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Early uprising against British Rule -1857

Revolt
The great revolt of 1857 is called as First war of Indian
Independence by V.D.Savarkar, the great revolutionary. He wrote the
book Indian war of independence.
It was the first widespread uprising against the rule of British East
India Company.
As the revolt was started by an Indian sepoy in British army, it is
called as sepoy mutiny by the British Historian John Lawrence, Earl
Stanley.
The book Great Rebillion was written by Ashok Meta.

Causes of Revolt:
1. Political causes:
(i)
Dalhousies Doctrine of Lapse : Actually Lord Dalhousie does
not devised this policy. It was established by East India Company
in early 1834. He was the one to use it vigorously.
Doctrine of Lapse Annexation policy if the ruler died without
a natural heir, the state/territory would automatically be
annexed to the British Empire.
Lord Dalhousie governor General for the East India Company
in India between 1848-1856.
(ii)

Refused pension to Nana Sahib:


Nana Sahib was the adopted son of Baji Rao II, the last Peshwa.
Nana Sahib - born in 1824. In 1827, Baji Rao II adopted him.
He was well educated and studied Sanskrit. On the death of Baji
Rao II in 1851, the company stopped annual pension and title.
- When the first war of Independence broke out, he
assumed the leadership of mutineers in Kanpur.
- He led the revolt in Kanpur with Tantia Tope, his
assistant.
- After seizing Kanpur, Nana Sahib proclaimed himself as
Peshwa.
- 6th December , 1857 General Campbell recaptured
Kanpur.
2. Economic causes:
(i)
Land Revenue policies :

Before British Rule: Tax from the land was a major source of
revenue for kings.
During Kingship, Lands divided into Jagirs, allotted to
Jagirdars. Jagirdars split the land and allocate to subordinates
Zamindars. Zamindars made the pesants to cultivate the land.
In British Rule: Three major systems: Zamindari, Ryotwari,
Mahalwari.
Zamindari System (Permanent Settlement System) :
- Introduced by Cornwallis in 1793 through Permanent
settlement Act.
- Introduced in Provinces of Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and
Varanasi.
- Zamindars recognised as owners of the lands. They have
the rights to collect the rent from peasants.
- The realised amount would be divided into 11 parts. 1/11
share belongs to Zamindars and 10/11 share belongs to
East India company.
Ryotwari System:
-

Introduced by Thomas Munro in 1820.


Major areas include Madras, Bombay, Parts of Assam and
Coorgh provinces.
Ownership rights were handed over to peasants. British
Government collected tax directly from peasants.
The revenue rates were 50% where the lands were dry and
60% in the irrigated lands..

Mahalwari system:
Introduced by William Bentick in 1823.
Introduced in Central Province, North west Frontier,
Agra, Punjab, Gangetic Valley.
- It has the provision of both Zamindari and Ryotwari
system.
- In this system land was divided into Mahals. Each Mahal
comprises one or more villages.
- Ownership rights given to peasants.
- Village committee responsible for tax collection.
Other Economic causes : - Destruction of Indian Industries
and high tariff on Indian Goods.
- P.J.Marshall , a British Historian has commented in his
East India Frontiers that after the battle of Plassey,
poverty is increased as the British Government drained
the wealth of India by taking away diamonds, gold, silver
and other precious articles by indirect reforms in Danish
trade and by bill of exchange.
-

(ii)

The Charter Act of 1833 AD gave facilities to many


other European countries like trading in India. In this way
pressure on Indian Economy increasing.
- Indian markets were full of Manchester clothes which
ultimately destroyed Indias handicraft industry.
- The salaries of Indians were much lower than the
Europeans. This economic discrimination was one of
the main reasons of the great revolt.
3. Social causes:
(i)
Abolition of Sati:
Bengal Sati Regulation, 1829 : A regulation for declaring the
practice of sati or burning alive the widows of Hindus, illegal
and punishable by the criminal courts.
- Governor General Lord William Bentinck devised this in
council Calcutta.
- From 1812 onwards, it was Raja Rammohan Roy who
started his own campaign against sati practice.
-

Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1772 1833)


Founder of the Brahmo samaj or the Society of God in
1828.
- Born in Burdwan in Bengal.
- Served in East India Company as Revenue Officer.
- He was a critic of the unjust actions and policies of British
Government in India.
- He was a social and religious reformer.
- He is remembered for his help in the abolition of Sati and
in modernisation of educational practices.
- Rabindranath Tagore said. Raja Ram Mohan Roy
inaugurated the modern age in India. He was the Father
of Indian Renaissance and the Prophet of Indian
Nationalism.
- One of his greatest achievements is the uplift of the
position of women in India by women education.
- Due to the efforts of him that Lord William Bentick
abolished Sati in 1829.
(ii) Widow Remarriage Act(1856) :
- The Hindu Widows Remarriage Act, 1856, also Act XV,
enacted on 25 July 1856, legalized the remarriage of
Hindu widows in all jurisdictions of India under East India
Company rule was drafted by Lord Dalhousie.
(iii) Religious Disabilities Removal Act(1850) :
- It was a law passed in British India under East India
company rule that abolished all laws affecting the rights of
-

persons converting to another religion or cast.


4. Military causes:
(i)
The post office Act (1854) :
- Lord Clive first established postal system in India in 1766.
- Warren Hastings developed it by establishing Calcutta
Grand Post Office (GPO) in 1774.
- The Post Office Act of 1854, reformed the entire fabric of
the postal system with the placing of the post office of
India on Oct 1st, 1854.
(ii) General Services Enlistment Act (1856):
- Established by Lord Canning.
- According to this Act the Indian soldiers in the EI
Company had the obligation to serve wherever required.
- The extension of British Frontiers involved their presence
in strange and different lands.
- They dreaded sea voyage and considered it is against their
customs.
(iii) Enfield Rifle:
- This is the immediate cause of the Revolt
- The issue of the Enfield Rifle which is believed to use
greased cartridges made of fat from pig and cow.
- On 29th March 1857, Mangal Pandey (Barackpur) a
sepoy refused to use Enfield refile and killed his officer
Major Hudson and hence hanged to death on 9th May
1857.
- In 9th May 1857, 85 sepoys (Meerut) of the 3rd cavalry
were sentenced to imprisonment for refusing to use
Enfield rifles.
- On 10th May, the great revolt broke out and marched
towards Delhi.
- They proclaimed Bahadur Shah II as emperor of India.
He was accepted as the symbol of Hindu-Muslim unity.
- The second reason for this mass revolt was the unity
among the Hindu and Muslims.

Reason for the failure of the Revolt:


-

No central organisation of sepoys. No unified action also.


Bahadur shah, Nana Sahib, Lakshmi Bai, no one had
acceptance as a real leader. They had different goals and
contradictions.
British had huge number of forces and had improved
armoury.
Further the leader of this revolt could not get the support
of several native states.

Nature of great Revolt of 1857:


-

Karl Marx: described this revolt as nationalist fight for


independence.
M.N.Roy: It was the reaction of the feudal against
capitalism.
Dr.Ramesh Chandra Majumder: called this revolt as
neither first nor national war of independence. It was
nothing but a revolt of sepoy. He wrote a book entitled
sepoy mutiny and revolt of 1857.

Impact of the Revolt:


- The British just considered it to be a mere military revolt.
The control of Indian administration was transferred from the
company to the Crown by the GOI act 1858.
(ii)
The Queen promised to respect Rights and dignity.
(iii) The Indian Army was reorganised. Included Sikhs, Gurkhas and
Pathans.
(iv) The Mughal dynasty ended with the extinction of Bahadur Shah
II and was replaced by British Crown.
(v)
Freedom of Religion granted.
(vi) As per Queens proclamation (1st Nov 1858), more Indians joined
administration.
(vii) Racial animosity increased.
(viii) The British introduced the policy of Divide and Rule that led to
the partition of India in 1947.
(ix) The British exploited the economy further.
(i)

Important centres of Revolt:


1. Meerut: 9th May 1857, 85 sepoys freed from imprisonment and
headed towards Delhi.
2. Delhi: 12th May 1857, Delhi was seized by Rebels.
- Bhadur shah II was persuaded. Loss of Delhi was
prestige loss for British. On 25th Sep, British regained
Delhi.
- General Hudson captured Bahadur Shah and Zeenat
Mahal.
- Bahadur shah died in Rangoon in 1862. He was blinded
before he was sent to Rangoon.
3. Oudh(Lucknow): Oudh annexed by Lord Dalhousie.
- Revolt broke out on 4th June 1857.
- Begum Nazrat Mahal seized residency and killed Henry
Lawrence.
- In March 1858, the city was finally recaptured.

Sir Colin Cambell (commander in Chief) attacked in Nov


1857.
4. Kanpur:
- Nana sahib was proclaimed as Peshwa.
- He led the revolt in Kanpur with Tantia Tope his assistant.
- 6th Dec, 1857 General Cambell recaptured Kanpur.
5. Jhansi and Gwalior:
- June 1857, the troops of Jhansi revolted.
- Rani Lakshmi Bai (Widow of Raja Gangadhar Rao)
declared as ruler.
- Real name of Jhansi Rani Lakshmi Bai is Manikarnika.
- Tantia Tope joined her after Kanpur was lost.
- Sir Hugh Rose captured Jansi.
- In Gwalior, Rani died fighting bravely.
- Tantia escaped and finally hanged.
S.N
o

Place

Delhi

Kanpur

Lucknow

Jhansi

5
6
7
8.
9
10

Gwalior
Bareli
Allahabad
Banars
Bihar
Barakpor

Leader of
Revolt
Bahadur shah
zafar, Bakht
khan
Nana Sahib
Begam Hazrat
Mahal, Birjid
Qadir
Rani Lakshmi
Bai
Tantia Tope
Khan Bahadhur
Liyakat Ali

Resistance by
British Officer
Lt.Willoughby,
Hudson, John
Nicholson
Sir Hugh Wheeler,
Sir Colin Camphell
Henry Lawrence,
Henry Havelock,
Campbell
Sir Hugh Rose

Suppressed
by
Nicholson

Campbell
Campbell

Hugh

Campbell
Neil

Kunwar Singh
Mangal Pandey

Queen Victorias Proclamation of 1858:


A Royal Durbar was held at Allahabad in Nov 1, 1958. The
Proclamation issued by Queen Victoria is described as the Magna
Carta of India. It was read by Lord Canning who was the last Governor
General and the first Viceroy of India.
1. Which part of India was silent when revolt of 1857 was spreading
in India.
A) South India
B) North India
C) Central India
D) Western India

2. Who was the leader of Kanpur Spearheading Revolt of 1857?


A) Khan Bahadur
B) Birijis Qadir
C) Nana Saheb
D) Kunwar Singh
3. One of the effect of Indian Revolt 1857 on East India Company was
A) It was dissolved
B) It was strengthen by increase of administration
C) Crown of England recognized it
D) British Crown took over it.
4. Which city was the main centre of revolt of 1857?
A) Jhansi
B) Oudh
C) Champaran
D) Bareilly.
5. Which means was used by Sepoys to convey messages during the
revolt of 1857.
A) Chapatis and Lotus flowers
B) Chapatis and Lanterns
C) Chapatis and Rose flowers
D) Chapatis and Lathis.
6. Where did Nana Sahib finally escape after being defeated and
refused to give in
A) Burma
B) Myanmar
C) Nepal
D) Afghanistan.
7. Babu Kunwar Singh who took part in great leader of revolt of 1857
was
A) Zamindar of Garakhpur
B) Zamindar of Jagdishpur
C) Zamindar of Rohilakhand

D) Zamindar of Raipur
8. The first sign of unhappiness among sepoys surfaced in 1824 when
47th regiment at Barackpore was ordered to go
A) Nepal
B) Burma
C) Myanmar
D) Sikkim.
9. The French Revolution broke out in the year
A) 1798
B) 1789
C) 1898
D) 1879.
10.
Who was the Governor General when the Revolt of 1857
broke out?
A) Dalhousie
B) Curzon
C) Canning
D) Cornwallis.
11.
The main centre of revolt of 1857, first recaptured by the
British was
A) Delhi
B) Lucknow
C) Awadh
D) Jhansi.
12.

When were the British citizens permitted to settle in India?


A) 1813
B) 1833
C) 1853
D) 1858

13.

The French East India Company was set up in the year


A) 1664
B) 1665
C) 1666
D) 1667.

14.
Dalhousie annexed Awadh for the British Empire in India
through

A)Policy of subsidiary Alliance


B) Doctrine of Lapse
C) State being maladministred
D) Waging of war
15.

The Kuka movement was founded in


A) U.P
B) Malabar
C)Bihar
D) Punjab

16.

The main cause behind the rise of Faraizi movement was that
A)The Muslim tenants were opposed by East India company
B) The Christian missionaries attacked the Islamic Region
C) The Hindu domination was to be eradicated
D)the Hindu money lenders oppressed the Muslim community.

17.

Point out where the 1857 uprising did not take place.
A)Avadh
B) Madras
C)Madhya Pradesh
D)East Punjab

18.
Identify the acknowledged leader of the revolt of 1857 in
Awadh who after the defeat of Lucknow lead the rebellion in
Rohilkand.
A) Maalvi Ahamadhullah Shah of Faizabad
B) Begum Hazrat Mahal
C) Khan Bahadhur Khan
D) Nana Saheb
19.
Identify the reason why Bombay and Madras failed to rise in
revolt like the Northern provinces
A) their administrators were highly tolerant and enlightened
B) the seat of administration which was in Calcutta was far away
from them
C) they were denued of required leadership by the Ryotwari
settlement
D) they were excluded from annexations and confiscations.
20.
Identify the name of the wife of the Mughal Emperor who is
believed to have sabotaged the work of the rebels by acting as an
informer to the British.

A) Zeenath Mahal
B) Fatima Begum
C)Hazrut Mahal
D) Mumtaz Mahal
21.

Match the Commanding officer of


a) General Hearsey - 1) Kanpur
b)Sir Hugh wheeler - 2)Meerut
c) Colonel Mitchell - 3)Barackpur
d) General Hewitt -4) Berhampur

(a)
A) 3
B) 4
C) 3
D) 1

(b)
1
1
4
3

(c)
4
2
2
4

(d)
2
3
1
2

22.
The Freedom struggle in India was greatly inspired by the cry
of Liberty, Equality, Fraternity which were associated with the
A)American war of Independence
B) French Revolution
C) Russian Revolution
D) Magna Carta
23.
Raja Ram Mohans tradition was carried after his death by
the racial Bengali youth. What they were known as?
A)Mohunties
B) Dezorians
C)Red shirts
D) Radical Humanists
24.

The Revolt of 1857 started from


A) Delhi
B) Barrackpur
C) Meerut
D)Kanpur

25.

Mangal Pandey was executed on


A)2nd june, 1857
B)3rd May, 1855
C) 4th May, 1844
D) 9th May, 1857

26.

The Vellore mutiny took place in

A) 1805
B) 1802
C)1806
D) 1807
27.

The revolt started at Dum Dum on


A)23rd Jan, 1857
B)22nd May, 1856
C) 23rd June, 1844
D) 30th July, 1832

28.

Who recaptured Delhi?


A) Campbell
B) Nicholson
C) Hugh Rose
D)Hudson

29.

Who killed the sons of Mughal emperor?


A)Hugh Rose
B) Lt.Hudson
C) Nicholson
D)Campbell

30.

Lucknow and Bareilly were reoccupied by


A) Hugh Rose
B) Watson
C) Sleeman
D) Campbell

31.

Banaras and Allahabad were recaptured by


A)Neil
B) Willson
C) Hudson
D) Campbell

32.
What was the ratio of Indian soldiers and Europeans in the
Army at the time of 1857 Revolt
A) 5 : 1
B) 4 : 2
C) 6 : 1
D) 7 : 2
33.

Who was the first secretary of State for India?

A)Hunter
B) Mecauley
C)Charles Wood
D) Morley
34.
Find the incorrect match for the centre of revolt and leaders
associated
A) Delhi
- General Bakht Khan
B) Kanpur - Nana Sahib
C) Lucknow Begum Hazarat Mahal
D)Bareilly - Kunwar Singh
35.

The Viceroy who introduced Doctrine of Lapse?


A)Lord Wellesley
B) Lord Dalhousie
C) Lord Minto
D) Lord Canning

36.
Who called the 1857 revolt as the First War of Indian
Independence?
A) Dadabhai Naoroji
B) V.D.Savarkar
C) B.K.Dutt
D) Gopala Krishna Gokale
37.
The Governor General who bought the General Service
Enlistment Act,1856
A) Lord Curzon
B)Lord Canning
C)Lord Hasting
D) Lord Minto
38.

Whom did the rebels declare as Emperor of India?


A) Shah Alam
B) Faruq Shair
C) Bhadur Shah II
D) Bahadur Shah I

39.
Match List I with List II correctly and select your answer
using the codes given below
a) Dutch East India Company
b) British East India Company
c) French East India Company
d) Portugese captured Goa

1. 1600
2. 1664
3. 1510
4. 1602

A)
B)
C)
D)

(b)
2
4
3
1

(b)
1
1
4
3

(c)
4
2
2
4

(d)
3
3
1
2

Answers:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1
0
A C A B A C B B B B

2
1
A

2
2
B

2
3
B

2
4
C

2
5
D

2
6
C

2
7
A

2
8
B

2
9
B

1
1
A

3
0
D

1
2
B

3
1
A

1
3
A

3
2
C

1
4
C

3
3
C

1 1
5 6
D A

3
4
D

1
7
B

3
5
B

1
8
A

3
6
B

1
9
C

3
7
B

2
0
A

3
8
C

3
9
B