direction of
series of a straight line connecting of point on the earth. We start the fieldwork with
observation and making decision of picking point. Four station point has been establishes
with marked pickets. The location of each point pick must be free from the disturbance and
safe. Traverse station should be numbered continuously clockwise. There are a few factor
which might influenced the reading that obtained. There are :
1) Human factor
2) Environment factor

- The readings not consistence due to many observer recorded


the value.
- The hot weather disturbed the concentration of observer till
hard to focus on prism.
-The soil :sandy soil weak between the correctivity of each
particle and not able to apply load on top of it. So when the
instrument applied at the specific areas, the possibilities to
obtain error reading more high.

3) Equipment factor

- The total station might be not in good condition.

CONCLUSION
Based on the work that we done, we achieved to perform one horizontal traverse
control fieldwork. From the booking analysis and calculation, we obtained our linear
misclosure is 0.5 with four station point. Therefore, the correction for each point is 1 .
Futhermore our precision is 1:4228.48 . After process the data that we obtained by
2
coordinates and Bowditch rule , we determined that the area of our site that is 922 m