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Fluid Static

Dr. Mohammed Zakria Salih Xoshnaw

Ch2 Fluid Statics


Fluid either at rest or moving in a manner that there
is no relative motion between adjacent particles.
No shearing stress in the fluid

Only pressure (force that develop on the surfaces of


the particles)

Outline
1. Pressure at a Point
2. Basic Equations for the Pressure Field
3. Hydrostatic Condition
4. Standard Atmosphere
5. Manometer and Pressure Measurements
6. Barometer
7. Piezometer
8. Differential manometer
9. Example Problems

Fluid Mechanics Overview


Fluid Mechanics

Gas

Liquids

Statics

F 0
i

Air, He, Ar,


N2, etc.

Compressibility Density

Water, Oils,
Alcohols,
etc.

Viscosity

Chapter 1: Introduction

Dynamics

F 0 , Flows

Stability
Pressure Buoyancy

Compressible/
Incompressible

Surface

Laminar/

Tension

Turbulent
Steady/Unsteady

Vapor

Viscous/Inviscid

Pressure

Chapter 2: Fluid Statics

Fluid Dynamics:
Rest of Course

1. Pressure at a point N/m2 (Force/Area)

F ma
Y:

Fy p yxz Psxs sin

p z xy p z xs cos

xyz
2

az

Z:

xyz
2

ay

xyz
2

az

y s cos ; z s sin

y : p y p s a y

y
2

z : p z p s ( a z )

z
2

x, y, z 0

What happen at a pt. ?

p y ps
p z ps

p y p z ps

is arbitrarily chosen

Pressure at a pt. in a fluid at rest, or in motion, is


independent of direction as long as there are no shearing
stresses present.
(Pascals law)

2. Basic equation for Pressure Field

How does the pressure in a fluid which there are no shearing stresses vary
from pt. to pt.?

Surface & body forces acting on small fluid element


pressure
weight

Surface forces:

p y
p y
y : Fy ( p
)xz ( p
)xz
y 2
y 2
Fy

p
xyz
y

Similarly, in z and x directions:

p
Fx xyz
x

p
Fz xyz
z

p p p
Fs Fx i Fy j Fz k ( i
j k )xyz
x
y
z
(p)xyz


i
j k
x
y
z

Newtons second law

F ma Fs W

F pxyz xyz

p k a

General equation of motion for a fluid in which there


are no shearing stresses.
3. Pressure variation in a fluid at rest

a0

xyz a

p k 0

p
0
x
p
0
y
dp

dz

(Eq. 2.4)

2.3.1 Incompressible

g const

p2

p1

dp

z1

z2

dz p1 p2 ( z2 z1 ) h

p1 h p2

Hydrostatic Distribution

p1 p 2

*see Fig. 2.2

pressure head

Ex: 10 psi p1 p 2 h 23.1 ft or 518mmHg


( 62.4 lb 2 ) ( 133 KN 3 )
ft
m

p h p0

Pressure in a homogeneous, incompressible fluid at rest: ~ reference level,


indep. of size or shape of the container.

The required equality of pressures at equal elevations


Throughout a system.
A
F2 2 F1
A1
Transmission of fluid pressure

2.3.2 Compressible Fluid perfect gas:

dp
gp
g
dz
RT
p2
g Z 2 dz
p 2 dp
ln
Z
p1
p
p1
R 1 T
Assume

g , R const.(z1 z 2 )

T T0 overz1 , z 2 isothermal conditions


g ( z 2 z1 )
p 2 p1 exp

RT
0

p RT

2.4 Standard Atmosphere

Troposphere:

T Ta z
0.0065 K
0.00357 R

Ta @ z 0
m
ft

lapose rate

z g R
p pa ( 1
)
Ta

2.5 Measurement of Pressure

Parameter= measure atmospheric pressure

p A pB
pB patom

p A h pvapor

patm h pvapor
(Mercury barometer)

Manometry
1. Piezometer Tube:
2. U-Tube Manometer:
3. Inclined-tube manometer

p h P

p A 1h1

1. p pa

2. U-Tube Manometer:

2. h1 is reasonable p pa
3. liquid, not a gas

p A 1h1 2 h2 0
p A 2 h2 1h1

u , p , p p A pB
Q( the volume rate of the flow ) k p A pB
p A 1h1 2 h2 1 ( h1 h2 ) pB
p A pB h2 ( 2 1 )
Small difference in gas pressure
If pipes A & B contain a gas

Inclined Tube manometer

p A pB 2 l2 sin
p A pB
l2
2 sin

2.7 Mechanical and Electronic Pressure Measuring Device

. Bourdon pressure gage (elastic structure)


Bourdon Tube

p ,

curved tube

deformation

straight
dial

. A zero reading on the gage indicates that the measured


pressure

. Aneroid barometermeasure atmospheric pressure


(absolute pressure)

. Pressure transducerpressure V.S. time


Bourdon tube is connected to a linear variable
differential transformer(LVDT), Fig. 2.14
coil; voltage

This voltage is linear function of the pressure, and could


be recorded on an oscillograph, or digitized for storage
or processing on computer.

Disadvantage-elastic sensing element


meas. pressure are static or only changing
slowly(quasistatic).
relatively mass of Bourdon tube

<diaphragm>

*strain-gage pressure transducer *


Fig. 2.15 (arterial blood pressure)
piezo-electric crystal. (Refs. 3, 4, 5 )

1Hz

Application Examples
Feeder Gates for Canal
Gate Valves for
Spillway Control

Applications (cont.)

Spillway Drum Gates:


hollow inside, use
buoyancy to control the
position of the gate.

2.8 Hydrostatic Force on a Plane Surface


Fig. 2.16 Pressure and resultants hydrostatic force
developed on the bottom of an open tank.

FR pA
Storage tanks, ships

. For fluid at rest we know that the force must be


perpendicular to the surface, since there are no shearing
stress present.

Hydrostatic Force on an Inclined Plane Surface


Assume atmoshperic condition on the other
side of the surface
Free surface

dF PdA hdA ghdA


gy sin dA
Integrate over the entire surface

dF

x FR dF g sin ydA

Define centroid of the area y C


1
ydA, so that

A
FR gAyC sin gAhC
yC

In order to find equilavent system,


need to make sure that the moment
of the resultant force must equal to

the moment of the distributed force.

Hydrostaic forces
O

Taking Mmoment about the x-axis: y'FR yPdA

FR

y ' g sin yC A gy 2 sin dA g sin y 2 dA


A

Recognize that y 2 dA I xx (area moment of inertia about O)


A

Therefore, y'=
y
y

I xx
Ay C

Also, from parallel axis theorem, we can relate I xx to I xx


,

moment of inertia about the centroid of the area (can be


found in table)

yc

FR
y
z

2
I xx = I xx
AyC , therefore, y'=y C

Similarly, x'=

I xy
Ay C

xC

I xy

AyC

I xx

AyC

Example
The square flood gate (2m by 2m) is hinged along its bottom as
shown. Determine the moment at the hinge in order to hold
the gate steady.

y
2m

First, find the resultant force:


hinge
FR ghC A (1000)(9.8)(1)(2 2) 39200( N )
Then, determine the point of action:
1 (2)(2)3
I xx
1 4
12
y'=yC
(1)
1 (m)
AyC
(2 2)(1)
3 3
As expected, it falls at a depth 2/3 of the total depth.
x

The holding moment (M) on the hinge O will be


4
M

F
(2

) 0,
O
R
3
M 18479( N .m)
y

Example (cont.)
x

y
2m

If the square gate is replaced by a circularshaped gate as shown, recalculate the holding
moment.

Again, find the resultant force first:


FR ghC A (1000)(9.8)(1) (1) 2 30772( N )
y

Next, the line of action:


4
1

R
I
1 5
y'=y C x x 1 4 2
1 ( m)
AyC
R (1)
4 4
The holding moment:
5
3
M

F
(2

FR 0
O
R
4
4
M 23079( N .m)

Example (cont.)
45
2m

If the square gate is placed at an angle of 45 as shown,


recalculate the holding moment again. Note: the y axis
has been redefined to follow the gate for convenience.

First, calculate the resultant force:


FR ghC A (1000)(9.8)(1)(2 2 2 2) 78400( N )
Note: the h stays the same and is independent
of the incline angle, however, the gate area increases.
1 (2 2)(2 2)3
I
2 2
12
y'=yC xx

AyC
2
(2 2 2 2) 2 2
2

y' 2

2 4 2

3
3

The holding moment: M=FR (2 2 4 2 ) 73916( N .m )


3

An interesting observation
When the gas tank is low, the low fuel light will lit to warn the driver. Have you noticed
that the light will not always stay on for a period of time. It turns off when either you
accelerate (decelerate) or climb (descend) on a sloped road. Can you explain this
phenomenon by using the principle of fluid statics.

Accelerating (climbing)

Decelerating (descending)

Fuel level transducer

Hydrostatic balance can be applied to a small fluid element as shown


dp
pA ( p dp ) A mg Agdy,
g , integrate from fluid element to
dy
Free surface, p=p
the free surface p( h) p gh
p+dp

Example: If a container of fluid is accelerating


with an acceleration of ax to the right as shown below,
the free surface of the fluid will incline with an angle a as
shown.

p+dp

ax

pA ( p dp ) A ma x Adxa x ,
dp

tan(a )
dy

a
dx

dp
ax
dx

a
dy
g ax

, a tan 1 x
dx dp
g
g
ax

2.9 Pressure Prism

the pressure varies linearly with depth.

h
FR PAve A ( ) A
2
FR volume of pressure prism
1
h
(h)(bh) A
2
2
No matter what the shape of the pressure prism is, the resultant
force is still equal in magnitude to the volume of the pressure
Prism, and it passes through the centroid of the volume.
First, draw the pressure prism out.

p z p0

dp

dz

Hydrostatic Force on a Curved Surface


General theory of plane surfaces does not apply to curved surfaces
Many surfaces in dams, pumps, pipes or tanks are curved
No simple formulas by integration similar to those for plane surfaces
A new method must be used
Then we mark a F.B.D. for the volume:

Isolated Volume
Bounded by AB an AC and
BC

F1 and F2 is the hydrostatic force on each


planar face
FH and FV is the component of the resultant
force on the curved surface.
W is the weight of the fluid volume.

Hydrostatic Force on a Curved Surface


Now, balancing the forces for the Equilibrium condition:
Horizontal Force:
Vertical Force:
Resultant Force:
The location of the Resultant Force is through O by sum of Moments:

Y-axis:

F1 x1 Wxc FV xV

X-axis:

F2 x2 FH xH

Buoyancy: Archimedes
Principle
Archimedes Principle states that the buoyant
force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the
fluid displaced by the body and is directed
vertically upward.
Archimedes (287-212 BC)

Story

Buoyant force is a force that results from a floating or submerged body in a fluid.
The force results from different pressures on the top and bottom of the object
The pressure forces acting from below are greater than those on top
Now, treat an arbitrary submerged object as a planar surface:
Forces on the Fluid
Arbitrary Shape

Buoyancy and Flotation: Archimedes Principle


Balancing the Forces of the F.B.D. in the vertical Direction:

W h2 h1 A V
Then, substituting:
W is the weight of the shaded area
F1 and F2 are the forces on the plane surfaces
FB is the bouyant force the body exerts on the fluid

Simplifying,

The force of the fluid on the body is opposite, or vertically


upward and is known as the Buoyant Force.
The force is equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.

Buoyancy and Flotation: Archimedes Principle


Find where the Buoyant Force Acts by Summing Moments:
Sum the Moments about the z-axis:

VT is the total volume of the parallelpiped

We find that the buoyant forces acts through


the centroid of the displaced volume.
The location is known as the center of buoyancy.

Buoyancy and Flotation: Archimedes Principle


We can apply the same principles to floating objects:

If the fluid acting on the upper surfaces has very small specific weight (air), the centroid
is simply that of the displaced volume, and the buoyant force is as before.
If the specific weight varies in the fluid the buoyant force does not pass through the
centroid of the displaced volume, but through the center of gravity of the displaced
volume.

Stability: Submerged Object


Stable Equilibrium: if when displaced returns to equilibrium position.
Unstable Equilibrium: if when displaced it returns to a new equilibrium position.
Stable Equilibrium:

Unstable Equilibrium:

C > CG, Higher

C < CG, Lower

Buoyancy and Stability: Floating Object


Slightly more complicated as the location of the center buoyancy can change:

Pressure Variation, Rigid Body Motion: Linear Motion


Governing Equation with no Shear (Rigid Body Motion):

The equation in all three directions are the following:

Consider, the case of an open container of liquid with a constant acceleration:

Estimating the pressure between two closely spaced points apart some dy, dz:
Substituting the partials
Along a line of constant pressure, dp = 0:

Inclined free
surface for ay 0

Pressure Variation, Rigid Body Motion: Linear Motion


Now consider the case where ay = 0, and az 0:
Recall, already:
Then,

So,

p
0
x

p
0
y
p
g az
z

Non-Hydrostatic

Pressure will vary linearly with depth, but variation is the combination of gravity and externally
developed acceleration.
A tank of water moving upward in an elevator will have slightly greater pressure at the bottom.
If a liquid is in free-fall az = -g, and all pressure gradients are zerosurface tension is all that keeps
the blob together.

Pressure Variation, Rigid Body Motion: Rotation


Governing Equation with no Shear (Rigid Body Motion):

Motion in a Rotating Tank:

Write terms in cylindrical coordinates for convenience:


Pressure Gradient:
Accceleration Vector:

Pressure Variation, Rigid Body Motion: Rotation


The equation in all three directions are the following:

Estimating the pressure between two closely spaced points apart some dr, dz:
Substituting the partials
Along a line of constant pressure, dp = 0:

Equation of constant pressure surfaces:

The surfaces of constant pressure are parabolic

Pressure Variation, Rigid Body Motion: Rotation


Now, integrate to obtain the Pressure Variation:

Pressure varies hydrostaticly in the vertical, and increases radialy