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Explore Prince Edward Island

Information, images and more

This article is about the Canadian province. For the


South African sub-Antarctic islands, see Prince Edward
Islands.
PEI redirects here. For other meanings of PEI, see
Pei (disambiguation).
Prince Edward Island (PEI or P.E.I.; French: le-duPrince-douard) is a province of Canada consisting of the
island of the same name, as well as several much smaller
islands.
It is one of the three Maritime Provinces and is the smallest province in both land area and population. It is the
only province of Canada to have no land boundary. The
island has several informal names: Garden of the Gulf,
referring to the pastoral scenery and lush agricultural
lands throughout the province; and Birthplace of Confederation or Cradle of Confederation,[4] referring to
the Charlottetown Conference in 1864, although PEI did
not join Confederation until 1873, when it became the
seventh Canadian province. The backbone of the economy is farming, as it produces 25% of Canadas potatoes. Historically, PEI is one of Canadas older settlements and demographically still reects older immigration to the country, with Celtic, Anglo Saxon and French
last names being overwhelmingly dominant to this day.
According to the 2011 census, the province of Prince Ed- 1834 Edward Scriven engraving of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent
ward Island has 140,204 residents. It is located about 200 and Strathearn, after W. Beecheys portrait
km north of Halifax, Nova Scotia and 600 km east of
Quebec City. It consists of the main island and 231 mi Prince Edward Battery, Victoria Park, Charlottenor islands.[5] Altogether, the entire province has a land
town
area of 5,685.73 km2 (2,195.27 sq mi).[2]
Kent College (Established in 1804 by Lieutenant
The main island is 5,620 km2 (2,170 sq mi) in size,[5]
Governor Edmund Fanning and his Legislative
which is slightly larger than the U.S. state of Delaware,
Council, the college would eventually become the
is the 104th-largest island in the world, and is Canadas
University of Prince Edward Island), Charlottetown
23rd-largest island.
Kent Street, Charlottetown
West Kent Elementary School

Etymology

Kent Street, Georgetown

The island is named for Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and


Strathearn (17671820), the fourth son of King George
III and the father of Queen Victoria. Prince Edward has
been called Father of the Canadian Crown.[6] The following island landmarks are also named after the Duke
of Kent:

The island is known in Scottish Gaelic as Eilean a' Phrionnsa (lit. the Island of the Prince, the local form of the
longer 'Eilean a' Phrionnsa Iomhair/Eideard') or Eilean
Ein for some Gaelic speakers in Nova Scotia though not
on PEI (lit. Johns Island in reference to the islands
former name of St. Johns Island: the English translation
1

GEOGRAPHY

of le Saint-Jean); in Mkmaq as Abegweit or Epekwitk


roughly translated land cradled in the waves.

Geography

Main article: Geography of Prince Edward Island


Prince Edward Island is located in the Gulf of St.

The landward side of sand dunes in Cavendish

Victorian Era for the setting of her classic novel Anne of


Green Gables (1908). Today, many of the same qualities
that Montgomery and others found in the island are enA wooden boardwalk in Prince Edward Island National Park in joyed by tourists who visit year-round. They enjoy a vaGreenwich
riety of leisure activities, including beaches, various golf
courses, eco-tourism adventures, touring the countryside,
Lawrence, west of Cape Breton Island, north of the Nova and enjoying cultural events in local communities around
Scotia peninsula, and east of New Brunswick. Its south- the island.
ern shore bounds the Northumberland Strait. The island
has two urban areas. The largest surrounds Charlotte- The smaller, rural communities as well as the towns and
town Harbour, situated centrally on the islands southern villages throughout the province, retain a slower-paced,
shore, and consists of the capital city Charlottetown, and old-world avour. Prince Edward Island has become
suburban towns Cornwall and Stratford and a develop- popular as a tourist destination for relaxation. The econing urban fringe. A much smaller urban area surrounds omy of most rural communities on the island is based on
Summerside Harbour, situated on the southern shore 40 small-scale agriculture. Industrial farming has increased
km (25 mi) west of Charlottetown Harbour, and consists as businesses buy and consolidate older farm properties.
primarily of the city of Summerside. As with all natural The coastline has a combination of long beaches, dunes,
harbours on the island, Charlottetown and Summerside red sandstone clis, salt water marshes, and numerous
harbours are created by rias.
bays and harbours. The beaches, dunes and sandstone
clis
consist of sedimentary rock and other material with
The islands landscape is pastoral. Rolling hills, woods,
a high iron concentration, which oxidises upon exposure
reddish white sand beaches, ocean coves and the famous
red soil have given Prince Edward Island a reputation as to the air. The geological properties of a white silica sand
found at Basin Head are unique in the province; the sand
a province of outstanding natural beauty. The provincial
government has enacted laws to preserve the landscape grains cause a scrubbing noise as they rub against each
through regulation, although there is a lack of consistent other when walked on, and have been called the singing
enforcement, and an absence of province-wide zoning sands.
and land-use planning. Under the Planning Act of the
province, municipalities have the option to assume responsibility for land-use planning through the development and adoption of ocial plans and land use bylaws.
Thirty-one municipalities have taken responsibility for
planning. In areas where municipalities have not assumed
responsibility for planning, the Province remains responsible for development control.

Large dune elds on the north shore can be found on


barrier islands at the entrances to various bays and harbours. The magnicent sand dunes at Greenwich are of
particular signicance. The shifting, parabolic dune system is home to a variety of birds and rare plants; it is also
a site of signicant archeological interest.

Despite Prince Edward Islands small size and reputation as a largely rural province, it is the most developed
The islands lush landscape has a strong bearing on its and densely populated province in Canada, as it lacks
economy and culture. The author Lucy Maud Mont- the vast amounts of undeveloped and sparsely populated
gomery drew inspiration from the land during the late wilderness common to the other provinces.

2.3

Water supply

2.1

Climate

The climate of the island is considered to be moderate


and strongly inuenced by the surrounding seas.[8][9] As
such, it is milder than inland locations owing to the warm
waters from the Gulf of St. Lawrence.[10] The climate is
characterized by changeable weather throughout the year;
it has some of the most variable day to day weather in
Canada in which specic weather conditions seldom last
for long.[9]
During July and August, the average daytime high in PEI
is 23 C (73 F); however, the temperature can sometimes
exceed 30 C (86 F) during these months. In the winter months of January and February, the average daytime
high is 3.3 C (26 F). The Island receives an average
yearly rainfall of 855 mm and an average yearly snowfall
of 285 cm.
Winters are moderately cold and long but are milder
than inland locations, with clashes of cold Arctic
air and milder Atlantic air causing frequent temperature swings.[9] The climate is considered to be more
continental than oceanic since the Gulf of St. Lawrence
freezes over, thus eliminating any moderation.[9] The
mean temperature is 7 C (19 F) in January.[10] During the winter months, the island usually has many storms
(which may produce rain as well as snow) and blizzards
since during this time, storms originating from the North
Pacic or the Gulf of Mexico frequently pass through.[9]
Springtime temperatures typically remain cool until the
sea ice has melted, usually in late April or early May.
Summers are moderately warm, but rarely uncomfortable, with the daily maximum temperature only occasionally reaching as high as 30 C (86 F). Autumn is a pleasant season, as the moderating Gulf waters delay the onset
of frost, although storm activity increases compared to
the summer. There is ample precipitation throughout the
year, although it is heaviest in the late autumn, early winter and mid spring.

3
Group.[14]
Although commercial deposits of minerals have not been
found, exploration in the 1940s for natural gas beneath
the northeastern end of the province resulted in the discovery of an undisclosed quantity of gas.[15] The Island was reported by government to have only 0.08tcf
of technically recoverable natural gas. Twenty exploration wells for hydrocarbon resources have been drilled
on Prince Edward Island and oshore. The rst reported
well was Hillsborough No.#1, drilled in Charlottetown
Harbour in 1944 (the worlds rst oshore well), and the
most recent was New Harmony No.#1 in 2007. Since
the resurgence of exploration in the mid-1990s, all wells
that have shown promising gas deposits have been stimulated through hydraulic fracture or fracking. All oil
and natural gas exploration and exploitation activities on
the Island are governed by the Oil and Natural Gas Act
R.S.P.E.I. 1988, Cap. 0-5 and its associated regulations
and orders.[16]

2.3 Water supply


The Province of Prince Edward Island is totally dependent on groundwater for its source of drinking water.
As groundwater ows through an aquifer it is naturally
ltered. The water for City of Charlottetown is extracted from thirteen wells in three wellelds and distributed to customers. The water removed is replenished
by precipitation.[17]

Infrastructure in Charlottetown that was installed in 1888


is still in existence. With the age of the system in the older
part of Charlottetown, concern has been raised regarding
lead pipes. The Utility has been working with its residents
on a lead replacement program. A plebiscite in 1967
was held in Charlottetown over uoridation, and residents
voted in favour. Under provincial legislation, the Utility
is required to report to its residents on an annual basis. It
is also required to do regular sampling of the water and an
overview is included in each annual report.[17] The Winter
River watershed provides about 92 per cent of the 18 mil2.2 Geology
lion litre water supply for the city of Charlottetown,[18]
which had diculty in each of 2011, 2012 and 2013 with
Between 250 to 300 million years ago, freshwater streams
[18][19][20]
until water meters were installed.[19]
owing from ancient mountains brought silt, sand and its supply,
gravel into what is now the Gulf of St. Lawrence. These Minister of Communities, Land and Environment Robert
sediments accumulated to form a sedimentary basin, and Mitchell tabled a discussion paper on the proposed Wamake up the islands bedrock. When Pleistocene glaciers ter Act for the province on 8 July 2015. The use of
receded about 15,000 years ago, glacial debris such as groundwater came under scrutiny as the potato industry,
till was left behind to cover most of the area that would which accounts for $1 billion every year and 50% of farm
become the island. This area was connected to the main- receipts,[21] has pressed the government to lift a moratoland by a strip of land, but when ocean levels rose as the rium on high-capacity water wells for irrigation. The reglaciers melted this land strip was ooded, forming the lease of the discussion paper was to set o a consultation
island. As the land rebounded from the weight of the ice, process in the autumn of 2015.[22]
the island rose up to elevate it further from the surround- Detailed information about the quality of drinking waing water.[11][12][13]
ter in PEI communities and watersheds can be found
Most of the bedrock in Prince Edward Island is com- at the Department of Environment, Labour and Justice.
posed of red sandstone, part of the Permian aged Pictou It provides a summary of the ongoing testing of drink-

ing water done by the Prince Edward Island Analytical


Laboratories. Average drinking water quality results are
available, and information on the following parameters
are provided: alkalinity, cadmium, calcium, chloride,
chromium, iron, magnesium, manganese, nickel, nitrate,
pH, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and sulfate, as well
as the presence of pesticides.[23] Water testing services
are provided for a variety of clients through the PEI Analytical Laboratories, which assesses according to the recommendations of the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking
Water Quality published by Health Canada.[24]

HISTORY

3.1.1 Battle at Port-la-Joye (1745)

After the Siege of Louisbourg (1745) during the War of


the Austrian Succession, the New Englanders also captured le Saint-Jean (Prince Edward Island). An English
detachment landed at Port-la-Joye. Under the command
of Joseph de Pont Duvivier, the French had a garrison
of 20 French troops at Port-la-Joye.[27] The troops ed
and New Englanders burned the capital to the ground.
Duvivier and the twenty men retreated up the Northeast
River (Hillsborough River), pursued by the New Englanders until the French troops received reinforcements from
the Acadian militia and the Mi'kmaq.[28] The French
troops and their allies were able to drive the New Englan2.4 Unique ora and fauna
ders to their boats, nine New Englanders killed, wounded
or made prisoner. The New Englanders took six AcaIn 2008, a new ascomycete species, Jahnula apiospora dian hostages, who would be executed if the Acadians or
(Jahnulales, Dothideomycetes), was collected from sub- Mi'kmaq rebelled against New England control.[28] The
merged wood in a freshwater creek on Prince Edward Is- New England troops left for Louisbourg. Duvivier and
his 20 troops left for Quebec. After the fall of Louisland, Canada.[25]
bourg, the resident French population of Ile Royal were
deported to France. The Acadians of Ile Saint-Jean lived
under the threat of deportation for the remainder of the
war.[29]
3 History
Main article: History of Prince Edward Island
Before the inux of Europeans, the Mi'kmaq First Na-

Lighthouse on Panmure Island

tions inhabited Prince Edward Island. They named the


Island Epekwitk, meaning cradled on the waves"; Europeans represented the pronunciation as Abegweit.[26] The
natives believed that the island was formed by the Great
Spirit placing on the Blue Waters some dark red crescent- Charles Deschamps de Boishbert et de Raetot
shaped clay.
3.1.2 Battle at Port-la-Joye (1746)

3.1

French colony

Main article: Battle at Port-la-Joye

In 1534, Jacques Cartier was the rst European to see the


island.[26] As part of the French colony of Acadia, the The New Englanders had a force of two war ships and
island was called le Saint-Jean.
200 soldiers stationed at Port-La-Joye. To regain Aca-

3.2

British colony

dia, Ramezay was sent from Quebec to the region to join


forces with the Duc d'Anville Expedition. Upon arriving at Chignecto, he sent Boishebert to Ile Saint-Jean
on a reconnaissance to assess the size of the New England force.[30] After Boishebert returned, Ramezay sent
Joseph-Michel Legardeur de Croisille et de Montesson
along with over 500 men, 200 of whom were Mi'kmaq, to
Port-La-Joye.[31] In July 1746, the battle happened near
York River.[32] Montesson and his troops killed forty New
Englanders and captured the rest. Montesson was commended for having distinguished himself in his rst independent command.[33]
3.1.3

Expulsion of the Acadians

Roughly one thousand Acadians lived on the island, many


of whom had ed to the island from mainland Nova Scotia
during the rst wave of the British-ordered expulsion in
1755, reaching a population of 5,000.[34] However, many
more were forcibly deported during the second wave of
the expulsion after the Siege of Louisbourg (1758).[35]
In the Ile Saint-Jean Campaign (1758) General Jeery
Amherst ordered Colonel Andrew Rollo to capture the
island. Many Acadians died in the expulsion en route to
France; on December 13, 1758, the transport ship Duke
William sank and 364 died. A day earlier the Violet sank
and 280 died; several days later the Ruby sank with 213
on board.[36]

5
anger. The land had been given to the absentee landlords
with a number of conditions attached regarding upkeep
and settlement terms; many of these conditions were not
satised. Islanders spent decades trying to convince the
Crown to conscate the lots, however the descendants of
the original owners were generally well connected to the
British government and refused to give up the land.
In 1853, the Island government passed the Land Purchase
Act which empowered them to purchase lands from those
owners who were willing to sell, and then resell the land
to settlers for low prices. This scheme collapsed when the
Island ran short of money to continue with the purchases.
Many of these lands also were fertile, and were some of
the key factors to sustaining Prince Edward Islands economy.

3.2.2 Raid on Charlottetown (1775)


During the American Revolutionary War Charlottetown
was raided in 1775 by a pair of American-employed
privateers.[38] Two armed schooners, Franklin and Hancock, from Beverly, Massachusetts, made prisoner of the
attorney-general at Charlottetown, on advice given them
by some Pictou residents after they had taken eight shing
vessels in the Gut of Canso.[39]

During and after the American Revolutionary War, from


1776 to 1783, the colonys eorts to attract exiled Loyalist
refugees from the rebellious American colonies met with
some success. Walter Pattersons brother, John Patterson,
3.2 British colony
one of the original grantees of land on the island, was
Great Britain obtained the island from France under the a temporarily exiled Loyalist and led eorts to persuade
terms of the Treaty of Paris in 1763 which settled the others to come.
Seven Years War. The British called their new colony St. The 1787 dismissal of Governor Patterson and his reJohns Island (also the Island of St. Johns).
call to London in 1789 dampened his brothers eorts,
The rst British governor of St. Johns Island, Walter Pat- leading John to focus on his interests in the United States
terson, was appointed in 1769. Assuming oce in 1770, (one of Johns sons, Commodore Daniel Patterson, behe had a controversial career during which land title dis- came a noted United States Navy hero, and Johns grandputes and factional conict slowed the initial attempts to sons, Rear Admiral Thomas H. Patterson and Lt. Carlile
populate and develop the island under a feudal system. Pioou). Edmund Fanning, also a Loyalist exiled by the
In an attempt to attract settlers from Ireland, in one of his Revolution, took over as the second governor, serving unrst acts (1770) Patterson led the islands colonial assem- til 1804. His tenure was more successful than Pattersons.
bly to rename the island New Ireland, but the British On November 29, 1798, during Fannings administration,
Government promptly vetoed this as exceeding the au- Great Britain granted approval to change the colonys
thority vested in the colonial government; only the Privy name from St. Johns Island to Prince Edward Island to
Council in London could change the name of a colony.[37] distinguish it from similar names in the Atlantic, such as
the cities of Saint John, New Brunswick and St. Johns
in Newfoundland. The colonys new name honoured the
3.2.1 Land distribution
fourth son of King George III, Prince Edward Augustus,
In the mid-1760s, a survey team divided the Island into the Duke of Kent (17671820), who subsequently led the
67 lots. On July 1, 1767, these properties were allocated British military forces on the continent as Commanderto supporters of King George III by means of a lottery. in-Chief, North America (17991800), with his headOwnership of the land remained in the hands of landlords quarters in Halifax. (Prince Edward later became the fain England, angering Island settlers who were unable to ther of the future Queen Victoria.)
gain title to land on which they worked and lived. Signif- During the 19th century the colony of Prince Edward
icant rent charges (to absentee landlords) created further Island began to attract adventurous Victorian families

HISTORY

looking for elegance on the sea. Prince Edward Island Sites of Canada located in Prince Edward Island.[43][44]
became a fashionable retreat in the nineteenth century for Main article: Prince Edward Island Timeline
British nobility.[40]
1500s - 1700s

3.3

Confederation

In September 1864, Prince Edward Island hosted the


Charlottetown Conference, which was the rst meeting
in the process leading to the Quebec Resolutions and the
creation of Canada in 1867. Prince Edward Island did
not nd the terms of union favourable and balked at joining in 1867, choosing to remain a colony of the United
Kingdom. In the late 1860s, the colony examined various
options, including the possibility of becoming a discrete
dominion unto itself, as well as entertaining delegations
from the United States, who were interested in Prince Edward Island joining the United States of America.

(1534) Jacques Cartier of France reached the Island


(1603) Named Ile Saint-Jean by Samuel de Champlain
(1720) First continuous French settlement established at
Port La Joie
(1755) Acadians settled French colony, Ile Saint-Jean, after British-ordered explusion of Nova Scotia
(1758) British seized control of Ile Saint-Jean, French
settlers deported
(1763) Ile Saint-Jean annexed to Nova Scotia
(1764 - 1766) Survey divided land into three counties,
each 500,000 acres, counties divided into 100,000 acre
parishes
(1769) Established as separate colony, Charlottetown became capital
(1798) Great Britain renamed colony to Prince Edward
Island
1800s
(1803) Scottish immigrants settled on Island

Prince Edward Island, then St. Johns Island, map 1775

In 1871, the colony began construction of a railway and,


frustrated by Great Britains Colonial Oce, began negotiations with the United States. In 1873, Canadian
Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald, anxious to thwart
American expansionism and facing the distraction of the
Pacic Scandal, negotiated for Prince Edward Island to
join Canada. The Dominion Government of Canada assumed the colonys extensive railway debts and agreed
to nance a buy-out of the last of the colonys absentee
landlords to free the island of leasehold tenure and from
any new immigrants entering the island (accomplished
through the passage of the Land Purchase Act, 1875).[41]
Prince Edward Island entered Confederation on July 1,
1873.[42]
As a result of having hosted the inaugural meeting of
Confederation, the Charlottetown Conference, Prince
Edward Island presents itself as the Birthplace of Confederation and this is commemorated through several buildings, a ferry vessel, and the Confederation
Bridge (constructed 1993 to 1997). The most prominent building in the province honouring this event is the
Confederation Centre of the Arts, presented as a gift
to Prince Edward Islanders by the 10 provincial governments and the Federal Government upon the centenary of
the Charlottetown Conference, where it stands in Charlottetown as a national monument to the "Fathers of Confederation". The Centre is one of the 22 National Historic

(1813 - 1815) Numerous settlements attacked by plagues


of mice
(1816) Volcanic eruption in Pacic lowered temperatures, harvest yields (Year Without a Summer)
(1851) Responsible government granted to colony, rst
elected administration took oce
(1864) Colonial conference held in Charlottetown
(1868) Best year for shipbuilding - 120 vessels launched
from Island shipyards
(1873) Prince Edward Island entered confederation
(1880s) Shipbuilding industry collapsed, thousands of islanders migrated to nd work
1900s
(1908) Automobiles banned from Island roads
(1917) All roads opened to auto trac
(1922) Women won right to vote and hold provincial ofce
(1924) Driving on the right side of the road went into
eect
(1950) Alberta, B.C., Manitoba, Ontario, Saskatchewan
and P.E.I. signed agreement to build Trans-Canada highway
(1971) Trans-Canada highway completed
(1993) Catherine Callbeck elected rst female premier of

4.2

Religion

province
(1996) Progressive Conservative Party won elections
(1997) Confederation bridge opened, linked Prince Edward Island to New Brunwick
2000s
(2004) RCMP investigated threatening letters sent to
Charlottetown government buildings
(2005) Same-sex marriage legislation passed

Mother tongue in Prince Edward Island (red: English, blue:


French)

(2007) Liberal Party won elections


(2008) Canada, P.E.I. signed new immigration agreeand a 'non-ocial language'; 495 of both English and
ment to process applications quicker for skilled internaFrench; 10 of English, French, and a 'non-ocial lantional workers
guage'; and about 1,640 people who either did not re(2009) Fire at electricity substation left 55,000 without spond to the question, or reported multiple non-ocial
power
languages, or else gave another unenumerated response.
(2010) Prime Minister Harper announced a new wind (Figures shown are for the number of single language
the percentage of total single-language
farm to be established on most northern point of P.E.I. responses and
[51]
responses.)
for power generation
(2011) Liberal Party won elections, Robert Ghiz reelected as Premier
4.2 Religion
(2012) Two major trout shing streams will be closed to
Traditionally the population has been evenly divided beangling following a devastating sh kill
tween Catholic and Protestant aliations. The 2001
(2015) Liberal party won elections, Wade MacLauchlan
census indicated number of adherents for the Roman
elected as Premier
Catholic Church with 63,240 (47%) and various Protestant churches with 57,805 (43%). This included the
United Church of Canada with 26,570 (20%); the Pres4 Demographics
byterian Church with 7,885 (6%) and the Anglican
Church of Canada with 6,525 (5%); those with no religion were among the lowest of the provinces with 8,705
Main article: Demographics of Prince Edward Island
(6.5%).[52] If one considers that the founders of the
United Church of Canada were largely Presbyterians in
According to the 2011 National Household Survey,[47][48]
Prince Edward Island, the Island has one of the highest
the largest ethnic group consists of people of Scottish
percentages of Presbyterians in the Province. The Island
descent (39.2%), followed by English (31.1%), Irish
also has one of the largest number of Free Church of
(30.4%), French (21.1%), German (5.2%), and Dutch
Scotland buildings in Canada, though attendance at many
(3.1%) descent. Prince Edward Islands population is
of these churches is very low today.
largely white; there are few visible minorities. Chinese
Canadians are the largest visible minority group of
Prince Edward Island, comprising 1.3% of the provinces
population.[47] Almost half of respondents identied their 5 Economy
ethnicity as Canadian.
* among provinces.
Preliminary 2006 census estimate.
Source: Statistics Canada[49][50]

4.1

Language

The Canada 2006 Census showed a population of


135,851. Of the 133,570 singular responses to the census
question concerning mother tongue, the most commonly
reported languages were as follows:
In addition, there were also 105 responses of both English and a 'non-ocial language'; 25 of both French File:CAN-S1932a-Bank of Prince Edward Island-10

5 ECONOMY

Dollars (1872).jpg
1872 $10 Bank of Prince Edward Island banknote
depicting shing

Fisheries form one of the major industries of Prince Edward Island

province is limited in terms of heavy industry and manufacturing, though the McCains food conglomerate runs
expansion operations from PEI.
Agriculture remains the dominant industry in the provincial economy, as it has since colonial times. The Island
has a total land area of 1.4 million acres with approximately 594,000 acres cleared for agricultural use.[53] In
2006, the Census of Agriculture counted 1700 farms on
the Island.[54] During the 20th century, potatoes replaced
mixed farming as the leading cash crop, accounting for
one-third of provincial farm income. The number of
acres under potato production in 2010 was 88,000,[21]
while soy accounted for 55,000.[55] There are approximately 330 potato growers on PEI, with the grand majority of these being family farms, often with multiple generations working together.[21] The province currently accounts for a third of Canadas total potato production, producing approximately 1.3 billion kilograms
annually.[21] Comparatively, the state of Idaho produces
approximately 6.2 billion kilograms annually, with a population approximately 9.5 times greater.[56] The province
is a major producer of seed potatoes, exporting to more
than twenty countries around the world.[21] An estimated
total of 70% of the land is cultivated and 25% of all potatoes grown in Canada originate from P.E.I.[57] The processing of frozen fried potatoes, green vegetables, and
berries is a leading business activity.[58]
As a legacy of the islands colonial history, the provincial government enforces extremely strict rules for nonresident land ownership, especially since the PEI Lands
Protection Act of 1982.[59] Residents and corporations are
limited to maximum holdings of 400 and 1,200 hectares
respectively. There are also restrictions on non-resident
ownership of shorelines.[59]

Sandstone clis at North Cape enshrouded in fog

The islands economy has grown signicantly over the


last decade in key areas of innovation. Aerospace, Bioscience, ICT and Renewable energy have been a focus
for growth and diversication. Aerospace alone now accounts for over 25% of the provinces international exports and is the islands fourth largest industry at $355
million in annual sales.
Many of the provinces coastal communities rely upon
shellsh harvesting, particularly lobster shing[60] as well
as oyster shing and mussel farming.
The sale of carbonated beverages such as beer and soft
drinks in non-rellable containers, such as aluminum cans
or plastic bottles, was banned in 1976 as an environmental measure in response to public concerns over litter.
Beer and soft drink companies opted to use rellable glass
bottles for their products which were redeemable at stores
and bottle depots.

Though often environmental and economic agendas may


be at odds, the ban the can legislation along with being
environmentally driven, was also economically motivated
The provincial economy is dominated by the seasonal as it protected jobs. Seamans Beverages, a bottling comindustries of agriculture, tourism, and the shery. The pany and carbonated beverage manufacturer, was estabRolling hills characterise a signicant portion of the islands
landscape.

9
has set renewable energy targets as high as 30-50% for
electricity consumed by 2015. Until wind generation,
the province relied entirely on electricity imports on a
submarine cable from New Brunswick. A thermal oilred generating station in Charlottetown is also available.
Electricity rates in the province were in 2011 the highest in Canada, at a domestic rate of 0.161 $/kWh. The
province imports about 85 per cent of its power through
New Brunswick. The maintenance shutdown of Point
Lepreau nuclear plant forced the province to acquire most
of its electrons on the expensive open market. The result
was a steep price hikes of about 25 per cent in the three
years to 2011 but the province later subsidised rates.[67]
Residents were to pay 11.2 per cent more for electricity when the harmonized sales tax was adopted in April
2013, according to the P.E.I. Energy Accord that was
tabled in the legislature on 7 December 2012.[68] and
passed as the Electric Power (Energy Accord Continuation) Amendment Act, which establishes electric pricing
from 1 April 2013 to 1 March 2016. Regulatory powers are derived for IRAC from the Electric Power Act.[69]
Since 1918 Maritime Electric has delivered electricity to
customers on the Island. The utility is currently owned
and operated by Fortis Inc.[70]

Farmland on Prince Edward Island.

The average family income on Prince Edward Island is


$62,110/year,[71] and the minimum wage of $10.50/hour
as of July 1, 2015.[72]

lished in 1939 and a major employer in Charlottetown, 6 Government and politics


Prince Edward Island.[61] Making it illegal to retail cans
led to a bigger share of the carbonated beverage mar- Main articles: Government of Prince Edward Island and
ket for Seamans. Seamans Beverages was eventually ac- Politics of Prince Edward Island
quired by Pepsi Bottling Group Inc in 2002 prior to the
lifting of the legislation.[62]
The provincial government is responsible for such areas
The introduction of recycling programs for cans and plas- as health and social services, education, economic develtic bottles in neighbouring provinces in recent years (also opment, labour legislation and civil law. These matters
using a redemption system) has seen the provincial gov- of government are carried out in the provincial capital,
ernment introduce legislation to reverse this ban with the Charlottetown.
restriction lifted on May 3, 2008.[63][64][65]
Prince Edward Island is governed by a parliamentary govPrince Edward Island has Canadas highest provincial re- ernment within the construct of constitutional monarchy;
tail sales tax rate, currently (2008) established at 10%.
the monarchy in Prince Edward Island is the foundation
The tax is applied to almost all goods and services except of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches.[73] The
some clothing, food and home heating fuel. The tax is sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II, who also serves as head
also applied to the Federal Goods and Services Tax.
of state of 15 other Commonwealth countries, each of
The provincial government provides consumer protection Canadas nine other provinces, and the Canadian federal
in the form of regulation for certain items, ranging from realm, and resides predominantly in the United Kingdom.
apartment rent increases to petroleum products includ- As such, the Queens representative, the Lieutenant Goving gas, diesel, propane and heating oil. These are reg- ernor of Prince Edward Island (presently Harry Frank
ulated through the Prince Edward Island Regulatory and Lewis), carries out most of the royal duties in Prince EdAppeals Commission (IRAC).[66] IRAC is authorised to ward Island.[74]
limit the number of companies who are permitted to sell The direct participation of the royal and viceroyal gures
petroleum products.
in any of these areas of governance is limited; in practice,
At present, approximately fteen percent of electricity their use of the executive powers is directed by the Execconsumed on the island is generated from renewable en- utive Council, a committee of ministers of the Crown reergy (largely wind turbines); the provincial government sponsible to the unicameral, elected Legislative Assembly

10

7 TRANSPORTATION

and chosen and headed by the Premier of Prince Edward


Island (presently Wade MacLauchlan), the head of government. To ensure the stability of government, the lieutenant governor will usually appoint as premier the person
who is usually the current leader of the political party that
can obtain the condence of a plurality in the Legislative
Assembly. The leader of the party with the second-most
seats usually becomes the Leader of Her Majestys Loyal
Opposition (presently Steven Myers) and is part of an adversarial parliamentary system intended to keep the government in check.[75]
Each of the 27 Members of the Legislative Assembly
(MLA) is elected by simple plurality in an electoral district. General elections are called by the lieutenant governor on the rst Monday in October four years after the
previous election, or may be called, on the advice of the
premier, should the government lose a condence vote in
the legislature.[76] Traditionally, politics in the province
have been dominated by both the Liberal Party and the Cardigan River, one of The Three Rivers
Progressive Conservative Party.
The Mi'kmaq Confederacy of PEI is the tribal council doned by CN in 1989 in favour of an agreement with the
and provincial territorial organization in the province that federal government to improve major highways.
represents both the Lennox Island and Abegweit First NaUntil 1997, the province was linked by two passengertions.
vehicle ferry services to the mainland: one, provided by
Marine Atlantic, operated year-round between Borden
and Cape Tormentine, New Brunswick; the other, pro6.1 Municipalities
vided by Northumberland Ferries Limited, operates seaSee also: List of municipalities in Prince Edward Island sonally between Wood Islands and Caribou, Nova Scotia.
A third ferry service provided by CTMA operates all year
round with seasonal times between Souris and Cap-auxMeules, Quebec, in the Magdalen Islands.

Confederation Bridge

On June 1, 1997, the Confederation Bridge opened,


connecting Borden-Carleton to Cape Jourimain, New
Brunswick. The worlds longest bridge over ice-covered
waters,[77] it replaced the Marine Atlantic ferry service.
7 Transportation
Since then, the Confederation Bridges assured transportation link to the mainland has altered the provinces
Prince Edward Islands transportation network has tra- tourism and agricultural and sheries export economies.
ditionally revolved around its seaports of Charlottetown,
Summerside, Borden, Georgetown, and Souris linked Several airlines service the Charlottetown Airport
to its railway system, and the two main airports in (CYYG); the Summerside Airport (CYSU) is an addiCharlottetown and Summerside, for communication with tional option for general aviation.
mainland North America. The railway system was aban- The Island has the highest concentration of roadways in

11
Canada. The provincially managed portion of the network consists of 3,824 kilometres (2,376 mi) of paved
roadways and 1,558 kilometres (968 mi) of non-paved or
clay roads.

Commission scolaire de langue franaise. The English


language districts have a total of 10 secondary schools and
54 intermediate and elementary schools while the Francophone district has 6 schools covering all grades. 22
The province has very strict laws regarding use of road- per cent of the student population is enrolled in French
side signs. Billboards and the use of portable signs are immersion. This is one of the highest levels in the counbanned. There are standard direction information signs try.
on roads in the province for various businesses and at- Today 23.5 per cent of residents aged 15 to 19 have bilintractions in the immediate area. Some municipalities by- gual skills, an increase of 100 per cent in a decade. Prince
laws also restrict the types of permanent signs that may be Edward Island, along with most rural regions in North
installed on private property.
America, is experiencing an accelerated rate of youth emThere is an extensive bicycling / hiking trail that spans the igration. The provincial government has projected that
island. The Confederation Trail is a 470 kilometres (290 public school enrollment will decline by 40% during the
mi) recreational trail system. The land was once owned 2010s.
and used by Canadian National Railway (CN) as a rail
line on the island.

Education

9 Health care
See also: Health care in Canada
The province has a single health administrative region (or

Panorama of the banks of the River Clyde in New Glasgow

Holland College

Prince Edward Island is home to one university, the


University of Prince Edward Island (UPEI), located in
the city of Charlottetown.
The university was created by the Island legislature to replace Prince of Wales College and St. Dunstans Univer- The coast of Prince Edward Island around Cavendish
sity. UPEI is also home to the Atlantic Veterinary College, which oers the regions only veterinary medicine district health authority) called Health PEI. Health PEI
receives funding for its operations and is regulated by the
program.
Department of Health and Wellness.
Prince Edward Island is also home to Maritime Christian
College, the only Bible college in the Maritimes. It is also Many PEI homes and businesses are serviced by cenhome to Immanuel Christian School, a private Christian tral sewage collection and/or treatment systems. These
are operated either by a municipality or a private utilSchool in Charlottetown.
ity. Many industrial operations have their own wastewater
Holland College is the provincial community college, treatment facilities. Sta members with the Department
with campuses across the province, including specialised of Environment, Labour and Justice provide advice to
facilities such as the Atlantic Police Academy, Marine operators, as needed, on proper system maintenance.[79]
Training Centre, and the Culinary Institute of Canada.
The IRAC regulates municipal water and sewer in the
Prince Edward Islands public school system has an province,[80] now under the Environmental Protection
English school district named the English Language Act.[81] Since around 1900, the residents of the City
School Board,[78] as well as a Francophone district, the of Charlottetown have beneted from a central sanitary

12

10 CULTURE AND SPORTS

sewer service. Early disposal practices, while advanced


for their time, eventually were found to compromise the
ecological integrity of the nearby Hillsborough River and
the Charlottetown Harbour. By 1974, the Commission
had spearheaded the development of a primary wastewater treatment plant, known as the Charlottetown Pollution
Control Plant, together with the construction of several
pumping stations along the Citys waterfront, and outfall
piping deep into the Hillsborough River.[82]
There are eight hospitals in the province.
Queen Elizabeth Hospital (Charlottetown)

Kings County Memorial Hospital (Montague)


Community Hospital (O'Leary)
Souris Hospital (Souris)
Western Hospital (Alberton)
-

Ground ambulance service in Prince Edward Island is


provided under contract by Island EMS. Air ambulance
service is provided under contract by LifeFlight.
In recent decades, Prince Edward Islands population has
shown statistically signicant and abnormally high rates
of diagnosed rare cancers, particularly in rural areas.
Health ocials, ecologists and environmental activists
point to the use of pesticides for industrial potato farming
as a primary contaminant.[83]

Prince County Hospital (Summerside)

Hillsborough Hospital (Charlottetown)


provinces only psychiatric hospital

Some specialist services require patients to be referred to


clinics and specialists in neighbouring provinces. Specialist operations and treatments are also provided at larger
tertiary referral hospitals in neighbouring provinces such
as the IWK Health Centre and Queen Elizabeth II Health
Sciences Centre in Nova Scotia or the Saint John Regional Hospital, Moncton Hospital, and Dr. Georges-L.Dumont University Hospital Centre in New Brunswick.

the

Prince Edward Island oers programs and services in areas such as acute care, primary care, home care, palliative care, public health, chronic disease prevention,
and mental health and addictions, to name a few. The
provincial government has opened several family health
centres in recent years in various rural and urban communities. A provincial cancer treatment centre at the
Queen Elizabeth Hospital provides support to those dealing with various types of cancer-related illnesses. A family medicine residency program was established in 2009
with the Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine as a
means to encourage new physicians to work in Prince Edward Island.

Prince Edward Island is the only province in Canada


that does not provide abortion services through its hospitals. The last abortion was performed in the province
in 1982 prior to the opening of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital which saw the closure of the Roman
Catholic-aliated Charlottetown Hospital and the nondenominational Prince Edward Island Hospital; a condition of the merger being that abortions not be performed in the province. In 1988, following the court decision R. v. Morgentaler, the then-opposition Progressive
Conservative Party of Prince Edward Island tabled a motion demanding that the ban on abortions be upheld at
the provinces hospitals; the then-governing Prince Edward Island Liberal Party under Premier Joe Ghiz acquiesced and the ban was upheld.[84] The Government
of Prince Edward Island will fund abortions for women
who travel to another province. Women from Prince Edward Island may also travel to the nearest private userpay, Morgentaler Clinic in Fredericton, New Brunswick,
where they must pay for the procedure using their own
funds.[85][86][87][88][89] (See also abortion in Canada)

Long-term-care services are also available with several


programs in place to support seniors wishing to remain
independent in their communities. Many medications for
seniors are subsidized through a provincial pharmaceutical plan, however, Prince Edward Island remains one of 10 Culture and sports
the only provinces lacking a catastrophic drug coverage
program for its residents.
See also: Music of Prince Edward Island
The provincial government has several programs for
early illness detection, including mammography and pap
screening clinics. There are also asthma education and diabetes education programs, as well as prenatal programs, 10.1 Arts
immunization programs and dental health risk prevention
programs for children. The government is also attempt- The islands cultural traditions of art, music and creative
ing to implement a comprehensive integrated Electronic writing are supported through the public education sysHealth Record system.
tem. There is an annual arts festival, the Charlottetown
The provincial government has recently committed to en- Festival, hosted at the Confederation Centre of the Arts.
hancing primary care and home care services and has invested in health care facilities in recent capital budgets;
mostly replacements and upgrades to provincial government operated nursing homes and hospitals.

Lucy Maud Montgomery, who was born in Clifton (now


New London) in 1874, wrote some 20 novels and numerous short stories that have been collected into anthologies.
Her rst Anne book Anne of Green Gables was published

10.2

Sports

13

10.2 Sports
Water sports are very popular on Prince Edward Island during the summer, perhaps because the Gulf
of St. Lawrence and the Northumberland Strait are
warmer than the Atlantic Ocean o the shores of
nearby New England.
In 1991, Prince Edward Island hosted the Canada
Winter Games.
In 2009, Prince Edward Island hosted the Canada
Summer Games.
Sandstone arch o the coast of Darnley

in 1908. The musical play Anne of Green Gables has


run every year at the Charlottetown festival for more than
four decades. The sequel, Anne & Gilbert, premiered in
the Playhouse in Victoria in 2005. The actual location of
Green Gables, the house featured in Montgomerys Anne
books, is in Cavendish, on the north shore of PEI.
Elmer Blaney Harris founded an artists colony at Fortune
Bridge and set his famous play Johnny Belinda on the island. Robert Harris was a well-known artist.

Charlottetown Islanders play in the Quebec Major


Junior Hockey League.
Island Storm play in the National Basketball League
of Canada.
In 2008 and 2009, Prince Edward Island hosted the
Tour de PEI, a province wide cycling race consisting
of women from around the world.
The most common sports participated in on the island are hockey, curling, golf, horse racing, baseball, soccer, rugby, football, broomball and basketball.

Prince Edward Islands documented music history begins


10.3 Notable people
in the 19th century with religious music, some written
by the local pump and block maker and organ-importer,
Milton James Rhode Acorn - poet/playwright
Watson Duchemin. Several big bands including the Sons
of Temperance Band and the Charlottetown Brass Band
Francis Bain author, scientist, farmer
were active. Today, Acadian, Celtic, folk, and rock music
Catherine Callbeck - elected rst female premier of
prevail, with exponents including Gene MacLellan, his
province
daughter Catherine MacLellan, Al Tuck, Lennie Gallant,
Two Hours Trac and Trinity Bradshaw. The celebrated
Dave Cameron - professional ice hockey coach
singer-songwriter Stompin' Tom Connors spent his formative years in Skinners Pond. Celtic music is certainly
Alex Campbell former politician/premier
the most common traditional music on the island, with
George Coles former premier, Father of Confedddling and step dancing being very common. This traeration
dition, largely Scottish, Irish and Acadian in origin is very
similar to the music of Cape Breton and to a lesser extent,
Jared Connaughton former Olympic sprinter
Newfoundland and is unique to the region. A March 4/4
for bagpipes was composed in honour of Prince Edward
Lloyd Duy thoroughbred jockey, harness horses
Island.[90]
driver
There is also an annual jazz festival, the P.E.I. Jazz
and Blues Festival.[91] The one-week-long series of concerts takes place at a multitude of venues including Murphys Community Center, outdoor stages and churches
at Charlotteville. The moving of its date to mid August caused in 2011 a serious loss in funding from Ottawas regional development agency ACOA.[92] The musicians line up in 2011 included Oliver Jones, Sophie
Milman, Matt Dusk, Jack de Keyzer, Jack Semple,
Meaghan Smith, Meaghan Blanchard, Hupman Brothers, Alex Dean, Charlie A'Court, Sean Ferris, Jimmy
Bowskill, West End Blues Band, Bad Habits, Brian McConnell and Mellotones.

Mike Duy television journalist, politician


Gerard Gallant professional ice hockey head coach
Millie Gamble - early amateur photographer
Joe Ghiz - former provincial premier
George Godfrey - boxer
Francis Longworth Haszard - politician, jurist
Haywire musical band
Lorie Kane - professional golfer

14

12

Joey Kitson - singer

REFERENCES

11 See also

David Laird - Framer of the Indian Act and rst resident Lieutenant Governor of the Northwest Terri- Main article: Outline of Prince Edward Island
tories
Amber MacArthur - broadcasting personality and
author

Acadiensis, scholarly history journal covering Atlantic Canada

Alexander Wallace Matheson - politician

Index of Canada-related articles

John Alexander Mathieson - educator, politician, jurist

List of people from Prince Edward Island

David (Eli) MacEachern Olympic gold medalist


and world champion in bobsledding
Martha MacIsaac actress
Adam McQuaid professional ice hockey player
Lucy Maud Montgomery - author
Heather Moyse - two-time Olympic gold medalist in
bobsledding
Steve Ott - professional ice hockey player
Claire Rankin - actress
Brad Richards professional ice hockey player
James Jerey Roche poet and diplomat
Jacob Gould Schurman educator and diplomat
Michael Smith chef and television host
Mark Strand - poet
Joe O'Brien - harness horses driver, trainer
Lemuel Cambridge Owen - shipbuilder, banker
Edward Palmer - lawyer, politician
Paper Lions- pop band
James Colledge Pope - businessman, former premier
William Henry Pope - land agent, lawyer, jurist
Jonathan Torrens actor and television host
Two Hours Trac pop band
Weston Thomas Bucko Trainor - hockey player
Alexander Bannerman Warburton - former premier
George Wood- professional baseball player

10.4

Sister province

12 References
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discussions about partnership opportunities and trade.[93]

15

[17] carlottetown.pe.ca: Water Utility


[18] cbc.ca: Water supply worries prompt Charlottetown
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[19] cbc.ca: Charlottetown opens emergency water supply,
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[20] cbc.ca: Charlottetown relies on secondary water source,
14 Aug 2013
[21] PEI Potato. PEI Potato. Retrieved July 2015.
[22] cbc.ca: Water Act white paper tabled by P.E.I. government, 8 Jul 2015
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[24] gov.pe.ca: Getting your water tested
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[26] Island Information: Quick Facts, website of the Government of Prince Edward Island, 2010-04-27. Retrieved on
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[27] Harvey, p. 110

[43] Prince Edward Island. Directory of Designations of National Historic Signicance of Canada. Parks Canada. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
[44] Confederation Centre of the Arts National Historic Site of
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[46] Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces
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[47] , National Household Survey (NHS) Prole, 2011
[48] Statistics Canada (2002).
Population of Canadas
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[51] Detailed Mother Tongue (186), Knowledge of Ocial


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[29] Harvey, p. 112


[30] Boishebert Canadian Biography On Line
[31] John Clarence Websters, Memorial on Behalf of Sieur
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[32] Mi'kmaw History - Timeline (Post-Contact)".
Muiniskw.org. 2011-08-04. Retrieved 2012-05-19.
[33] LEGARDEUR DE CROISILLE ET DE MONTESSON, JOSEPH-MICHEL - Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online. Biographi.ca. 2007-10-18. Retrieved
2012-05-19.
[34] The Canadian Encyclopedia, Hurtig Publishers, Edmonton, Alberta, (1988) p. 1753.
[35] Johnston, A. J. B. (2007). Endgame 1758: The Promise,
the Glory and the Despair of Louisbourgs Last Decade.
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[36] Earl Lockerby. The Deportation of the Acadians from
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[37] Brendan O'Grady, Exiles and Islanders: The Irish Settlers
of Prince Edward Island, p. 15)
[38] PEI Provincial Government. Historical Milestones. Retrieved August 17, 2007.

[40] PEI history Government of Canada

[42] Library and Archives Canada. Canadian Confederation,


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[50] Population urban and rural, by province and territory


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[28] Harvey, p. 111

[39] Julian Gwyn. Frigates and Foremasts.


British Columbia. 2003. p. 58

[41] Assembly Timeline (PDF). Legislative Assembly of


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University of

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[53] gov.pe.ca: Agriculture on Prince Edward Island
[54] statcan.gc.ca: Census of Agriculture counts 1700 farms
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[55] maisonneuve.org: When the Monks Come to Town, 18
Jun 2013
[56] Idaho Potato Production. Potatopro.com. November
12, 2008. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
[57] Weihs, Jean (1995). Facts about Canada, its provinces and
territories. New York: H.W. Wilson Co. p. 159. ISBN
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[58] Prince Edward Island (P.E.I.). Encyclopdia Britannica
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[59] irac.pe.ca: The Prince Edward Island Lands Protection
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[60] Lobster Fishing
[61] Government of Prince Edward Island.
[62] Pepsi Bottling Group To Acquire Seamans Beverages.
SmartBrief. 2002-04-03. Retrieved 2014-01-14.

16

[63] Government of PEI. PEI Bans the Can. Archived from


the original on May 28, 2007. Retrieved April 3, 2007.
[64] CBC (April 26, 2007). End to can ban receives full support of legislature. CBC News. Retrieved April 27, 2007.
[65] Government of PEI. Government to lift can-ban May
3 beverage container management system encourages returns and recycling. Retrieved April 26, 2008.
[66] Island Regulatory and Appeals Commission (PEI Government).
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[68] cbc.ca: Electricity rates rising 11.2% next year, 7 Dec
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[75] Library of Parliament. The Opposition in a Parliamentary System. Queens Printer for Canada. Retrieved May
23, 2011.

13 FURTHER READING

[84] Boesveld, Sarah (December 23, 2011). P.E.I. to 'stay


with status quo' on abortions. National Post. Retrieved
August 25, 2012.
[85] Wright, Teresa (July 7, 2008). Abortion policy to remain same: Ghiz. The Guardian (Charlottetown, PUI).
Retrieved May 13, 2010.
[86] P.E.I. won't change abortion policy. CBC News. July
19, 2000. Retrieved May 13, 2010.
[87] Abortion information line disconnected. CBC News.
January 29, 2008. Retrieved May 13, 2010.
[88] Arthur, Joyce (November 2000). Canada Health Act Violates Abortion Services: Five Basic Principles Not Met.
Pro-Choice Action Network. Retrieved May 13, 2010.
[89] Your province and tax-funded abortions. Life Canada
Inc. 2003. Archived from the original on October 6,
2008. Retrieved May 13, 2010.
[90] Archie Cairns - Book 1 Pipe Music 'Prince Edward Island'
March 4/4, 1995
[91] P.E.I. Jazz and Blues Festival. Retrieved August 10,
2011.
[92] Jazz festival loses ACOA funding. CBC news (cbc.ca).
Aug 9, 2011. Retrieved August 10, 2011.
[93] Il-du-Prince-Edouard: Communiqu (Vice-Governor
from Chinese Sister Province Visits Prince Edward Island)". Gov.pe.ca. Retrieved 2012-05-19.

13 Further reading

[76] Elizabeth II (2008). Election Act (PDF). 4.1(2)(b):


Queens Printer for Prince Edward Island. Retrieved
September 13, 2012.

Arsenault, Georges (1989). The Island Acadians,


17201980. Charlottetown: Ragweed Press. ISBN
978-0-920304-81-5. OCLC 42887917.

[77] Confederation Bridge. September 2009. (ocial website).

Baglole, Harry (1977). Exploring Island History: A


Guide to the Historical Resources of Prince Edward
Island. Belfast, P.E.I.: Ragweed Press. ISBN 0920304-01-X. OCLC 4114534.

[78] New School Board.


[79] gov.pe.ca: Central Wastewater Systems
[80] irac.pe.ca: PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND - MUNICIPAL WATER & SEWERAGE UTILITIES - GENERAL
RULES & REGULATIONS
[81] irac.pe.ca: CHAPTER E-9 - ENVIRONMENTAL
PROTECTION ACT - DRINKING WATER AND
WASTEWATER FACILITY OPERATING REGULATIONS
[82] charlottetown.pe.ca: City of Charlottetown Wastewater
Treatment Expansion & Upgrading (ca 2001)
[83] Mittelstaedt, Martin (December 6, 2006). Pesticides are
whats killing our kids. The Globe and Mail. Archived
from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved April
3, 2007.

Bolger, Francis (1973). Canadas Smallest Province:


A History of Prince Edward Island. Charlottetown:
Prince Edward Island 1973 Centennial Commission.
OCLC 1031515. Also under OCLC 223434609
Beck, E Boyde; Burden, P John (1996). Prince
Edward Island :
an (un)authorized history.
Charlottetown: Acorn Press.
ISBN 978-09698606-1-7. OCLC 36817364.
Bumsted, JM (1987). Land, settlement, and politics on eighteenth-century Prince Edward Island.
Kingston, ON: McGill-Queens University Press.
ISBN 978-0-7735-0566-7. OCLC 17199722. Retrieved September 16, 2009.

17
Clark, Andrew Hill (1959). Three Centuries and
PEI info
the Island. A Historical Geography of Settlement
and Agriculture in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Coordinates: 4615N 06300W / 46.250N 63.000W
Toronto: University of Toronto Press. OCLC
203962. A very broad look at the historical geography of P.E.I.
Ives, Edward D (1999).
Drive Dull Care
Away: Folksongs from Prince Edward Island.
Charlottetown: Institute of Island Studies. ISBN
978-0-919013-34-6. OCLC 123276052. Retrieved
September 16, 2009.
Johnston, A.J.B.; Francis, Jesse (2013). Ni'n na
L'nu: The Mi'kmaq of Prince Edward Island. Charlottetown: Acorn Press. ISBN 978-1-894838-93-1.
MacKinnon, Frank (1995). Church politics and education in Canada : the P.E.I. experience. Calgary:
Detselig Enterprises. ISBN 978-1-55059-104-0.
OCLC 35292426.
MacKinnon, Wayne (1973). The Life of the Party:
A History of the Liberal Party in Prince Edward Island. Summerside, P.E.I.: Prince Edward Island
Liberal Party.
Sharpe, Errol (1976). A peoples history of Prince
Edward Island. Toronto: Steel Rail. ISBN 088791-003-3. OCLC 2893908.
Verner Smitheram; David Milne; Satadal Dasgupta
(1982). The Garden transformed: Prince Edward
Island, 1945-1980. Charlottetown: Ragweed Press.
ISBN 978-0-920304-10-5. OCLC 9469420.
Livingston, Walter Ross (1931). Responsible Government in Prince Edward Island: A Triumph of
Self-Government under the Crown. Iowa City, IA:
University of Iowa Press. OCLC 1678512. Retrieved September 16, 2009.
Weale, David; Baglole, Harry (1973). The Island
and Confederation: the end of an era. Summerside,
P.E.I.: Williams and Crue. OCLC 1340051.

14

External links

The Government of Prince Edward Island Government ocial website


Prince Edward Island at DMOZ
The Government Prince Edward Island Visitors
Guide
CBC Digital Archives PEI Elections: Liberal landslides and Tory tides
Confederation Bridge
City of Charlottetown

18

15

15
15.1

TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses


Text

Prince Edward Island Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prince_Edward_Island?oldid=695590560 Contributors: Firepink, Brion


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Stewacide, Ron Davis, Kaihsu, John K, Ghewgill, The Tom, Timwi, Daniel Quinlan, WhisperToMe, Timc, IceKarma, Vancouverguy,
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Wavelength, Jcam, Extraordinary Machine, Al Silonov, RussBot, RobHutten, Pburka, Pigman, SpuriousQ, Chensiyuan, Gaius Cornelius,
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Valenciano, Mr Minchin, Kevlar67, RaCha'ar, Geor, Gujuguy, PatrickA, Richard0612, J Dogg, CIS, ArglebargleIV, Ser Amantio di
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Skapur, Myrtone86, Shoeofdeath, Igoldste, Sam Li, Marysunshine, Civil Engineer III, Courcelles, Anger22, Tawkerbot2, Switchercat,
JForget, Filiep, CmdrObot, Tanthalas39, Scohoust, Arkantosstevius, BeenAroundAWhile, Basawala, GHe, Rockysmile11, NickW557,
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Atrion, SoxBot III, 5800FX, Vanished user uih38riiw4hjlsd, NERIC-Security, Kiwehtin, Piotron, PretentiousSnot, XLinkBot, LivvBigg,
Koumz, Dark Mage, Katlou21, Facts707, Cmr08, Gogogorman, Menthaxpiperita, Good Olfactory, RyanCross, Zildjian drummer 09,
Wyatt915, Corath, Jhendin, Lordoliver, Narayansg, Betterusername, Peibioguy, Ronhjones, Cheese023, Vishnava, CanadianLinuxUser,
Leszek Jaczuk, Fluernutter, WonderPetDinosaur, NjardarBot, Nosaelg, LaaknorBot, Daicaregos, Glane23, Ld100, Butrocker, Favonian,
Kyle1278, Gsbsmith, Sophie-hugo, Tassedethe, Fail Fail Fail Fail, Numbo3-bot, Tide rolls, Lightbot, Romanskolduns, Lnewmans, Zorrobot,
Swarm, Kurtis, Luckas-bot, Yobot, 2D, Eddycaper, Fraggle81, Amirobot, THEN WHO WAS PHONE?, Santryl, Max, KamikazeBot,
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Piano non troppo, Cyanidethistles, Ulric1313, Bosonic dressing, Bluerasberry, ImperatorExercitus, The High Fin Sperm Whale, E2eamon,
Maxis ftw, JohnnyB256, Frankenpuppy, ArthurBot, Xqbot, LucieMC, Khajidha, Nasnema, Anna Frodesiak, BritishWatcher, GrouchoBot,
Miesianiacal, Ant501UK, Jdeell, Sni, BCFUNNY, BC Rox, Doulos Christos, Moxy, Shadowjams, Phlegmily, Dougofborg, Dan6hell66,
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15.2

Images

19

ton, Enblndn, MonoAV, Donner60, KindredSpiritMichael, Status, DeltaQuad.alt, TYelliot, DASHBotAV, McCaster, Xanchester, ClueBot
NG, Mcenteeep01, Lucky97, Jack Greenmaven, Inkowik, CocuBot, Joefromrandb, Bped1985, DonaldRichardSands, Frietjes, The High
Fin Sock Whale, Widr, Folly1960, Autotypo, Newyorkadam, Kburke559, IgnorantArmies, Helpful Pixie Bot, Andrew Gwilliam, Heuerham, Lowercase sigmabot, Vagobot, Wiki13, MusikAnimal, Ployer1, PaintedCarpet, Tidridge, DPL bot, Snow Blizzard, Creepysam,
Serindy, MyReleventKnowledge, Oldclashfan, PRRO, Thejessebarbour, Oren Balaban, Iowastate2000, Webcontentpei, BattyBot, Simsimi123, Pooyork1, Wiltemore, Peterkrummeck, Cyberbot II, Hi250, Greengablespei, Khazar2, Khry, Harrietbf, JYBot, Lightbulb2012,
Mogism, Ssbbplayer, Jjtkk, Fte, Hair, Rosebud92, SassyLilNugget, Stevebenjamins, Godot13, Charles.millar, Simsimi222, Dwscomet,
GigaMega123, DavidLeighEllis, Sammyd505505, Cameron Ehteshami, Bullman1234567891, Bolthouse30, Pechar689, Abbiesow, Glenmeister, AddWittyNameHere, Agfnj10, Steelepr01, Merlin the 2nd, L Manju, Ericmebelli9, Grimgramgrom, Breckthegod, Melcous,
Monkbot, Rylee.currie, Rylee-currie4811, Amortias, EncyclopediaCanadensis, Sigehelmus, Mustafa123445, Narky Blert, Some Gadget Geek, Mkoebel13, EdouardChunyuan, Noah allen14, Miraclexix, KasparBot, PReFix44, Kdsfafafdsafda, Henri880624, Barbequeue,
Stev3214, Rapors10, Jack rinestone and Anonymous: 1006

15.2

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File:CAN-S1932a-Bank_of_Prince_Edward_Island-10_Dollars_(1872).jpg Source:
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File:CardiganRiver_2008.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c0/CardiganRiver_2008.jpg License: CC
BY 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Verne Equinox
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Prince_Edward_Island.png License: Fair use Contributors:
http://www.vector-image.com Original artist:
Lucy Maud Montgomery

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/e/e9/Coat_of_Arms_of_

File:Commons-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original


artist: ?
File:Confederation_Bridge_from_Prince_Edward_Island_16x9.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/ff/
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artist: Original uploader was Chensiyuan at en.wikipedia
File:Dunes_on_PEI.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/1/12/Dunes_on_PEI.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors:
I (Danielc192 (talk)) created this work entirely by myself. Original artist:
Danielc192 (talk)
File:Edit-clear.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/f2/Edit-clear.svg License: Public domain Contributors: The
Tango! Desktop Project. Original artist:
The people from the Tango! project. And according to the meta-data in the le, specically: Andreas Nilsson, and Jakub Steiner (although
minimally).
File:Flag_of_Prince_Edward_Island.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d7/Flag_of_Prince_Edward_
Island.svg License: Public domain Contributors: No machine-readable source provided. Own work assumed (based on copyright claims).
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File:Holland_College_Prince_Edward_Island.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/94/Holland_College_
Prince_Edward_Island.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons by Skeezix1000 using
CommonsHelper. Original artist: Koolchik99 at English Wikipedia
File:Ile-du-Prince-Edouard_langues.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/22/Ile-du-Prince-Edouard_
langues.png License: GFDL Contributors: Own work Original artist: Piotron
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2.0 Contributors: Flickr Original artist: Dylan Kereluk from White Rock, Canada
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Roundel_of_the_Royal_Canadian_Air_Force_(1946-1965).svg Original artist:


1965).svg: F l a n k e r

Roundel_of_the_Royal_Canadian_Air_Force_(1946-

File:Marquis_de_Boishbert_-_Charles_Deschamps_de_Boishbert_et_de_Raffetot_(1753)_McCord_Museum_McGill.jpg
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Source:
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This image is available from the McCord Museum under the access number M967.48
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Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons by Sni. Original artist: Chensiyuan at English Wikipedia

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File:PEI-basemap.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6f/PEI-basemap.png License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work


Original artist: Klaus M. (Mikmaq), de-wiki, cropped and translated by Qyd

File:Panmure_island_lighthouse.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6d/Panmure_island_lighthouse.JPG License: GFDL


Contributors: chensiyuan Original artist: chensiyuan

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the original uploader Original artist: User:Chensiyuan

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artist: OpenClipart

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Public domain Contributors: This image is available from Library and Archives Canada under the reproduction reference number R3908-8-5-E (formerly
NMC 23350) and under the MIKAN ID number 3705866
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File:Prince_Edward_Island_in_Canada_(special_marker).svg

Source:
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commons/6/68/Prince_Edward_Island_in_Canada_%28special_marker%29.svg
License:
CC
BY-SA
2.5-2.0vector
graphics
image
was
created
with
Adobe
Illustrator.
Original
artist:
1.0
Contributors:
This
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px- Email_Silk.svg.png' width='15' height='15' srcse

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JPG License: GFDL Contributors: chensiyuan Original artist: chensiyuan

File:Prince_edward_island_fish.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cb/Prince_edward_island_fish.jpg License: CC BY 2.0


Contributors: ickr Original artist: Vic Brincat

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jpg License: CC BY 2.0 Contributors: ickr Original artist: Vic Brincat

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File:Scriven_Prince_Edward.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/82/Scriven_Prince_Edward.jpg License: Public domain


Contributors: Edward Scriven engraving of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathern (1834) after W. Beecheys portrait. Hand-coloured. 11x8,5cm.
Original artist: Edward Scriven engraving of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathern (1834) after W. Beecheys portrait. Hand-coloured. 11x8,5cm.

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