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SmartBrains

Engineers & Technologist Pvt. Ltd.

NATURAL GAS & LNG


Technology - Production - Operation - Hazards

Noida Office:
H-86, Sector-63, Noida-201301
Land Mark: Behind Haldiram
Email : info@smartbrains.in
Phone :+91-120-4104991-94
+91-989 110 8700
Hyderabad Office:
6-3- 680/403, 4 floor,
Regency House, Somajiguda,
Hyderabad - 500 082
Email : hyd@smartbrains.in
Phone: +91-9703751174
+91-9703132211

www.smartbrains.in

Vadodara Office:
9, Helix,Complex, Opp. Hotel Surya,
Sayajigunj, Vadodara - 390020
Email : vadodara@smartbrains.in
Phone : +91-265-6595620/21
+91-9033033791/92
Pune Office:
30(1),(3), 2nd Floor, Premanjali
Complex, Opp. Ellora Palace,
Dhankawadi, Pune - 411043
Email : pune@smartbrains.in
Phone : +91-9860626494,
+91-9650276387

About SmartBrains:
SmartBrains is a leading Training provider for In-house and public courses to the
upstream, midstream and downstream sectors of the Oil & Gas Industry, and offers
numbers of courses throughout the year in India. Our course subject matter spans
technical engineering and geoscience, business and commercial, leadership,
communications and management training, ranging from basic awareness to skilled
application level.
Our instructors are among the oil & gas industry's most respected and knowledgeable
in their eld. In the ever-evolving Oil & energy industry, where training and upgrading
skills of professionals have been more important, SmartBrains plays a key role in
helping full your training and skill development needs.

Why
SmartBrains?
Delivered training covering Engineering, procurement construction, commissioning,

operation & maintenance, business, financial management along with human resource
and personal development for Oil & Energy Industry.
Trained thousands of participants every year from over 20 countries.
Preformed numerous tailor-made short and long training programs for national and
International clients.
Guided by the industry's renowned professionals with unprecedented knowledge of the
Oil and energy industry.
A comprehensive spectrum of technical programs for the whole Oil & Energy Industry.
Highly interactive program with practical and relevant case studies.
Training by extensively researched self developed cutting edge techniques.
Skill development techniques with comprehensive set of documentation, practical skills
and tools used in the Industry.
The perfect opportunity to develop network and experiences with knowledge sharing.
Designed for both Fresh engineers and working professionals to attain growth in oil
and energy industry.

We Provide:
500 Training sessions per year,
50+ training Courses,
20 permanent
instructors And
a network of 100 consultants

To:
More than 50 clients
5000 trainees par year
from 20 countries

Certificate: A certificate of completion is awarded to each participant


who satisfactorily completes the course

Natural Gas & LNG


Technology - Production - Operation - Hazards

PURPOSE
To provide a comprehensive review of
technology involved in NG & LNG
production, processing, operation &
hazards complemented with equipment
use in LNG production .
AUDIENCE
This course will familiarize participants
with the basic technology, processes and
equipment used in LNG Production.
This course is ideally suited to process &
mechanical engineers, other involved in
engineering and construction, and for
professionals involved in other areas of
the petroleum industry who require a
comprehensive overview of the LNG
processing.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
The Elements of the LNG Chain
The Upstream Processing Chain
Gas Treating and Dehydration
Review of Thermodynamic Fundamentals of
Liquefaction
Gas Liquefaction Cycles Technologies and
Equipment
Storage Facilities
Review of Process Operating Conditions of
Typical LNG Train
Marine Terminal Facilities
LNG Shipping
Receiving Terminals
LNG Peak Shaving Plants
New Trends: Small and Medium Size LNG
Plants - Floating LNG

Course
STRUCTURE

Natural gas: types and production techniques

Types and characteristics of natural gas fields - Production techniques.


Different types of natural gases and characterization parameters.
Constitution of natural gas well effluent, properties and specific hazards.
Case of associated gases: recovery techniques, characteristics, composition, etc.
Natural gas processing

Gas dehydration (drying) and Hydrate formation inhibition


System behavior - Moisture content of a saturated gas
Applications: moisture content of different gases of various compositions
Hydrate formation inhibition by injection of inhibitors: MeOH, MEG, DEG, LDHI, etc.
Gas dehydration: TEG units, Molecular Sieves, etc.
Application: summary design of TEG unit.
Gas sweetening: removal of acid components (H2S and/or CO2)
Different techniques applicable for gas sweetening:
-- Chemical solvent processes - Amine units (MEA, DEA, DGA, MDEA, etc.)
-- Physical solvent processes
-- Hybrid (physico-chemical) solvent processes
-- Overview of other techniques
Conversion of H2S: sulfur production (CLAUS process) and tail gas processing
Application: summary design of an amine unit.
Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) extraction (removal of heavy components)
External refrigeration loop
Joule-Thomson expansion
Turbo-Expander
Application: calculation of cryogenic loop used for NGL extraction.
Examples of gas field development schemes
Gas fields development options: onshore or offshore processing, single-phase or
multi phase export pipelines, Wet or Dry development
Other treatments: mercury removal, conversion or adsorption of mercaptans (RSH),
LNG: INTRODUCTION

The LNG Chain - Order of magnitude and trends - Location of main plants worldwide.
Base load LNG plants - Peak shaving LNG plants - Small LNG plants for LNG fueled
vehicles.
Receiving terminals - Regasification techniques - Satellite regasification techniques.

LNG specific properties and associated hazards

Physical properties: Liquid-Vapor equilibrium, density, ratio of vapor methane / LNG, heat
of vaporization, heat of combustion...
Safety aspects: Flash Point, Fire Point, Auto-ignition Point, Minimum Spark Energy,
Flammability Limits, Deflagration, LNG Vaporization, Rapid Phase Transition (RPT),
Radiation levels, Stratification / Roll-over, Sloshing, LNG clouds ignition, Asphyxiation
risks,
LNG hazard prevention and mitigation measures

LNG spillage control at Design stage and in Operation.


LNG clouds control in operation.
LNG fires control at Design stage and in Operation.
Liquefaction and regasification processes

Feed pretreatment: sweetening, dehydration, NGL extraction, Hg and aromatics removal


Different liquefaction processes: Pure Component Refrigerants, Pure component(s)
and Mixed Refrigerant(s), Mixed Refrigerants.
Peak Shaving simplified scheme.
Regasification process.
LNG storage, loading / offloading and transport

LNG tanks: Single or Double or Full Containment (self-standing, membrane) - Hazards


Jetty head, Jetty trestle, harbor.
LNG Carriers: common features, technology, cargo operations, safety systems.
Technology of LNG specific equipment

LNG cryogenic heat exchangers: Spiral Wound Heat Exchangers, Aluminum Brazed Heat
Exchangers.
Technology of the Cryogenic Compressors and their drivers (Gas Turbines).
LNG Vaporizers: Open Rack Vaporizers (ORV), Submerged Combustion Vaporizers (SCV),
etc. - Safety and Environmental aspects.
Submerged LNG pumps: in-tank retractable pumps, cargo pumps, HP canned send out
pumps, etc.
Liquid cryogenic turbo-expanders, Cryogenic valves.
Cryogenic personnel protection items.
LNG plant operation

Day to day activities in an LNG plant - Experience of some plants.