IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

3, Issue 09, 2015 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Miniaturization and Performance Enhancement of Multiband Microstrip
Patch Antenna using Metamaterial
Ramagowri.L1 Agnes Ramena.T2 Subhu Lakshmi.P3
1
P.G. Scholar 2,3Assistant Professor
1,2,3
Anna University Chennai
Abstract— This paper proposes metamaterial based
multiband microstrip patch antenna. Here the metamaterial
is added on top and double sides of rectangular patch
antenna. The proposed antenna is fed through microstrip
line. This antenna designing method and feeding technique
allow the antenna to operate at multiple frequency bands
with the range of 6 GHz to 12GHz (X band). Using
metamaterial on rectangular patch improves the antenna
performance and reduces the antenna size. The proposed
antenna design gives better results than the conventional
antenna design. Then the antenna parameters are obtained
by Advanced Design System software (ADS).
Key words: Microstrip Patch Antenna, Metamaterial

and thickness h=1.6mm. The antenna design procedure
shown in Fig 1.The ordinary patch antenna designed with
length of 600mils and width of 445mils and resonant
frequency is 6GHz.

I. INTRODUCTION
In recent years, metamaterial based antenna design makes
tremendous changes in miniaturization of antenna. Antennas
play major role in wireless communication. Microstrip patch
antenna is widely used in wireless world because of its
wonderful features like low cost, low profile and less design
complexity [1]. This paper proposes, a new microstrip patch
antenna, based on metamaterial which support multiband
applications without degrading antenna performance. There
are several methods for designing multiband antenna
conventionally. But nowadays, artificially engineered
material called metamaterial is used for designing multiband
microstrip patch antenna which improves antenna
performance and reduces antenna size compared to
traditional method [3]. Here split ring resonator (CSRR) is
loaded on patch antenna. When negative permeability
metamaterial reflecting surface is applied to the microstrip
patch, antenna gain will be increased, because CSRR
eliminates the substrate surface wave and concentrates on
radiant energy [2]. So, main problem in the patch antennas
is substrate surface wave which can be removed by using
CSRR [4]. After introduction section this paper discusses
about proposed antenna design. The proposed antenna
design section contains how to design ordinary patch
antenna, then how to design metamaterial based antenna
with different types of substrate and different values of
substrate thickness. After that, this paper discusses about
results in which proposed metamaterial based antenna’s
simulated results are shown and compared with ordinary
patch antenna results. It also discusses the comparision
between metamaterial based antenna with different types of
substrate and different values of substrate thickness. Finally,
the conclusion section describes the advantages of this
paper.

Fig. 1: Design procedure of patch antenna
Design specifications are shown in Table 1.
Microstrip feed line is used for feeding. The ordinary patch
antenna is designed with appropriate dimensions using
ADS. The layout view of ordinary RMPA shown in Fig 2.
Length
600mils
Width
445mils
Lt
195mils
Wt
20mils
Lf
245
Wf
120
Substrate
FR4
Thickness 1.6mm
Table 1: Ordinary patch antenna dimension

II. PROPOSED ANTENNA DESIGN
A. Ordinary Patch Antenna Design
Ordinary patch antenna is designed with low cost dielectric
substrate FR4 material having dielectric constant εr = 4.4

Fig. 2: Layout of ordinary RMPA

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Miniaturization and Performance Enhancement of Multiband Microstrip Patch Antenna using Metamaterial
(IJSRD/Vol. 3/Issue 09/2015/104)

B. Complementary Split Ring Resonator Design
Metamaterial is an artificial material which has negative
value of ε and μ but the entire natural material found in the
nature has positive value of ε and μ. There are mainly four
type of metamaterial structure: Split Ring structure,
Symmetrical Ring structure ,Omega structure and S
structure[2]. Here, CSRR is used. A split ring resonator with
appropriate dimensions is designed. The dimensions of split
ring resonator are shown in Table 2. Fig 3 shows layout of
split ring resonator.
Length
160mils
Width

160mils

Ring width

10mils

Ring spacing 10mils
Table 2: Split ring resonator dimensions

(b)

Fig 3: Layout of Split ring resonator
C. Metamaerial added RMPA design
Metamaterial is added top of the rectangular patch antenna
which improves antenna performance. In that ordinary patch
antenna, top portion of patch is etched and metamaterial is
added. The layout of metamaterial added on top of RMPA
shown in Fig 4(a). Again, sides of the patch are etched and
two more metamaterials added on the sides of patch, and
thus totally three metamaterials added on the patch. The
layout of metamaterial added top and double side of RMPA
shown in Fig 4 (b). Then slots are introduced on the
radiating patch which improve antenna performance at
resonant frequency and that layouts are shown in Fig 4 (c),
(d) and (e). Then the paper discusses the materials for
antenna designing which are shown in Table 3.
S.NO
Antenna parts
Materials
1
Radiating patch
Copper
2 Split ring resonator
Copper
3
Substrate
FR4
4
Ground plane
Copper
Table 3: Materials for antenna

(a)

(c)

(d)

(e)

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Miniaturization and Performance Enhancement of Multiband Microstrip Patch Antenna using Metamaterial
(IJSRD/Vol. 3/Issue 09/2015/104)

D. Parameter Estimation
RL = -20log |Г| (dB)
RL - Return Loss
Where |Г| is =

(2.1)

Characteristic impedance
Load impedance
Directivity=

(2.2)

U = Radiation intensity to given direction
Prad = Average radiated power
Gain=

(c)
(2.3)

Pin = Input power
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The simulation is carried out using the Advanced Design
System (ADS) simulation software. The parameters of the
proposed antenna are measured using ADS. Fig.5 (a), (b),
(c), (d), (e) show the simulated return loss characteristics of
conventional RMPA, Metamaterial added RMPA and
Metamaterial added RMPA with slot. Radiation patterns of
proposed antenna are shown in Fig.6.
The conventional MSA is resonating at frequencies
f1=5.8GHz and f2=10.8GHz. But metamaterial added
RMPA resonates in four different frequencies that are
f1=4.01GHz, f2=-6.25GHz, f3=8.7GHz and f4=10.5GHz.
Metamaterial added RMPA with slot also resonates at four
different frequencies. That frequencies are f1=6.051GHz,
f2=-10.25GHz, f3=10.7GHz and f4=11.5GHz. Metamaterial
added patch antenna gives better performance than
conventional patch antenna. Then the antenna is designed
with different dielectric substrate such as FR4, Duroid and
different substrate thickness values are used and then the
results are compared. The comparison tables are shown in
Table 4 & 5.

(d)

(e)
Fig. 5: Return loss of (a) Ordinary patch antenna, (b)
Metamaterial added on the patch (c) Single slot is
introduced on matamaterial based antenna (d) Double slot is
introduced on metamaterial based antenna (e) Tri slot is
introduced on metamaterial based antenna.

(a)

(a)

(b)

(b)
(c)

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Miniaturization and Performance Enhancement of Multiband Microstrip Patch Antenna using Metamaterial
(IJSRD/Vol. 3/Issue 09/2015/104)

Fig. 6 (a),(b),(c): Radiation patterns of proposed antenna
A. Features of Proposed Antenna (Metamaterial Based
Antenna)




Multiband application
X band communication(Satellite application)
Low loss
Eliminate
surface
wave
propagation(using
metamaterials)

 Small size (using metamaterials)
 Low cost (FR4 low cost )
Metamaterial Based Rectangular Microstrip Patch antenna Metamaterial Added RMPA and single slot is introduced
Obtained frequeny
Radiated power Directivity
Gain
Types of substrate
Return loss (dB)
(in GHz)
(in watts)
(in dB)
(in dB)
f1=6.0
-28
FR4
f2=10.5
-10
9.1e^-7
5.9
1.7
With thickness of h=1.6 mm
f3=10.7
-18
f4=11.5
-38
f1=4.1
-10
FR4
f2=6
-14
3.7e^-7
5
0.3
With thickness of h=1 mm
f3=8
-6
f4=11
-10
DUROID
f1=5.6
-23
7.3e^-7
6
5
With thickness of h=1.6mm
f2=-7.7
-27
DUROID
f1=5.3
-16
2.7e^-7
4
5
With thickness of h=1mm
f2=-7.7
-17
Table 4: Comparisons of simulation results
REFERENCES

FR4 with substrate
thickness h=1.6mm

FR4 with substrate thickness
h=1.6mm

Duroid with substrate
Duroid with substrate
thickness h=1mm
thickness h=1.6mm
Table 5: Comparison of radiation patterns
IV. CONCLUSION
The proposed technique provides antenna miniaturization
and multiband applications without antenna performance
degradations. The proposed methodology employs CSRRs
that are added to the radiating edges of the patch antennas
and then the slot is introduced on the patch. The technique is
simple and easy to design. It is found that a size reduction
with multiband resonating frequencies is achieved by
etching the patch and loading with split ring resonator. The
matamaterial based antenna is suitable for several wireless
applications and X-band communications with higher
performance.

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