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# Fluid Static

## Ch2 Fluid Statics

Fluid either at rest or moving in a manner that there
is no relative motion between adjacent particles.
No shearing stress in the fluid

## Only pressure (force that develop on the surfaces of

the particles)

Outline
1. Pressure at a Point
2. Basic Equations for the Pressure Field
3. Hydrostatic Condition
4. Standard Atmosphere
5. Manometer and Pressure Measurements
6. Barometer
7. Piezometer
8. Differential manometer
9. Example Problems

Fluid Mechanics

Gas

Liquids

Statics

F 0
i

## Air, He, Ar,

N2, etc.

Compressibility Density

Water, Oils,
Alcohols,
etc.

Viscosity

Chapter 1: Introduction

Dynamics

F 0 , Flows

Stability
Pressure Buoyancy

Compressible/
Incompressible

Surface

Laminar/

Tension

Turbulent

Vapor

Viscous/Inviscid

Pressure

Fluid Dynamics:
Rest of Course

F ma
Y:

## Fy p yxz Psxs sin

p z xy p z xs cos

xyz
2

az

Z:

xyz
2

ay

xyz
2

az

y s cos ; z s sin

y : p y p s a y

y
2

z : p z p s ( a z )

z
2

x, y, z 0

## What happen at a pt. ?

p y ps
p z ps

p y p z ps

is arbitrarily chosen

## Pressure at a pt. in a fluid at rest, or in motion, is

independent of direction as long as there are no shearing
stresses present.
(Pascals law)

## 2. Basic equation for Pressure Field

How does the pressure in a fluid which there are no shearing stresses vary
from pt. to pt.?

pressure
weight

Surface forces:

p y
p y
y : Fy ( p
)xz ( p
)xz
y 2
y 2
Fy

p
xyz
y

## Similarly, in z and x directions:

p
Fx xyz
x

p
Fz xyz
z

p p p
Fs Fx i Fy j Fz k ( i
j k )xyz
x
y
z
(p)xyz

i
j k
x
y
z

F ma Fs W

F pxyz xyz

p k a

## General equation of motion for a fluid in which there

are no shearing stresses.
3. Pressure variation in a fluid at rest

a0

xyz a

p k 0

p
0
x
p
0
y
dp

dz

(Eq. 2.4)

2.3.1 Incompressible

g const

p2

p1

dp

z1

z2

dz p1 p2 ( z2 z1 ) h

p1 h p2

Hydrostatic Distribution

p1 p 2

## Ex: 10 psi p1 p 2 h 23.1 ft or 518mmHg

( 62.4 lb 2 ) ( 133 KN 3 )
ft
m

p h p0

## Pressure in a homogeneous, incompressible fluid at rest: ~ reference level,

indep. of size or shape of the container.

## The required equality of pressures at equal elevations

Throughout a system.
A
F2 2 F1
A1
Transmission of fluid pressure

## 2.3.2 Compressible Fluid perfect gas:

dp
gp
g
dz
RT
p2
g Z 2 dz
p 2 dp
ln
Z
p1
p
p1
R 1 T
Assume

g , R const.(z1 z 2 )

g ( z 2 z1 )
p 2 p1 exp

RT
0

p RT

Troposphere:

T Ta z
0.0065 K
0.00357 R

Ta @ z 0
m
ft

lapose rate

z g R
p pa ( 1
)
Ta

## Parameter= measure atmospheric pressure

p A pB
pB patom

p A h pvapor

patm h pvapor
(Mercury barometer)

Manometry
1. Piezometer Tube:
2. U-Tube Manometer:
3. Inclined-tube manometer

p h P

p A 1h1

1. p pa

2. U-Tube Manometer:

2. h1 is reasonable p pa
3. liquid, not a gas

p A 1h1 2 h2 0
p A 2 h2 1h1

u , p , p p A pB
Q( the volume rate of the flow ) k p A pB
p A 1h1 2 h2 1 ( h1 h2 ) pB
p A pB h2 ( 2 1 )
Small difference in gas pressure
If pipes A & B contain a gas

p A pB 2 l2 sin
p A pB
l2
2 sin

Bourdon Tube

p ,

curved tube

deformation

straight
dial

pressure

## . Aneroid barometermeasure atmospheric pressure

(absolute pressure)

## . Pressure transducerpressure V.S. time

Bourdon tube is connected to a linear variable
differential transformer(LVDT), Fig. 2.14
coil; voltage

## This voltage is linear function of the pressure, and could

be recorded on an oscillograph, or digitized for storage
or processing on computer.

meas. pressure are static or only changing
slowly(quasistatic).
relatively mass of Bourdon tube

<diaphragm>

## *strain-gage pressure transducer *

Fig. 2.15 (arterial blood pressure)
piezo-electric crystal. (Refs. 3, 4, 5 )

1Hz

Application Examples
Feeder Gates for Canal
Gate Valves for
Spillway Control

Applications (cont.)

## Spillway Drum Gates:

hollow inside, use
buoyancy to control the
position of the gate.

## 2.8 Hydrostatic Force on a Plane Surface

Fig. 2.16 Pressure and resultants hydrostatic force
developed on the bottom of an open tank.

FR pA
Storage tanks, ships

## . For fluid at rest we know that the force must be

perpendicular to the surface, since there are no shearing
stress present.

## Hydrostatic Force on an Inclined Plane Surface

Assume atmoshperic condition on the other
side of the surface
Free surface

## dF PdA hdA ghdA

gy sin dA
Integrate over the entire surface

dF

x FR dF g sin ydA

1
ydA, so that

A
FR gAyC sin gAhC
yC

## In order to find equilavent system,

need to make sure that the moment
of the resultant force must equal to

## the moment of the distributed force.

Hydrostaic forces
O

FR

A

A

Therefore, y'=
y
y

I xx
Ay C

,

## moment of inertia about the centroid of the area (can be

found in table)

yc

FR
y
z

2
I xx = I xx
AyC , therefore, y'=y C

Similarly, x'=

I xy
Ay C

xC

I xy

AyC

I xx

AyC

Example
The square flood gate (2m by 2m) is hinged along its bottom as
shown. Determine the moment at the hinge in order to hold

y
2m

## First, find the resultant force:

hinge
FR ghC A (1000)(9.8)(1)(2 2) 39200( N )
Then, determine the point of action:
1 (2)(2)3
I xx
1 4
12
y'=yC
(1)
1 (m)
AyC
(2 2)(1)
3 3
As expected, it falls at a depth 2/3 of the total depth.
x

## The holding moment (M) on the hinge O will be

4
M

F
(2

) 0,
O
R
3
M 18479( N .m)
y

Example (cont.)
x

y
2m

If the square gate is replaced by a circularshaped gate as shown, recalculate the holding
moment.

## Again, find the resultant force first:

FR ghC A (1000)(9.8)(1) (1) 2 30772( N )
y

## Next, the line of action:

4
1

R
I
1 5
y'=y C x x 1 4 2
1 ( m)
AyC
R (1)
4 4
The holding moment:
5
3
M

F
(2

FR 0
O
R
4
4
M 23079( N .m)

Example (cont.)
45
2m

## If the square gate is placed at an angle of 45 as shown,

recalculate the holding moment again. Note: the y axis
has been redefined to follow the gate for convenience.

## First, calculate the resultant force:

FR ghC A (1000)(9.8)(1)(2 2 2 2) 78400( N )
Note: the h stays the same and is independent
of the incline angle, however, the gate area increases.
1 (2 2)(2 2)3
I
2 2
12
y'=yC xx

AyC
2
(2 2 2 2) 2 2
2

y' 2

2 4 2

3
3

## The holding moment: M=FR (2 2 4 2 ) 73916( N .m )

3

An interesting observation
When the gas tank is low, the low fuel light will lit to warn the driver. Have you noticed
that the light will not always stay on for a period of time. It turns off when either you
accelerate (decelerate) or climb (descend) on a sloped road. Can you explain this
phenomenon by using the principle of fluid statics.

Accelerating (climbing)

Decelerating (descending)

## Hydrostatic balance can be applied to a small fluid element as shown

dp
pA ( p dp ) A mg Agdy,
g , integrate from fluid element to
dy
Free surface, p=p
the free surface p( h) p gh
p+dp

## Example: If a container of fluid is accelerating

with an acceleration of ax to the right as shown below,
the free surface of the fluid will incline with an angle a as
shown.

p+dp

ax

pA ( p dp ) A ma x Adxa x ,
dp

tan(a )
dy

a
dx

dp
ax
dx

a
dy
g ax

, a tan 1 x
dx dp
g
g
ax

## the pressure varies linearly with depth.

h
FR PAve A ( ) A
2
FR volume of pressure prism
1
h
(h)(bh) A
2
2
No matter what the shape of the pressure prism is, the resultant
force is still equal in magnitude to the volume of the pressure
Prism, and it passes through the centroid of the volume.
First, draw the pressure prism out.

p z p0

dp

dz

## Hydrostatic Force on a Curved Surface

General theory of plane surfaces does not apply to curved surfaces
Many surfaces in dams, pumps, pipes or tanks are curved
No simple formulas by integration similar to those for plane surfaces
A new method must be used
Then we mark a F.B.D. for the volume:

Isolated Volume
Bounded by AB an AC and
BC

## F1 and F2 is the hydrostatic force on each

planar face
FH and FV is the component of the resultant
force on the curved surface.
W is the weight of the fluid volume.

## Hydrostatic Force on a Curved Surface

Now, balancing the forces for the Equilibrium condition:
Horizontal Force:
Vertical Force:
Resultant Force:
The location of the Resultant Force is through O by sum of Moments:

Y-axis:

F1 x1 Wxc FV xV

X-axis:

F2 x2 FH xH

Buoyancy: Archimedes
Principle
Archimedes Principle states that the buoyant
force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the
fluid displaced by the body and is directed
vertically upward.
Archimedes (287-212 BC)

Story

Buoyant force is a force that results from a floating or submerged body in a fluid.
The force results from different pressures on the top and bottom of the object
The pressure forces acting from below are greater than those on top
Now, treat an arbitrary submerged object as a planar surface:
Forces on the Fluid
Arbitrary Shape

## Buoyancy and Flotation: Archimedes Principle

Balancing the Forces of the F.B.D. in the vertical Direction:

W h2 h1 A V
Then, substituting:
W is the weight of the shaded area
F1 and F2 are the forces on the plane surfaces
FB is the bouyant force the body exerts on the fluid

Simplifying,

## The force of the fluid on the body is opposite, or vertically

upward and is known as the Buoyant Force.
The force is equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.

## Buoyancy and Flotation: Archimedes Principle

Find where the Buoyant Force Acts by Summing Moments:
Sum the Moments about the z-axis:

## We find that the buoyant forces acts through

the centroid of the displaced volume.
The location is known as the center of buoyancy.

## Buoyancy and Flotation: Archimedes Principle

We can apply the same principles to floating objects:

If the fluid acting on the upper surfaces has very small specific weight (air), the centroid
is simply that of the displaced volume, and the buoyant force is as before.
If the specific weight varies in the fluid the buoyant force does not pass through the
centroid of the displaced volume, but through the center of gravity of the displaced
volume.

## Stability: Submerged Object

Stable Equilibrium: if when displaced returns to equilibrium position.
Unstable Equilibrium: if when displaced it returns to a new equilibrium position.
Stable Equilibrium:

Unstable Equilibrium:

## Buoyancy and Stability: Floating Object

Slightly more complicated as the location of the center buoyancy can change:

## Pressure Variation, Rigid Body Motion: Linear Motion

Governing Equation with no Shear (Rigid Body Motion):

## Consider, the case of an open container of liquid with a constant acceleration:

Estimating the pressure between two closely spaced points apart some dy, dz:
Substituting the partials
Along a line of constant pressure, dp = 0:

Inclined free
surface for ay 0

## Pressure Variation, Rigid Body Motion: Linear Motion

Now consider the case where ay = 0, and az 0:
Then,

So,

p
0
x

p
0
y
p
g az
z

Non-Hydrostatic

Pressure will vary linearly with depth, but variation is the combination of gravity and externally
developed acceleration.
A tank of water moving upward in an elevator will have slightly greater pressure at the bottom.
If a liquid is in free-fall az = -g, and all pressure gradients are zerosurface tension is all that keeps
the blob together.

## Pressure Variation, Rigid Body Motion: Rotation

Governing Equation with no Shear (Rigid Body Motion):

## Write terms in cylindrical coordinates for convenience:

Accceleration Vector:

## Pressure Variation, Rigid Body Motion: Rotation

The equation in all three directions are the following:

Estimating the pressure between two closely spaced points apart some dr, dz:
Substituting the partials
Along a line of constant pressure, dp = 0:

## Pressure Variation, Rigid Body Motion: Rotation

Now, integrate to obtain the Pressure Variation: