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Running Head: SOCIAL AND MULTICULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY

Social and Multicultural Psychology


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SOCIAL AND MULTICULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY

Abstract
This paper discusses social and multicultural psychology. In the paper, the meanings of
both social and multicultural psychologies are given. The primary research strategies of social
psychology will be described, and examples given. The relationship and contrasts between social
and multicultural psychologies are also discussed.
Introduction
Individuals are affected by numerous things, individuals, and circumstances. The effect of
their social interactions is impacted by how they think, feel and carry on. Comprehension of how
people structure connections and get along in society is vital, particularly since people have
cultural and ethnic or minority foundations. In spite of the fact that "standards of conduct" are
held by all societies, other multicultural variables, for example, contextual elements, ethnic and
racial identity, religious beliefs, child rearing, and demeanors should likewise be considered
when managing populations with these diversities.
Social Psychology and Primary Research Strategies
Social Psychology can be defined as the scientific attempt to explain how the thoughts,
feelings, and behaviors of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence
of other human beings. (Fiske, 2009). Social psychology is a branch of psychology that studies
how people interact in different social situations. It deals with how and why individuals think,
feel, and do the things they do as a consequence of the circumstance they wind up in. Sociology
and social psychology are similar except that sociology concentrates on group elements, for
example, socioeconomic class and race while social psychology focuses mostly on how the
individual acts in specific circumstances.

SOCIAL AND MULTICULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY

Some fundamental research methodologies (McLeod, 2007) used by the researchers to


evaluate an individual's social interactions are listed in table 1:
Table 1
RESEARCH

DESCRIPTION

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

Unstructured (casual) discussion with no

EXAMPLE
Skinner Behavior Study

STRATEGIES
Interviews

questions set

Changed operant conditioning

Structured (formal): Fixed, predetermined

by conducting tests by use of

set of formal inquiries.

animals in 1948 to punish or

Questionnaire: written interview.

reinforce.

Collect quantitative and qualitative data.


Case Study

In-depth investigations of a single event,

Sigmund Freud detailed

person, group, or community.

examinations concerning the

Gathers qualitative data and levels of

private lives of his patients

ecological validity.

trying to both comprehend and


help them conquer their
illnesses.

Experiment

Accurate and target measurements in a

Stanley Milgram, a Yale

(Natural, Lab,

controlled setting (controlled environment )

University psychologist,

or field)

Researcher determines time, place,


circumstances, participants and standardized
procedure in real life setting.

experiment on obedience
concentrated on the three-way
clash between authority,

SOCIAL AND MULTICULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY

obedience, and personal


conscience.
Observations

Covert Observations: Pretend to be an

Kathy Sylva and some

everyday member of the group and subtly

researchers from Oxford and

watches. Makes moral issues or misdirection

the University of London's

and consent.

Institute of Education, found

Overt Observations: Inform the participants


that he or she is being watched so they will be
mindful.

in the late 80s/early 90s that a


child's scholarly, social and
behavioral advancement is
considerably improved by

Record conduct in normal, controlled,


participatory, and non-participatory settings.

going to pre-school, especially


on the off chance that they are
poor.

Content

Indirectly watch the vicinity of specific

Content Analysis of TV shows

words, pictures or ideas within the media or

containing violent content or

Analysis

politics

study sex-role stereotyping

Pilot Study

A starting go-through of the strategies to be

Scottish Births Survey to

utilized as a part of an investigation; select a

focus temporary level of

couple individuals to pretrial the study on

maternity care.

them.

Multicultural Psychology and Similarities/Differences from Social Psychology


Multicultural psychology can be defined as the systematic study of all aspects of human
behavior as it occurs in settings where people of different cultural backgrounds encounter each

SOCIAL AND MULTICULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY

other. (Cherry, 2008). The goal of cross-cultural psychologists is to look at both universal
behaviors and unique behaviors to identify the ways in which culture impacts our behavior,
family life, education, social experiences and other areas (Cherry, 2008). Multicultural
psychology studies people inside of ethnic/minority settings.
Multicultural Psychology similar, yet particularly unique in relation to Social Psychology.
While the social Psychology concentrates on the individual or group's affiliations and
interconnections from a mixed bag of ethnicity, family, moral factors, socio-economic status,
education and gender, multiculturalism evaluates the cultural encounters. Pro-social conduct
incorporates social, cognitive, biological, passionate, and ecological components through a
mixed bag of socio-emotional interactions. In addition, multiculturalism distinguishes the
distinctions of our social ways of life as well as permits transference or the change starting with
one society then onto the next. Multiculturalism allows cultural membership irrespective of ones
birth, physical characteristics, or affiliations to a group previously. It allows various cultures to
exist together. Social psychology, on the other hand, how people influence each others behaviors
while multicultural psychology explains how cultures affect human behavior.
Conclusion
Every population group is influenced by the forces of identity, culture, and its society.
The disciplines of social and multicultural psychology explore how individuals and their
environments are affected by the effects of those influences. Our personal behaviors and attitudes
relate to our communities and culture, and these again are different between different groups.

SOCIAL AND MULTICULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY

References
Cherry, K. (2008). What Is Cross Cultural Psychology? Retrieved from About.com/Psychology:
http://psychology.about.com/od/branchesofpsycholog1/f/cross-cultural.htm
Fiske, S. T. (2009). Social Beings: Core Motives in Social Psychology. Wiley.

SOCIAL AND MULTICULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY


McLeod, S. (2007). Psychology Research Methods. Retrieved from Simply Psychology:
http://www.simplypsychology.org/research-methods.html