Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 282

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Science
Level Blue

Consultant

Douglas Fisher, Ph.D.

About the Consultant

Copyright by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to reproduce the material
contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students,
teachers, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with Science Level Blue. Any other
reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without prior written permission of the publisher.
Send all inquiries to:
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
8787 Orion Place
Columbus, Ohio 43240-4027
ISBN 0-07-874565-9
Printed in the United States of America
123456789

024

08 07 06 05

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Douglas Fisher, Ph.D., is a Professor in the Department of Teacher


Education at San Diego State University. He is the recipient of an
International Reading Association Celebrate Literacy Award as well
as a Christa McAuliffe award for Excellence in Teacher Education. He
has published numerous articles on reading and literacy, differentiated
instruction, and curriculum design as well as books, such as Improving
Adolescent Literacy: Strategies at Work and Responsive Curriculum Design
in Secondary Schools: Meeting the Diverse Needs of Students. He has taught
a variety of courses in SDSUs teacher-credentialing program as well as
graduate-level courses on English language development and literacy.
He also has taught classes in English, writing, and literacy development
to secondary school students.

Note-Taking Tips ........................................ v


Using Your Science Notebook ............... vi
Chapter 1 The Nature of Science
Chapter Preview ....................................... 1
1-1............................................................... 2
1-2............................................................... 5
1-3............................................................... 8
Wrap-Up ................................................. 12

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Chapter 2 Traits and How


They Change
Chapter Preview ..................................... 13
2-1............................................................. 14
2-2............................................................. 17
2-3............................................................. 20
Wrap-Up ................................................. 24
Chapter 3 Interactions of
Human Systems
Chapter Preview ..................................... 25
3-1............................................................. 26
3-2............................................................. 29
Wrap-Up ................................................. 32
Chapter 4 Interactions of Life
Chapter Preview ..................................... 33
4-1............................................................. 34
4-2............................................................. 37
4-3............................................................. 40
Wrap-Up ................................................. 44
Chapter 5 The Nonliving Environment
Chapter Preview ..................................... 45
5-1............................................................. 46
5-2............................................................. 49
5-3............................................................. 52
Wrap-Up ................................................. 56
Chapter 6 Ecosystems
Chapter Preview ..................................... 57
6-1............................................................. 58
6-2............................................................. 61
6-3............................................................. 64
Wrap-Up ................................................. 68

Chapter 7 Plate Tectonics


Chapter Preview ..................................... 69
7-1............................................................. 70
7-2............................................................. 73
7-3............................................................. 76
Wrap-Up ................................................. 80
Chapter 8 Earthquakes and Volcanoes
Chapter Preview ..................................... 81
8-1............................................................. 82
8-2............................................................. 85
8-3............................................................. 88
Wrap-Up ................................................. 92
Chapter 9 Clues to Earths Past
Chapter Preview ..................................... 93
9-1............................................................. 94
9-2............................................................. 97
9-3........................................................... 100
Wrap-Up ............................................... 104
Chapter 10 Geologic Time
Chapter Preview ................................... 105
10-1 ........................................................ 106
10-2 ........................................................ 109
10-3 ........................................................ 112
Wrap-Up ............................................... 116
Chapter 11 The Sun-Earth-Moon
System
Chapter Preview ................................... 117
11-1 ........................................................ 118
11-2 ........................................................ 121
11-3 ........................................................ 124
Wrap-Up ............................................... 128
Chapter 12 The Solar System
Chapter Preview ................................... 129
12-1 ........................................................ 130
12-2 ........................................................ 133
12-3 ........................................................ 136
12-4 ........................................................ 139
Wrap-Up ............................................... 142

Science Level Blue

iii

Chapter 19 Force and Newtons Laws


Chapter Preview ................................... 205
19-1 ........................................................ 206
19-2 ........................................................ 209
19-3 ........................................................ 212
Wrap-Up ............................................... 216

Chapter 14 Inside the Atom


Chapter Preview ................................... 157
14-1 ........................................................ 158
14-2 ........................................................ 161
Wrap-Up ............................................... 164

Chapter 20 Work and Simple Machines


Chapter Preview ................................... 217
20-1 ........................................................ 218
20-2 ........................................................ 221
20-3 ........................................................ 224
Wrap-Up ............................................... 228

Chapter 15 The Periodic Table


Chapter Preview ................................... 165
15-1 ........................................................ 166
15-2 ........................................................ 169
15-3 ........................................................ 173
Wrap-Up ............................................... 176

Chapter 21 Thermal Energy


Chapter Preview ................................... 229
21-1 ........................................................ 230
21-2 ........................................................ 233
21-3 ........................................................ 236
Wrap-Up ............................................... 240

Chapter 16 Atomic Structure and


Chemical Bonds
Chapter Preview ................................... 177
16-1 ........................................................ 178
16-2 ........................................................ 181
Wrap-Up ............................................... 184

Chapter 22 Electricity
Chapter Preview ................................... 241
22-1 ........................................................ 242
22-2 ........................................................ 245
22-3 ........................................................ 248
Wrap-Up ............................................... 252

Chapter 17 Chemical Reactions


Chapter Preview ................................... 185
17-1 ........................................................ 186
17-2 ........................................................ 189
Wrap-Up ............................................... 192

Chapter 23 Magnetism
Chapter Preview ................................... 253
23-1 ........................................................ 254
23-2 ........................................................ 257
Wrap-Up ............................................... 260

Chapter 18 Motion and Momentum


Chapter Preview ................................... 193
18-1 ........................................................ 194
18-2 ........................................................ 197
18-3 ........................................................ 200
Wrap-Up ............................................... 204

Chapter 24 Waves, Sound, and Light


Chapter Preview ................................... 261
24-1 ........................................................ 262
24-2 ........................................................ 265
24-3 ........................................................ 268
Wrap-Up ............................................... 272
Academic Vocabulary ............................ 273

iv

Science Level Blue

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Chapter 13 Stars and Galaxies


Chapter Preview ................................... 143
13-1 ........................................................ 144
13-2 ........................................................ 147
13-3 ........................................................ 150
13-4 ........................................................ 153
Wrap-Up ............................................... 156

Note-Taking Tips
Your notes are a reminder of what you learned in class. Taking good
notes can help you succeed in science. These tips will help you take
better notes.
Be an active listener. Listen for important concepts. Pay attention
to words, examples, and/or diagrams your teacher emphasizes.
Write your notes as clearly and concisely as possible. The following
symbols and abbreviations may be helpful in your note-taking.
Word or
Phrase

Symbol or
Abbreviation

Word or
Phrase

Symbol or
Abbreviation

for example

e.g.

and

such as

i.e.

approximately

with

w/

therefore

without

w/o

versus

vs

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use a symbol such as a star () or an asterisk (*) to emphasis


important concepts. Place a question mark (?) next to anything that
you do not understand.
Ask questions and participate in class discussion.
Draw and label pictures or diagrams to help clarify a concept.

Note-Taking Donts
Dont write every word. Concentrate on the main ideas and concepts.
Dont use someone elses notesthey may not make sense.
Dont doodle. It distracts you from listening actively.
Dont lose focus or you will become lost in your note-taking.

Science Level Blue

Using Your Science Notebook


Name

This note-taking guide is designed to


help you succeed in learning science
content. Each chapter includes:

Date

Motion and Momentum


Before You Read
Preview the chapter and section titles and the section headings. Complete the
two columns of the chart by listing at least two ideas in each column.
K
What I know

W
What I want to find out

Language-Based Activities
Activities cover the content
in your science book including
vocabulary, writing, note-taking,
and problem solving.

Accept all reasonable


responses.

Science Journal
Describe how your motion changed as you moved from your schools entrance to
your classroom.

Anticipation Guide/KWL Charts


Think about what you already know
before beginning a lesson and
identify what you would like
achieve: to gain, accomplish, attain, reach
to learn from reading. adjacent: near, close, or adjoining

Student responses will vary, but should include concepts of distance, speed,
velocity, and maybe elevation, as they move up stairs, around corners, or
between peers.

approach: to come near


collapse: to fall together or inward
communicate: to make known or
give information

Science Journal
Write about what
you know.

Motion and Momentum

Name

193

community: a group of organisms that


live together in the same place

enormous: having great size


factor: any of the circumstances or
conditions that bring about a result
fundamental: serving as an original or
generating source; primary
hypothesis: a reasonable guess that can
be tested and is based on what is known
and what is observed

complex: made up of different parts


connected in a way that is hard
to understand

interact: to act upon one another

component: part of a machine or system

interval: space or time between events

constant: not changing; continuing

investigate: to search into something in


order to learn the facts

internal: having to do with the inside

(continued)

Calculating
Acceleration
I found this information
on page
.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

consume: to eat
Analyze the acceleration graph below. Label the parts of the graph
showing zero acceleration, positive acceleration, and negative
acceleration.

SE, p. 532
RE, p. 274

Speed v. Time

8
7

Zero acceleration

Speed (m/s)

6
5
Negative
acceleration

4
3

Positive
acceleration

contract: to make or become shorter


or smaller
controversy: argument or debate
convert: to change from one form into
another form
core: center; a central part of something
cycle: a repeating sequence of events
device: tool or instrument designed for
a particular purpose

Writing Activities
1
0
These activities help you think
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Time (s)
about what youre learning
Summarize how you can identify each type of acceleration on an
acceleration graph. Complete the sentences.
and make connections
to
A line for positive acceleration slopes
.
your life.
A line for negative acceleration slopes
.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

emerge: to come out; to appear

Date

Section 2 Acceleration

displace: to take the place of or remove


from the usual or proper place
diverse: not all the same; varied
domain: region with the same physical
feature
eliminate: to get rid of

isolate: to separate from others


maintain: to continue
mature: to become fully developed
or ripe
method: particular procedure, technique,
or way to do something
model: a tool used to help visualize
something that cannot be directly
observed
nuclear: of or relating to the atomic
nucleus
occur: to take place or happen; to be found
or appear
output: useful power delivered by a circuit
or device
overall: including everything; total
Science Level Blue

up from left to right

down from left to right

A line for zero acceleration

is horizontal

Vocabulary Development
A jogger runs around a circular track. She starts at a Vocabulary
speed
words help you to better
of 2 m/s, then speeds up to 6 m/s. She runs at that speed for 20 minutes, and then
comes to a stop. Describe her acceleration. Is it ever zero?
understand your science lessons. Learning
the Academic Glossary can help you score
higher on standardized tests.
S YNTHESIZE I T

Her acceleration is positive as she speeds up, and negative as she slows down. Her
acceleration is never zero, because she is always changing direction as she moves
around the circle of the track.

Motion and Momentum

vi

Academic Vocabulary

Science Level Blue

199

273

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Name

Date

Section 3 Momentum

(continued)

Mass and Inertia


I found this information
on page
.
SE, p. 533
RE, p. 276

Greater
mass
Less
mass

Momentum

Chapter Wrap-Up
This brings the information together
for you. Revisiting what you thought
at the beginning of the chapter provides
another opportunity for you to discuss
what you have learned.

Label the arrow below to show the relationship between mass


and inertia.

Has

more

inertia

Has

less

inertia

List two factors that affect an objects momentum.

I found this information


on page
.

1.

SE, p. 534
RE, pp. 276277

2.

affect

momentum

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Summarize the calculation of momentum in words on the


lines below.
The momentum of an object is calculated by multiplying
its mass in kilograms by its velocity in meters per second.

Name
Provide students with
sample momentum
problems to help them
become acquainted
with the calculations
and units.

momentum 
(in kg m/s)

mass

(in kg) 

velocity

Date

Motion and Momentum

Complete the equation used to calculate momentum.


(in m/s)

Chapter Wrap-Up

Review the ideas you listed in the chart at the beginning of the chapter. Cross out any
incorrect information in the first column. Then complete the chart by filling in the
third column.

Analyze the equation above and rewrite it using symbols. Use the
letter p to represent momentum.

K
What I know

p  mv

W
What I want to find out

L
What I learned
Accept all reasonable
responses.

Summarize the law of conservation of momentum in your own


Note-Taking
Based on
words using two balls that collide as an example.
I found this information
the
Cornell
Two-Column
Format
on page
.
Practice effective note-taking through
the use of graphic organizers, Motion
outlines,
and Momentum 201
and written summaries.

Conservation
of Momentum

After two balls collide, the total momentum is the same as before

SE, p. 535
RE, p. 277

the collision.

Review
Review the information you included in your Foldable.
Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.

Review daily homework assignments.


Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations.
Name

Date

Section 2 Acceleration

Acceleration
and Motion

Review the Self Check at the end of each section.

(continued)

Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter.

Review Checklist
S
I After This
helps
you
assess
reading thislist
chapter,
identify three
things that
you have what
learned about motion and momentum.
you have learned and prepare
for your chapter tests.
UMMARIZE

Distinguish the three ways that an object can accelerate. Complete


the concept map.

Accept all reasonable responses.

Acceleration
includes

SE, pp. 528529


RE, pp. 272273

measures how velocity changes over time. 3. Momentum equals an objects mass times
its velocity.

1. speeding up

2. slowing down

3. changing
204

direction

Calculating
Acceleration
I found this information
on page
.
SE, p. 530
RE, p. 273
Have students who
are good in math
partner with students
who are less skilled
to work several examples of acceleration
calculations.

I found this information


on page
.

Motion and Momentum

Complete the mathematical equation to calculate acceleration for


objects moving in a straight line.
Acceleration Equation
final speed

acceleration 
(in m/s2)

(in m/s)  initial speed (in m/s)


time (in s)

Analyze the equation above to rewrite it using symbols.


a

(s f  s i )
t

Compare and contrast positive and negative acceleration by


completing the chart.

SE, p. 531
RE, p. 274

Types of Acceleration
Positive

198

1. Motion must be measured by comparing it with a reference point. 2. Acceleration

I found this information


on page
.

Negative

Change in
speed

increase

decrease

Relationship of
initial speed to
final speed

Initial speed is
less than final
speed.

Initial speed is
greater than final
speed.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Study the definitions of vocabulary words.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use this checklist to help you study.

Graphic Organizers
A variety of visual organizers help you
to analyze and summarize information
and remember content.

Motion and Momentum

Science Level Blue

vii

Name

Date

The Nature of Science


Before You Read
Preview the chapter title, section titles, and section headings. List at least two ideas
for each section in each column.
K
What I know

W
What I want to find out

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Science Journal
Describe the most interesting science activity youve ever done. Identify as many parts
of the scientific process used in the activity as you can.

The Nature of Science

Name

Date

The Nature of Science


Section 1 What is science?
Skim the headings in Section 1. Write three questions that come
to mind from reading these headings. Look for answers to each
question as you read the section.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define observation to show its scientific meaning.
observation

New
Vocabulary Use each key term in a sentence to show it scientific meaning.

scientist

technology

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define investigate.
investigate

The Nature of Science

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

science

Name

Date

Section 1 What is science?

Science in
Society
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Identify three ways scientists find answers about the natural world.
1.
2.
3.

Using Science
Every Day

Compare ways that people seek answers to questions in daily life


with ways that scientists seek answers to their questions.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

I found this information


on page
.

Using Prior
Knowledge
I found this information
on page
.

Sequence the steps that scientists take to form theories.

Scientists use
about what will happen in investigations.

Scientists form
been well-tested.

to make predictions

when predictions have

The Nature of Science

Name

Date

Section 1 What is science?

Using Science
and Technology
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Identify five information resource materials.


1.

4.

2.

5.

3.
I found this information
on page
.

Complete the graphic organizer to identify scientific skills.

Communication
in Science
I found this information
on page
.

Summarize seven kinds of information you should record in a


science journal.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

CONNECT IT

Describe a news item you have heard or read about scientific


methods being used in society.

The Nature of Science

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Skills that
Scientists Use

Name

Date

The Nature of Science


Section 2 Doing Science
Predict three things that might be discussed in Section 2 as you
skim the title and headings.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define experiment to show its scientific meaning.
experiment

New
Vocabulary Write the correct vocabulary term next to each definition.
sample to which the independent variable is not applied

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

answers scientific questions through observation


represents something that is too big, too small, too dangerous,
too time consuming, or too expensive to observe directly
testing a hypothesis by using carefully controlled steps
variable that stays the same during an experiment
factor that is being measured during an experiment
variable that is changed during an experiment
prediction or statement that can be tested
ways, or steps to follow, to solve problems

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define method to show its scientific meaning.
method

The Nature of Science

Name

Date

Section 2 Doing Science

Solving Problems
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Complete the concept map about the 2 types of research used to


solve problems.
Types of Research

Descriptive research
used to solve
problems by

I found this information


on page
.

Describe each part of descriptive research listed below.


1. Research objective:

2. Research design:

3. Bias:

Equipment,
Materials,
and Models
I found this information
on page
.

The Nature of Science

Identify six reasons scientists often use models rather than direct
observation. Identify the reasons beneath the correct heading.
Models are used to study
things that are . . .

Models are used to study


things that happen . . .

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Descriptive
Research

used to solve
problems by

Name

Date

Section 2 Doing Science

Data and
Draw
Conclusions

(continued)

Skim the information in the Data and Draw Conclusions sections.


Then complete each statement to summarize the main ideas.
1. Data can be recorded and organized by using

I found this information


on page
.
2. When drawing conclusions about data, you decide

3. After an investigation ends, scientists often

Experimental
Research Design

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

I found this information


on page
.

Sequence the steps involved in experimental research design.


1. Form a(n)

2. Plan and perform a(n)

One variable, called the


Measure the change in the
sure the rest of the variables are

3.

4.

CONNECT IT

, is changed.
and make
.

the experiment
to make sure results are valid.

the results.

How might sharing your research results with others help you?

The Nature of Science

Name

Date

The Nature of Science


Section 3 Science and Technology
Scan the section. Use the checklist below.
Read all of the section headings.
Read all of the bold words.
Look at all the charts, graphs, and pictures.
Think about what you already know about science, technology,
and engineering.
Write two facts about science, technology, and engineering.
1.
2.

Review
Vocabulary Define computer.

New
Vocabulary Use your book or a dictionary to define the following term.
information technology

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define communicate.
communicate

The Nature of Science

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

computer

Name

Date

Section 3 Science and Technology

Scientific
Discoveries

(continued)

Summarize how scientific discoveries influence your daily life.


Include examples.

I found this information


on page
.

I found this information


on page
.

Complete the graphic organizer to describe technology.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Example: compact discs

Example:
methods and
techniques
Technology
includes
Example: hydraulic tools make
construction work easier
and faster

Example:
social-technical
systems

The Nature of Science

Name

Date

Section 3 Science and Technology

ScienceThe
Product of Many
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Complete the chart about scientists.


Engineers
What are some
specific jobs done
by scientists?

What are some


fields in which
scientists work?

Explain how computers have changed how modern scientists work.

I found this information


on page
.

S YNTHESIZE I T

Identify a problem that you encounter in your everyday life.


Explain how you think it could be helped by technology.

10

The Nature of Science

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Looking to the
Future

Name

Date

Tie It Together
Suppose you are going to interview a scientist. Prepare five interview questions about the
scientists work, equipment, and methods.

Interview Questions
1.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2.

3.

4.

5.

The Nature of Science

11

Name

Date

The Nature of Science

Chapter Wrap-Up

Review the ideas you listed in the chart at the beginning of the chapter. Cross out
any incorrect information in the first column. Then complete the chart by filling in
the third column. How do your ideas now compare with those you provided at the
beginning of the chapter?
K
What I know

W
What I want to find out

L
What I learned

Use this checklist to help you study.


Review the information you included in your Foldable.
Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations.
Review the Self Check at the end of each section.
Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter.

S UMMARIZE I T
learned about science.

12

The Nature of Science

After reading this chapter, identify three things that you have

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Review

Name

Date

Traits and How They Change


Before You Read
Before you read the chapter, respond to these statements.
1. Write an A if you agree with the statement.
2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.
Before You
Read

Traits and How They Change


Traits result from coded information in DNA.
The different forms of a gene are called alleles.
The chance that an organism will inherit a
certain trait cannot be predicted.
Mutation is the process by which changes to
DNA form new alleles.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Science Journal
List two traits that a dog inherits and two traits that are determined by the
dogs environment.

Traits and How They Change

13

Name

Date

Traits and How They Change


Section 1 Traits and the Environment
Scan the What Youll Learn statements for Section 1 of your book.
Identify three topics that will be discussed.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary

Define variation using your book or a dictionary.

variation

New
Vocabulary

Use your book or a dictionary to define the vocabulary terms.

gene

genotype

phenotype

Academic
Vocabulary

Use a dictionary to define structure to show its scientific


meaning.

structure

14

Traits and How They Change

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

trait

Name

Date

Section 1 Traits and the Environment

What are traits?


I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Organize information about traits by completing the blanks in


the paragraph.
Traits are

that an organism has. Two examples

of traits are

and

You have

of traits. Information for traits is found

on
I found this information
on page
.

material called

in cells.

Summarize some characteristics of DNA by completing the


graphic organizer below.
DNA

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Contains information
needed to produce a

I found this information


on page
.

Exists as

Has segments of the

in cells with a

DNA
on
a chromosome called

Compare genotype and phenotype by completing the Venn


diagram with at least 5 facts.
Genotype

Phenotype
Both

Traits and How They Change

15

Name

Date

Section 1 Traits and the Environment

Effects of the
Environment

(continued)

Summarize how the environment affects phenotypes by


supplying examples of external and internal influences.

I found this information


on page
.
External

How tree leaves grow depends on the


they receive and the

Internal

at which they grow.

Human brain cells need

to

normally.

Model one example of how the environment can affect appearance


by drawing the example in the box below. Label parts of your
drawing to identify what part of the organism is affected.

Explain how some species benefit from organisms ability to change


sex, or gender.

CONNECT IT

16

Summarize some features of your own phenotype.

Traits and How They Change

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

I found this information


on page
.

Name

Date

Traits and How They Change


Section 2 Genetics
Scan the headings in Section 2 of your book. Identify three topics
that will be discussed.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define cloning using your book or a dictionary.
cloning

New
Vocabulary Read the definitions below. Write the correct vocabulary term
on the blank to the left of each definition.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

model that is used to predict the possible offspring of crosses


between different organisms of known genotypes
different form of a gene
study of heredity that developed into a science
type of allele that shows its effect on the phenotype only
when two of them are present in the genotype
type of allele that shows its effect on the phenotype whenever
it is present in the genotype

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define proportion to show its scientific
meaning.
proportion

Traits and How They Change

17

Name

Date

Section 2 Genetics

Science of
Genetics
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Evaluate why the study of genetics is important by writing


three key concepts.
1.

2.

3.

I found this information


on page
.

Complete the paragraph about genes and alleles.


Each

in an individual is determined by at least


factors called

different forms called


I found this information
on page
.

18

. Each gene has


.

Model the different combinations of alleles possible in sex cells of


a parent cell with alleles AaBbCc. Select either a lowercase letter
or a capital letter from each column for each row. Find all eight
different combinations. The first one has been done for you.

Traits and How They Change

Aa

Bb

Cc

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Beginning with
Mendel

Name

Date

Section 2 Genetics

I found this information


on page
.

(continued)

Summarize Mendels principles and laws of heredity in the


chart below.
Mendels Principles and Laws of Heredity
Principle
or Law

What the principle or law


says or means
Only one form of a trait shows, even when both
alleles are present.

Segregation

Independent
Assortment

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Predicting
Genetic
Outcomes

Model how a Punnett square shows the outcomes for whether


offspring will be male or female.
Female (XX)

I found this information


on page
.

X
Male (XY)
Y

CONNECT IT

Use a Punnett square


to predict the possible genotype outcomes
for the height of plants. Cross one plant that
is tall (Tt) with one plant that is short (tt).
Show each outcome by writing the correct
letters in the square. State the predicted
percentage for each possible genotype.

Traits and How They Change

19

Name

Date

Traits and How They Change


Section 3 Environmental Impact over Time
Skim Section 3 of your book. Write three questions that come to
mind. Look for answers to your questions as you read the section.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define environment using your book or a dictionary.
environment

New
Vocabulary Write a paragraph using these two vocabulary terms.

Write a paragraph that contains these three vocabulary terms.


mutation
adaptive radiation
extinction

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define isolate to show its scientific meaning.
isolate

20

Traits and How They Change

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

evolution
natural selection

Name

Date

Section 3 Environmental Impact over Time

(continued)

Survival and the


Environment

Compare nonliving and living influences that affect the survival


of species. List at least ten influences.

I found this information


on page
.

Influences That Affect Survival


Nonliving Influences

Living Influences

Describe the hypothesis of Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace


about environmental influences on species.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Darwin and Wallace hypothesized that

Species and the


Environment

Summarize information about the theory of evolution through


natural selection.

I found this information


on page
.
Darwin and Wallace

Proposed:

Concluded:

Traits and How They Change

21

Name

Date

Section 3 Environmental Impact over Time

I found this information


on page
.

(continued)

Compare ways in which species change by writing about each in


the chart below.
Changes to Species
Cause of
Change

Description

Mutation

Selective
Breeding

I found this information


on page
.

Identify two reasons for extinction.


1. Habitats are
2.

.
are introduced that

or

existing species.

CONNECT IT

A new road is planned near a national park. The new road is


needed to handle the large numbers of people who visit the park each year. Before
building the road, the planners have to complete an environmental study. Predict how
a road will impact the species in the area.

22

Traits and How They Change

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Adaptive
Radiation

Name

Date

Tie It Together
All of the members of a rare species of spider live only on a small island. The spider has
no predators on the island. During a hurricane, birds that feed on spiders are blown onto
the island.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Predict whether the spider species can become extinct. Give reasons for your prediction.
Predict what would happen to the rest of the food chain on the island if the spider
becomes extinct.

Traits and How They Change

23

Name

Date

Traits and How They Change


Chapter Wrap-Up
Now that you have read the chapter, think about what you have learned and complete
the table below. Compare your previous answers with these.
1. Write an A if you agree with the statement.
2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.

Traits and How They Change

After You
Read

Traits result from coded information in DNA.


The different forms of a gene are called alleles.
The chance that an organism will inherit a
certain trait cannot be predicted.
Mutation is the process by which changes to
DNA form new alleles.

Use this checklist to help you study.


Review the information you included in your Foldable.
Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations.
Review the Self Check at the end of each section.
Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter.

S UMMARIZE I T

After reading this chapter, identify three important ideas in

the chapter.

24

Traits and How They Change

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Review

Name

Date

Interactions of Human Systems


Before You Read
Before you read the chapter, think about what you know about the topic. List three
things that you already know about human body systems in the first column. Then
list three things that you would like to learn about human body systems in the
second column.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

K
What I know

W
What I want to find out

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Science Journal
Write a paragraph describing why it is important for the members of a sports team,
orchestra, or another group to work together.

Interactions of Human Systems

25

Name

Date

Interactions of Human Systems


Section 1 The Human Organism
Scan the headings in Section 1 of your book. Identify three topics
that will be discussed.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define matter using your book or a dictionary.
matter

New
Vocabulary Read the definitions below. Write the correct vocabulary term
to the left of each definition.

inorganic substance that is involved in many of the bodys


chemical reactions
carbon-containing compound found in living things
group of similar cells that do the same type of work
group of organs that work together to do a job
smallest functional unit in an organism

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define complex to show its scientific
meaning.
complex

26

Interactions of Human Systems

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

structure made of different kinds of tissue that work together

Name

Date

Section 1 The Human Organism

Chemical Basis
of Life

(continued)

Create a graphic organizer to describe matter.

I found this information


on page
.

I found this information


on page
.

Identify the minerals in a meal with a whole wheat bun, spinach


salad, and chili that contains beef, kidney beans, lentils, and peas.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

in the whole wheat bun:

in the spinach salad:

in the chili:

I found this information


on page
.

Complete the chart to identify four groups of organic compounds.


1. Name of Compound:
Function:

3. Name of Compound:
Function:

2. Name of Compound:
Function:

4. Name of Compound:
Function:

Interactions of Human Systems

27

Name

Date

Section 1 The Human Organism

CellsLiving
Factories

(continued)

Model a human body cell by drawing and labeling the cells


structures in the space below.

I found this information


on page
.

Sequence the levels of organization of the body, starting with the


smallest level. Give an example of each.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

S YNTHESIZE I T

28

Explain why it is important to eat a healthy, well-balanced diet.

Interactions of Human Systems

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

I found this information


on page
.

Name

Date

Interactions of Human Systems


Section 2 How Your Body Works
Skim Section 2 of your book. Write three questions that come
to mind.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define energy using your book or a dictionary.
energy

New
Vocabulary Read the definitions below. Write the correct vocabulary term
to the left of each definition.
passing of food molecules through the villi and into the
bloodstream

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

protein that helps the body carry out chemical reactions


series of chemical processes in which oxygen combines with
food molecules and energy is released
process by which the body maintains a stable internal environment
breakdown of foods into smaller and simpler molecules that can
be used by the body
process by which the body reduces the effect of a change to
maintain normal conditions
small fingerlike projections that line the small intestine
thin-walled sacs in the lungs where oxygen enters and carbon
dioxide leaves the bloodstream
removal of waste materials

Academic
Vocabulary Define eliminate to show its scientific meaning.
eliminate

Interactions of Human Systems

29

Name

Date

Section 2 How Your Body Works

Body System
Connections and
Feeding Cells

(continued)

Model the digestive system by drawing and labeling the systems


structures. Then underline the label of the structure that
contains villi.

I found this information


on page
.

Analyze why the small intestine is well suited for the absorption of
food into the circulatory system. List three reasons.
1.

2.

3.

30

Interactions of Human Systems

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

I found this information


on page
.

Name

Date

Section 2 How Your Body Works

Energy for
the Body
I found this information
on page
.

Interdependence
of Body Systems

Summarize how the respiratory system and the circulatory


system work together in the lungs. Draw a diagram to show how
they work.

Compare negative feedback and positive feedback by completing


the graphic organizer below.

I found this information


on page
.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

(continued)

Negative Feedback

Positive Feedback

Function:

Function:

Examples:

Examples:

1.

1.

2.

2.

CONNECT IT

A home heating and cooling system turns on every time the


temperature on the thermostat varies from 70. Which type of feedback is this? How
is this similar to what happens in the human body?

Interactions of Human Systems

31

Name

Date

Interactions of Human Systems


Chapter Wrap-Up
Review the ideas you listed in the chart at the beginning of the chapter. Cross out any
incorrect information in the first column. Then complete the chart by filling in the
third column.
K
What I know

W
What I want to find out

L
What I learned

Use this checklist to help you study.


Review the information you included in your Foldable.
Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations.
Review the Self Check at the end of each section.
Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter.

S UMMARIZE I T

After reading this chapter, identify three main ideas you


learned that you did not know before.

32

Interactions of Human Systems

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Review

Name

Date

Interactions of Life
Before You Read
Before you read the chapter, respond to these statements.
1. Write an A if you agree with the statement.
2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.
Before You
Read

Interactions of Life
The community includes the top part of Earths crust, water that
covers Earths surface, and Earths atmosphere.
In nature, most competition occurs between individuals of the
same species.
Plants and microscopic organisms can move from place to place.
Living organisms do not need a constant supply of energy.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Science Journal
Describe how a familiar bird, insect, or other animal depends on other organisms.

Interactions of Life

33

Name

Date

Interactions of Life
Section 1 Living Earth
Skim through Section 1 of your book. Read the headings and look
at the figures. Write three questions that come to mind.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define adaptation using your book or a dictionary.
adaptation

New
Vocabulary Define each new vocabulary term using your book.

ecology

population

community

habitat

Academic
Vocabulary Define community using a dictionary.
community

34

Interactions of Life

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

biosphere

Name

Section 1 Living Earth

The Biosphere

Date
(continued)

Complete this chart to identify three parts of the biosphere.

I found this information


on page
.

I found this information


on page
.

Parts of the Biosphere

Contrast the organisms found in different environments as you


complete the concept map. Provide examples of both plants
and animals.
Environments

Organisms

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Desert

Tropical
Rain Forest

Arctic

I found this information


on page
.

Analyze the amount of solar energy that makes Earth the only
planet known to support life. Explain why other planets are not
suitable for life.

Interactions of Life

35

Name

Date

Section 1 Living Earth

Ecosystems
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Organize the parts of a prairie ecosystem. List three living organisms


and three nonliving parts of the ecosystem.
Prairie Ecosystem

Populations
I found this information
on page
.

Sequence the four levels of organization of living organisms from


smallest to largest. Then write an example of each one.
community
organism
ecosystem
population
Smallest

S YNTHESIZE I T

Nonliving Parts

Largest

Write about your own life. Use the terms habitat, community,
population, and ecosystem to describe your every day interactions.

36

Interactions of Life

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Living Organisms

Name

Date

Interactions of Life
Section 2 Populations
Predict Read the headings in Section 2. Predict three topics that
you think will be discussed in this section.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define natural selection using your book or a dictionary.
Then use it in a sentence to show its scientific meaning.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

natural selection

New
Vocabulary Create an original sentence using each vocabulary term to show its
scientific meaning.
limiting factor

carrying capacity

Academic
Vocabulary Define resource using a dictionary. Then write a sentence related
to the topic of Section 2 using the term.
resource

Interactions of Life

37

Name

Date

Competition
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Complete the chart below to identify how competing for certain


limited resources can affect population growth.
Limited
Resource

Population Size
I found this information
on page
.

Why It Limits Population Growth

Compare the two ways of measuring populations by filling in the


graphic organizer below.
Measuring Populations

Methods
include

Definitions

I found this information


on page
.

Contrast carrying capacity and biotic potential. Then identify


one factor that can limit each.
What It Is
Carrying
capacity

Biotic
potential

38

Interactions of Life

Limiting Factor

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Section 2 Populations

Name

Date

Section 2 Populations

Changes in
Populations

(continued)

Compare the effect of differing birth rates and death rates on


population growth as you complete the chart below.

I found this information


on page
.

Population Growth
Birth Rate Compared
to Death Rate

Change in Population

much higher
slightly higher
lower
I found this information
on page
.

Evaluate the effects of exponential growth on a population.


leads to
Size of
Population increases

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

leads to

Summarize the environmental effects of the exponential growth of


a population.

S YNTHESIZE I T

A field is crowded with mice. A new group of mice migrate


into the field. Describe how the crowded conditions could affect the mice.

Interactions of Life

39

Name

Date

Interactions of Life
Section 3 Interactions Within Communities
Scan the What Youll Learn statements for Section 3. Rewrite each
statement as a question. As you read the section, try to answer
your questions.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define social behavior using your book or a dictionary.
social behavior

New
Vocabulary Label each definition with the correct vocabulary term.

an organism that cannot make its own energy-rich molecules


any close relationship between species
an organisms role in its environment

Academic
Vocabulary Define consume. Then use it in a scientific sentence.
consume

40

Interactions of Life

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

an organism that can use an outside energy source like the Sun
to make energy-rich molecules

Name

Date

Section 3 Interactions Within Communities

Obtaining Energy
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Compare and contrast producers and consumers by describing


the processes by which each group gets the energy it needs.
Producers gain energy from

processes that producers


use to make food

Consumers gain energy from

different types of consumers

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Herbivores
eat

Decomposers
consume

Carnivores
eat

Symbiotic
Relationships
I found this information
on page
.

Omnivores
eat

Classify examples of symbiosis by completing the chart below.


Type of
Symbiosis

Who Benefits?

Example

mutualism

commensalism

parasitism

Interactions of Life

41

Name

Date

Section 3 Interactions Within Communities

Niches
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Organize important points about niches by creating an outline of


your reading.
I. A niche is

A. how it obtains food


B.
C.
D.
E.
II. Special adaptations that
can be part of a niche.

B. Example:

S YNTHESIZE I T

Draw and label organisms that are in your food chain. Include
at least three organisms. Then show how each of these organisms can get the energy
it needs.

42

Interactions of Life

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

A. Example:

Name

Date

Tie It Together
Observation
Observe the behaviors of a species of animal (for example, squirrels in a park) for at least
15 minutes. Use the chart below to take notes on your observations.
Species:
Date and time of observation:
Number of individuals observed:
Interactions within species:

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Food sources observed:

Habitat:

Special adaptations of species:

Interactions observed with other species:

Interactions of Life

43

Name

Date

Interactions of Life

Chapter Wrap-Up

Now that you have read the chapter, think about what you have learned and complete
the table below. Compare your previous answers with these.
1. Write an A if you agree with the statement.
2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.

Interactions of Life

After You
Read

The community includes the top part of Earths crust, water that
covers Earths surface, and Earths atmosphere.
In nature, most competition occurs between individuals of the
same species.
Plants and microscopic organisms can move from place to place.
Living organisms do not need a constant supply of energy.

Review
Review the information you included in your Foldable.
Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations.
Review the Self Check at the end of each section.
Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter.

S UMMARIZE I T

After reading this chapter, identify three things that you have
learned about interactions among living organisms.

44

Interactions of Life

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use this checklist to help you study.

Name

Date

The Nonliving Environment


Before You Read
Preview the chapter title, the section titles, and the section headings. List at least
two ideas for each section in each column.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

K
What I know

W
What I want to find out

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Science Journal
List all the nonliving things that you might see in a picture of a beach, in order of
importance. Explain your reasoning for the order you choose.

The Nonliving Environment

45

Name

Date

The Nonliving Environment


Section 1 Abiotic Factors
Preview the What Youll Learn statements for Section 1. Rewrite
each statement into a question.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define environment to show its scientific meaning.
environment

New
Vocabulary Define the following terms to show their scientific meanings.

abiotic

atmosphere

soil

climate

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define fundamental as an adjective.
fundamental

46

The Nonliving Environment

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

biotic

Name

Date

Section 1 Abiotic Factors

Environmental
Factors

(continued)

Classify seven environmental factors as biotic or abiotic.


Factors needed for life

I found this information


on page
.

Biotic

Abiotic

1.

1.

2.

2.
3.
4.
5.

Air
I found this information
on page
.

Compare and contrast how gases are used during photosynthesis


and respiration.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Photosynthesis

Respiration

Gas used
Gas released
Purpose

Water and Soil


I found this information
on page
.

Summarize how organisms use water and soil. Complete the


sentences.
Most organisms are
such as

percent water. Processes


,

, and

need water to occur. Environments with plenty of water usually


have

of organisms than

environments with little water. Organisms also need


,

.
, and

all live in soil. The type of soil influences the


types of

that can grow in a region.


The Nonliving Environment

47

Name

Date

Section 1 Abiotic Factors

Sunlight
I found this information
on page
.

Temperature
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Label the diagram to show the flow of energy through living things.
Label consumers, producers, and sunlight.

Analyze how latitude and elevation affect temperature.


Latitude:

Elevation:

I found this information


on page
.

Sequence steps to explain the rain shadow effect.


1. Moist air is forced upward by a mountain.
2.
3.
4.

CONNECT IT

Describe the climate of your community. Identify its latitude,


elevation, temperature, and precipitation characteristics.

48

The Nonliving Environment

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Climate

Name

Date

The Nonliving Environment


Section 2 Cycles in Nature
Skim the headings and illustrations in Section 2. List three kinds of
cycles you will learn about in the section.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define biosphere to show its scientific meaning.
biosphere

New
Vocabulary Read the definitions below. Write the correct vocabulary term on
the blank to the left.
model describing how carbon molecules move between the living
and the nonliving world

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

process that takes place when a gas changes to a liquid


process in which some types of bacteria in the soil change nitrogen
gas into a form of nitrogen that plants can use
process that takes place when a liquid changes to a gas
model describing how water moves from Earths surface to the
atmosphere and back again through evaporation, condensation,
and precipitation
model describing how nitrogen moves from the atmosphere to the
soil, to living organisms, and then back to the atmosphere

Academic
Vocabulary Define model as it is used in the definitions above. Use a
dictionary to help you.
model

The Nonliving Environment

49

Name

Date

Section 2 Cycles in Nature

The Cycles of
Matter

(continued)

Summarize the importance of cycles to life on Earth.

I found this information


on page
.

I found this information


on page
.

The Nitrogen
Cycle

Model the water cycle in a drawing.


Label phases of the cycle including evaporation, transpiration,
condensation, and precipitation.
Label the sources and forms the water takes.
Use arrows to show the direction in which water is moving at
each part of the cycle.

Identify the three ways that nitrogen is made available to plants.

I found this information


on page
.

Plants use nitrogen


compounds to build cells.

50

The Nonliving Environment

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

The Water Cycle

Name

Date

Section 2 Cycles in Nature

I found this information


on page
.

(continued)

Describe how harvesting removes soil nitrogen and how fertilizer


and nitrogen-fixing crops can increase the amount of nitrogen in soil.
Harvesting:

Fertilizer:

Nitrogen-fixing crops:

The Carbon Cycle


I found this information
on page
.

Model the carbon cycle. Identify the role of each item shown in the
cycle. Draw arrows showing the flow of carbon through the system.
Producers (Plants and algae)

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Air
.

Consumers
Burning wood and fossil fuels
.
.

CONNECT IT

Choose an organism. Explain its role in the water, nitrogen, and

carbon cycles.

The Nonliving Environment

51

Name

Date

The Nonliving Environment


Section 3 Energy Flow
Skim Section 3 of your book. Read the headings and look at the
illustrations. Write three questions that come to mind.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define energy to show its scientific meaning.
energy

New
Vocabulary Define the following terms to show their scientific meanings.

food web

energy pyramid

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to locate the scientific meaning of convert.
Write a sentence using that scientific meaning.
convert

52

The Nonliving Environment

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

chemosynthesis

Name

Date

Section 3 Energy Flow

Converting
Energy
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Compare and contrast photosynthesis and chemosynthesis.


Complete the Venn diagram with at least seven points of
information from your book.
Photosynthesis

Chemosynthesis

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Both

Energy Transfer
I found this information
on page
.

Create an example of a food chain.


Include and label a producer, a herbivore, and a carnivore or
omnivore that eats the herbivore.
Use arrows to show the transfer of energy.

The Nonliving Environment

53

Name

Date

Section 3 Energy Flow

(continued)

I found this information


on page
.

Synthesize information about food webs. Draw arrows to show


the energy transfers in the food web shown.
rattlesnake

eagle

weasel

mouse
squirrel

Energy Pyramids
I found this information
on page
.

Sequence the levels of an energy pyramid.


Label each level as containing carnivores, herbivores, or
producers.
Label each level with the percentage of total energy that is
available at that level.
%
%
%

S YNTHESIZE I T

Describe the flow of matter and energy in a food chain made


up of grasses, mice, and hawks, and what might happen to the food chain if a fire
destroyed much of the grass.

54

The Nonliving Environment

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

plants

Name

Date

Tie It Together
A developer wants to build homes on land near your community and wants to know how
the environment will affect the people who live in the homes, and how the homes will
affect the environment.
Prepare an environmental study for the developer, including information about
the abiotic factors in the area that could affect the people in the home
how the new homes might affect natural cycles and food webs in the area

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use paragraphs and/or pictures to help you explain your points.

The Nonliving Environment

55

Name

Date

The Nonliving Environment


Chapter Wrap-Up
Review the ideas you listed in the chart at the beginning of the chapter. Cross out
any incorrect information in the first column, then complete the chart by filling
in the third column. How do your ideas compare with those you provided at the
beginning of the chapter?
K
What I know

W
What I want to find out

L
What I learned

Use this checklist to help you study.


Review the information you included in your Foldable.
Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations.
Review the Self Check at the end of each section.
Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter.

S UMMARIZE I T

56

Write three things that you learned while studying this chapter.

The Nonliving Environment

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Review

Name

Date

Ecosystems
Before You Read
Think about the terms and descriptions below. Infer which term most closely matches the
description and write it on the line.
biome

ecosystem

estuary

intertidal zone

community of living organisms interacting with each other and their


physical environment
part of the shoreline that is under water at high tide and exposed to
the air at low tide
a large geographic area with an interactive environmental community
and similar climate
extremely fertile area where a river meets an ocean; contains a mixture
of freshwater and saltwater and serves as a nursery for many species

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Science Journal
What traits might plants on a burning hillside have that enable them to survive
and reproduce?

Ecosystems

57

Name

Date

Ecosystems
Section 1 How Ecosystems Change
Skim through Section 1 of your text. Write three things that might
be discussed in this section.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary

Define the following key term using your book or a dictionary.

ecosystem

New
Vocabulary Define these terms using your book or a dictionary.

pioneer species

succession

Academic
Vocabulary Define process using a dictionary.
process

58

Ecosystems

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

climax community

Name

Date

Section 1 How Ecosystems Change

Ecological
Succession

(continued)

Sequence the steps in the succession of a lawn to a climax


community. The first one has been completed for you.

I found this information


on page
.

Succession of a Lawn to Climax Community


1. The grass would get longer.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

I found this information


on page
.

Organize the information from your book to compare primary


succession with secondary succession.
Primary Succession

Secondary Succession

Lava from a volcano

Fire consumes a forest

Land
consists
of
Starts
with

break down
rock and decay, adding

Soil contains

.
Animals
and wind
carry
Plants
add
Wildlife

Ecosystems

59

Name

Date

Section 1 How Ecosystems Change

I found this information


on page
.

(continued)

Complete the graphic organizer to better understand the


characteristics of a climax community.
A
climax
community
is

is

I found this information


on page
.

Identify the three main characteristics of a forest climax community.


1.
2.
3.

CONNECT IT

Use the information you have learned about succession to


predict the growth of a community in a flooded river basin. Hypothesize whether
the succession would be primary succession or secondary succession. Support your
answer with facts from your book.

60

Ecosystems

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

has
reached

Name

Date

Ecosystems
Section 2 Biomes
Analyze Look at the world map of the seven major land biomes in
your book. Infer two factors you think scientists might use to classify
biomes of the world.
1.
2.

Review
Vocabulary Use the word climate in a scientific sentence.
climate

New
Vocabulary Read the definitions below. Write the key terms on the blanks in
the left column.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

most biologically diverse biome


ideal biome for growing crops and raising cattle and
sheep
biome usually having four distinct seasons
cold, dry, treeless biome with a short growing season and
permafrost
biome with thin soil where organisms are adapted to survive
extreme conditions
biome containing cone-bearing evergreen trees and dense forests

Academic
Vocabulary Define mature as a verb using a dictionary.
mature

Ecosystems

61

Name

Date

Section 2 Biomes

(continued)

Major Biomes
I found this information
on page
.

Complete the comparison chart using the world map of


seven biomes.

Physical
Description
Tundra

Average
Temperature
Precipitation

Location

Plant and
Animal Life
Plants:

less than
25 cm per
year

Animals:

Plants:

temperature
range: 54C
to 21C

Animals:

Temperate
Deciduous
Forest

eastern US,
Europe,
parts of Asia
and Africa

Plants:

Animals:

Temperate
Rain
Forest

dense forest
with a variety
of plants and
animals

Plants:

Animals:

62

Ecosystems

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Taiga

Name

Date

Section 2 Biomes

(continued)

Physical
Description

Average
Temperature
Precipitation

Location

Tropical
Rain
Forest

Plant and
Animal Life
4 zones of
plant and
animal life
Plants:
Animals:

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Desert

Grasslands

mild to hot

western
US and
S. America,
Africa, parts
of Australia
and Asia

Plants:

prairies
N. America,
steppes
Asia,
savannas
Africa,
pampas
S. America

Plants:

Animals:

Animals:

CONNECT IT

Analyze the information you recorded about biomes. Compare


and contrast the tundra with the desert.

Ecosystems

63

Name

Date

Ecosystems
Section 3 Aquatic Ecosystems
Read the What Youll Learn objectives of Section 3. Write
questions that come to mind from reading these statements.
1.

2.

3.

Review
Vocabulary Define the key term using your book or a dictionary.
aquatic

coral reef

wetland

Academic
Vocabulary Define promote.
promote

Freshwater
Ecosystems
I found this information
on page
.

Organize the four important factors that determine how well a


species can survive in an aquatic environment.
1.
2.
3.
4.

64

Ecosystems

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

New
Vocabulary Define these words using your book or a dictionary.

Name

Date

Section 3 Aquatic Ecosystems

Freshwater
Ecosystems
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Compare fast-moving streams with slower-moving streams as you


complete the sentences below about freshwater environments.
Fast-moving Streams
Currents quickly
.
As water tumbles, air

These streams have clearer

and higher

.
Slow-moving Streams
Water moves slowly and debris

These environments have higher


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

plant

, more

, and organisms
.

I found this information


on page
.

Classify each statement as a characteristic of pond ecosystems,


lake ecosystems, or both. Mark P for pond, L for lake, or B for
both ecosystems.
more plants than flowing water environments
deeper water and colder water temperatures
larger body of water
plankton floating near the surface
ecosystem high in nutrients
small, shallow body of water
lower light levels at depth limit types of organisms
plant growth limited to shallow water near shore
water hardly moves
Ecosystems

65

Name

Date

Section 3 Aquatic Ecosystems

Freshwater
Ecosystems

(continued)

Organize information about wetlands in the concept map.

I found this information


on page
.
also
known
as

source of products
such as

Wetlands

located between
and

filled with

animals
may include

Saltwater
Ecosystems

Complete the outline about saltwater ecosystems.


I. Coral Reef ecosystems are

I found this information


on page
.
A. reefs formed by
B. damaged by
II. Seashores
A. affected by

and

B. intertidal zone organisms must adapt to


, and
III. Estuaries
A. contain
B. are important for

66

Ecosystems

,
changes

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

and
well-adapted to

Name

Date

Tie It Together
Interactions within Ecosystems
Select one of the ecosystems discussed in this chapter. You might choose a tundra ecosystem,
a rain forest ecosystem, a coral reef ecosystem, or one of the other ecosystems. Take notes
about your ecosystem on the lines below. Then, draw a picture of your ecosystem with its
animal and plant inhabitants. Show any interactions that you described in your picture.
My ecosystem is a/an

.
Interactions between organisms
include these:

It includes these plants:

It includes these animals:


Interactions between organisms and
the environment include these:

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Its environment includes these


conditions:

Sketch of My Ecosystem

Ecosystems

67

Name

Date

Ecosystems

Chapter Wrap-Up

Think about the terms and descriptions below. Write the term that most closely
matches the description on the line in front of the description. Compare your
previous responses with these.
biome

ecosystem

estuary

intertidal zone

community of living organisms interacting with each other and their


physical environment
part of the shoreline that is under water at high tide and exposed to
the air at low tide
a large geographic area with an interactive environmental community
and similar climate
extremely fertile area where a river meets an ocean; contains a mixture
of freshwater and saltwater and serves as a nursery for many species

Review
Use this checklist to help you study.

Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.


Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations.
Review the Self Check at the end of each section.
Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter.

S UMMARIZE I T

After reading this chapter, identify three things that you have
learned about ecosystems.

68

Ecosystems

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Review the information you included in your Foldable.

Name

Date

Plate Tectonics
Before You Read
Before you read the chapter, respond to these statements.
1. Write an A if you agree with the statement.
2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.
Before You
Read

Plate Tectonics
Fossil evidence provides support for the idea
that continents have moved over time.
New seafloor is continuously forming while
old seafloor is being destroyed.
Earths crust is broken into sections called
plates.
Rock flows deep inside Earth.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Science Journal
Pretend youre a journalist with an audience that assumes the continents have never
moved. Write about the kinds of evidence youll need to convince people otherwise.

Plate Tectonics

69

Name

Date

Plate Tectonics
Section 1 Continental Drift
Skim through Section 1 of your book. Write three questions that
come to mind from reading the headings and examining the
illustrations.
1.

2.

3.

Review
Vocabulary Define continent to show its scientific meaning.

New
Vocabulary Use your book to define the following terms. Then write an
original sentence using each term.
continental drift

Pangaea

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define controversy.
controversy

70

Plate Tectonics

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

continent

Name

Date

Section 1 Continental Drift

Evidence for
Continental Drift

(continued)

Summarize Alfred Wegeners hypothesis about Earths continents.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

I found this information


on page
.

I found this information


on page
.

Create a graphic organizer to identify the three types of clues that


are evidence for continental drift.

I found this information


on page
.

Analyze the clue in the left column below. Then describe how
Alfred Wegener would have explained it in the right column.
Clue

Wegeners Response

Fossils of Mesosaurus
found in South America
and Africa
Fossil plant found in
five continents,
including Antarctica
Fossils of warm
weather plants found
on Arctic island
Glacial deposits found
in Africa, India, and
Australia
Plate Tectonics

71

Name

Date

Section 1 Continental Drift

How could
continents drift?
I found this information
on page
.

Model what the continents may have looked like 250 million
years ago.

Summarize Wegeners explanations of how and why continental


drift occurs.
Wegeners explanation for continental drift
How:

Why:

E VALUATE I T

Do you think it was reasonable for scientists initially to reject


the hypothesis of continental drift? Explain your response.

72

Plate Tectonics

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

I found this information


on page
.

(continued)

Name

Date

Plate Tectonics
Section 2 Seafloor Spreading
Predict three things that might be discussed in Section 2 after
reading its headings.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define seafloor. Then use the word in a sentence.
seafloor

New
Vocabulary Use your book to define seafloor spreading. Then use the term
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

in a sentence.
seafloor spreading

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define interval. Then use the word in a
sentence about magnetic clues to seafloor spreading.
interval

Plate Tectonics

73

Name

Date

Section 2 Seafloor Spreading

Mapping the
Ocean Floor

(continued)

Summarize how sound waves are used to map the seafloor.

I found this information


on page
.

Model the process of seafloor spreading by drawing a cross section


of a mid-ocean ridge and the magma below it. Use arrows to
indicate the directions of motion.

Sequence steps describing seafloor spreading.


Hot, less dense material below Earths crust rises toward the surface
at a mid-ocean ridge.

The less dense material flows


.

As the seafloor spreads apart, magma is


.

74

Plate Tectonics

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

I found this information


on page
.

Name

Date

Section 2 Seafloor Spreading

Evidence for
Spreading
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Label the diagram below to identify evidence for seafloor


spreading. Add arrows to show the direction of spreading, and
indicate where older rock and newer rock occur.
Center of Ridge

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

I found this information


on page
.

Model the polarity of Earths magnetic field today.


Draw a sphere to represent
Earth.
Label the north pole and
south pole.
Draw arrows indicating the
direction in which magnetic
lines of force enter and
leave Earth.

Summarize how reversals in the direction of Earths magnetic


field have provided evidence of seafloor spreading.
At times, the

that pass

through Earth have

Earths magnetic field are recorded in


along

of
that forms

. Scientists can detect


that are

to mid-ocean

ridges. This occurs on

Plate Tectonics

75

Name

Date

Plate Tectonics
Section 3 Theory of Plate Tectonics
Scan the headings and illustrations in Section 3. List four features
caused by plate tectonics.
1.

3.

2.

4.

Review
Vocabulary Define the review terms to show their scientific meanings.
converge
diverge
transform

New
Vocabulary Use your book to define the following terms.

plate tectonics

lithosphere

asthenosphere

convection current

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define rigid.
rigid

76

Plate Tectonics

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

plate

Name

Date

Section 3 Theory of Plate Tectonics

Plate Tectonics
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Complete the following outline on the theory of plate tectonics.


I. A new theory
A. In the 1960s, a new theory called
developed.
B. Earths

was

and part of the

are broken into sections called


slowly.

, that move

II. Details about the theory


A. The layer of Earth that is broken into sections is called
the

B. The

is the plasticlike layer below the


.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

C. The rigid plates move over the

Plate Boundaries
I found this information
on page
.

Compare and contrast the different plate boundaries by defining


them side by side. Draw the plates of the world. Identify plate
motion by using arrows.
Divergent

Convergent

Transform

Plate Tectonics

77

Name

Date

Section 3 Theory of Plate Tectonics

Causes of Plate
Tectonics

(continued)

Label the convection currents depicted below with heating, rising,


cooling, and sinking.

I found this information


on page
.

I found this information


on page
.

Organize information to describe features caused by plate


tectonics. Fill in the chart below.
Feature

Description

Rift valley

Folded and
faulted
mountains
Strike-slip
faults

Testing for
Plate Tectonics
I found this information
on page
.

78

Plate Tectonics

Summarize how the Satellite Laser Ranging System measures


plate movement.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Features Caused
by Plate
Tectonics

Name

Date

Tie It Together
Synthesize It

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Your book has a picture showing how continents may have drifted. It shows their positions
250 million years ago, 125 million years ago, and at the present. Work with a partner to
trace the paths that the continents have taken. Then extend their paths forward in time
to project where they may be 125 million years from now. Draw a map in the space below,
showing your prediction.

Plate Tectonics

79

Name

Date

Plate Tectonics

Chapter Wrap-Up

Now that you have read the chapter, think about what you have learned and complete
the table below. Compare your previous answers with these.
1. Write an A if you agree with the statement.
2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.

Plate Tectonics

After You
Read

Fossil evidence provides support for the idea


that continents have moved over time.
New seafloor is continuously forming while
old seafloor is being destroyed.
Earths crust is broken into sections called
plates.
Rock flows deep inside Earth.

Review
Review the information you included in your Foldable.
Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations.
Review the Self Check at the end of each section.
Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter.

S UMMARIZE I T

After reading this chapter, identify three things that you have
learned about plate tectonics.

80

Plate Tectonics

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use this checklist to help you study.

Name

Date

Earthquakes and Volcanoes


Before You Read
Preview the chapter title, the section titles, and the section headings. Complete
the first two columns of the chart by listing at least two ideas for each section
in each column.
K
What I know

W
What I want to learn

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Science Journal
Are earthquakes and volcanoes completely unrelated, or could there be a possible
connection? Propose several ideas that might explain what causes these events.

Earthquakes and Volcanoes

81

Name

Date

Earthquakes and Volcanoes


Section 1 Earthquakes
Scan the headings in Section 1 and write three questions you have
about earthquakes.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Write six original sentences with at least two vocabulary terms in
energy

New
Vocabulary

each. Include the review, new, and academic vocabulary items.


Underline the vocabulary terms that you use. Words may be used
more than once. Use all of the words.

earthquake
fault

focus
epicenter
seismograph
magnitude
tsunami
seismic safe

Academic
Vocabulary
collapse

82

Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

seismic wave

Name

Section 1 Earthquakes

What causes
earthquakes?
I found this information
on page
.

Date
(continued)

Model the direction of motion in the three types of faults below.


Use arrows to indicate direction of force and direction of
movement. Label the arrows.
Normal Fault

Reverse Fault

Strike-slip Fault

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Making Waves
I found this information
on page
.

Compare primary, secondary, and surface seismic waves by


completing the chart below. Put an X in the column of the type
of wave that causes the most damage.
Seismic Waves
Primary

Secondary

Surface

Most damage
Relative
speed

Motion

Where they
travel

Earthquakes and Volcanoes

83

Name

Date

Learning from
Earthquakes
I found this information
on page
.

How strong are


earthquakes?

(continued)

Model how an earthquakes epicenter is located. The stars in the


diagram indicate seismograph stations. The circles show their
distance from the epicenter. Mark the epicenter with an X, and use
arrows to show the directions in which seismic waves travel.

Compare the Richter scale and the Mercalli scale in the chart.
Comparing Earthquake Scales

I found this information


on page
.

Earthquake
Safety
I found this information
on page
.

Richter

Organize information by listing two things that individuals can do


and two things that cities can do to prepare for earthquakes.
Individuals
1.
2.
Cities
1.
2.

84

Mercalli

Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Section 1 Earthquakes

Name

Date

Earthquakes and Volcanoes


Section 2 Volcanoes
Predict what youll learn in this section by reading the What
Youll Learn statements. Rewrite each statement as a question.
Use these questions as a guide to the content of Section 2.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define plate to show its scientific meaning.
plate

New
Vocabulary Write the correct vocabulary term from your book next to each

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

definition.
cone-shaped hill or mountain formed when hot magma, solids,
and gases erupt onto Earths surface
molten rock flowing onto Earths surface
large, broad volcano with gently sloping sides that is formed by
the build up of basaltic layers
relatively small volcano formed by moderate to explosive
eruptions of tephra
steep-sided volcano formed from alternating layers of tephra
and lava

Academic
Vocabulary Read the sentence below. Use a dictionary to determine how
the term factor is being used.
Different factors affect volcanic eruptions.
In this sentence, the word factor means:
factor

Earthquakes and Volcanoes

85

Name

Date

Section 2 Volcanoes

How do volcanoes
form?
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Sequence the events that result in volcanic eruptions where plates


collide by filling in the blanks below.
1. An older, denser plate
dense plate.

a less

2. Rock in and above the sinking plate


3.

form.

4. The magma

Forms of
Volcanoes

to form

Analyze the way silica content helps determine how a volcano


erupts to complete the following chart.

I found this information


on page
.

How the composition of magma affects eruptions


High silica

Low silica

Eruption

I found this information


on page
.

Model the 3 types of volcanoes by drawing a cross-section of each


in the boxes on this page and the next. To the right of each drawing,
write a caption that includes
how this type of volcano forms
what this type of volcano is made of
Shield volcano

86

Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Consistency
and flow

Name

Section 2 Volcanoes

Date
(continued)

Cinder cone volcano

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Composite volcano

I found this information


on page
.

Describe a fissure eruption, and give an example.

CONNECT IT

What type of volcano do you think appears most in the news?


Why? Identify any real-life volcanoes you have heard about.

Earthquakes and Volcanoes

87

Name

Date

Earthquakes and Volcanoes


Section 3 Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Plate Tectonics
Skim Section 3. Predict three things that you will learn.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define asthenosphere, then use a dictionary to break down the
word into its two parts and give the meaning of each part.
asthenosphere
asthenes:
sphere:

New
Vocabulary Find the definitions of rift and hot spot in your book. Then

rift

Definition:

Sentence:

hot spot

Definition:

Sentence:

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define occur.
occur

88

Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

locate another sentence in the section that uses these terms and
write it in the space below.

Name

Date

Section 3 Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Plate Tectonics

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Earths Moving
Plates

(continued)

I found this information


on page
.

Model the plates of Earths lithosphere that contribute to


earthquake and volcanic activity in North America. Draw a simple
map of North America and its plate and the boundaries with the
plates that surround it. Label the plates.

Where Volcanoes
Form

Organize information about where volcanoes form by completing


the concept map.

I found this information


on page
.

Volcanoes
form
at

form
at
form
at

Earthquakes and Volcanoes

89

Name

Date

Section 3 Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Plate Tectonics

Moving Plates
Cause
Earthquakes
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Identify three places where earthquakes frequently occur.


1.

2.

3.

Model what drives Earths plates.


In the diagram below, label Earths core and mantle.
Draw three convection currents. Use arrows to show the
direction of flow.
Show a convergent boundary between two currents and
a divergent boundary between two currents.

S YNTHESIZE I T

In your own words, explain how seismic waves help scientists


learn about Earths layers.

90

Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

I found this information


on page
.

Name

Date

Tie It Together
Summarize

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Create a concept map or other diagram to connect concepts you have learned about
volcanoes and earthquakes. Include information about
why they occur
how they affect humans
how scientists measure and observe them
what scientists know about them.

Earthquakes and Volcanoes

91

Name

Date

Earthquakes and Volcanoes


Chapter Wrap-Up
Review the ideas that you listed in the chart at the beginning of the chapter. Cross out
any incorrect information in the first column. Then complete the chart by filling in the
third column.
K
What I know

W
What I want to learn

L
What I learned

Review
Review the information you included in your Foldable.
Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations.
Review the Self Check at the end of each section.
Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter.

S UMMARIZE I T

After reading this chapter, identify three things that you have
learned about earthquakes and volcanoes.

92

Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use this checklist to help you study.

Name

Date

Clues to Earths Past


Before You Read
Before you read the chapter, respond to these statements.
1. Write an A if you agree with the statement.
2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.
Before You
Read

Clues to Earths Past


The footprint of a dinosaur is considered
a fossil.
Scientists use fossils to learn what an
environment was like long ago.
The oldest rock layer is always the one
found on top.
Scientists can determine the age of
some rocks.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Science Journal
List three fossils that you would expect to find a million years from now in the place
you live today.

Clues to Earths Past

93

Name

Date

Clues to Earths Past


Section 1 Fossils
Skim Section 1 of your book. Read the headings and examine the
illustrations. Write three questions that come to mind.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define paleontologist to show its scientific meaning.
paleontologist

New
Vocabulary Define the following terms to show their scientific meaning.

carbon film

cast

index fossils

Academic
Vocabulary Define emerge to show its scientific meaning.
emerge

94

Clues to Earths Past

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

permineralized
remains

Name

Section 1 Fossils

Date
(continued)

Formation of
Fossils

Complete the chart to describe the two conditions that improve the
chances of fossil formation. Give an example of each.

I found this information


on page
.

Types of
Preservation

Condition

Example

Create a concept web to summarize the types of preservation.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

I found this information


on page
.

I found this information


on page
.

Sequence the steps involved in the making of the cast of a shell.

Sediment
buries shell.

Mold results.

Cast results.

Clues to Earths Past

95

Name

Section 1 Fossils

Date
(continued)

Index Fossils
I found this information
on page
.

Summarize the three characteristics of index fossils.


1.
2.
3.
Analyze why index fossils are more useful to paleontologists than
many other fossils.

I found this information


on page
.

CONNECT IT

Organize the kinds of information about ancient environments that


scientists can learn from fossils. Complete the graphic organizer.
Information about environment
revealed by fossils

You find a fossil shell in a layer of rock. It appears to be a clam.


What type of rock must the rock layer be? What type of environment would the
animal have lived in?

96

Clues to Earths Past

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Fossils and
Ancient
Environments

Name

Date

Clues to Earths Past


Section 2 Relative Ages of Rocks
Scan the list below to preview Section 2 of your book.
Read all section headings.
Read all bold words.
Look at all of the pictures.
Think about what you already know about rock.
Write three facts you discovered about the relative ages of rocks as
you scanned the section.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define sedimentary rock to show its scientific meaning.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

sedimentary rock

New
Vocabulary Read each definition below. Write the correct vocabulary term in
the blank to the left.
states that in undisturbed rock layers, the oldest rocks are on the
bottom and the rocks are progressively younger toward the top
age of something compared with the ages of other things
gap in a sequence of rock layers that is due to erosion or periods
without any deposition

Academic
Vocabulary Define sequence to show its scientific meaning.
sequence

Clues to Earths Past

97

Name

Date

Section 2 Relative Ages of Rocks

I found this information


on page
.

Relative Ages
I found this information
on page
.

I found this information


on page
.

98

Clues to Earths Past

Model the principle of superposition by sketching a cross-section


of layers of undisturbed sedimentary rock. Number the layers,
starting with 1 for the oldest layer.

Describe how the relative age of a rock layer is different from the
actual age of the rock layer.

Model how a folded rock formation containing limestone, coal,


and sandstone would form. Draw and label the layers as they
would form originally. Then draw what they would look like after
being folded.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Superposition

(continued)

Name

Date

Section 2 Relative Ages of Rocks

Unconformities
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Compare and contrast angular unconformity, disconformity,


and nonconformity in rocks by sequencing the steps in their
formation.
Unconformities
Type
Angular
unconformity

How It Forms
1.
2.
3.

Disconformity

1.
2.
3.

Nonconformity 1.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2.
3.

Matching Up
Rock Layers
I found this information
on page
.

Identify the two ways to match up, or correlate, exposed rock


layers from two different places. Complete the graphic organizer.
Match up
rock layers by

S YNTHESIZE I T

As you pass through a highway cut, you notice distinct layers


of rock. Can you be sure that the top layer is the youngest one? Explain.

Clues to Earths Past

99

Name

Date

Clues to Earths Past


Section 3 Absolute Ages of Rocks
Predict three things that might be discussed in Section 3 as you
read the headings.
1.

2.

3.

Review
Vocabulary Define isotopes to show its scientific meaning.

New
Vocabulary Define these key terms to show their scientific meaning.
radioactive decay

radiometric dating

uniformitarianism

Academic
Vocabulary Define ratio to show its scientific meaning.
ratio

100

Clues to Earths Past

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

isotopes

Name

Date

Section 3 Absolute Ages of Rocks

Absolute Ages
and Radioactive
Decay

Organize information about radioactive decay as a tool to find a


rocks absolute age. Complete the Venn diagram below with at least
six points of information.
Radioactive Decay
Alpha decay

Both

Beta decay

Create a bar chart to show four half-lives. Then draw a curve


connecting the tops of the bars. Label each axis.

Parent isotope

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

I found this information


on page
.

I found this information


on page
.

(continued)

Half-lives

Clues to Earths Past

101

Name

Date

Section 3 Absolute Ages of Rocks

(continued)

Radiometric Ages

Analyze carbon-14 dating by completing the statements.

I found this information


on page
.

The half-life of carbon-14 is

When carbon-14 decays, it becomes

Carbon-14 radiometric dating is used for

, and
to

samples up

old. Scientists compare amounts of

carbon-14 in the

to the amount in a fossil

of an organism that lived long ago. While the organism was alive,
it took in and processed carbon-14 and

approximate

Uniformitarianism
I found this information
on page
.

of carbon-14 to carbon-12 tells the


of the fossil.

Summarize Huttons view of uniformitarianism and the modern


view of changes that affect Earth.
Huttons view:

Modern view:

S YNTHESIZE I T

Explain why the principle of uniformitarianism is critical to


what you have learned about determining the absolute age of rocks.

102

Clues to Earths Past

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

The

Name

Date

Tie It Together
A paleontologist found the following composition of rock layers at a site. The
paleontologist concludes that no folding or other disruption has happened to
the layers. What can you conclude about the areas history? Write a summary
of your conclusions.
Top layer: coal layer made up of altered plant material
Middle layer: mix of sandstone and shale, with some tracks made by dinosaurs

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Bottom layer: limestone with fossils of clams, snails, and sea lilies

Clues to Earths Past

103

Name

Date

Clues to Earths Past

Chapter Wrap-Up

Now that you have read the chapter, think about what you have learned and complete
the table below. Compare your previous answers with these.
1. Write an A if you agree with the statement.
2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.

Clues to Earths Past

After You
Read

The footprint of a dinosaur is considered


a fossil.
Scientists use fossils to learn what an
environment was like long ago.
The oldest rock layer is always the one
found on top.
Scientists can determine the age of
some rocks.

Review
Review the information you included in your Foldable.
Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations.
Review the Self Check at the end of each section.
Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter.

S UMMARIZE I T
found interesting.

104

Clues to Earths Past

Identify three facts about fossils and rock layers that you

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use this checklist to help you study.

Name

Date

Geologic Time
Before You Read
Preview the chapter title, section titles, and section headings. Complete the
first two columns of the chart by listing at least two ideas for each section
in each column.
K
What I know

W
What I want to find out

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Science Journal
Describe how an animal or a plant might change if Earth becomes hotter in the next
million years.

Geologic Time

105

Name

Date

Geologic Time
Section 1 Life and Geologic Time
Skim the headings in Section 1. Predict two topics that will be
covered in this section.
1.
2.

Review
Vocabulary Define fossils to show its scientific meaning.
fossils

New
Vocabulary Write the correct vocabulary term next to each definition.
representation of Earths history that shows the time units used
to divide it
longest subdivision of geologic time

subdivision of an era
subdivision of a period
change of species through time
group of organisms that normally reproduce only with other
members of their group
process by which organisms that have characteristics that are
better suited to an environment have a better chance of surviving
and reproducing than those that do not
organism with a three-lobed exoskeleton that was abundant in
Paleozoic oceans
large ancient landmass composed of all the continents
joined together

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define survive.
survive
106

Geologic Time

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

second-longest subdivision of geologic time

Name

Date

Section 1 Life and Geologic Time

Geologic Time
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Distinguish the units of geologic time. Give examples of each.


Largest subdivision:
Examples:
Second-largest subdivision:
Examples:
Third-largest subdivision:
Examples:
Fourth-largest subdivision:
Examples:
Complete the chart to identify when each of the following key
developments in the history of Earth occurred.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Event

Eon

Era
(if identified)

Period
(if identified)

First life

First
trilobites
First
flowering
plants

Organic Evolution

Sequence the steps of natural selection as described by Darwin.

I found this information


on page
.

1.

2.

3.

Geologic Time

107

Name

Date

Section 1 Life and Geologic Time

I found this information


on page
.

(continued)

Identify two factors that are necessary for natural selection to


occur within a species.
1.
2.

Trilobites
I found this information
on page
.

Organize information about how trilobites evolved over time.


Complete the flow charts.
Later trilobites

Early trilobites
Eyes

Plate Tectonics
and Earth History
I found this information
on page
.

Contrast two theories explaining the extinction of trilobites at the


end of the Paleozoic era. Fill in the missing words.
Some scientists believe that the formation of
caused

Trilobites could not

Other scientists suggest that


caused the extinction.

CONNECT IT

108

Geologic Time

Compare and contrast natural selection and artificial selection.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Body

Name

Date

Geologic Time
Section 2 Early Earth History
Skim Section 2. Write three questions that come to mind from
looking at the headings and illustrations.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define life to show its scientific meaning.
life

New
Vocabulary Use your book to define each vocabulary term.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Precambrian time

cyanobacteria

Paleozoic Era

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define hypothesis. Use hypothesis in a
sentence to show its scientific meaning.
hypothesis

Geologic Time

109

Name

Date

Section 2 Early Earth History

Precambrian
Time
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Summarize two reasons why little is known about the organisms


that lived during Precambrian time.
1.

2.

Sequence important events in the evolution of life during


Precambrian time. Complete the flowchart.

The first

appeared on Earth. They used


and produced

The Paleozoic Era


I found this information
on page
.

Organize information about life during the Paleozoic Era.


Complete the concept web with examples of life that appeared
during the Paleozoic Era.
Paleozoic
Life

110

Geologic Time

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

I found this information


on page
.

Name

Date

Section 2 Early Earth History

The Paleozoic Era


I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Analyze how the characteristics of amphibians and reptiles allowed


them to live on land.
Amphibians
Characteristic

Effect

Lungs
Legs

Reptiles
Characteristic

Effect

Protective coating
on eggs

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Skin covered with


hard scales

I found this information


on page
.

Organize information about three possible explanations of the


extinctions that took place at the end of the Paleozoic Era.
Possible Explanations

S YNTHESIZE I T

Analyze SEE
why OVERSET
rock formations
PG that show the soft parts of
Paleozoic organisms are important.

Geologic Time

111

Name

Date

Geologic Time
Section 3 Middle and Recent Earth History
Preview the What Youll Learn statements for Section 3. Rewrite
each statement as a question. Look for the answers as you read.
1.

2.

3.

Review
Vocabulary Define dinosaur to show its scientific meaning.

New
Vocabulary Use your book to define each vocabulary term.
Mesozoic Era

Cenozoic Era

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define diverse. Then use the term in an
original scientific sentence.
diverse

112

Geologic Time

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

dinosaur

Name

Date

Section 3 Middle and Recent Earth History

The Mesozoic Era

(continued)

Organize key information about dinosaurs.

I found this information


on page
.

Activity

Size

Dinosaurs

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Caring for Young

I found this information


on page
.

Complete the chart to identify key characteristics of other


important organisms from the Mesozoic Era.
Description

When They
Appeared

Birds

Mammals

Gymnosperms

Angiosperms

Geologic Time

113

Name

Date

Section 3 Middle and Recent Earth History

The Mesozoic Era


I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Summarize what happened at the end of the Mesozoic Era to the


environment and many species.

The Cenozoic Era

Distinguish the two periods that make up the Cenozoic Era.

I found this information


on page
.

1.

, began about

million years ago

2.

, began about

million years ago

Grasslands
expanded.

Continents
moved apart.

Homo sapiens
appeared.

S YNTHESIZE I T

Infer how paleontologists study the behaviors of extinct


animals, such as taking care of young.

114

Geologic Time

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Analyze the effects of changes that occurred during the Cenozoic


Era. Complete the diagrams.

Name

Date

Tie It Together
You are directing a new movie about prehistoric times. The script you get shows humans
interacting with dinosaurs. Write a memo to the scriptwriter explaining why this would
not be scientifically accurate. Suggest two other possible settings, one that includes
dinosaurs and one that includes humans.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Memo:

Geologic Time

115

Name

Date

Geologic Time

Chapter Wrap-Up

After You Read


Review the ideas you listed in the chart at the beginning of the chapter. Cross out
any incorrect information in the first column. Then complete the chart by filling
in the third column.
K
What I know

W
What I want to find out

L
What I learned

Use this checklist to help you study.


Review the information you included in your Foldable.
Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations.
Review the Self Check at the end of each section.
Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter.

S UMMARIZE I T

After reading this chapter, identify three things that you have
learned about geologic time.

116

Geologic Time

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Review

Name

Date

The Sun-Earth-Moon System


Before You Read
Before you read the chapter, respond to these statements.
1. Write an A if you agree with the statement.
2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.
Before You
Read

The Sun-Earth-Moon System


The Sun appears to move across the sky each day.
The spinning of Earth on its axis is rotation.
The Moons rotation and revolution take the same amount
of time, so the same side of the Moon always faces Earth.
No evidence of water has been found on the Moon.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Science Journal
Rotation or revolutionwhich motion of Earth brings morning and which brings
summer?

The Sun-Earth-Moon System

117

Name

Date

The Sun-Earth-Moon System


Section 1 Earth
Scan the tables and illustrations in Section 1, and write three
questions you have about Earth.
1.

2.

3.

Review
Vocabulary Use orbit in a sentence that reflects its scientific meaning.

New
Vocabulary Write the correct vocabulary term on each blank.
spinning of Earth on its axis, which causes day and night to occur
Earths yearly orbit around the Sun
imaginary line around which Earth spins
elongated, closed curve, such as Earths orbit around the Sun
occurs when the Sun is directly above Earths equator and the
number of daylight and nighttime hours are nearly equal
day when the Sun reaches its greatest distance north or south of
the equator
round, three-dimensional object

Academic
Vocabulary Define maintain using a dictionary.
maintain

118

The Sun-Earth-Moon System

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

orbit

Name

Section 1 Earth

Date
(continued)

Properties of
Earth
I found this information
on page
.

Magnetic Field

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

I found this information


on page
.

Label the diagram of Earth.


(pole to pole):

Diameter

Diameter
(equator):

Period of
rotation (1 day):

Period of
revolution
(1 year):

Compare Earths magnetic poles with its rotational poles by


drawing them on the circle below. Label Earths:
rotational axis
the difference in degrees
between the magnetic and
rotational poles
rotational poles
north magnetic pole
south magnetic pole

Summarize why Earth has a magnetic field.

The Sun-Earth-Moon System

119

Name

Section 1 Earth

Date
(continued)

What causes
changing
seasons?
I found this information
on page
.

Compare facts about summer and winter in the chart.


Seasonal Conditions
Summer

Winter

Hemisphere tilts
Hours of daylight
Solar radiation
Temperatures

I found this information


on page
.

Compare and contrast solstices and equinoxes by completing the


Venn diagram using the phrases below.
caused by tilt of Earths axis
daylight hours and nighttime
hours nearly equal
longest or shortest period of
daylight of the year

occur twice yearly


Sun at 90 angle to equator
Sun reaches greatest distance
from equator

Solstice

Equinox
Both

CONNECT IT

It takes Earth one year to make a complete revolution around the


Sun. Determine how much time passes between one spring equinox and the next.
Explain your reasoning.

120

The Sun-Earth-Moon System

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Solstices and
Equinoxes

Name

Date

The Sun-Earth-Moon System


Section 2 The MoonEarths Satellite
Predict three things that might be discussed in Section 2 based on
its title and headings.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define mantle to show its scientific meaning.
mantle

New
Vocabulary Write the correct vocabulary term next to each definition.
different ways the Moon appears from Earth

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

occurs when the lit side of the moon is not visible; the moon is
between Earth and the Sun
describes the Moon when more of its lighted portion is visible
each night
occurs when all of the Moons surface that faces Earth is lit
describes the Moon when less of its lighted portion is visible
each night
occurs when the Moon moves between the Sun and Earth and
casts a shadow over part of Earth
occurs when Earth moves between the Sun and the Moon and
casts a shadow on the Moon
dark, flat regions on the Moon that formed as lava spread over
the surface

Academic
Vocabulary Use the term cycle in a sentence that reflects its scientific meaning.
cycle

The Sun-Earth-Moon System

121

Name

Date

Section 2 The MoonEarths Satellite

Motions of the
Moon

(continued)

Describe why the face of the Moon that we see does not change.

I found this information


on page
.

Phases of the
Moon
I found this information
on page
.

Analyze the diagram below. Imagine that you are standing on


Earth and that the Suns rays are coming from the direction shown.
Draw a picture showing how the moon would look from Earth at
each of the labeled positions. The first one has been done for you.
3
4

2
Sunlight

Earth

8
7

The Moon
cannot be seen
from Earth. Its
opposite side
is lit.
5

122

The Sun-Earth-Moon System

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Section 2 The MoonEarths Satellite

Eclipses
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Compare the alignments that cause solar and lunar eclipses by


drawing diagrams of the positions of the Sun, the Moon, and Earth
relative to one another. Show how the shadow is cast in each case.
Solar Eclipse

Lunar Eclipse

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Inside the Moon

Summarize the Moons structure according to one model.

I found this information


on page
.

Surface and Interior of the Moon


Zone

Description

Crust
Upper Mantle
Lower Mantle
Core

S UMMARIZE I T

Summarize the impact theory of how the Moon formed.

The Sun-Earth-Moon System

123

Name

Date

The Sun-Earth-Moon System


Section 3 Exploring Earths Moon
Objectives Review the objectives for Section 3. Write two questions
that come to mind.
1.
2.

Review
Vocabulary Define comet using your book or a dictionary. Then write a
sentence and make a sketch to show its scientific meaning.

New
Vocabulary Define impact basin using your book or a dictionary. Then sketch
how an impact basin forms.
impact basin

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define core as it relates to planets and moons.
Then sketch the Moon, and show where you think its core is.
core

124

The Sun-Earth-Moon System

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

comet

Name

Date

Section 3 Exploring Earths Moon

Missions to the
Moon
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Distinguish between the following Moon missions by indicating


when each took place and what each accomplished.
Mission

Year

Accomplishment

Luna 3
Surveyor 1
Lunar
Orbiters
Apollo 8
Apollo 11
Apollo 15

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Apollo 17

I found this information


on page
.

Organize information about Clementines mission by outlining


it below.
Clementines mission
I. Objectives
A.
B.
II. Instruments
A.
B.
III. Discoveries
A.
B.

The Sun-Earth-Moon System

125

Name

Date

Section 3 Exploring Earths Moon

I found this information


on page
.

(continued)

Organize information about the Lunar Prospector by completing


the diagram.

Lunar Prospector
Mission

Confirmed that the


Moon has:

Analyze why the presence of water on the Moon would be a benefit


to humans.

S YNTHESIZE I T

Missions to the Moon have included some with astronauts


and some without astronauts. Predict whether astronauts will be sent on Moon
missions in the future. Support your position with three facts or examples.

126

The Sun-Earth-Moon System

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

To map the Moons:

Name

Date

Tie It Together
Synthesize It
Suppose that you are on a mission to explore the Moon. In the spaces provided, describe
what you think you will observe from each location.
From the windows of your spacecraft orbiting the Moon

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

On the Moons surface near the Moons equator

On the surface near the Moons south pole

The Sun-Earth-Moon System

127

Name

Date

The Earth-Moon-Sun System


Chapter Wrap-Up
Now that you have read the chapter, think about what you have learned and complete
the table below. Compare your previous answers with these.
1. Write an A if you agree with the statement.
2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.

The Sun-Earth-Moon System

After You
Read

The Sun appears to move across the sky each day.


The spinning of Earth on its axis is rotation.
The Moons rotation and revolution take the same amount
of time, so the same side of the Moon always faces Earth.
No evidence of water has been found on the Moon.

Use this checklist to help you study.


Review the information you included in your Foldable.
Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations.
Review the Self Check at the end of each section.
Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter.

S UMMARIZE I T

After reading this chapter, identify three things that you have
learned about the Sun-Earth-Moon system.

128

The Sun-Earth-Moon System

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Review

Name

Date

The Solar System


Before You Read
Before you read the chapter, respond to these statements.
1. Write an A if you agree with the statement.
2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.
Before You
Read

The Solar System


The planets revolve around Earth.
Our solar system has 9 planets.
Mercury has an atmosphere similar to Earths.
Uranus has craters and deep valleys.
Earth is the only planet known to be able to support life.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Science Journal
If you could command the Keck telescope, what would you view? Describe what you
would see.

The Solar System

129

Name

Date

The Solar System


Section 1 The Solar System
Skim the headings in Section 1. Write three things you expect to
learn in Section 1.
1.

2.

3.

Review
Vocabulary Define system using your book or a dictionary. Give an
example of a system.

New
Vocabulary Write a scientific sentence describing the solar system.
solar system

Academic
Vocabulary Define contract as a verb using a dictionary. Then rewrite the
following sentence using the word contracted.
Over time, the cloud of gas and dust became smaller,
forming a large, tightly packed, spinning disk.
contract

Sentence:

130

The Solar System

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

system

Name

Date

Section 1 The Solar System

Ideas About the


Solar System

(continued)

Contrast the Earth-centered model of the solar system and


the Sun-centered model of the solar system in the chart below.

I found this information


on page
.

Earth-centered

Sun-centered

How many
planets are
in the
system?
Describe
motions
in the
system.

I found this information


on page
.

Evaluate how Galileos discoveries provided evidence for the


Sun-centered model of the solar system. Complete the statements.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Galileo discovered that the planet


like our
occur only
I found this information
on page
.

went through
. These changes could
.

Create a drawing of the solar system.


Draw and label the Sun and the planets in the correct order.
Identify which planets were included in the Earth-centered model
of the solar system by putting a check mark beside those.

The Solar System

131

Name

Date

Section 1 The Solar System

How the Solar


System Formed
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Sequence the steps in the formation of the solar system.


1.

2.

3.

4.

I found this information


on page
.

Classify the nine planets as inner or outer planets, using the chart
below. Identify a characteristic of each group of planets.

Inner

Outer

Names of
Planets

Characteristics

S UMMARIZE I T

Summarize how ideas about the structure and motions of the


solar system changed over time.

132

The Solar System

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

The Nine Planets

Name

Date

The Solar System


Section 2 The Inner Planets
Scan the headings of Section 2. Write a question for each heading.
Mercury:
Venus:
Earth:
Mars:

Review
Vocabulary Define space probe using your book or a dictionary.
space probe

New
Vocabulary Write a scientific sentence using each vocabulary term.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Mercury

Venus

Earth

Mars

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define reveal.
reveal

The Solar System

133

Name

Date

Section 2 The Inner Planets

Mercury

(continued)

Organize key facts about Mercury. Complete the chart.

I found this information


on page
.

Mercury
Location
Surface
Core
Atmosphere
Temperature
Explored By
Complete the graphic organizer to identify key features of Venus.

I found this information


on page
.

Venus

Size and Mass

Earth
I found this information
on page
.

134

The Solar System

Atmosphere

Temperature

Space Probes

Summarize unique features of Earth that allow it to support life.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Venus

Name

Date

Section 2 The Inner Planets

Mars
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Summarize important information about Mars.


Surface Features

Space Probes

Mars

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Atmosphere

Seasons

Moons

S YNTHESIZE I T

Compare and contrast the inner planets. Choose one feature,


such as temperature, size, or atmosphere, and write a paragraph comparing and
contrasting this feature for the four inner planets.

The Solar System

135

Name

Date

The Solar System


Section 3 The Outer Planets
Skim Section 3. Predict two ways in which the outer planets differ
from the inner planets.
1.

2.

Review
Vocabulary Define the word moon using a dictionary or your book.
moon

New
Vocabulary Label each definition with the correct vocabulary term.

largest planet and fifth from the Sun; contains more mass than
all of the other planets combined
considered to be the ninth planet from the Sun; has a solid
icy-rock surface
giant, high-pressure storm in Jupiters atmosphere
usually the eighth planet from the Sun; large and gaseous, with
rings that vary in thickness
second-largest planet and sixth from the Sun; has a complex ring
system and at least 31 moons

Academic
Vocabulary Define survey as a verb using a dictionary. Then use this term
in a sentence related to the topic of Section 3.
survey

136

The Solar System

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

the seventh planet from the Sun; large and gaseous, with a
distinct bluish-green color

Name

Date

Section 3 The Outer Planets

Jupiter

(continued)

Identify the space probes that have explored Jupiter.

I found this information


on page
.

Complete the chart to identify key facts about Jupiter.


Jupiter
Atmosphere

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Moons

Saturn

Organize key facts about Saturn.

I found this information


on page
.

Saturn
Space Probes

Atmosphere

Rings

Moons

The Solar System

137

Name

Date

Section 3 The Outer Planets

Uranus

(continued)

Summarize details about Uranus in the graphic organizer.

I found this information


on page
.

Composition

Uranus
Moons

Neptune

Rotation

Complete the chart of key facts about Neptune.

I found this information


on page
.

Neptune

Moons

Pluto

Summarize the features that make Pluto unique.

I found this information


on page
.

CONNECT IT

Summarize the major features that distinguish the outer planets


from the inner planets.

138

The Solar System

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Atmosphere

Name

Date

The Solar System


Section 4 Other Objects in the Solar System
Scan the title and headings in Section 4. Write a sentence that
describes what you think will be covered in the section.

Review
Vocabulary Write a scientific sentence using the term crater.
crater

New
Vocabulary Define each term using your book or a dictionary.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

comet

meteor

meteorite

asteroid

Academic
Vocabulary Define approach, using a dictionary. Then locate a sentence in
Section 4 that uses the word or a form of the word.
approach

The Solar System

139

Name

Date

Section 4 Other Objects in the Solar System

Comets
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Summarize two facts about the Oort Cloud.


1.
2.

Meteoroids,
Meteors, and
Meteorites
I found this information
on page
.

Distinguish between meteoroids, meteors, and meteorites.


Identify key features of meteoroids, and then contrast meteors
and meteorites.
Meteoroids are

They are called


Do they
burn up in the
atmosphere?

Yes
Another term
for these is

No
.

They are called

140

The Solar System

. They come from

1.

2.

3.

4.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Model a comet. Label its nucleus, coma, and tail. Show the solar
wind coming from the Sun and where the Sun is in relation to the
comets tail.

Name

Date

Section 4 Other Objects in the Solar System

Asteroids
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Organize information about asteroids. Complete the outline.


Asteroids are
.
A. Location
1.
2.
B. What scientists learn from asteroids
1.
2.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Model the appearance of the asteroid belt in the solar system.


Identify the two planets between which it lies.

S YNTHESIZE I T

Compare and contrast comets, meteoroids, and asteroids in

a paragraph or a chart.

The Solar System

141

Name

Date

The Solar System

Chapter Wrap-Up

Now that you have read the chapter, think about what you have learned and complete
the table below. Compare your previous answers with these.
1. Write an A if you agree with the statement.
2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.

The Solar System

After You
Read

The planets revolve around Earth.


Our solar system has 9 planets.
Mercury has an atmosphere similar to Earths.
Uranus has craters and deep valleys.
Earth is the only planet known to be able to support life.

Review
Review the information you included in your Foldable.
Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations.
Review the Self Check at the end of each section.
Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter.

S UMMARIZE I T

You are planning a new space probe mission to the solar


system. Decide on one or more planets, moons, comets, or asteroids that you would
like to study. Explain what you expect to see and learn about each object.

142

The Solar System

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use this checklist to help you study.

Name

Date

Stars and Galaxies


Before You Read
Before you read the chapter, respond to these statements.
1. Write an A if you agree with the statement.
2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.
Before You
Read

Stars and Galaxies


Modern astronomy divides the sky into
88 constellations.
The Sun is an ordinary star and is the center
of our solar system.
All stars have the same brightness.
The Milky Way is a part of a cluster called the
Local Group, made up of about 45 galaxies.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Science Journal
Write a description in your Science Journal of a galaxy.

Stars and Galaxies

143

Name

Date

Stars and Galaxies


Section 1 Stars
Predict three topics that will be discussed in Section 1 as you scan
the headings and illustrations.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define star to show its scientific meaning.
star

New
Vocabulary Define the following terms to show their scientific meanings.

absolute magnitude

apparent magnitude

light-year

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define component as a noun. Then explain
what the statement breaking it down into its component parts
might mean.
component

144

Stars and Galaxies

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

constellation

Name

Section 1 Stars

Date
(continued)

Constellations
I found this information
on page
.

Organize facts about constellations into an outline. Use the


structure provided below as a guide.
I. Constellations
A.

B.

C.

II. Movement of constellations


A. Circumpolar constellations

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1.

2.

B. Other constellations
1.

2.

Absolute and
Apparent
Magnitudes

Complete the diagram to show how each type of magnitude is


related to a stars distance.

I found this information


on page
.

Absolute magnitude
.

Effect of Distance
on Magnitude
Apparent magnitude

Stars and Galaxies

145

Name

Date

Section 1 Stars

(continued)

Measurement in
Space

Analyze the diagram below that shows how parallax occurs as


Earth moves in its orbit. Then explain how astronomers use parallax.

I found this information


on page
.

Background of distant stars


A

Star A has a
small parallax
B

Lines of sight
from Earth
to star A

Star B has a
large parallax

Lines of sight
from Earth
to star B

Properties
of Stars
I found this information
on page
.

Sequence the colors of stars by temperature. Complete the


diagram by writing the correct color in each box.
Temperature

Cooler

Medium

Hotter

Star Color

S YNTHESIZE I T

A hot, blue-white star has brighter absolute magnitude than


a cooler, red star. The red star appears brighter from Earth. What can you conclude
about the two stars?

146

Stars and Galaxies

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Earth in July

Earth in January

Name

Date

Stars and Galaxies


Section 2 The Sun
Skim through Section 2 of your book. Write three questions that
come to mind from reading the headings and examining the
illustrations.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define cycle to show its scientific meaning.
cycle

New
Vocabulary Write a sentence from your book in which each term appears.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

photosphere

chromosphere

corona

sunspots

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define nuclear to show its scientific meaning.
Use nuclear in an original sentence.
nuclear

Stars and Galaxies

147

Name

Date

Section 2 The Sun

(continued)

The Suns Layers


I found this information
on page
.

Summarize basic information about the Sun. Complete the


graphic organizer.
Relationship to Earth

Energy Production

Sun

The Suns
Atmosphere

chromosphere
convection zone

core
corona

photosphere
radiation zone
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

I found this information


on page
.

Model the Sun, including the following features. Include captions


summarizing each feature.

148

Stars and Galaxies

Name

Section 2 The Sun

Date
(continued)

Surface Features

Organize information about the Suns surface features.

I found this information


on page
.

Sunspots:

Prominences:

Flares:

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Coronal mass ejection (CME):

The SunAn
Average Star
I found this information
on page
.

Compare and contrast the Sun with other stars. Complete the
paragraph below.
Compared with other stars, the Suns
, and

are about average. In contrast with

other stars, the Sun


and

CONNECT IT

Choose one characteristic you have learned about the Sun, such as
its size, structure, or distance from Earth. Suppose that the characteristic was different.
Predict how this would affect life on Earth.

Stars and Galaxies

149

Name

Date

Stars and Galaxies


Section 3 Evolution of Stars
Scan the headings of Section 3 to find three stages of the evolution
of stars.
1.

2.

3.

Review
Vocabulary Define gravity. Use the term in a sentence to show its
scientific meaning.
gravity

New
Vocabulary Define the following terms. Write a sentence to show each terms
scientific meaning.

white dwarf

neutron star

Academic
Vocabulary Define enormous using a dictionary.
enormous

150

Stars and Galaxies

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

nebula

Name

Date

Section 3 Evolution of Stars

Classifying Stars
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Classify stars using the H-R diagram. Label the diagram below
to show where you would expect to find white dwarfs, the main
sequence, supergiants, giants, and the Sun.
increasing brightness

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

20,000

15,000

10,000

6,000

3,000

Temperature (K)
Spectra Class
O

How do stars
shine?

F G

Summarize how stars generate energy.

I found this information


on page
.

Stars and Galaxies

151

Name

Date

Section 3 Evolution of Stars

Evolution of
Stars

(continued)

I found this information


on page
.

Stars with mass 8 times


the Suns mass or less

Stars with mass more than


8 times the Suns mass

contracts and
fusion begins

contracts and
fusion begins

hydrogen fuel
runs out

hydrogen fuel runs out;


heavy elements form

outer layers escape,


leaving core

iron forms in core;


core collapses violently

core mass between


1.4 and 3 times the
mass of the Sun

CONNECT IT

Evaluate why supernovas are important to the existence of life

on Earth.

152

core mass more


than 3 times the
mass of the Sun

Stars and Galaxies

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Sequence the evolution of stars. Complete the flow chart.

Name

Date

Stars and Galaxies


Section 4 Galaxies and the Universe
Preview Section 4 of your book using the list below.
Read all section headings.
Read all bold words.
Look at all of the pictures.
Think about what you already know about galaxies
and the universe.
Write two facts that you discovered during your preview.
1.
2.

Review
Vocabulary Define universe to reflect its scientific meaning.
universe

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

New
Vocabulary Define the following key terms. Then write sentences to show the
scientific meaning of each term.
galaxy

big bang theory

Academic
Vocabulary Define normal. Write a sentence to show its scientific meaning.
normal

Stars and Galaxies

153

Name

Date

Section 4 Galaxies and the Universe

Galaxies
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Classify the three major types of galaxies. Complete the chart.


Galaxy Type

Description
Spiral arms that wind outward from
the center

Does not look like the other two types


of galaxies; many possible shapes

The Milky Way


I found this information
on page
.

Model the Milky Way Galaxy.


Draw a side view and overhead view of the Milky Way.
Mark the Suns position on both views.
Label the size of the Milky Way and the distance from the center
to the Suns position on the overhead view.
Overhead view

Identify three other facts about the Milky Way.

154

Stars and Galaxies

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Side view

Name

Date

Section 4 Galaxies and the Universe

Origin of the
Universe
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Contrast two models of the origin of the universe: the steady


state theory and the oscillating model.
Steady state theory:

Oscillating model:

Expansion of
the Universe

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

I found this information


on page
.

The Big Bang


Theory

Analyze how scientists used the Doppler shift to reach a conclusion


about whether the universe is expanding or contracting.
Observation

Conclusion

Summarize the big bang theory of the origin of the universe.

I found this information


on page
.

S UMMARIZE I T

Describe your location in the universe as completely as

you can.

Stars and Galaxies

155

Name

Date

Stars and Galaxies

Chapter Wrap-Up

Now that you have read the chapter, think about what you have learned and complete
the chart below. Compare your previous answers with these.
1. Write an A if you agree with the statement.
2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.

Stars and Galaxies

After You
Read

Modern astronomy divides the sky into


88 constellations.
The Sun is an ordinary star and is the center
of our solar system.
All stars have the same brightness.
The Milky Way is a part of a cluster called the
Local Group, made up of about 45 galaxies.

Review
Review the information you included in your Foldable.
Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations.
Review the Self Check at the end of each section.
Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter.

S UMMARIZE I T

After reading this chapter, identify three things that you have
learned about stars and galaxies.

156

Stars and Galaxies

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use this checklist to help you study.

Name

Date

Inside the Atom


Before You Read
Preview the chapter title, section titles, and section headings. List at least two ideas
for each section in each column.
K
What I know

W
What I want to find out

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Science Journal
Describe, based on your current knowledge, what an atom is.

Inside the Atom

157

Name

Date

Inside the Atom


Section 1 Models of the Atom
Preview the title and headings of Section 1. Predict three topics
that will be discussed in the section.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define matter to show its scientific meaning.
matter

New
Vocabulary Write the correct vocabulary term next to each definition.
electrode with a positive charge

electrode with a negative charge


particle in the nucleus of an atom that has the same mass as a
proton and is electrically neutral
fast-moving, positively charged bit of matter
positively charged particle present in the nucleus of all atoms
negatively charged particle located outside the nucleus of an atom
matter made up of only one type of atom

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define theory.
theory

158

Inside the Atom

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

region surrounding the nucleus in which electrons travel

Name

Date

Section 1 Models of the Atom

First Thoughts

(continued)

Summarize early ideas about the structure of matter.

I found this information


on page
.

A Model of
the Atom

Organize Daltons ideas about matter. Complete the concept web.

I found this information


on page
.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Daltons Ideas
About Matter

I found this information


on page
.

Discovering
Charged
Particles

Summarize the following cathode ray tube experiments.


Crookess experiments

Thomsons experiments

I found this information


on page
.

Inside the Atom

159

Name

Date

Section 1 Models of the Atom

Rutherfords
Experiments
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Analyze Rutherfords gold foil experiments. Identify what


Rutherford expected to happen and what actually happened.
The experiment:

Expected result:

Actual result:

A Model with a
Nucleus and
Further
Developments
I found this information
on page
.

CONNECT IT

Describe the following improvements to atomic theory.


After Rutherfords model, how
the extra mass in the nucleus
was explained

How electrons are thought to


move in the most current
atomic model

Explain how the development of atomic models demonstrates


the scientific process.

160

Inside the Atom

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Conclusion:

Name

Date

Inside the Atom


Section 2 The Nucleus
Read the What Youll Learn statements. Rewrite each as a
question. Then look for the answers as you read.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Use atom in a scientific sentence.
atom

New
Vocabulary Define each of the following vocabulary terms using your book.
atomic number

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

isotope
mass number
radioactive decay
transmutation
beta particle
half-life

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define stable as an adjective.
stable

Inside the Atom

161

Name

Date

Section 2 The Nucleus

Identifying
Numbers
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Complete the chart to compare three isotopes of carbon.


Carbon-12

Carbon-13

Carbon-14

Atomic number
Number of protons
Number of neutrons
Mass number

Radioactive
Decay

Summarize what the strong nuclear force does.

Analyze radioactive decay that is caused by the loss of


alpha particles.

I found this information


on page
.

I found this information


on page
.

Sequence the steps of radioactive decay through which a beta


particle is released. Complete the flow chart.
Neutron
becomes
unstable.

The electron

The protron
.

162

Inside the Atom

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

I found this information


on page
.

Name

Date

Section 2 The Nucleus

Rate of Decay
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Complete the chart to show how the mass of a sample changes


during radioactive decay. Then define half-life.
Start
Time elapsed

0 days

Mass

20 g

First
Half-life

Second
Half-life

Third
Half-life

8 days

half-life:

I found this information


on page
.

Identify uses and hazards of radioactive material.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Uses

Hazards

Radioactive
material

Making Synthetic
Elements

Summarize how synthetic radioactive isotopes are made.

I found this information


on page
.

CONNECT IT

Compare and contrast radioactive decay and the making of

synthetic elements.

Inside the Atom

163

Name

Date

Inside the Atom

Chapter Wrap-Up

Review the ideas you listed in the chart at the beginning of the chapter. Cross out
any incorrect information in the first column. Then complete the chart by filling in
the third column. Compare your previous answers with these.
K
What I know

W
What I want to find out

L
What I learned

Review
Review the information you included in your Foldable.
Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations.
Review the Self Check at the end of each section.
Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter.

S UMMARIZE I T

After reading this chapter, identify three things that you have
learned about atoms that surprised you.

164

Inside the Atom

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use this checklist to help you study.

Name

Date

The Periodic Table


Before You Read
Preview the chapter title, section titles, and section headings. List at least two ideas
for each section in each column.
K
What I know

W
What I want to find out

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Science Journal
Think of an element you have heard about. Make a list of the properties you know
and the properties you want to learn about.

The Periodic Table

165

Name

Date

The Periodic Table


Section 1 Introduction to the Periodic Table
Skim Section 1 of your book. Write three questions that come to
mind from reading the headings and looking at the illustrations.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Use element in a sentence to show its scientific meaning.
element

New
Vocabulary Write the correct vocabulary term next to its definition.

element that shares some properties with metals and some with
nonmetals
element in Groups 1, 2, or 1318
element that has a shiny luster, is a good conductor of heat and
electricity, is malleable, and is ductile
element in Groups 312
element that is usually a gas or brittle solid at room temperature
and does not conduct heat and electricity well
row of elements in the periodic table whose properties change
gradually

Academic
Vocabulary Define symbol to show its scientific meaning.
symbol

166

The Periodic Table

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

column of elements in the periodic table that have similar physical


or chemical properties

Name

Date

Section 1 Introduction to the Periodic Table

Development of
the Periodic
Table
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Organize information about the development of the periodic table.


Complete the outline.
History of the Periodic Table
I. Mendeleevs contributions
A.
B.
C.
II. Moseleys contributions
A.
B.

Todays Periodic
Table

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

I found this information


on page
.

Distinguish a period from a group by completing the sentences.


A period is
. A group is
.

I found this information


on page
.

Create a drawing of an empty periodic table. Shade the


representative elements one color, the transition elements
another, and the inner transition elements a third color.

The Periodic Table

167

Name

Date

Section 1 Introduction to the Periodic Table

I found this information


on page
.

I found this information


on page
.

Contrast metals, nonmetals, and metalloids in the chart.


Metals

Nonmetals

Metalloids

Label the block below with the information you would find about
hydrogen in its element key. Fill in the missing information.

H
I found this information
on page
.

CONNECT IT

Summarize how names and symbols for elements are chosen.


Include both existing and newly discovered elements.

Suppose you discovered a new element. How would you predict


where it would fit in the periodic table if you did not know its atomic number?

168

The Periodic Table

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Todays Periodic
Table

(continued)

Name

Date

The Periodic Table


Section 2 Representative Elements
Read the What Youll Learn statements for Section 2. Predict three
topics that will be discussed in the section.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define atomic number using your book or a dictionary.
atomic number

New
Vocabulary Use your book to define each vocabulary term.
alkali metal

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

alkaline earth metal

semiconductor

halogen

noble gas

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define representative as an adjective.
representative

The Periodic Table

169

Name

Date

Section 2 Representative Elements

Groups 1 and 2

(continued)

Summarize the properties of the alkali metals.

I found this information


on page
.

Density

Color and State

Melting Point
Alkali
Metals

I found this information


on page
.

Groups 13
through 18
I found this information
on page
.

Compare and contrast the alkaline earth metals and the alkali
metals. Describe the hardness, density, melting points, and
reactivity of elements in the two groups.

Summarize information about elements in the boron family by


filling in the missing words.
All the elements in group 13 are

except

, which is a metalloid. The elements in this family


are used to make many different things. Pots and pans made with
can move straight from the refrigerator to the oven
without cracking.

is used to make soft drink cans.

, which will melt in your hands, is used to make


computer chips.
170

The Periodic Table

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Reactivity

Name

Date

Section 2 Representative Elements

I found this information


on page
.

(continued)

Compare the elements in the carbon group.


Metal, Nonmetal, or
Metalloid?

I found this information


on page
.

Carbon

nonmetal

Silicon

metalloid

Germanium

metalloid

Tin

metal

Lead

metal

Where it is Found
or How it is Used

Complete the outline to identify important points about certain


elements in Groups 15 and 16.
I. Group 15

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

A.

: makes up about 80% of the air you breathe

B. Phosphorus:
II. Group 16
A. Oxygen:
B.

: combines with hydrogen and oxygen to


make sulfuric acid, one of the most commonly used
chemicals

C. Selenium:
I found this information
on page
.

Identify at least one important fact about each group of elements.


Halogens:
Noble gases:

CONNECT IT

Choose any three elements from this section and explain how
each is important to your daily life.

The Periodic Table

171

Name

Date

The Periodic Table


Section 3 Transition Elements
Scan the headings and illustrations in this section. Write three facts
you learned about transition elements as you scanned the section.
1.

2.

3.

Review
Vocabulary Define mass number in a scientific sentence.

New
Vocabulary Use your book to define each vocabulary term.
catalyst

lanthanide

actinide

synthetic element

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define series to show its scientific meaning.
series

172

The Periodic Table

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

mass number

Name

Date

Section 3 Transition Elements

The Metals in
the Middle
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Identify four key characteristics of the transition elements


including their location in the periodic table.
1.

2.

3.

4.

I found this information


on page
.

Summarize the properties of the iron triad.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Iron Triad
What these elements have in common:

I found this information


on page
.

Element:

Element:

Element:

Uses:

Uses:

Uses:

Identify uses of transition elements.


Element(s)

Uses

Tungsten
Mercury
Elements in the
platinum group
The Periodic Table

173

Name

Date

Section 3 Transition Elements

Inner Transition
Elements
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Compare and contrast the lanthanides and actinides.


Lanthanides

Actinides

Properties

Uses

Summarize how scientists create synthetic elements.


Using a particle accelerator scientists make
. The nuclei
to form
Some of these elements are

.
and last only

.
Identify two ways dentists and orthodontists use transition
elements.
1.
2.

CONNECT IT

Hypothesize why a scientist should be extra careful when using


a mercury thermometer.

174

The Periodic Table

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

I found this information


on page
.

Name

Date

Tie It Together
The Periodic Table

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Create a periodic table puzzle.


1. Obtain six pieces of paper. Cut each piece of paper into six equal pieces.
2. Make an element box for each of the first 36 elements in the periodic table. On
each element box, fill in only part of the information shown on the periodic table.
3. Swap your set of partially complete element boxes with a partner.
4. Complete each element box in your partners set.
5. Then, piece together your partners periodic table in order.

The Periodic Table

175

Name

Date

The Periodic Table

Chapter Wrap-Up

After You Read


Review the ideas you listed in the chart at the beginning of the chapter. Cross out any
incorrect information in the first column. Then complete the chart by filling in the third
column. Compare your previous responses with these.
W
What I want to find out

L
What I learned

Review
Use this checklist to help you study.
Review the information you included in your Foldable.
Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations.
Review the Self Check at the end of each section.
Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter.

S UMMARIZE I T

After reading this chapter, identify three things that you have
learned about elements and the periodic table.

176

The Periodic Table

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

K
What I know

Name

Date

Atomic Structure and


Chemical Bonds
Before You Read
Before you read the chapter, respond to these statements.
1. Write an A if you agree with the statement.
2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.
Before You
Read

Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonds


Electrons exist with specific levels of energy.
Elements can be arranged according to their properties.
An atom that loses an electron is called a molecule.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Elements can form bonds by sharing electrons.

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Science Journal
Write a sentence comparing household glue to chemical bonds.

Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonds

177

Name

Date

Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonds


Section 1 Why do atoms combine?
Skim the objectives for Section 1. Write three questions that come
to mind from reading these statements. Look for answers to each
question as you read the section.
1.

2.

3.

Review
Vocabulary Define atom to show its scientific meaning.

New
Vocabulary Write the correct vocabulary term next to its definition.
model of the area around the nucleus where electrons
usually travel
the different areas for an electron in an atom
symbol for an element surrounded by as many dots as there
are electrons in its outer energy level
force that holds two atoms together

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define period. Then tell how the word is used
in the context of the periodic table.
period

178

Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonds

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

atom

Name

Date

Section 1 Why do atoms combine?

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Atomic Structure

(continued)

I found this information


on page
.

Model the structure of an atom that has 3 protons, 4 neutrons,


and 3 electrons. Label the protons, neutrons, electrons, and
nucleus in your drawing.

Electron
Arrangement

Complete the chart to show the maximum number of electrons


that can exist in each energy level of an atom.

I found this information


on page
.

Energy Level

Maximum Number of Electrons

1
2
3
4
Write the formula for calculating the maximum number of electrons
that can occupy an energy level.
Formula for calculating electrons per energy level:

Periodic Table
and Energy
Levels

Analyze the relationship of the atomic number of a neutral atom


to the number of electrons and protons it contains.

I found this information


on page
.

Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonds

179

Name

Date

Section 1 Why do atoms combine?

I found this information


on page
.

Identify the number of electrons each atom has in its outer energy
level. Then shade the boxes of the elements that are stable.
1

18

He

Li

Element Families
I found this information
on page
.

Electron Dot
Diagrams

13

14

15

16

17

Be

Ne

Compare how the elements in a family are similar. Use the noble
gases and alkali metals as examples.

Model the arrangement of electrons by making electron dot


diagrams for the elements represented below.

I found this information


on page
.
Li

Be

CONNECT IT

Ne

Hydrogen gas is lighter than helium gas. Hypothesize why airships


use helium for buoyancy instead of hydrogen.

180

Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonds

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Electron
Configuration

(continued)

Name

Date

Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonds


Section 2 How Elements Bond
Predict three things that might be discussed in this section after
reading the headings that appear in it.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Write a sentence using the word electron that shows its scientific
meaning.
electron

New
Vocabulary Write the correct vocabulary term next to its definition.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

combination of chemical symbols and numbers that shows which


elements are present in a compound and how many atoms of
each element are present
chemical bond that forms between nonmetal atoms when they
share electrons
atom that is no longer neutral because it has gained or lost
electrons
pure substance containing two or more elements that are
chemically bonded
bond in which electrons are shared unevenly
chemical bond formed when metal atoms share their pooled
electrons
chemical bond formed from an attraction between ions
neutral particle formed when atoms share electrons

Academic
Vocabulary Define achieve using a dictionary.
achieve

Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonds

181

Name

Date

Section 2 How Elements Bond

Ionic Bonds
Loss and Gain
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Complete the electron dot diagram below to show the


final compound.
Na

Cl

Na

Cl

Summarize what is occurring in the diagram. Your description


should include the words ion, negative, positive, and compound.

Compare and contrast metallic bonds with ionic bonds by


completing the Venn diagram with at least five facts.
Ionic Bonds

I found this information


on page
.

Both

Metallic Bonds

Describe two characteristics of metals that are caused by


metallic bonding.

182

Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonds

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Metallic
Bonding
Pooling

Name

Date

Section 2 How Elements Bond

Covalent
BondsSharing
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Organize information about covalent bonds.


I. Covalent Bond
A. Definition:

B. How atoms share electrons


1.
2.
C. Multiple bonds:

Polar and
Nonpolar
Molecules

Model a polar molecule, and label the ends as more positive or


more negative.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

I found this information


on page
.

Chemical
Shorthand

Label the parts of the chemical formula shown. Then summarize


what the formula tells you about the compound.

I found this information


on page
.
H 2O

CONNECT IT

Chlorine is a gas with a distinct odor. Do you think that someone


with an acute sense of smell would be able to smell chlorine in table salt? Explain.

Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonds

183

Name

Date

Atomic Structure and


Chemical Bonds Chapter Wrap-Up
Now that you have read the chapter, think about what you have learned and complete
the chart below. Compare your previous answers with these.
1. Write an A if you agree with the statement.
2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.

Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonds

After You
Read

Electrons exist with specific levels of energy.


Elements can be arranged according to their properties.
An atom that loses an electron is called a molecule.
Elements can form bonds by sharing electrons.

Use this checklist to help you study.


Review the information you included in your Foldable.
Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations.
Review the Self Check at the end of each section.
Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter.

S UMMARIZE I T

After reading this chapter, identify three things that you have
learned about how chemicals bond.

184

Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonds

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Review

Name

Date

Chemical Reactions
Before You Read
Preview the chapter title, section titles, and section headings. List at least two ideas
for each section in each column.
K
What I know

W
What I want to find out

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Science Journal
What types of products do you think are manufactured in a chemical plant?

Chemical Reactions

185

Name

Date

Chemical Reactions
Section 1 Chemical Formulas and Equations
Skim Section 1 of your text. Read the headings and look at the
illustrations. Write three questions that come to mind.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define atom to show its scientific meaning.
atom

New
Vocabulary Write the correct vocabulary term next to its definition.
substance that exists before a chemical reaction begins

process that produces a chemical change


chemical reaction that absorbs heat energy
substance that forms as a result of a chemical reaction
tells the reactants, products, physical state, and proportions
of each substance in a chemical reaction

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define undergo.
undergo

186

Chemical Reactions

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

chemical reaction that releases heat energy

Name

Date

Section 1 Chemical Formulas and Equations

Physical or
Chemical
Change?

(continued)

Compare and contrast the two types of changes in matter by


completing the chart.

I found this information


on page
.

Physical Change

Chemical Change

Description

Examples

Chemical
Equations
I found this information
on page
.

Label the products, reactants, and subscripts in the


chemical equation.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

CH3COOH  NaHCO3

Conservation
of Mass
I found this information
on page
.

CH3COONa  H2O  CO2

Complete the chart below about the chemical reaction above.


Then summarize the law of conservation of mass.
Element

Number of atoms
in reactants

Na

Number of atoms
in products
The law of conservation of mass states that

Chemical Reactions

187

Name

Date

Section 1 Chemical Formulas and Equations

Balancing
Chemical
Equations

(continued)

Complete the process of balancing the chemical equation below.


First, count the number of atoms of each element in the products
and the reactants to complete the chart.
CH4 

I found this information


on page
.

O2
Carbon

CO2 
Hydrogen

H2O
Oxygen

Reactants
Products
Balance the number of hydrogen atoms in the equation by writing
the correct coefficient in front of the correct molecule. Then count
and record the atoms in the new equation.
CH4 

O2
Carbon

CO2 
Hydrogen

H2O
Oxygen

Reactants

Finish balancing the equation by balancing the number of oxygen


atoms in the equation.
CH4 

Energy in
Chemical
Reactions

O2

CO2 

Predict whether the reaction above is endothermic or exothermic


and explain why. The energy term would appear on the right side
of the equation.

I found this information


on page
.

COMPARE IT

188

H2O

Compare the terms endothermic and exothermic.

Chemical Reactions

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Products

Name

Date

Chemical Reactions
Section 2 Rates of Chemical Reactions
Scan the headings, bold words, and illustrations in Section 2. Write
two facts that you learned as you scanned the section.
1.
2.

Review
Vocabulary Define state of matter in a scientific sentence.
state of matter

New
Vocabulary Write the correct vocabulary term next to its definition.
substance that slows down a chemical reaction

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

large protein molecule that speeds up a chemical reaction


substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without changing
permanently or being used up
energy needed to start a chemical reaction
amount of a substance present in a certain volume
how fast a chemical reaction happens after it is started

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define volume.
volume

Chemical Reactions

189

Name

Date

Section 2 Rates of Chemical Reactions

How fast? and


Activation
EnergyStarting
a Reaction

(continued)

Evaluate the events that occur during a chemical reaction by


completing the paragraph.
Activation energy is the

I found this information


on page
.

needed to start a(n)

. Molecules of the reactants can then


with enough energy to
the

of the reactants. New bonds

to

create the products of the reaction.

Reaction Rate

Describe two ways that the rate of a reaction can be measured.

I found this information


on page
.

I found this information


on page
.

Complete the concept map by identifying factors that affect


reaction rate.
Factors that Affect Reaction Rate

Changing the speed


and energy with
which molecules
collide affects the
reaction rate.

190

Chemical Reactions

The number of
reactant molecules
in a given volume
affects the chance
that molecules will
collide and react.

Only atoms in the


outer layer of the
reactant material
can reactthe
number of molecules
out in the open
affects reaction rate.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Reaction rate can be found


by measuring

Name

Date

Section 2 Rates of Chemical Reactions

Slowing Down
Reactions

(continued)

Summarize the information about inhibitors. Include an example.

I found this information


on page
.

Speeding Up
Reactions

Complete the graphic organizer about ways catalysts can work.

I found this information


on page
.

providing
.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Catalysts can
speed up
reactions by

holding
.

reducing
.

I found this information


on page
.

Identify four other functions that enzymes carry out in the body.
1.
2.
3.
4.

S YNTHESIZE I T

A scientist adds 1 mg of a catalyst to a solution to speed


reaction rate. How much of the catalyst will be left after the reaction occurs? Explain.

Chemical Reactions

191

Name

Date

Chemical Reactions

Chapter Wrap-Up

Review the ideas you listed in the chart at the beginning of the chapter. Cross out
any incorrect information in the first column. Then complete the chart by filling
in the third column. Compare your previous responses with these.
K
What I know

W
What I want to find out

L
What I learned

Review
Review the information you included in your Foldable.
Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations.
Review the Self Check at the end of each section.
Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter.

S UMMARIZE I T

After reading this chapter, identify three things that you have
learned about chemical reactions.

192

Chemical Reactions

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use this checklist to help you study.

Name

Date

Motion and Momentum


Before You Read
Preview the chapter and section titles and the section headings. Complete the
two columns of the chart by listing at least two ideas in each column.
K
What I know

W
What I want to find out

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Science Journal
Describe how your motion changed as you moved from your schools entrance to
your classroom.

Motion and Momentum

193

Name

Date

Motion and Momentum


Section 1 What is motion?
Preview the section by reading the What Youll Learn statements.
Write three questions that come to mind from reading these
statements.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Write a sentence that uses the word meter to show its scientific
meaning.
meter

New
Vocabulary Define the new vocabulary terms using your book or a
speed

average speed

instantaneous speed

velocity

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define displace in its scientific sense.
displace

194

Motion and Momentum

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

dictionary.

Name

Date

Section 1 What is motion?

Changing
Position
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Analyze the meaning of relative motion. Complete the sentences.


To determine whether something changes position, you must
identify

. An object changes position if


.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Contrast distance and displacement. Draw a diagram showing


distance and displacement for a person jogging halfway around a
lake. Label the distance and displacement.

Speed
I found this information
on page
.

Complete the equation for calculating speed.


speed (in meters/second) =
Compare and contrast average speed and instantaneous
speed. Give an example of average speed, instantaneous speed,
and one in which instantaneous speed changes.
Average speed:

Instantaneous speed:

Example:

Motion and Momentum

195

Name

Date

Section 1 What is motion?

Graphing Motion
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Analyze the distance-time graph. Graph lines to show:


Person C, whose speed is 2 m/s.
Person D, who is standing still.
Distance v. Time

Distance

2.0

Person A

1.5
Person B
1.0
0.5

0.5

1.0

1.5
2.0
Time

2.5

3.0

Compare the speed of each person by completing the paragraph.


is plotted on the horizontal axis and
is plotted on the vertical axis. A steeper
line indicates

. On this graph, Person A

has a speed of

and Person B has a speed

of

. If speed were zero, the line would

be

CONNECT IT

Think of a time recently when you might have run around a track
or traveled in a car or bus. Describe the motion thoroughly. Remember to include how
your velocity changed.

196

Motion and Momentum

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Motion and Momentum


Section 2 Acceleration
Predict three things you will learn in this section. Read the section
title and subheadings to help you make your predictions.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define kilogram using your book or a dictionary.
kilogram

New
Vocabulary Use your book to write the scientific definition of acceleration.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

acceleration

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to find the mathematical definition of positive.
positive

Motion and Momentum

197

Name

Date

Acceleration
and Motion

(continued)

Distinguish the three ways that an object can accelerate. Complete


the concept map.

I found this information


on page
.

Acceleration
includes

1.

Calculating
Acceleration
I found this information
on page
.

2.

3.

Complete the mathematical equation to calculate acceleration for


objects moving in a straight line.
Acceleration Equation
(in m/s) 

acceleration 
(in m/s2)

(in m/s)

time (in s)

Analyze the equation above to rewrite it using symbols.


a
I found this information
on page
.

Compare and contrast positive and negative acceleration by


completing the chart.
Types of Acceleration
Positive
Change in
speed
Relationship of
initial speed to
final speed

198

Motion and Momentum

Initial speed is
less than final
speed.

Negative

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Section 2 Acceleration

Name

Date

Section 2 Acceleration

Calculating
Acceleration
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Analyze the acceleration graph below. Label the parts of the graph
showing zero acceleration, positive acceleration, and negative
acceleration.
Speed v. Time

8
7

Speed (m/s)

6
5
4
3
2
1

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4 5 6
Time (s)

Summarize how you can identify each type of acceleration on an


acceleration graph. Complete the sentences.
A line for positive acceleration slopes

A line for negative acceleration slopes

A line for zero acceleration

S YNTHESIZE I T

A jogger runs around a circular track. She starts at a speed


of 2 m/s, then speeds up to 6 m/s. She runs at that speed for 20 minutes, and then
comes to a stop. Describe her acceleration. Is it ever zero?

Motion and Momentum

199

Name

Date

Motion and Momentum


Section 3 Momentum
Scan the headings, bold words, and illustrations in Section 3.
Write two facts you discovered about momentum as you scanned
the section.
1.

2.

Review
Vocabulary Write a sentence using the term triple-beam balance.
triple-beam balance

New
Vocabulary Define the scientific meanings of the new vocabulary terms using
mass

inertia

momentum

law of conservation
of momentum

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define predict.
predict

200

Motion and Momentum

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

your book or a dictionary.

Name

Date

Section 3 Momentum

Mass and Inertia


I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Label the arrow below to show the relationship between mass


and inertia.

Greater
mass
Less
mass

Momentum
I found this information
on page
.

Has

inertia

Has

inertia

List two factors that affect an objects momentum.


1.

affect

momentum

2.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Summarize the calculation of momentum in words on the


lines below.

Complete the equation used to calculate momentum.


momentum 
(in kg m/s)

(in kg) 

(in m/s)

Analyze the equation above and rewrite it using symbols. Use the
letter p to represent momentum.

Conservation
of Momentum

Summarize the law of conservation of momentum in your own


words using two balls that collide as an example.

I found this information


on page
.

Motion and Momentum

201

Name

Section 3 Momentum

Using Momentum
Conservation
I found this information
on page
.

Date
(continued)

Model the law of conservation of momentum when a moving object


of small mass collides with an object of greater mass that is initially
at rest. In the first row, model what happens if the two objects
stick together. In the second, model what happens if the two
bounce away from each other.
Use arrows to show the size and direction of each objects
momentum.
Label each object with its mass, speed, and direction.
After Impact

CONNECT IT

At a science fair, contestants can win a prize if they can roll a ball
with a specific momentum chosen by the presenter. The contestants have a choice of
two balls. One has greater mass than the other. Which would you choose, and why?

202

Motion and Momentum

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Bounce off

Stick together

Before Impact

Name

Date

Tie It Together
Work with a partner to perform the experiment below to explore changes in momentum.
Materials
wooden block
stopwatch
ball that will roll easily
tape
meterstick
triple-beam balance
1. Find and record the mass of the block and ball, using the balance.
Block:

2.
3.
4.

5.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6.
7.

Ball:
Mark a line on the floor with tape. Place the block on the line. Measure a distance of
5 m from the line and mark a second line.
Practice rolling the ball until you can roll it from the 5-m line to the block.
Roll the ball from the 5-m line to the block. Use the stopwatch to time the roll.
Then measure how far the block moved from the line when the ball hit it. Use a chart
like the one below to record your data.
Repeat step 4 four more times, varying the speed with which you roll the ball. Record
the time and distance for each trial.
Use your data to calculate the speed for each trial. Then use that information and the
mass of the ball to calculate the momentum of the ball in each trial.
Analyze your data. What relationship do you see between the momentum of the ball
and the distance the block moved? Why do you think this relationship exists?

Data Chart
Trial

Time

Speed

Momentum

Distance Block
Moved

1
2
3
4
5
Motion and Momentum

203

Name

Date

Motion and Momentum

Chapter Wrap-Up

Review the ideas you listed in the chart at the beginning of the chapter. Cross out any
incorrect information in the first column. Then complete the chart by filling in the
third column.
K
What I know

W
What I want to find out

L
What I learned

Review
Review the information you included in your Foldable.
Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations.
Review the Self Check at the end of each section.
Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter.

S UMMARIZE I T

After reading this chapter, identify three things that you have
learned about motion and momentum.

204

Motion and Momentum

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use this checklist to help you study.

Name

Date

Force and Newtons Laws


Before You Read
Preview the chapter and section titles and the section headings. List at least two ideas
for each section in each column.
K
What I know

W
What I want to find out

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Science Journal
Describe three examples of pushing or pulling an object. How did the object move?

Force and Newtons Laws

205

Name

Date

Force and Newtons Laws


Section 1 Newtons First Law
Predict three topics that will be discussed in Section 1 as you scan
the headings.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define velocity using your book or a dictionary.
velocity

New
Vocabulary Write the correct vocabulary term next to each definition.

two or more forces that act on an object and do not cancel


each other
combination of all of the forces acting on an object
two or more forces whose effects cancel each other
states that if the net force acting on an object is zero, the object will
remain at rest or, if it is moving, continue to move in a straight line
with constant speed
a push or pull

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define constant in its scientific sense.
constant

206

Force and Newtons Laws

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

force that opposes sliding between two touching surfaces

Name

Date

Section 1 Newtons First Law

Force
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Analyze how forces combine to form a net force.


If forces act in the same direction

If forces act in opposite directions


.
I found this information
on page
.

Create two drawings to show how an object is affected by


balanced and unbalanced forces. Use arrows and labels to show
the forces and motion. Below each drawing, explain the effect
of the forces.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Balanced Forces

Unbalanced Forces

Force and Newtons Laws

207

Name

Date

Section 1 Newtons First Law

Newtons First
Law of Motion

(continued)

Summarize Newtons first law of motion in your own words.

I found this information


on page
.

Compare the three types of friction. Complete the concept map.

I found this information


on page
.

S YNTHESIZE I T

Friction

What It Is

What It Is

What It Is

Example

Example

Example

A carpenter uses sandpaper to smooth a rough piece of wood.


State what type of friction the carpenter is using.

208

Force and Newtons Laws

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Friction

Name

Date

Force and Newtons Laws


Section 2 Newtons Second Law
Read the What Youll Learn statements. Write two questions that
come to mind as you read the statements.
1.
2.

Review
Vocabulary Define acceleration to show its scientific meaning.
acceleration

New
Vocabulary Use your book to define each vocabulary term.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Newtons second law


of motion

weight

center of mass

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define require to show its scientific meaning.
require

Force and Newtons Laws

209

Name

Date

Section 2 Newtons Second Law

Force and
Acceleration

(continued)

Summarize Newtons second law of motion in your own words.


Then complete the equation used to calculate acceleration.

I found this information


on page
.
in newtons

acceleration (in meters/second 2) 

in kilograms

Gravity
I found this information
on page
.

Complete the chart to show how mass and distance affect


gravitational force.
If . . .

Then gravity . . .

mass is larger
mass is smaller

distance decreases
Distinguish between weight and mass by explaining what would
happen to the weight and mass of an object if it were taken from
Earth to Mars.
On Mars, the weight would

because

. The mass would

because
.

Using Newtons
Second Law

Contrast speeding up, slowing down, and turning as forms of


acceleration. Identify the direction of the force in each case.

I found this information


on page
.

Acceleration
speeding up
slowing down
turning

210

Force and Newtons Laws

Direction of Force

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

distance increases

Name

Date

Section 2 Newtons Second Law

Circular Motion
I found this information
on page
.

Air Resistance
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Model how a satellite stays in orbit around Earth. Label


the direction of centripetal force and the direction of the
satellites motion.

Summarize the two factors that affect the air resistance on a


falling object.
1.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2.

Center of Mass
I found this information
on page
.

Label the center of mass of common objects. In the space below,


draw a wrench, a ball, and a book. Place a dot to represent where
you predict the center of mass of each object will be found.

CONNECT IT

The gravitational force on the Moon is one-sixth the gravitational


force on Earth. Hypothesize what it would be like to jump or play ball on the Moon.

Force and Newtons Laws

211

Name

Date

Force and Newtons Laws


Section 3 Newtons Third Law
Scan the list below to preview Section 3 of your book.
Read all section titles.
Read all bold words.
Look at all of the pictures.
Think about what you already know about forces
and gravity.
Write two facts you discovered about Newtons third law of motion
as you scanned the section.
1.
2.

Review
Vocabulary Define force to show its scientific meaning.

New
Vocabulary Use your book to define Newtons third law of motion.
Newtons third law
of motion

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define react in its scientific sense.
react

212

Force and Newtons Laws

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

force

Name

Date

Section 3 Newtons Third Law

Action and
Reaction

(continued)

Summarize Newtons third law in your own words.

I found this information


on page
.
Model how action and reaction forces act in pairs.
Draw a situation in which a force pair acts.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use arrows to label the action and reaction forces.

Analyze how the forces act and how the motions of the objects
change.

I found this information


on page
.

Sequence the events in a rocket launch that show Newtons third


law. Complete the flow chart.
Rocket fuel is ignited, producing hot gas.

Action force

Reaction force

Force and Newtons Laws

213

Name

Date

Section 3 Newtons Third Law

Weightlessness
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Organize information about weightlessness. Complete the


concept web.
Happens
because:

Occurs during:

Causes a
sensation of:

S UMMARIZE I T

Happens in
spacecraft because:

Explain why action and reaction forces do not cancel each


others effects. Give an example.

214

Force and Newtons Laws

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Weightlessness

Name

Date

Tie It Together
Think of an activity that you enjoy in your daily life. Describe how each of Newtons
laws applies to your chosen activity. Then, draw a diagram to show how you use force
in the activity.
Newtons First Law of Motion:

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Newtons Second Law of Motion:

Newtons Third Law of Motion:

Diagram:

Force and Newtons Laws

215

Name

Date

Force and Newtons Laws


Chapter Wrap-Up
Review the ideas you listed in the chart at the beginning of the chapter. Cross out
any incorrect information in the first column. Then complete the chart by filling in
the third column.
K
What I know

W
What I want to find out

L
What I learned

Use this checklist to help you study.


Review the information you included in your Foldable.
Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations.
Review the Self Check at the end of each section.
Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter.

S UMMARIZE I T

After reading this chapter, identify three things that you have
learned about forces and Newtons laws.

216

Force and Newtons Laws

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Review

Name

Date

Work and Simple Machines


Before You Read
Preview the chapter and section titles and the section headings. Complete the first
two columns of the chart by listing at least two ideas for each section in each column.
K
What I know

W
What I want to find out

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Science Journal
Describe three machines you used today and how they made doing a task easier.

Work and Simple Machines

217

Name

Date

Work and Simple Machines


Section 1 Work and Power
Review the objectives for Section 1. Write three questions that come
to mind from reading these statements. Look for answers to each
question as you read the section.
1.

2.

3.

Review
Vocabulary Define force to show its scientific meaning.
force

work

power

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define version. Use version in an original
sentence to show its scientific meaning.
version

218

Work and Simple Machines

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

New
Vocabulary Use each key term in a scientific sentence.

Name

Date

Section 1 Work and Power

What is work?

(continued)

Summarize what must occur for work to be done.

I found this information


on page
.

I found this information


on page
.

Model the relationship between an applied force and work by


sketching two drawings in the boxes provided. In the top box, show
a situation in which work is done. In the bottom box, show a
situation in which no work is done.
Use arrows to show the direction of the applied force and any
motion that results.
Write a caption explaining each illustration.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Work is done.

Caption:

Work is not done.

Caption:

Work and Simple Machines

219

Name

Date

Section 1 Work and Power

Calculating Work
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Complete the mathematical equation describing how work is


calculated. Complete the same equation below it, using the units in
which each measurement is recorded. Then write the same equation
using the correct symbols.
work 

joules 




What is power?
I found this information
on page
.

Define the term power. Complete the mathematical equation


describing how power is calculated in word and symbol form.
Power is

power 

P

I found this information


on page
.

Summarize the way in which work, energy, and power are


related by filling in the blanks below.
When you do

on an object, you

the energy of that object. Energy is


yourself to

from

. Power is equal to the amount of


transferred over a certain

CONNECT IT

Consider an active sport. Describe the work that is done by


people as they play the sport.

220

Work and Simple Machines

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Identify the unit in which power is measured.

Name

Date

Work and Simple Machines


Section 2 Using Machines
Predict three things that might be discussed in Section 2 after
reading the headings in this section.
1.

2.

3.

Review
Vocabulary Define friction to show its scientific meaning.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

friction

New
Vocabulary Write the correct vocabulary term next to its definition.
output work divided by input work
force exerted on a machine
number of times that a machine increases the input force; equal to
the output force divided by the input force
force exerted by a machine

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define device to show its scientific meaning.
device

Work and Simple Machines

221

Name

Date

Section 2 Using Machines

What is a
machine? and
Mechanical
Advantage
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Organize information by listing the three ways a machine can


make work easier.
A machine makes work easier by changing
1.

2.

3.

Summarize mechanical advantage. Then write the formula for


calculating it.
Mechanical advantage is
.

mechanical advantage 

I found this information


on page
.

Analyze the diagrams in your book that show the three ways
machines make work easier. Complete the chart by describing the
effect of the machine on the output force.
What Machine Does
Increases force

Increases distance

Changes direction
of force

222

Work and Simple Machines

How Force Is Changed

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

The equation for calculating mechanical advantage is

Name

Date

Section 2 Using Machines

Efficiency
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Summarize the relationship between efficiency and friction by


completing the paragraph.
The

of a machine is the ratio of the


work to the

I found this information


on page
.

is a force that

the motion of one object sliding over

another. This

a machines

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Complete the mathematical equation that describes how efficiency


is calculated.
efficiency (in percent) 

I found this information


on page
.

work.

 100%

Model how oil reduces the friction between two surfaces. Sketch a
cross-section view of two horizontal surfaces sliding past each other.
Indicate contact points on the upper and lower surfaces and a layer
of oil between them.

CONNECT IT

Think of some machines that you use. List the machines and the
parts that may be affected by friction.

Work and Simple Machines

223

Name

Date

Work and Simple Machines


Section 3 Simple Machines
Scan Use the checklist below to preview Section 3 of your book.
Read all section titles.
Read all bold words.
Read all charts and graphs.
Look at all the pictures, and read their captions.
Think about what you already know about machines.
Write two facts you discovered about simple machines.
1.
2.

Review
Vocabulary Define the term compound to show its scientific meaning.
compound

a grooved wheel with a rope or cable wrapped around the groove


machine that does work only with one movement
an inclined plane that moves
a flat, sloped surface, or ramp
an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder or post
machine made up of two or more simple machines
two circular objects of different sizes that rotate together
a rigid rod or plank that pivots about a point called the fulcrum

Academic
Vocabulary Define section. Use section in an original sentence to show its
scientific meaning.
section

224

Work and Simple Machines

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

New
Vocabulary Write the correct vocabulary term next to its definition.

Name

Date

Section 3 Simple Machines

What is a simple
machine?
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Contrast simple and compound machines by completing the chart.


Simple Machine

Compound Machine

Description

Examples

Inclined Plane
I found this information
on page
.

Compare how the amount of force needed to move an object


changes with the length of the inclined plane. Complete the phrases
below with less, more, and the most.
Longer Inclined Plane:

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

force
is needed to move
an object

Shorter Inclined Plane:


force
is needed to move
an object

Lifting Without an Inclined Plane:


force is needed to move the object

Lever
I found this information
on page
.

Model how changing the location of a fulcrum in a lever affects its


mechanical advantage. Draw two levers of the same length but
with fulcrums at different points.
Label the input force, output force, and fulcrum in your drawings
as well as the distances between the fulcrum and each force.
Show a calculation of the mechanical advantage of each.

Work and Simple Machines

225

Name

Date

Section 3 Simple Machines

Wheel and Axle

(continued)

Analyze the wheel and axle by completing the paragraph below.

I found this information


on page
.

If the input force is applied to the axle, the mechanical advantage


is

one. If the input force is applied to the wheel,

the mechanical advantage is almost always

Pulley

one.

Classify the three types of pulleys by completing the chart.

I found this information


on page
.

Pulleys
Type of
pulley

Effect on force

Mechanical advantage

Fixed
pulley

Pulley
system

CONNECT IT

Analyze what types of wheel and axles are on a bicycle. List


and describe them in terms of their mechanical advantage.

226

Work and Simple Machines

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Movable
pulley

Name

Date

Tie It Together
Synthesize It

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

You will be loading heavy crates into a truck. The crates are too heavy to lift to the bed
of the truck by yourself. Make use of as many simple machines as you can to help you.
Explain how you would use them.

Work and Simple Machines

227

Name

Date

Work and Simple Machines


Chapter Wrap-Up
Review the ideas you listed in the chart at the beginning of the chapter. Cross out any
incorrect information in the first column. Then complete the chart by filling in the third
column. How do your ideas about what you know now compare with those you provided
at the beginning of the chapter?
K
What I know

W
What I want to find out

L
What I learned

Use this checklist to help you study.


Review the information you included in your Foldable.
Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations.
Review the Self Check at the end of each section.
Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter.

S UMMARIZE I T

After reading this chapter, identify three things that you have
learned about work and simple machines.

228

Work and Simple Machines

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Review

Name

Date

Thermal Energy
Before You Read
Think about the term thermal energy. List as many words as you can think of that use
therm- as part of their root word.

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Science Journal
Describe five things that you do to make yourself feel warmer or cooler.

Thermal Energy

229

Name

Date

Thermal Energy
Section 1 Temperature and Thermal Energy
Skim through Section 1 of your text. Write three topics that might
be discussed in this section.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define the following key term using your book or a dictionary.
kinetic energy

New
Vocabulary Define the following vocabulary terms using your book or
a dictionary.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

temperature

thermal energy

Academic
Vocabulary Define the word random using a dictionary.
random

What is
temperature?
I found this information
on page
.

Complete the statements about temperature.


Molecules are always
called
when they are moving

. Energy of motion is
. Molecules have more
. Temperature is
.

230

Thermal Energy

Name

Date

Section 1 Temperature and Thermal Energy

What is
temperature?
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Sequence the steps to show how temperature changes cause most


objects to expand or contract. The first step has been done for you.
Object Is Heated

Object Is Cooled

molecules move apart

molecules move closer together

molecules moves faster

molecules moves slower

1 object becomes warmer

1 object becomes cooler

object expands

Measuring
Temperature

object shrinks, or contracts

Compare the three temperature scales in the chart below.


Characteristics
of Each Scale

I found this information


on page
.

Fahrenheit Celsius Kelvin

Temperature at which water freezes

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Temperature at which water boils


Number of degrees between
waters freezing and boiling points
I found this information
on page
.

Organize the formulas from your book into the conversion chart.
Fahrenheit
to Celsius

Celsius
to Fahrenheit

Celsius
to Kelvin

Formula
Break it
down

COMPARE IT

Knowing that metals expand when heated, explain how you can
apply this knowledge to a metal jar lid that is screwed on too tightly.

Thermal Energy

231

Name

Date

Section 1 Temperature and Thermal Energy

I found this information


on page
.

Compare the potential energy of molecules with the potential


energy of a ball. Complete the statements that have been started
for you.
Potential Energy
Statements

Ball Analogy
Statement

1. molecules in a material
exert attractive forces on
each other
2. molecules in a material
have potential energy

A ball
has potential energy.

3. as molecules move closer


together or farther apart,
potential energy changes

I found this information


on page
.

Gravity exerts an

As a ball moves closer to or


farther from Earths surface,

Synthesize Suppose you have two balls of colored dough, each at


22C. One ball is blue, the other is yellow. When the two balls are
mixed together, their total mass is 100g of green dough. Mark the
statements that are true about this thermal energy analogy. Correct
any false statements so they become true.

50 g
blue

50 g
yellow

100 g
green

22C

The mass of the green dough is twice the mass


of the blue dough.
The mass of the green dough is equal to the sum of
the mass of the yellow and the blue dough.
The thermal energy of the green dough is equal to
twice the sum of thermal energy of the yellow and the
blue dough.
232

Thermal Energy

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Thermal Energy

(continued)

Name

Date

Thermal Energy
Section 2 Heat
Skim through Section 2 of your text. Write three facts you discovered
about heat.
1.

2.

3.

Review
Vocabulary Write a scientific sentence using the term electromagnetic wave.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

electromagnetic wave

New
Vocabulary Write the correct vocabulary term next to its definition.
transfer of thermal energy by the movement of particles in
a gas or liquid
transfer of thermal energy by direct contact by collisions
between particles
thermal energy that is transferred from a substance at higher
temperature to a substance at a lower temperature
material that transfers heat easily
amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg
of a substance by 1C
transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves

Academic
Vocabulary Define transfer using a dictionary.
transfer

Thermal Energy

233

Name

Section 2 Heat

Date
(continued)

Heat and Thermal


Energy
I found this information
on page
.

Label the two drawings to illustrate the statement: Heat is


transferred when objects that differ in temperature are brought
into contact.
Label the temperature of each object
Draw an arrow showing the direction of heat transfer.

Heat transfer

Analyze the drawing below to help classify each type of energy


transfer as conduction, convection, or radiation.

I found this information


on page
.

The Suns rays heat the sand particles by


Body heat transferred to the air by

.
.

Cool air pushes in to replace warm, air flow by natural


.
Heat transferred from sand to towel to body by

Heat from the Sun warms iced tea by


Fan pushes air molecules by forced

.
.

Warmer molecules move more quickly, transferring heat throughout


the iced tea by
234

Thermal Energy

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Conduction,
Radiation, and
Convection

No heat transfer

Name

Section 2 Heat

Date
(continued)

Thermal
Conductors and
Thermal
Insulators
I found this information
on page
.

Compare and contrast thermal conductors and thermal


insulators by writing the words and phrases in the Venn diagram.

does not conduct heat easily


conducts heat easily
gold and copper
air

material contains some loosely


held electrons
materials do not contain
loosely held electrons

Thermal Conductors

Thermal Insulators
Both

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

depend on how
strongly atoms
hold electrons

CONNECT IT

Analyze sources of thermal pollution and their effects on


organisms and the environment. Design a possible plan to reduce thermal pollution.

Thermal Energy

235

Name

Date

Thermal Energy
Section 3 Engines and Refrigerators
Read the What Youll Learn objectives of Section 3. Write four
questions that come to mind from reading these statements.
1.

2.

3.

4.

Review
Vocabulary Define the terms using your book or a dictionary.

New
Vocabulary
heat engine

internal combustion
engine

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define internal in its scientific sense.
internal

236

Thermal Energy

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

work

Name

Date

Section 3 Engines and Refrigerators

Heat Engines
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Identify the six different forms of energy and give an example


of each.
Types of Energy

I found this information


on page
.

Sequence the steps of a four-stroke cycle engine in the chart.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Steps in the Four-Stroke Cycle


Intake
stroke

The piston moves downward.

Compression
stroke
Power
stroke

Exhaust
stroke

Thermal Energy

237

Name

Date

Section 3 Engines and Refrigerators

Refrigerators
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Sequence steps to show how a refrigerator stays cold inside.


Explain what happens as coolant moves through a refrigerator
by writing what occurs at each location.

Freezer
unit
4.

3.

2. Liquid coolant passes


through the expansion valve
and changes into a gas.

Heat

5.

7.
6. The warmer gas releases its heat to
the cooler air outside the refrigerator.

S YNTHESIZE I T

Analyze and discuss why the statement An air conditioned


building is like stepping into a giant refrigerator! is true.

238

Thermal Energy

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1.

Name

Date

Tie It Together
Synthesize
Suppose that you are a television weather forecaster. As a part of your job, you have been
asked to help educate people about science. On the lines below, plan a weather forecast for
your region. After you have finished planning, present your forecast to the class. Explain as
many of the following terms as possible during your forecast.
temperature

Fahrenheit scale

Celsius scale

radiation

convection

conduction

Tomorrows Weather Forecast


Date:

Location:

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Forecast:

Notes about terms:

Thermal Energy

239

Name

Thermal Energy

Date

Chapter Wrap-Up

After You Read


Examine the list of terms that include the root therm- that you wrote at the beginning of
this chapter. Write in the space below what you think therm- means.

Review
Use this checklist to help you study.
Review the information you included in your Foldable.
Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.

Review daily homework assignments.


Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations.
Review the Self Check at the end of each section.
Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter.

S UMMARIZE I T

After reading this chapter, identify three things that you have
learned about the movement of molecules.

240

Thermal Energy

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Study the definitions of vocabulary words.

Name

Date

Electricity
Before You Read
Preview the chapter and section titles and the section headings. List at least two ideas
for each section in each column.
K
What I know

W
What I want to find out

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Science Journal
Write a paragraph describing a lightning flash you have seen. Include information
about the weather conditions at the time.

Electricity

241

Name

Date

Electricity
Section 1 Electric Charge
Skim Section 1 of your text. Write three questions that come to
mind from reading the headings and looking at the illustrations.
1.

2.

3.

Review
Vocabulary Write a scientific sentence using the term element.

New
Vocabulary Write the correct vocabulary term next to its definition.
material in which electrons cannot move easily from place
to place
positively or negatively charged atom
attractive force between positively and negatively charged objects
material through which electrons can easily move
space in which charges exert a force on each other
rapid movement of excess charge from one place to another
imbalance of electric charges on an object

Academic
Vocabulary Define overall using a dictionary.
overall

242

Electricity

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

element

Name

Date

Section 1 Electric Charge

Electricity
I found this information
on page
.

I found this information


on page
.

(continued)

Summarize how an atom can become a positive or negative ion.


When an atom

electrons, it becomes a negative ion.

When an atom

electrons, it becomes a positive ion.

Compare and contrast how electrons and ions move. Complete


the chart.
Electrons

Ions

How they
move

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Can they
move
through
solids?
Example

Electric Forces
I found this information
on page
.

Create sketches to show how like and unlike charges attract or


repel each other.

Electricity

243

Name

Date

Section 1 Electric Charge

Insulators and
Conductors
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Compare conductors and insulators by completing the chart below.


Insulator

Conductor

Definition

Examples

Induced Charge
I found this information
on page
.

Sequence the events leading to an electric discharge by lightning.


Air currents may cause the bottom of a storm cloud to become

The negative charge of the cloud


in the ground below.

A cloud-to-ground lightning strike occurs when


.

Grounding

Summarize why grounding is important.

I found this information


on page
.

CONNECT IT

Some electric lamps are made of metal, which is a conductor.


Explain why people do not get a shock when they touch lamps

244

Electricity

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Electricity
Section 2 Electric Current
Predict three things that might be discussed in this section after
reading the headings.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define gravitational potential energy using your book.
gravitational potential
energy

New
Vocabulary Use your book to define each key term.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

electric current

circuit

voltage

resistance

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define potential as it is used to discuss
electricity.
potential

Electricity

245

Name

Date

Flow of Charge

(continued)

I found this information


on page
.

Model a simple electric circuit by completing the diagram below.


Mark the positive and negative ends of the battery.
Draw wires to complete the circuit.
Use arrows to indicate the direction of the flow of current.

I found this information


on page
.

Organize information by completing the flow chart describing how


a current flows in a circuit powered by a battery.

The battery produces

in the wire.

The electric field forces

to move toward the


.

The electrons
in the wire.

with

After each collision, electrons


.

246

Electricity

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Section 2 Electric Current

Name

Date

Section 2 Electric Current

I found this information


on page
.

Resistance

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

I found this information


on page
.

(continued)

Create a concept web to summarize at least six facts about


batteries.

Classify the following pairs of items according to their resistance.


List each item on a line beneath the correct end of the arrow.
long wire/short wire
insulator/conductor
Lower Resistance

thin wire/thick wire


tungsten filament/copper
Higher Resistance

CONNECT IT

A toaster uses wires to heat bread. Describe what you can


conclude about these wires.

Electricity

247

Name

Date

Electricity
Section 3 Electric Circuits
Scan Section 3 of your book. Write three facts you discovered about
electric circuits as you scanned the section.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Write a sentence using the word power to show its scientific
meaning.
power

New
Vocabulary Define each key term using your book or a dictionary.

series circuit

parallel circuit

electric power

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define output.
output

248

Electricity

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Ohms law

Name

Date

Section 3 Electric Circuits

Controlling the
Current
I found this information
on page
.

I found this information


on page
.

(continued)

Identify how voltage and resistance affect current.


Voltage increases

Current

Resistance increases

Current

Complete the mathematical equation that describes Ohms law.


voltage (volts) 

(amperes) 

(ohms)

OR
I

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Series and
Parallel Circuits
I found this information
on page
.

Model a simple series circuit and a simple parallel circuit by


drawing a diagram of each.
Label the energy source, devices, and wires in each circuit.
Use arrows to show the paths electrons can follow in each circuit.

Series Circuit

Parallel Circuit

Electricity

249

Name

Date

Section 3 Electric Circuits

Protecting
Electric Circuits
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Compare two ways that electric circuits are protected.


Protecting Electric Circuits
Device

How It Works

Fuse
Circuit
breaker

Electric Power
I found this information
on page
.

Summarize how electric power is calculated. Complete the


equation.
power (watts) 

(amperes) 

(volts)

OR

Electrical Safety
I found this information
on page
.

Create a list of tips that people can use to prevent electrical shock
and a list of tips to avoid being injured by lightning.
Ways to Prevent
Electrical Shock

S YNTHESIZE I T

Ways to Keep Safe


from Lightning

Describe why it might be useful for a set of decorative lights


to be connected in a parallel circuit instead of a series circuit.

250

Electricity

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

P

Name

Date

Tie It Together

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Invent an electrical device that uses a simple circuit powered by a battery.


You can design your device to use a series circuit, a parallel circuit, or both.
For example, it can power an electric motor, light a bulb, or ring a bell.
Draw a diagram of your device below, label its parts, and explain its
purpose and how it works.

Electricity

251

Name

Date

Electricity

Chapter Wrap-Up

Review the ideas you listed in the chart at the beginning of the chapter. Cross out any
incorrect information in the first column. Then complete the chart.
K
What I know

W
What I want to find out

L
What I learned

Review
Use this checklist to help you study.

Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.


Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations.
Review the Self Check at the end of each section.
Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter.

S UMMARIZE I T

After reading this chapter, identify three things that you have
learned about electricity.

252

Electricity

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Review the information you included in your Foldable.

Name

Date

Magnetism
Before You Read
Before you read the chapter, respond to these statements.
1. Write an A if you agree with the statement.
2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.
Before You
Read

Magnetism
Some minerals are natural magnets.
A compass needle is a small bar magnet.
Electricity cannot be used to make a magnet.
Many electric motors contain magnets.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Science Journal
List three ways you have seen magnets used.

Magnetism

253

Name

Date

Magnetism
Section 1 What is magnetism?
Scan Section 1 of your book using the checklist below.
Read all section headings.
Read all bold words.
Read all charts and graphs.
Look at all of the pictures.
Think about what you already know about magnetism.
Write two things you learned about magnetism.
1.
2.

Review
Vocabulary Define compass using a dictionary or your book.

New
Vocabulary Use a dictionary or your book to define each of the following terms.
magnetic field

magnetic domain

magnetosphere

Academic
Vocabulary Define domain. Why is this term used when discussing magnetism?
domain

254

Magnetism

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

compass

Name

Date

Section 1 What is magnetism?

Early Uses

(continued)

Summarize how people might have made the first compasses.

I found this information


on page
.

Magnets
I found this information
on page
.

Complete the sentences about magnetic poles.


Like magnetic poles

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Unlike magnetic poles

each other.
each other.

I found this information


on page
.

Model the magnetic field of a bar magnet.


Draw the magnet, its poles, and its magnetic field lines.
Include arrows showing the direction of the field.
Add captions explaining the field strength.

I found this information


on page
.

Contrast magnetic domains in a nonmagnetic piece of iron and


in a magnetized piece of iron. Draw and label the domains.

Magnetism

255

Name

Date

Section 1 What is magnetism?

I found this information


on page
.

(continued)

Sequence the steps through which iron can become a magnet.

Earths Magnetic
Field
I found this information
on page
.

Complete the following statements about Earths magnetic field.


The region of space affected by Earths magnetic field is called
the

. Earths magnetic field may be caused by the


in the outer

Earths magnetic field is like a huge

. The

of Earths magnetic field


sometimes the field
rocks record the
their

S UMMARIZE I T

256

Magnetism

and

direction. Some kinds of


of Earths
as the rocks

How do animals and humans use magnetism to find direction?

in
.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Electrons in iron atoms spin, producing magnetic fields.

Name

Date

Magnetism
Section 2 Electricity and Magnetism
Predict three topics that might be discussed in Section 2. Skim the
headings and illustrations to help you make your predictions.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Write a scientific sentence with electric current.
electric current

New
Vocabulary Write the correct vocabulary term next to its definition.
current that periodically changes direction

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

any device that converts electric energy into kinetic energy


device used to increase or decrease the voltage of an
alternating current
current-carrying wire wrapped around an iron core
current in which electrons flow in only one direction
device that uses a magnetic field to change kinetic energy
into electricity
light given off when charged particles collide with
Earths atmosphere

Academic
Vocabulary Define source using a dictionary.
source

Magnetism

257

Name

Date

Section 2 Electricity and Magnetism

Current Can
Make a Magnet
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Organize information about electromagnets.


What it is

Electromagnet

How it works

How it is changed

Summarize how an electric motor works.

I found this information


on page
.

Using Magnets to
Create Current
I found this information
on page
.

Identify ways that magnets can be used to generate electricity.


Generating Electricity Using Magnets
How it works:

Alternating current
Description:

258

Magnetism

Direct current
Description:

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Magnets Push
and Pull Currents

Name

Date

Section 2 Electricity and Magnetism

Changing Voltage
I found this information
on page
.

Superconductors

(continued)

Identify the results when a current passes through a transformer.


Current enters
the transformer
through the coils
on the input side.

More coils
on the
output side
More coils
on the
input side

Complete the chart about the properties of superconductors.

I found this information


on page
.

Superconductors
What they
are
How they
are made
How they react
to magnets

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Uses

Magnetic
Resonance
Imaging

Summarize how magnetic resonance imaging is useful.

I found this information


on page
.

CONNECT IT

Describe how magnetism and electricity are related.

Magnetism

259

Name

Date

Magnetism

Chapter Wrap-Up

Now that you have read the chapter, think about what you have learned and complete
the chart below. Compare your previous answers with these.
1. Write an A if you agree with the statement.
2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.

Magnetism

After You
Read

Some minerals are natural magnets.


A compass needle is a small bar magnet.
Electricity cannot be used to make a magnet.
Many electric motors contain magnets.

Review
Review the information you included in your Foldable.
Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations.
Review the Self Check at the end of each section.
Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter.

S UMMARIZE I T

After reading this chapter, identify three things that you have
learned about magnetism.

260

Magnetism

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use this checklist to help you study.

Name

Date

Waves, Sound, and Light


Before You Read
Before you read the chapter, respond to these statements.
1. Write an A if you agree with the statement.
2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.
Before You
Read

Waves, Sound, and Light


Waves carry both matter and energy.
Waves occur only in water.
Sound travels at the same speed through
all materials.
Light does not require matter to move
through.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Science Journal
Write a short paragraph describing water waves you have seen.

Waves, Sound, and Light

261

Name

Date

Waves, Sound, and Light


Section 1 Waves
Skim Section 1 in your book. Write three questions that come to
mind from what you have skimmed.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define density using your book or a dictionary.
density

New
Vocabulary Write the correct vocabulary term next to its definition.
distance between one point on a wave and the nearest point
moving with the same speed and direction

angle an incoming wave makes with the normal equals angle the
reflected wave makes with the normal
disturbance that moves through matter or space and
carries energy
change in direction of a wave when it changes speed as it travels
from one material to another
number of wavelengths that pass a given point in one second,
measured in hertz
wave that causes particles in matter to move back and forth along
the direction the wave travels
bending of waves around an object

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define adjacent.
adjacent

262

Waves, Sound, and Light

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

wave that causes particles in matter to move at right angles to


the direction the wave travels

Name

Date

Section 1 Waves

(continued)

What are waves?


I found this information
on page
.

Contrast mechanical and electromagnetic waves. Fill in the


missing words.
Mechanical waves travel through
be

. They may

waves or

waves.

Electromagnetic waves travel through

or

. They are always

Types of Waves
I found this information
on page
.

waves.

Create drawings of a transverse wave and a compressional wave.


Label a trough, a crest, a compression, and a rarefaction.
Transverse wave

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Compressional wave

Properties
of Waves
I found this information
on page
.

Compare and contrast the properties of transverse and


compressional waves by defining the wave characteristics for each.
Property

Wave Type
Transverse

Compressional

Wavelength

Frequency

Amplitude

Waves, Sound, and Light

263

Name

Date

Section 1 Waves

(continued)

Properties
of Waves
I found this information
on page
.

Complete the equation for wave speed. Then rewrite the equation
using the correct symbols.
wave speed (m/s) 

(m) 

(Hz)

Wave Speed Equation


Model the ways waves change direction by drawing examples
using light waves in the boxes below.

I found this information


on page
.

Light Waves Change Direction


Reflection

Refraction

S UMMARIZE I T

Diffraction

Create, label, and describe a water wave. Identify its


wavelength, frequency, and amplitude. Draw what would happen if the wave is
reflected, refracted, and diffracted.

264

Water Wave

Refracted Wave

Reflected Wave

Diffracted Wave

Waves, Sound, and Light

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Waves Can
Change
Directions

Name

Date

Waves, Sound, and Light


Section 2 Sound Waves
Scan Section 2 of your book using the checklist below.
Read all section titles.
Read all bold words.
Read all charts and graphs.
Look at the pictures.
Think about what you already know about sound waves.
Write three facts you discovered about sound waves as you scanned
the section.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define perception using a dictionary or your book.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

perception

New
Vocabulary Write a sentence using the scientific meaning of each of the
vocabulary words.
intensity

pitch

reverberation

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define perceive.
perceive

Waves, Sound, and Light

265

Name

Date

Section 2 Sound Waves

Making Sound
Waves
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Organize the features of sound waves in the chart below.


Properties of Sound Waves
Produced by
Type of wave
How they
transfer energy

Speed of Sound
I found this information
on page
.

Identify 2 factors that affect the speed of sound.


1.

The Loudness
of Sound
I found this information
on page
.

Model Draw and label arrows to show whether intensity, loudness,


and energy increase or decrease as the amplitude of a sound wave
increases.
Amplitude increases

Intensity

Loudness

Energy

Frequency
and Pitch

Describe the relationship between frequency and pitch.

I found this information


on page
.

266

Waves, Sound, and Light

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2.

Name

Date

Section 2 Sound Waves

Hearing and
the Ear
I found this information
on page
.

(continued)

Sequence the path of sound through the ear by completing the


flowchart with the function and main structures of each part
of the ear.
Outer Ear
Function:
Main Structures:
Middle Ear
Function:
Main Structures:
Inner Ear
Function:

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Main Structures:

The Reflection
of Sound
I found this information
on page
.

Distinguish two uses of reflected sound.


1.
2.

CONNECT IT

Sound in an empty room can be very loud, with many echoes.


Describe three ways to make the room quieter.

Waves, Sound, and Light

267

Name

Date

Waves, Sound, and Light


Section 3 Light
Predict three things that might be discussed in Section 3. Read the
section headings and subheadings to help make your predictions.
1.
2.
3.

Review
Vocabulary Define spectrum and use it in a sentence.
spectrum

New
Vocabulary Use your book to define each of the new vocabulary terms.

electromagnetic
spectrum

infrared waves

ultraviolet waves

Academic
Vocabulary Use a dictionary to define interact.
interact

268

Waves, Sound, and Light

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

electromagnetic waves

Name

Section 3 Light

Date
(continued)

Waves in Empty
Space

Analyze why light travels faster in empty space than when it


travels through matter.

I found this information


on page
.

Properties of
Light Waves

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

I found this information


on page
.

The
Electromagnetic
Spectrum
I found this information
on page
.

Model an electromagnetic wave. Draw and label both the electric


and the magnetic fields, and indicate the wavelength and the
direction of travel.

Organize information about the uses of electromagnetic waves.


Wave Type

Used For

radio waves
microwaves
infrared waves
visible light
ultraviolet waves
X rays
gamma rays
Waves, Sound, and Light

269

Name

Date
(continued)

The Eye and


Seeing Light
I found this information
on page
.

I found this information


on page
.

Sequence the path of light through the eye and organize the
structures involved at each step.
Light enters eye
Main Structures:

Light waves are focused


Main Structures:

Image formed
Main Structures:

Carries messages to brain


Main Structures:

Summarize what determines the color of objects that emit light


and what determines the color of objects that do not.

Contrast the roles of rods and cones. Complete the chart.


Cell

Sensitive to:

rod
cone

S YNTHESIZE I T

Think of a source of electromagnetic waves, such as a radio


station or a microwave oven. Describe the waves given off by the source, including
their wavelength and frequency.

270

Waves, Sound, and Light

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Section 3 Light

Name

Date

Tie It Together
Identify ways that sound waves, visible light waves, and other types of electromagnetic
waves play a role in your daily life. For each type of wave, give an example of when the
waves are useful. Identify any problems the waves can cause.
Sound Waves

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Visible Light

Other Types of Electromagnetic Waves

Waves, Sound, and Light

271

Name

Date

Waves, Sound, and Light


Chapter Wrap-Up
Now that you have read the chapter, think about what you have learned and complete
the chart below. Compare your previous answers with these.
1. Write an A if you agree with the statement.
2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.

Waves, Sound, and Light

After You
Read

Waves carry both matter and energy.


Waves occur only in water.
Sound travels at the same speed through
all materials.

Review
Use this checklist to help you study.
Review the information you included in your Foldable.
Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.
Study the definitions of vocabulary words.
Review daily homework assignments.
Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations.
Review the Self Check at the end of each section.
Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter.

S UMMARIZE I T

After reading this chapter, identify three things that you have
learned about waves, sound, and light.

272

Waves, Sound, and Light

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Light does not require matter to move


through.

Academic Vocabulary
achieve: to gain, accomplish, attain, reach

emerge: to come out; to appear

adjacent: near, close, or adjoining

enormous: having great size

approach: to come near

factor: any of the circumstances or


conditions that bring about a result

collapse: to fall together or inward


communicate: to make known or
give information
community: a group of organisms that
live together in the same place

hypothesis: a reasonable guess that can


be tested and is based on what is known
and what is observed

complex: made up of different parts


connected in a way that is hard
to understand

interact: to act upon one another

component: part of a machine or system

interval: space or time between events

constant: not changing; continuing

investigate: to search into something in


order to learn the facts

consume: to eat
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

fundamental: serving as an original or


generating source; primary

contract: to make or become shorter


or smaller
controversy: argument or debate
convert: to change from one form into
another form
core: center; a central part of something
cycle: a repeating sequence of events
device: tool or instrument designed for
a particular purpose
displace: to take the place of or remove
from the usual or proper place
diverse: not all the same; varied
domain: region with the same physical
feature
eliminate: to get rid of

internal: having to do with the inside

isolate: to separate from others


maintain: to continue
mature: to become fully developed
or ripe
method: particular procedure, technique,
or way to do something
model: a tool used to help visualize
something that cannot be directly
observed
nuclear: of or relating to the atomic
nucleus
occur: to take place or happen; to be found
or appear
output: useful power delivered by a circuit
or device
overall: including everything; total
Science Level Blue

273

Academic Vocabulary
perceive: to observe or become aware
of through the senses

reveal: to make known; to show


or display

period: a repeating interval; row of the


periodic table

rigid: not bending or moving; stiff


and hard

positive: real and numerically greater


than zero

section: one of several parts that together


make up the whole

potential: a difference in voltage between


two points of an electrical circuit

sequence: one thing following another


in a fixed order

predict: to foretell in advance on the


basis of observation, experience, or
scientific reason

series: a number of similar things coming


one after another

process: a series of things done in order


to make or do something

stable: not easily moved or changed

promote: to contribute to the growth of;


to help bring into being

structure: the arrangement of particles


or parts in a substance or body

proportion: an equation that shows two


ratios are equivalent

survey: to look at or study in detail

random: a haphazard course; without


definite aim, direction, rule, or method;
lacking a definite plan, purpose,
or pattern
ratio: relation of one thing to another in
size or amount
react: to act because something has
happened; to respond

survive: to continue to exist; to


live through
symbol: something that represents
something else
theory: group of ideas or principles that
explain why or how something happens
transfer: to send from one place to another
undergo: to experience

representative: characteristic of a group


or kind

version: variant of an original

require: to need

volume: amount of space that makes up


or fills something

resource: something used for help


or support

274

Science Level Blue

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

source: point of origin