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APT Study Question 3.

2 Report

Strategy for application of ITS and VICS for the Asia-Pacific region
- Strategy for application ITS for typical Asian city -

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LAMII Boundary
Screenline
Cordon Site for Peak hour
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Screenline Site for Daily
Occupancy Survey for Peak

August 2002

Rapporteur : Dr Yasuhiko Kumagai, VICS Center, Japan


Associate Rapporteur : Mr Yoo-duk Jun, IITA, Republic of Korea
Associate Rapporteur : Mr Padet Praditphet, OCMLT Thailand

Acknowledgment
The authors express our deep appreciation to the supports from many people in each Asian country.
Especially, they thanks to the following public authorities in Bangkok Thailand for their valuable
information.
Office of the Commission for the Management of Land Traffic (OCMLT)
Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA)
Police Department
Department of Highway (DOH)
The Expressway and Rapid Transit (ETA)
The Department of Land Transport
The Bangkok Mass Transit Authority(BMTA)
Metropolitan rapid Transit Authority (MRTA)
The authors would like to make a grateful acknowledgement to VICS Center in Japan for his kind
supports.
They thank to Dr. Iida, professor of Kyoto University, and Dr. Akazawa, professor of Osaka
University , for their advice.
They thanks to the Ministry of Public Management, Home affairs, Post and Telecommunication,
National Police Agency and Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport in Japan.
They thanks to the ITS America and ITS Japan for their kind supports.
In addition, thanks are extended to Mr. Ghaman, Dr. Lieu and Dr.. Lin of TReL Turner research
center FHWA for giving us the opportunity of studying simulation software.
They thanks to the secretariat of APT.
Lastly, Dr. Kumagai of principal author expresses his sincere thanks to the staff of Sumitomo Electric
Ind., for their consistent supports and advice.

Dr Yasuhiko Kumagai, VICS Center, Japan


Mr Yoo-duk Jun, IITA, Republic of Korea
Mr Padet Praditphet, OCMLT Thailand

CONTENTS
List of acronyms
Foreword
1
1.1
1.2
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3
1.2.4
1.2.5
2
2.1
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4
3

Current Status and Implementation Strategy of ITS in Asian Countries


Investigation by questionnaires
Statistical data analysis
Vehicle per Road vs. Fatality rate
Injury Rate vs. Fatality rate
2 wheel vehicles vs. 4 wheel vehicles
Vehicle per Road vs. Total Suspended Particulate
ITS Infra vs. Traffic Demand
Strategy for Application of ITS in typical Asian city
-Case Study of ITS in Bangkok Thailand Procedure of Case Study
Case Study of ITS in Bangkok Thailand
1st Step : Investigation
2nd Step : Synthesis
3rd Step : Analysis
4th Step : Review and 5th Step : Selection
Conclusions

Annex
A.
A.1
A.2
A.3
B.
C.
D.
D.1
D.2
D.3
E.
E.1
E.2
F.
G
H.
I.
J.

Data in Asia
Statistical Data
Survey Questions and Responses
Statistical analysis of ITS Infra and Traffic Demand
Country-by-Country Deployment Analysis
Snap shots of country-by-country
ATIS in the world
ATIS in Japan
ATIS in US
ATIS in Europe
VICS
History
System Configuration and Data Flow
Conventional detecting methods
Probe-cars
Summary Report of the Simulation Training at TReL, FHWA
Contact List
References

List of acronyms
AHS
AMTICS
APTS
ARTS
ATC
ATIS
ATMS
AVCS
AVI
AVL
AVM
BMA
BMTA
BEC
BOT
BLS
CCTV
CORSIM
CVO
DGPS
DOH
DRGS
DRIVE
DSRC
DTA
ERTICO
ERP
ETA
ETC
FMS
FRESIM
GDP
GIS
GNP
GPS
HAR
HOV
IBRD
IRF
ITMS
ITS
ITS America

Automated (Advanced) Highway System


Advanced Mobile Traffic Information and Communication Systems
Advanced Public Transportation Systems
Advanced Rural Transportation Systems
Area Traffic Control
Advanced Traveler Information Systems
Advanced Traffic Management System
Advanced (Automatic) Vehicle Control System
Automatic (Automated) Vehicle Identification
Automatic (Automated) Vehicle Location
Automatic Vehicle Monitoring
Bangkok Metropolitan Area
Bangkok Mass Transit Authority
Benefits, Evaluation & Costs
Build, Operate and Transfer
Bus Location System
Closed Circuit Television
CORridor SIMulator
Commercial Vehicle Operations
Differential Global Positioning System
Department of Highway
Dynamic Route Guidance System
Dedicated Road Infrastructure for Vehicle safety in Europe
Dedicated Short Range Communications
Dynamic Traffic Assignment
European Road Transport telematics Implementation Coordination Organization
Electronic Road Pricing
The Expressway and Rapid Transit
Electronic Toll Collection
Fleet Management System / Freeway Management System
FREe way SIMulator: micro simulator for freeway
Gross Domestic Product
Geographic Information System
Gross National Product
Global Positioning System
Highway Advisory Radio
High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV lane)
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
International Road Federation
Integrated Transport Management System
Intelligent Transport System
Intelligent Transportation Society of America
4

ITS Japan
IVHS
LRT

NETSIM
NTCIP
OCMLT
OECF

OPAC
RACS

RDS
RHODES
RTI

RTACL
SCATS
SCOOT
TIC
TICS
TSIS
TCC
TCS
TDMC
VERTIS
VICS
VMS

Intelligent Transportation Society of Japan


Intelligent Vehicle Highway System
Light Rail Transit
NETtwork SIMulator
National Transportation Communications for ITS Protocol
Office of the Commission for the Management of Land Traffic
Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund
Optimized Policies for Adaptive Control
Road Automobile Communication Systems
Radio Data System
Real-time Hierarchical Optimized Distributed Effective System
Road Transport Informatics
Real Time Traffic Adaptive Control Logic
Sydney Coordinated Adaptive Traffic Signals
Split, Cycle and Offset Optimization Technique
Traffic Information Center
Transport Information and Control Systems
Traffic Software Integrated System
Traffic Control Center
Traffic Control System
Transport Data and Model Center Project
Vehicle Road and Traffic Intelligence Society
Vehicle Information and Communication System
Variable Message Signs

Foreword
Traffic problems such as traffic accidents, congestion and pollution are some of the most
troublesome emerging social problems in the world, resulting in needless injuries and deaths, long
term health hazards, and diminution of quality of life. In Japan, the number of fatalities is almost
constant annually in spite of several campaigns by public authorities, and traffic congestion to the
point of gridlock is a daily phenomenon in the downtown areas of large cities. To date, the main
approach to solving traffic problems has been through improvement of road infrastructure and
vehicles. The most effective method for alleviation of congestion is to construct alternative roads, but
it becomes difficult to do so because of ever rising land expenses and downtown areas limited by
their very nature. Recently Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS hereinafter) have been given attention
by traffic experts as a method to solve traffic problems. ITS is a comprehensive system using
advanced technologies, consisting of road equipment, in-vehicle equipment and communication
systems linked together. ITS is classified into six groups - ATMS, ATIS, APTS, ARTS, CVO and
AVCS. ITS, proposed by the US in 1990, has experienced rapid expansion of research and
development activities, with developed regions such as Japan, US and Europe in the forefront. ITS
has been regarded as a system for the developed countries, and from the beginning, ITS was
discussed mainly among North America, Europe, and Japan. However, looking at traffic problems
such as accidents and congestion, we recognize that developing countries have the same or worse
situations compared to the developed countries. The traffic fatality rate (number of fatalities per
number of vehicles) in a certain country in Asia is about 200 times that of Japan, and the rush hour
congestion in major cities is famous for its awful situation. The purpose of this paper is to make clear
the situation of ITS in developing countries, especially in Asia, and to recommend an approach for
introduction of ITS in a typical city in Asia which we select Bangkok Thailand.
The paper consists of two major chapter. The first chapter gives the Current Status and
Implementation Strategy of ITS in Asian Countries and second chapter discuss about Strategy for
Application of ITS in typical Asian city. At the second chapter, we select Bangkok city for case study
site. Annex related two chapters are attached.

1. Current Status and Implementation Strategy of ITS in Asian Countries.


In order to assess latest status in specific Asia countries, three methods were adopted,
questionnaires, statistical data analysis and site investigations.
1.1 Investigation by questionnaires
Questionnaires were distributed third times, in 1997, 1998 and 2000. The data sought by the
questionnaire is as follows:
1) Current ITS Deployment
ATMS, ATIS, CVO, APTS and AVCS respectively. If deployed, names of cities
2) Plans for Future Introduction of ITS
ATMS, ATIS, CVO, APTS and AVCS respectively. If planned, names of cities
3) ITS Promoting Organization (an organization of public and private transportation interests
created to advance the deployment of ITS, e.g. ITS America, ITS Japan) Current status and
future possibility
4) Influence of Economic Difficulties on ITS Deployment
Questionnaire responses gathered over the four-year period indicate that gradually ITS technologies
are being recognized by civil, traffic and communications experts. However, due to existing
economic crises several planned ITS projects have been postponed or cancelled because of low
priority
1.2 Statistical data analysis
To evaluate surface traffic conditions in Asian countries, the following elements were studied
1) Vehicle per Road vs. Fatality rate
2) Injury Rate vs. Fatality rate
3) 4 wheel vehicles vs. 2 wheel vehicles
4) Vehicle per Road vs. Total Suspended Particulate
5) ITS Infra vs. Traffic Demand
1.2.1 Vehicle per Road vs. Fatality rate
A cross-country comparison of Vehicle per Road, defined as follows:
Vehicle per Road = Number of 4 wheel vehicles divided by total km of road length
and regarded as the degree of congestion, and Fatality rate, defined as follows:
Fatality rate = Number of traffic fatalities divided by the ten thousands of 4 wheel vehicles
is shown in Fig.1-1 and Fig. 1-2.
From these figures, the following conclusions were drawn:
1) Countries were classified into three groups (A, B and C)
7

Group A: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Mongolia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Vietnam
Group B: Brunei, HK, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, CH Taipei, Thailand, (Philippines)
Group C: Japan,
Five countries, Bhutan, Lao PDR, Maldives, Myanmar and Nepal were not classified due to a lack
of published data. These countries likely belong in either Group A or Group C.
2) Most developed countries belong to Group C. All Asian countries except Japan belong to Group
A or B.
3) Each group shows specific characteristics.
Group A countries display high Fatality rates in spite of low Vehicle per Road. These countries
have basic traffic problems such as an insufficient infrastructure.
Group B countries exhibit high Vehicle per Road and a rather low Fatality rate. In these countries it
appears that the construction of road networks has not sufficiently kept up with the rapid increase in
the number of vehicles. The possibility of congestion is high.
Group C countries exhibit low Vehicle per Road and low Fatality rates due to more advanced
infrastructure and ITS systems. Some developing countries belong to this group. This comes as a
result of traffic problems being less obvious due to fewer vehicles.

300

Group A

250

Fatality Rate

200

Asia
Japan
Others

150

Enlarge at No.2
100

Group B

50

Group C
0
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

Vehicle per Road

Fig.1-1 Vehicle per Road vs. Fatality rate (No.1)

50
45

Group A
Bangladesh India Cambodia China
Indonesia Mongolia Pakistan Sri lanka
Vietnam Ecuador

40

Asia
Japan
Others

Fatality Rate

35
30

Group C
Burnei Japan Philippines
Canada Chile Mexico USA
France Greece Germany
Spain UK Australia New
zealand
Group
C

25
20
15

Group B
HK Korea Malaysia
Singapore Taiwan Thailand
Italy

10
5
0
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

Vehicle per Road

Fig.1-2 Vehicle per Road vs. Fatality rate (No.2)


1.2.2 Injury Rate vs. Fatality rate
Fig.1-3 shows the Injury Rate vs. Fatality rate. Injury Rate is defined as follows:
Injury rate = Number of injuries divided by the number of the ten thousands of vehicles.

300

250

Fatality rate

200

Asia
Others

150

100

50

0
0

200

400

600

800

1,000

1,200

1,400

1,600

1,800

Injury rate

Fig.1-3 Injury Rate vs. Fatality rate


When compared to other regions, it is apparent that many Asian countries have high fatality and
Injury Rates.
1.2.3 2 wheel vehicles vs. 4 wheel vehicles
Characteristic of Asian countries is the comparatively high ratio of 2 wheel vehicles to 4 wheel

vehicles. Fig.1-4 shows 4-wheel vehicle versus 2-wheel vehicle data.


103
25,000

2 wheel vehciles

20,000

Asia
Others

15,000

10,000

5,000

103
0
0

50,000

100,000

150,000

200,000

250,000

4 wheel vehicles

Fig.1-4 Number of 4 Wheel Vehicles vs. Number of 2 Wheel Vehicles


1.2.4 Vehicle per Road vs. Total Suspended Particulate
Fig.1-5 shows the status of air pollution in major Asian cities as well as in other areas. Vehicle per
Road in this figure is the average of whole country. The Total Suspended Particulate (mg/m3) is data
from each city. Due to overpopulation in urban areas, Vehicle per Road, especially in Asian countries,
seems to be larger than this figure indicates. Although data is limited, it can be inferred that many
Asian cities are suffering from greater air pollution problems than cities in developed countries.
Limited vehicle emissions inspection is a significant contributing cause of the problem.

450

Dehli
400

Beijing

Suspended Particlulates

350

300

Sydney Toronto
Paris Berlin
Tokyo Madrid
Oakland

Mexico city
Jakarta

250

Asia
Others

Bangkok

Manila
200

Athens

150

Guayaquil
Kuala
Lumpure

100

Seoul

Rome

50

0
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

Vehicle per road

Fig.1-5 Vehicle per Road vs. Total Suspended Particulate

10

1.2.5 ITS Infra vs. Traffic Demand


Infrastructure and supporting conditions are essential elements for the development and
deployment of ITS. Infrastructure refers to paved road networks, road appurtenances, masstransportation, telecommunication networks, high-quality inspected vehicles, traffic signals,
pedestrian roads, etc. Supporting conditions consist of a well-organized promotional organization
(similar to ITS America or ITS Japan), maintenance, enhancement and administration of the
infrastructure and an awareness of traffic rules by drivers and pedestrians. Several Asian countries
expect drivers and pedestrians alike to follow certain rules of road etiquette. These two factors,
infrastructure and supporting conditions, together referred to as ITS Infra (to avoid confusion, ITS
Infra is used instead of ITS Infrastructure) promote ITS effectively and smoothly. Traffic Demand is
identified as Fatality rate and Vehicle per Road. (similar to Congestion Rate)
Fig.1-6 depicts ITS Infra and Traffic Demand in a scatter diagram. The shift toward a higher Traffic
Demand position of the Philippines is again explained by insufficient or questionable data.
From Fig.1-6 some conclusions can be drawn:
1) The data breaks down into four groups, X, Y, Z and W. Group X exhibits high Traffic
Demand, but low ITS Infra. Group Y exhibits high Traffic Demand and slightly high ITS Infra.
Group Z exhibits high ITS Infra and slightly low Traffic Demand. Finally, Group W exhibits low
ITS Infra and low Traffic Demand. It is estimated that the five countries which could not be
evaluated due to lack of data belong either to Group W or to Group X.
2) The data suggests that Traffic Demand grows as ITS Infra progresses (economics
improve). However, Group Z exhibits lower Traffic Demand than Groups X and Y.
Considering that ITS is now mainly led by developed countries (Group Z), ITS is the next step after
improving Traffic Demand by other methods (probably by ITS Infra or some basic ITS system).
3) Comparing Fig.1-1 and Fig.1-2, Groups X, Y and Z are almost identical to Groups A, B
and C. Group W countries likely belong to Group A or Group C. With the exception of Japan, Asian
countries fall into Groups X, Y and W.
4) The order of Group W to Z is regarded as the level of ITS Demand shown in Table 1-1.
Traffic Demand and ITS Infra are a pair of wheels to motivate ITS and are defined as ITS Demand
in this report.
In the Annexes, the following related items are attached.
Annex A
Data in Asia
Annex B
Country-by-country development analysis
Annex C
Snap shots of country-by-country

11

30

Group Y
25

Traffic-Demand

Group Y
20

15

Group Z

Asia
Japan
Others

10

Group W
5

0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

ITS-Infra

Fig.1-6 ITS Infra vs. Traffic Demand

Table 1-1 Summary of Traffic Demand and ITS Infra

Group

Traffic Demand

ITS Infra

Countries

ITS Demand

W or

Bhutan, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Maldives, Myanmar

W X

Mongolia, Nepal

Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka,

1 2
2

Vietnam
XY

China, Thailand, Chili, Ecuador, Mexico, Philippines

Brunei, HK, Japan( 1970 ) Korea, Malaysia, Singapore

2
3

CH Taipei
YZ

Japan ( 1980 ), Greece

Japan, Canada, USA, France, Germany, Spain, UK,

1 : Low

Australia, New Zealand


2 : Slightly High/Low 3 : High

Estimated

12

3
4

2. Strategy for Application of ITS in typical Asian city


- Case Study of ITS in Bangkok Thailand At first chapter, the macroscopic discussions are done regarding traffic and ITS status in Asian
countries. In this chapter we will discuss how to deploy ITS in Bangkok Thailand as typical Asian
city.
2.1 Procedure of Case Study
The followings are recommended case study procedures.
1st Step :

2nd Step :

3rd Step :

4th Step :

5th Step :

1st Step

Investigation
Synthesis
Analysis
Review
Selection

: Investigation

In this stage, two main purposes are pursued, defining the current problems and selecting the
objectives for the future ITS deployment. For those purposes, road traffic status and current deployed
system in Bangkok will be studied..
2nd Step : Synthesis
In order to select the system to match the objectives explained above, applicable potential
technologies will be studied. The evaluated benefit in other same systems will be also studied.
Thereafter, recommended systems and technologies in Bangkok are discussed in this stage.
3rd Step : Analysis
Selected systems above will be evaluated in several aspects. One of the important analysis is the
gap analysis between current and selected systems. To develop the system, several issues to be
solved become clear in this stage.
Even though small scale, the field test will be recommended to be done for evaluating the benefits
of the system. In stead of filed test, simulation is alternative methods.

13

4th Step : Review


After studying several items at 3dr step, review will be done. By the judgment of this step, analysis
will be done again.
5th Step : Selection
Final selection of the system will be done in this stage after above 4 steps.

14

2.2. Case Study of ITS in Bangkok Thailand


Based on the 5th steps described at the previous section, each step is discussed as follows.
In Bangkok (hereinafter BMA : Bangkok Metropolitan Area), there are 17 traffic-related public
authorities or organizations. Of them, the followings are related in the surface transport.
Office of the Commission for the Management of Land Traffic (OCMLT)
Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (it is called BMA, but in this report BMAD is used to avoid
confusion)
Police Department
Department of Highway (DOH)
The Expressway and Rapid Transit (ETA)
The Department of Land Transport
The Bangkok Mass Transit Authority(BMTA)
Metropolitan rapid Transit Authority (MRTA)
OCMLT is responsible for proposing policy and plans to the Cabinet concerning traffic management,
approving transportation program and projects, and setting up standards and measures for the
solution of traffic problems.
BMAD established signal control system and maintains.
Police Department control daily traffic and they have their own traffic control system (TCC :Traffic
Control Center) operated mainly by CCTV.
ETA was established to provide and maintain special roadways (i.e. toll roads).
BMTA supervises Buses and MRTA supervises mass transits like Sky Train, which is elevated
monorail train, and subways.

15

2.2.1. 1st Step : Investigation


In this step, we studied the road traffic status and current deployed systems in BMA.
A. Road traffic status in BMA
From the data sources below, the data of road, traffic and vehicles in Bangkok is collected.
Data sources :
Transport Data and Model Center (TDMC) : OCMLT October 2000
Annual Report 2000 Bangkok Mass Transit Authority : BMTA
World Road Statistics 99 : International Road Federation
Road Transport Statistics 2543/2000 : Department of Land Transport
Pamphlet : Expressway and Rapid Transit Authority of Thailand (ETA)
The traffic conditions during rush hour are still terribly bad in spite of the operation of the new
expressway in BMA. The manual operation of the traffic signals by policemen a daily scene at the
busy traffic intersections due to the malfunction of traffic control system. Road restrictions, resulting
from the construction of the subway make the traffic conditions worse.
OCMLT developed the transport and traffic model under the project called UTDM (Urban
Transport and Model Deployment Project) starting 1995 and ending 1997, which was succeeded to
TDMC (Transport Data and Model Center Project) starting 1997. Under those two projects, they
evaluated the traffic status in BMA. By the report of TDMC on October 2000, it shows the survey
results of five areas in BMA which are Hua Mark Area, Pratunam Area, Krung Ratanakosin Area
Sanampap area and Silom area. During AM (6-9) and PM (16-19) peak time, it was reported that the
average speed was around 10 to 20 km/hr and the worst case was as 4.5 km/hr at the route of K
Rama V J-Jor Por Ror J-Phaanfah J-Ruan Jam J. The congestion cost in Bangkok is estimated at
Baht 40- 60 billion (US $ 1 -1.5 billion) annually.
For improving those problems, Thai government plans the several counter measures and one of
them is the new services of mass transportation called Sky Train. It started in the year of 2000 for
23.7 km long having two routes on elevated viaduct with 23 stations. Meanwhile another route of 20
km underground with 18 stations is on construction.
Table 2-1 shows the basic data of BMA. For the comparison, Japan, US and nation data are
attached. From the chart, we can imagine the traffic status in BMA which is described at the section
of Findings in the end of this chapter.

16

Table 2-1 Statistical data of BMA

Bangkok
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I

Land Area (Square Miles)


Population (Million)
Road Length (Km)
Paved Rate (%)
4 Wheel Vehicle in Use
Buses and Couches
2&3 Wheel Vehicle in Use
Injury Accidents
Fatal Number

J Vehicles per Inhabitants (1000 )


K
Vehicle per Km
L Injury per Vehicles (10000 )
M Fatal per Vehicles (10000 )
N
4 wheels per Buses

Thailand

2,382,970
146,291
1,966,126
19,870
673

198,115
60.6
64,600
97.5
6,208,981
774,707
13,821,239
53,111
11,988

0.003
0.150
0.063
0.000
0.384
0.189
0.142
0.374
0.056

262
620.5
83.3
2.8
16.3

103
108.1
85.5
19.3
8.0

2.555
5.740
0.974
0.145
2.038

612
9.1
4,076

Japan

US

145,850
3,675,031
126.2
272.6
1,147,532
6,307,584
74.3
60.5
68,805,073 204,929,920
242,243
696,609
1,269,000
3,871,237
780,399
2,222,280
9,640
41,967
552
60.2
113.4
1.4
284.0

769
32.6
108.4
2.0
294.2

J = E/B, K = (E+F)/C, L = H/E, M = I/E, N = E/F

B. Current road traffic information systems in BMA


In order to study the current and future traffic status and related systems, following public sectors
and organizations are studied during March 13 to 18, 2002.
OCMLT, BMAD, Police Department, DOH, ETA, The Department of Land Transport, BMTA,
MRTA
B-1. Advanced Traffic Management System (ATMS) in BMA
B-1-1. Arterial management system in BMA
There are two systems in BMA which are called ATC(Area Traffic Control) and TCC (Traffic
Control Center). ATC is owned and operated by BMAD and TCC owned by BMAD but operated
by Police Department. Each System is as follows.
1) ATC :
An ATC system has planned to implement in 3 steps. The first step has already been implemented
and covers 143 intersections and 3 pedestrian crossings in the Bangkok City based on SCOOT
system. It covers 31 Km2 and includes 5 CCTV. The system is being expanded to control 226
intersections covering 150 Km2. The final system will cover 1580 Km2 of the city. But at present,
actual traffic is controlled by policemen manually between 6am to 5pm, and 6pm to 10pm is
controlled by fixed signal time and between 10pm and 6am it is center control by the system.

17

2) TCC :
The system consists of CCTV and VMS. At present 60 CCTV are equipped at heavy traffic
locations and planned to equip at 350 locations in the near future. At the center, operators watch the
monitor TV and give the instructions by walkie-talkies to the policemen at the intersections to
smooth the traffic flow.
B-1-2. Freeway management system (FMS) in BMA
As described above, ETA constructed the expressways in BMA and already started services for five
routes which has 171 km length. The FMS is operated by the Bangkok Expressway public Company
(BECL). The main function is to supply real time road traffic information by variable message signs.
C. Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) in BMA
In addition to the VMS by TCC shown above, there are two other traveler information systems in
BMA, which are web service by OCMLT and FM radio broadcasting.
FM broadcast is widely used for drivers because of timely information collected by voluntary
listeners using telephones. But those information is only voice through FM radio.
1) TIC (Traffic Information Center ) by OCMLT:
Using information collected by ATC and TCC, TIC provides the road traffic information through
web page (http://mapserver.ocmlt.go.th). Traffic jam and road conditions such as accidents, road
constructions and other unusual conditions are seen at the web. CCTV pictures also can be seen.
The following Table 2-2 and 2-3 show the summary of current ITS status and road traffic
information systems in BMA. The pictures of each system are also attached.

Table 2-2 Current ITS status in BMA

Current Status
Deplyoment
Arterial Management System
Freeway Management System
Transit Management System
Incident Management System
Electric Toll Collection
Advacced Traveler Information System
Infromation Management

Yes, but partially


Yes, but partially
No
No
Yes, but partially
Yes, but partially
Yes, but partially

18

Operation
No good
Yes
No
No
No good
Yes
Yes

Table 2-3 Current road traffic information in BMA

Collection
Method

Occupancy
Volume
Car classify
Jam
Accident
Constraction
Weather
Others

Supply & control


Method

ATC by BMA

TC by Police

Loop coil
369 intersections

CCTV
60 350

Walkie-talkie
by 4000 police

FM 100

ATC +TC

Drivers

FMS by ETA

Loop coil

CCTV

Emergeny call

Signal

OCMLT

VMS
30 80

19

Web

Broadcast

VMS

Fig. 2-1 Traffic congestion in BMA

Fig. 2-2 3 wheel vehicle

Fig. 2-3 Sky train and congestion

20

Fig. 2-4 ATC by BMAD

Fig. 2-5 TCC by Police

Fig. 2-6 TIC by OCMLT

21

C. Findings
We can draw the following findings from the investigation results described above.
1) Traffic congestion in BMA is terribly bad comparing to the other regions. As the Table 2-1 shows,
Fatal number per vehicles is less than nation average, however, Vehicle per Km, defined as the
number of 4 wheel vehicles divided by total road length, is much higher than nation average and
other countries like US and Japan. It implies high possibility of congestion occurrence and, in fact,
the traffic flow at peak time in BMA is terribly slow.
2) The countermeasures to improve it is imminent social issue in BMA. The most effective method
is likely to improve or newly equip the infrastructure of road networks or introduce mass
transportation such as subway or sky train. However, those infrastructure need lots of time and
money. Moreover, dead end road called Soi prevents from dispersing traffic flow and causes
congestion.
3) ITS is expected to be alternative method to solve traffic congestion by many people. ITS
movement in BMA is led by OCMLT and Academia (Chulalongkorn University). In the near future,
it is planned to establish ITS association like ITS America and ITS Japan. It is obvious that ITS is
paid attention by many young engineers in BMA recently.
4) In the short term, the improvement of current Advanced Traffic Control System (ATC, TCC and
EMS) is very important issue. And the transit management system for Buses like AVL(Automatic
Vehicle Location) is also recommended to develop in mid term. However, Advanced Traveler
Information System may be suitable in BMA for dispersing traffic demand by letting drivers know
current and future traffic situation and select appropriate route and departure time. Moreover, it is
expected to release drivers mental stresses and able to reduce traffic accidents.
5) The real time road traffic information is the basis of the ITS implementation. However, as the
current available information is very poor, the method to collect them must be urgent subject in
BMA.
6) In the real deployment, budget constraint is one of the key issue. Therefore, more efficient,
realistic and low cost method is strongly recommended.
In this report, hereinafter, ATIS and, for ATIS deployment, the technologies for real time
information collection are discussed.

22

2.2.2. 2nd Step : Synthesis


In order to select the system to match the discussions at the previous section, applicable potential
systems and technologies are studied and the recommended system are described.
A. Applicable systems and technologies
A-1. ATIS in the world
To develop the ATIS, the current status of Japan, US and Europe are introduced at Annex D.
A-2. Information collecting technologies
Information collecting technologies are also studied as follows.
1) Conventional methods
In Annex F it shows the conventional detectors which explains strength and weakness of each
method. This information is from Sensors, Interoperability, and Data exchange by ITS America.
2) Probe-cars
In addition to the above technologies, probe-car technology will be available. For ATIS, the
important issue is how to collect the accurate real-time traffic information. For VICS in Japan, public
authorities had traffic information through their traffic control systems. The best method to collect
information may be through detectors like loop-coil or video image sensors. But to implement
sensors in each intersection or highway is expensive and would take lots of time. Vehicles with
cellular phones could be used as probes. This method locates the moving vehicles by cellular radio
wave and measures the travel time. The US has been experimenting with this approach recently.
By probe-cars, the following data are collected.
Vehicle trajectories, Link speeds and space mean speeds, Travel times, Call volumes,
Small scale O-D patterns
In Annex I, three different technologies are introduced.
3) Remote Traffic Microwave Sensor (RTMS)
The remote microwave sensor is widely used in
US. It is a tiny radar operating in the microwave
band and mounted on road side poles and is easy
and safe to install and remove without traffic
disruption or lane closures. With solar battery and
wireless unit it is good for remote sensing usage.
More detail information can see at www.rtms-byeis.com
Fig. 2-7 RTTM (from the pamphlet by EIS)

23

B. What they have learned and found


The following are lessons learned and findings from VICS and US system deployment.
In general, to develop the ITS, following lessons are useful for late-comers.
1) Public, Academia & Private Partnership is essential
Most ITS projects are expected to have social impacts to alleviate traffic problems such as
congestion and accidents. Needless to say, traffic problems are deeply related to government policies,
road construction schemes, and traffic-related system installation plans. ITS needs the
communications media to link vehicles with roadside infrastructure. This means that the radio
wave policy of the public authority is closely related to ITS. On the other hand, in-vehicle units are
developed and supplied by private companies based on their marketing strategies. Organized
committees or working groups are chaired by academic people to study advanced technologies
objectively. Thus, for the smooth realization of ITS, cooperative activities among public, academia
and private sectors are essential.
2) Factors for breaking the Chicken-and-Egg Dilemma are essential
Generally speaking, ITS is the comprehensive system consisting of equipment on the roadside, the
vehicles and the communication link. But at the first stage, usually there exists the dilemma called
Chicken-and-Egg Effect, meaning that drivers will not buy in-vehicle units unless the
infrastructure is completed, but the infrastructure will not be installed in advance unless the users
exist. As for VICS, the popularization of navigation systems and repletion of traffic information by
the nationwide traffic control systems were the breaking factors.
3) Competition and cooperation are essential
In the developing stage, different technical possibilities were pursued. Concerning the
communication link for VICS, several methods were developed under the different projects such as
RACS and AMTICS. But at the deployment stage, unification of data formats, transmission
protocols and others were discussed through the cooperation of public and private sectors. Now,
VICS units are sold by more than twenty companies, which develop new products continuously for
the market under the VICS-unified specifications.
4) Timely and continuous activities are essential
As explained above, VICS experienced a lot of trial and error. Sometimes VICS managers wasted
time without making any progress. But they also experienced timely activities, such as
demonstrations and seminars. To start an unfamiliar system for the first time, outreach activity is
essential to get consensus from many fields. A grand seminar held in 1993 and a VICS
demonstration in conjunction with ITS World congress in 1995 were very timely events. To do so,
secretary-level leaders who propose and promote these activities are essential. Generally speaking,
after proving practical usage or business potential, many people will begin to participate actively, but
the most important issue is continuous activity even if many people take no notice of it. The VICS
establishment owed those small number people with a continuous and strong conviction.

24

5) Sustainability is essential, and step by step approach is important


Advanced technology does not always work best, and an important issue is how to maintain and
upgrade the system. Advanced systems need to be operated by skilled people, and repair or upgrade
is always essential. ITS needs the understanding of ordinary users such as drivers or pedestrians. A
system that works well for a developed country may not work so well for a developing one. So, a
step by step approach to match each condition is important. It is important to aim high but real
deployment must be done realistically.
Recently, US studied business model of ATIS and issues the report ATIS US Business Models
Review The followings are the findings by the review. The reviews are done by the literature and
interviews.
6) Public funding or facilities, especially with regard to data collection, is essential to a successful
ATIS implementation. Any initiative that increases the availability of quality data should be a
national priority.
7) The public sector may have the opportunity to sell its own wares, as long as data being sold is of
sufficient quality and is on a level that the private sector cannot gather similar data on their own.
However, the value of such data is likely to be relatively low at present and foreseeable future.
8) Revenue generation from ATIS services, both wholesale and to the individual, has not proven
successfully that this revenue can wholly support an ATIS service. There may be new models and
new ventures determined to prove this model viable, but they are unproven at this time.
Technically, those two issues are stressed in the report.
9) The data gap exists and is not being filled rapidly. The lack of quality data is a principal issue in
the generation of sustainable, quality ATIS services.
10) A greater emphasis on travel time data collection is needed. Travel time reliability is a key
benefit of ATIS to a user. However, in most cases information provided thorough ATIS is anecdotal
in nature, identifying what has happened and where it is, but not providing a quantitative assessment
of the impact. Without being able to calculate the impact on travel time of an incident or event, the
traveler is unable to determine the best course of action.
C. Benefits of ATIS
In US, benefits evaluation work are actively done by DOT for last several years. The title of the
latest report is Intelligent Transportation Systems Benefits: 2001 Update which we can see at the
web site www.itsdoc.fhwa.dot.gov. the followings are the benefit of information providing
introduced by the report.
By the web site of VICS Center(www.vics.or.jp), the benefit of VICS is introduced as follows.
1) To reduce travel time by avoiding congestion road knowing real time information while driving
25

2) To relief the mental stress by knowing the reason of congestion


3) To avoid stray driving by knowing parking position and status
D. Recommended systems and technologies
In general, ATIS is expected in BMA to disperse traffic demand by letting drivers know current and
future traffic situation and select appropriate route and departure time. There exist two taxonomy of
traveler information as Fig. 2-8 shows.
Traveler Information

Pre-trip Information
Enroute Information

Fig. 2-8 Taxonomy of Traveler Information


The pre-trip information is useful for determining the departure time and route and provided
through the services by web-base already done by OCMLT or kiosks located at the station terminals
and the enroute information is useful to change the appropriate route during driving and provided
through the services by road side systems such as VMS or Highway Advisory Radio and the VICS
in Japan.
But, whatever the services are, it is required to have more precise and timely information and it is the
key issue for ATIS implementation.
Considering previous chapter and above discussions, following recommendations are drawn.
1) In BMA, it is strongly recommended to deploy enroute information services. In near term, it is
effective to equip VMS at more locations and in mid term to introduce in-vehicle services like VICS
in Japan
2) But, it is required to improve the quality and quantity of information in order to give the
appropriate ATIS services.
3) By the constraint of cost for the system, it is necessary to devise to use the legacy system as much
as possible.

26

2-2-3. 3rd Step : Analysis


In this step, selected systems discussed at previous sector are analyzed in several aspects. One of the
important analysis is the gap analysis between current and selected systems. To develop the system,
several issues to be solved become clear in this stage.
In order to devise to deploy more realistic methodology for ATIS in BMA, following two issues
must be considered.
Introduce VICS concept with simplified system at the beginning
Cost effective method for information collection
A. Introduce VICS concept with simplified system at the beginning
One of the lessons learned from VICS development is the factors for breaking the Chicken-andEgg Dilemma. As for VICS, the popularization of navigation systems and repletion of traffic
information by the nationwide traffic control systems were the breaking factors. For navigation
systems in BMA, it is estimated to equip with deluxe cars at present and not expect to use widely.
For more availability, more cheap and simplified system must be considered. One of the solution is
the introduction of simple graphic display. In VICS, there are three displays available, which are map
display, text display and simple graphic display(see Annex E). For map display, it need navigation
system and as for text display it will not expect to have satisfactory services. But, simple graphic
display can provide satisfactory services to some extent.
Therefore, following two step services are recommended.
1st step : Simple graphic and Text services
2nd step : Map display service with the increasing navigation systems
The other important factor to be considered is the wireless communication link between vehicle and
information center. VICS uses three different media, Infrared beacon, Radio beacon and FM multiple
broadcast. Considering cost, it is not realistic at the beginning to deploy beacon method.
The most feasible method at present is use cellular. But FM and beacon method has their advantages
compare to cellular. So, following two step are recommended for communication method.
1st step : Use cellular as communication tool between in-vehicle unit to information center
2nd step : Install FM multiple or/and beacon method for proprietary communication method
B. Cost effective method for information collection
As explained above, key issue for successful ATIS service is how to collect more precise and timely
information. In Japan, nation wide traffic control system by public sectors can give sufficient
information. But in BMA, it is not sufficient. As US report ATIS US Business Models Review
says, public funding or facilities, especially with regard to data collection, is essential to a successful
ATIS implementation. In BMA, TCC by police equip the 60 CCTV already at heavy traffic locations
and planned to equip at 350 locations in the near future. One of the suggested method to collect real
27

time information is to use CCTV as Video sensors. Usually, CCTV is operated manually to see exact
traffic situation by operators. To use CCTV as detector, additional unit must be attached which
allows CCTV to work as sensors. And this unit need additional technical development to work
CCTV as operators monitoring and sensor as well. It means that CCTV is used for two purposes
which are monitoring by operators and sensors for ATIS. By doing so, it reduce cost compare to
equip new sensors from the beginning. This approach is very important and essential under the cost
constraint. It is the multi use method which share the cost.
In addition to multi use CCTV, additional sensors are required to complement in order to get
sufficient information. It is recommended that sensor must be cheap and maintenance free. One of
the solution is RTMS.
Therefore , following method is recommended for cost effective method of information collection
Use CCTV as multi purposes with monitoring and sensors
Complementary sensors with cheap and maintenance free are necessary
Even if small scale, the field test will be recommended to be done for evaluating the benefits of
the system. In stead of filed test, simulation is alternative methods.
C. Simulation Software
There exist many simulation software in the world. In US, TReL at Turner Research center of
FHWA is actively developing simulation software technologies for many applications. One of them
is the benefit evaluation for information providing to the vehicle. Using facility of TReL we can have
the simulator training as Annex H shows.
In order to evaluate the benefit of ATIS, it is strongly recommended to use simulation software like
DynaSmart at TReL at FHWA in US in stead of field test
2-2-4. 4th Step : Review and 5th step : Selection
After studying several items at 3dr step, review will be at 4th step done. By the judgment of this
step, analysis will be done again. Final selection of the system will be done at last step.
Those two steps will be done in the future.

28

3. Conclusions
1) Case study of introducing ITS in BMA is done from 1st step to 3rd step out of five study
procedures. The 1st step is the investigation step and 2nd step is synthesis step and 3rd step is
analysis step.
2) At 1st step, we can define the current traffic problems by studying traffic data and select the area
of ITS to match the problems after studying current deployed systems. In BMA, it is clear that the
traffic congestion is the imminent issue and ATIS is one of the solutions. To implement ATIS, we
found that the available data is not sufficient and data collection is also urgent subject.
3) At 2nd step, we studied applicable technologies of ATIS and information collection in the world.
We also studied lessons learned and benefits evaluations of ATIS by other projects. Judging from
those data and information, we can draw the recommended system and approaches. It is strongly
recommended to deploy enroute information services. In near term, it is effective to equip VMS at
more locations and in mid term to introduce in-vehicle services like VICS in Japan
4) At 3rd step, the gap analysis between current and selected system is done and we can find clearly
what problems we have and what we should do now and future. For enroute service, it is advised to
introduce VICS concept with simplified system and for information collection, it must be cost
effective method.
5) For simplified system, simple graphic and text services are recommended at the beginning
followed by map display system according to the increase of navigation systems. Regarding
communication link between in-vehicle unit and information center, two step approach is proposed,
which are cellular for the 1st step and FM and beacon are for 2nd step.
6) For the cost effective method for information collection, it is recommended to use CCTV as multi
purposes with monitoring and sensors.
7) For evaluating selected system, field test is the best method and simulation software is alternative
method. In US, TReL at Turner research center of FHWA is actively developing simulation software
and for information providing DynaSmart is adequate tool.

29

Annex
A. Data in Asia
A.1 Statistical Data
Table A.1-1 Statistics of Asian countries (No.1)

Countries
&
Regions
Bangladesh
Bhutan
Brunei
Cambodia
China
HK
India
Indonesia
Korea
Lao PDR
Malaysia
Maldives
Mongolia
Myanmar
Nepal
Pakistan
Philippine
Singapore
Sri Lanlka
CH Taipei
Thailand
Vietnam
Japan (1970)
Japan (1980)
Japan (Now)

Population
(M)
*

Land
( mile2 )
*

per capita
GDP ($)
*

127.11
1.95
0.32
11.63
1246.87
6.40
1000.85
216.11
46.88
5.41
21.38
0.30
2.62
48.08
24.30
138.12
79.35
3.53
19.14
22.11
60.61
77.31
103.70
117.10
126.18

56,977
18,150
2,226
70,238
3,696,100
415
1,222,243
741,025
38,375
91,429
127,584
115
604,800
261,228
56,827
307,374
115,860
250
25,332
13,969
198,115
127,816
145,850
145,850
145,850

1,330
730
18,000
715
3,460
27,500
1,600
4,600
13,700
1,150
11,100
1,800
2,200
1,190
1,370
2,600
3,200
24,600
3,800
14,200
8,800
1,700
1956
8579
24,500

Canada
Chile
Ecuador
Mexico
US

31.01
14.97
12.56
100.29
272.64

3,849,674
292,135
105,037
756,066
3,675,031

France
Germany
Greece
Italy
Spain
UK

58.98
82.09
10.71
56.76
39.17
59.11

Australia
New Zealand

18.78
3.66

Source

*
**
***
****

per capita
GNP ($)
**

38,160

38
42
88
74
82
92
52
84
98
57
84
93
83
83
28
38
95
91
90
94
94
94
100
100
100

21,700
11,600
4,400
7,700
30,200

19,640
4,820
1,200
3,700
29,080

97
95
90
90
96

210,026
137,830
50,949
116,341
195,364
94,251

22,700
20,800
13,000
21,500
16,400
21,200

26,300
28,280
11,640
20,170
14,490
20,870

99
100
95
97
97
100

2,966,200
104,454

21,400
17,700

20,650
15,830

100
100

THE WORLD ALMANAC 2000


1999 World Development Indicators by The World Bank
World Road Statistics 1998,1999 IRF
Others ( Country reports, etc. )

30

360

Literacy
(%)
*

300
860
25,200
370
1,110
10,550
400
4,530
390
220
500
1,200
32,810
800
2,740
310

Table A.1-2 Statistics of Asian countries (No.2)

Countries
&
Regions
Bangladeshi
Bhutan
Brunei
Cambodia
China
HK
India
Indonesia
Korea
Lao PDR
Malaysia
Maldives
Mongolia
Myanmar
Nepal
Pakistan
Philippine
Singapore
Sri Lanlka
CH Taipei
Thailand
Vietnam
Japan 1970
Japan 1980
Japan (Now)

4-W Vehicles
(Th)
***

2-W Vehicles
(Th)
***

Buses and
Coaches
***

124.18
10.38
106.97
65.63
12191.00
486.64
6423.00
4364.00
10413.43
20.58
3951.49
2.34
70.09
69.00

145.26
5.96
0.79
456.80
9760.00
30.17
23111.00
11735.71
2552.67
231.00
4329.00
5.64
26.12

1,313
868
188,445
17,477
449,000
611,402
719,127
440
43,444
200
3,982

956.79
2209.48
522.14
257.00
4954.06
6234.00
387.00
19490.14
40170.00
68805.07

1710.77
952.04
131.59
513.00
10237.47
10239.00
4495.25
257.00
851.00
1269.00

Canada
Chile
Ecuador
Mexico
US

16860.99
1590.23
517.53
13033.00
204929.92

France
Germany
Greece
Italy
Spain
UK
Australia
New Zealand
Source

*
**
***
****

29,310

Road Length
( Km )
***

Paved Rate
(%)
***

Suspneded
particles(mg/m3)
**

204022
3285
1712
35769
1278474
1760
3319644
342700
84968
22321
94500

12.3
60.7
75
7.5
**** 21.76
100
45.7
46.3
74
13.8
75.1

74,411
30,070
11,008
13,160
21,602
1,721,000
165,000
220,000
229,000
242,243

49250
28200
7700
229934
161313
3010
99200
20189
64600
93300
1015000
1113000
1147532

3.4
12.2
41.5
58
0.2
97.3
44
89.3
97.5
25.1
15.0
45.9
74.3

310.79
32.18
20.87
270.00
3871.24

64,155
34,734
8,688
139,000
696,609

901902
79800
43197
252000
6307584

35.3
13.8
18.9
37.4
60.5

31039.00
43350.97
3279.34
33315.50
18553.38
24491.00

2990.00
2716.78
1927.43
2530.75
1326.33
626.00

82,000
84,019
25,096
75,500
50,035
78,000

892900
656074
117000
307682
346858
369887

100
99.1
91.8
100
99
100

14.0
50.0
178.0
73.0
42.0

11008.00
2062.00

301.00
47.00

52,470
9,700

913000
92200

38.7
58.1

54.0
26.0

THE WORLD ALMANAC 2000


1999 World Development Indicators by The World Bank
World Road Statistics 1998,1999 IRF
Others ( Country reports, etc. )

31

377.0
415.0
271.0
84.0
85.0

200.0

223.0

49.0
36.0
127.0
279.0

Table A.1-3 Statistics of Asian countries (No.3)

Countries
&
Regions
Bangladeshi
Bhutan
Brunei
Cambodia
China
HK
India
Indonesia
Korea
Lao PDR
Malaysia
Maldives
Mongolia
Myanmar
Nepal
Pakistan
Philippine
Singapore
Sri Lanlka
CH Taipei
Thailand
Vietnam
Japan 1970
Japan 1980
Japan (Now)

Injury Accidents Fatal Number


Vehicle
Vehicles
Fatal per
Injury per
Bus/4 wheel
per annum
per annum per 1000 inh. per Km 10000 vehicles 10000 vehicles
***
***
5453
312
363
2009
304217
14776
328149
17101
246452

3162
65
172
**** 73655
241
59927
**** 12308
11603

1.0
5.5
356.6
6.0
9.8
76.0
6.8
20.8
226.4
4.0
171.7
7.8
29.4
1.5

1.3
5.0
62.9
14.6
17.2
293.6
8.9
47.0
152.6
11.3
87.6

254.6

44.1

143.2
72.6
172.1

27.2
2.9
4.3
74.6
5.5
24.3
140.3
8.6
2.2
1.4

61.7
11.8
133.0
1689.4
6.4
164.6
397.3
368.4
118.7
113.4

77.8
13.6
21.1
51.2
4.4
276.1
426.4
11.3
5.7
3.5

19.0
20.3
12.5
52.8
33.1

1.8
11.5
27.5
4.0
2.0

94.3
299.3
404.0
17.7
108.4

3.8
21.8
16.8
10.7
3.4

530.0
521.8
513.1
574.4
467.3
411.1

38.1
70.2
44.5
116.5
57.3
67.9

2.6
2.0
6.3
1.9
3.0
1.5

40.3
87.8
72.0
55.1
46.4
98.0

2.6
1.9
7.7
2.3
2.7
3.2

605.1
567.3

12.4
22.9

1.6
2.8

17.1
53.3

4.8
4.7

6302

5905
2618
6943
43417
3162
102610
15376
718080
476677
780399

2607
645
225
1916
2735
15176
5430
16765
8760
**** 9640

7.3
30.9
168.2
14.0
228.5
103.0
5.1
185.4
343.2
552.0

2.0
2.4
0.0
11.6
19.6
217.2
7.8
752.5
255.0
52.3
19.5
36.9
61.1

Canada
Chile
Ecuador
Mexico
US

158973
47602
20910
23019
2222280

3082
1831
1421
5252
41967

584.5
109.7
61.3
143.2
769.0

France
Germany
Greece
Italy
Spain
UK

125200
380835
23623
183415
86067
240046

7989
8549
2068
6198
5604
3599

18790
11000

1742
580

Australia
New Zealand
Source

309

236.0
12.3
13.2
15.5
35.9
69.9
140.1
69.1
21.4
11.0
85.5
56.8

56574
17
1206

* THE WORLD ALMANAC 2000


** 1999 World Development Indicators by The World Bank
*** World Road Statistics 1998,1999 IRF
****Others ( Country reports, etc. )

32

6.1
26.2
60.4
5.0
93.3
28.2
11.1

439.1
300.5
33.9
306.1
249.5
303.6
510.9
39.2
236.7

15.9

A.2 Survey Questions and Responses


Questionnaires were distributed to the twenty-four Asian countries third times, in 1997, 1998 and
2000 and to the four Latin America in 2000.
The countries responded are described in Table A.2-1 and the example of Indonesia is shown in
Fig.A.2-1
Table A.2-1 List of responded countries
1997
1998
2000

1997
1998
2000

Bangladesh

Indonesia

Japan

HKSAR

Korea

Laos

Malaysia

Maldives

Mongolia

Myanmar

Singapore

Sri Lanka

Vietnam

Brazil

Mexico

Fig.A.2-1 The example of


responses from Asia

33

The summary of responses are introduced in Table A.2-2

Table A.2-2 Summary of responses in Asian countries


Bangladesh
Q 1.1 Possibility of ATMS

Name of Cities

Indonesia

Japan

HKSAR

Jakarta

Already introduce

Korea

Laos

Seoul Pusan

Malaysia

Maldives

Mongolia

Myanmar Singapore Sri Lanka Vietnam


N

in major cities

JohorBahar

Future Possibility
Q 1.2 Possibility of ATIS

Kuala Lumpur

Y
N

Name of Cities

Jakarta Surabaya

Seoul Pusan

Future Possibility
Q 1.3 Possibility of CVO

Name of Cities

Already introduce

Seoul Pusan

in major cities
Future Possibility
Q 1.4 Possibility of AVCS

Name of Cities

JohorBahar

not planning yet


N

Y
Kuala Lumpur

Seoul

Kuala Lumpur

Now discuss

Seoul

Y
Kuala Lumpur
JohorBahar

Future Possibility
Q 1.5 Possibility of APTS

Name of Cities

Future Possibility
Q 2. ITS Association

Seoul Pusan

Y
Kuala Lumpur

introduced

JohorBahar

in major cities

Penang

Investigate

VERTIS

Future possibility

Name of Cities

Not decided yet

Name of Association

Q 3. Interesrt in ATIS

Y
Buse are

N
N

N
Y

Jakarta Bandung Already introduced


Surabayaa

in major cties and

JohorBahar

expressways
Q 4. VICS Usefulness

Q 5 Interest in VICS

Penang
Y

No reason
Q 6 FM in use

Future possibility
No reason

Use in future

Q 7 Beacon in use
Radio Beacon
Optical Beacon
Future possibility

almost not

34

Use in future

A.3 Statistical analysis of ITS Infra and Traffic Demand


1) RegressionAnalysis of ITS Infra
To evaluate ITS Infra in each country, the following items are considered.
Paved roads rate (%),Telephones ( 1 set for peoples ), TV sets ( 1 set for peoples ),
Vehicle Number per inhabitants,Bus in Use/Passenger cars in Use, Literacy ( % ), GDP.
To select those items, regression analysis was done by considering each item as independent
variables and Fatality rate as dependent variable, and weighting factors of each item were obtained
by the ratio of each correlation coefficient. Therefore, we must be careful that the weighting factors
of each items do not mean the grade of necessary conditions of ITS development or deployment, but
each item has the correlation with ITS because one of the important objectives of ITS is related with
traffic fatality.
Among them, select the items with correlation coefficient higher than 0.3440 by goodness of fit test.
i.e.
H 0 : = 0 H 1 : 1
R : | r| r ( , ) = n- 2 = 33 2 = 31, = 0.05
then r = 0.3440
Table A3-1 shows the summary of correlation coefficient and weighting factors.
Table A.3-1 Correlation coefficient and weighting factors of ITS Infra

Cor. Coe.
RSQ
Weighting F.

per capita
GDP ($)
-0.526
0.28
0.14

Literacy
(%)
-0.653
0.43
0.21

Paved Rate Vehicle


Bus/4 wheel Telephone
(%)
per 1000 inh.
per 1000
-0.403
-0.491
0.683
-0.495
0.16
0.24
0.47
0.24
0.08
0.12
0.23
0.12

2) Evaluation of ITS Infra and Traffic Demand


Using weighting factors of ITS Infra, evaluation is done by following formula.
I k = w i OI i

k = 1, 33 i = 1, 6

I k is evaluated value of ITS Infra for country k


k is the number of countries evaluated
w is the weighting factors of each elements of ITS Infra shown in Table A.3-1
i is number of elements of ITS Infra

35

TV set
per 1000
-0.510
0.26
0.13

OI is order points of each country


The order points are given as follows. Take "per capita GDP" for example, USA is the best and
Cambodia is the worst among 33 comparing countries.So, with respect to the item of per capita
GDP, the order point 33is given to USA and the order point 1 to Cambodia. The same procedure
is applied to other five items. The sum of these order points considering weighting factors of ITS
Infra is regarded as the relative ITS Infra status.
On the other hand, Traffic Demand is also defined as the sum of order points of Fatality rate and
Vehicle per Road at the same weighting factors.
T k = 0.5 OF k + 0.5 OV k

k = 1, 33

T k is evaluated value of Traffic Demand in country k


k is the number of countries evaluated
OF k is order points of Fatality rate in country k
OV k is order points of Vehicle per Road in country k
Using weighting factors, status of ITS Infra is obtained as Table A.3-2 and A.3-3.

36

Table A.3-2 Traffic Demand & ITS Infra (No.1)

Vehicle Fatal per

Traffic

per Km 10000 veh. Demand


Weight

0.5

0.5

Bangladesh

33

Burnei

25

Cambodia

China
HK
India
Indonesia
Korea

Paved Rt Veh. Per


(%)

Bus/

per capita Literacy Telephone TV set

1000 inh. 4 wheel GDP ($) ( % )

per 1000

per 1000

ITS
Infra

0.08

0.12

0.23

0.14

0.21

0.12

0.13

17

17

21

22

22

17

22

18

19

17

24

14

16

29

19

14

10

16

10

33

15

24

33

12

10

32

14

31

20

19

31

18

14

10

27

19

16

10

30

20

25

20

19

19

25

20

21

18

Malaysia

21

22

22

23

17

19

18

17

13

16

Mongolia

28

15

Pakistan

25

16

17

Philippine

11

11

11

10

15

21

27

15

Singapore

31

14

23

26

16

12

30

13

24

23

19

Sri Lanlka

30

18

13

11

12

CH Taipei

32

16

24

24

20

25

20

17

22

22

22

Thailand

28

23

26

27

13

13

17

13

10

12

Vietnam

32

19

17

Japan 1970

14

19

17

18

18

33

11

11

17

Japan 1980

20

14

15

21

22

16

33

12

12

21

Japan now

24

13

21

28

27

28

33

30

32

29

Canada

13

10

31

26

31

24

33

15

25

Chile

15

21

18

14

11

15

21

16

18

15

Ecuador

12

26

19

11

13

12

12

14

12

Mexico

22

13

18

11

15

20

14

12

15

14

15

US

18

13

19

33

28

33

21

30

33

28

France

19

14

33

27

31

25

26

32

31

29

Germany

26

16

29

26

33

23

33

30

30

30

Greece

17

18

18

25

25

21

17

21

30

17

22

Italy

29

17

33

30

32

26

24

22

25

28

Spain

23

12

18

28

24

30

21

24

19

24

25

UK

27

15

33

23

29

27

33

30

26

29

Australia

12

32

23

29

33

30

29

28

New Zealand

16

13

18

29

24

24

33

24

28

27

10

37

Table A.3-3 Traffic Demand & ITS Infra (No.2)

Bangladesh
Burnei
Cambodia
China
HK
India
Indonesia
Korea
Malaysia
Mongolia
Pakistan
Philippine
Singapore
Sri Lanlka
Taiwan
Thailand
Vietnam
Japan 1970
Japan 1980
Japan 1997
Canada
Chile
Ecuador
Mexico
US
France
Germany
Greece
Italy
Spain
UK
Australia
New Zealand

Traffic-Demand
17
21
14
19
24
18
19
25
22
15
16
11
23
18
24
26
19
17
14
13
9
18
19
18
13
14
16
18
17
18
15
6
13

38

ITS-Infra
2
17
6
10
19
5
8
18
16
7
5
15
19
9
22
12
6
17
21
29
25
15
12
15
28
29
30
22
28
25
29
28
27

B. Country-by-Country Deployment Analysis


As a result of on-site visits and interactions with ITS professionals, data from the following countries
and regions is presented in detail:
Bangladesh, Cambodia, China (and HKSAR), India, Indonesia, Korea, Laos, Malaysia,
Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Singapore, CH Taipei, Thailand, Vietnam
The followings are the visiting date for each country and regions. Some descriptions in the following
report are out of date due to old study by author.
1997-8
1999
2000
2001
2002

Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, Thailand


Bangladesh, China, HKSAR, CH Taipei, Korea, India, Indonesia, Vietnam
Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand
Laos, Nepal
Thailand

The progress of ITS in Japan has been detailed in two earlier publications; A Comparison of IVHS
Progress in the United States, Japan & Europe Through 1993 and A Comparison of Intelligent
Transportation Systems, published by IVHS America and ITS America respectively.
Bangladesh (Peoples Republic of Bangladesh)
1) Profile
Bangladesh is located in South Asia, on the north bend of the Bay of Bengal. It is surrounded by
India to the west, north and east. Myanmar borders the country to the southeast. The population of
127 million is 88% Muslim and 11% Hindu. Capital is Dhaka (8.5 million).
Website : www.virtualbangladseh.com
2) Summary
Traffic conditions in Dhaka are very bad. In general the status of the infrastructure is very poor, and
supporting conditions are insufficient . Due to the lack of mass transit such as a subway system,
people use buses, taxies, baby taxies (3-wheel), motorcycles, rickshaws and bicycles. These
vehicles are operated without regard for traffic lanes. In many places, no sidewalks exist, forcing
pedestrians to share the road with vehicles. The use of horns to alert pedestrians and slower moving
vehicles creates a noisy atmosphere. At busy intersections vehicles move within inches of each other.
Traffic signals are few and do not work during rush hours, instead being replaced by the police. At
these major intersections, the police control the flow of traffic by signaling with red and green flags
to other officers stationed more remotely in all directions. In turn, these remote policemen control
the traffic flow manually. Thus, Bangladesh is not currently an example of ITS at work. In spite
of the low number of vehicles, the Fatality Rate is very high by comparison to those of developed
39

countries. For future ITS deployment, basics such as traffic signals and driver and pedestrian
education are urgently needed.
At the traffic management seminar held in February, 1999 in Dhaka, transportation experts of Dhaka
introduced the following problem issues regarding road traffic:
1. Narrow Roads, 2. Maintenance of Roads and Traffic Control Devices, 3. City Bypass, 4. Shortage
of Fly-overs (overpasses), 5. Rickshaws, 6. Inadequate Bus and Truck Stands, 7. Inadequate
equipment and insufficient traffic police resources, 8. Ineffective enforcement of laws and
regulations, 9. Lack of good accident investigation, 10. Lack of public education with respect to
traffic laws and regulations, 11. Lack of effective public relations policy, 12. Temporary shops on
road footpaths

Cambodia ( Kingdom of Cambodia )


1) Profile
Cambodia is located at South East Asia on the east coast of the Indochinese Peninsula. Neighbor
countries are Thailand on west and north, Laos on northeast and Vietnam on east. Population is
11.6 million and capital is Phnom Penh ( 0.9 million ).
Website : www.cambodia.org
2) Summary
Long unstable political status by the several changes of regime induced the poor infrastructure at
present. As the number of vehicles are not large at Phnom Penh now, the traffic condition is not so
bad like other capitals in Asian countries. But soon or later it is expected to follow the same route as
others and sustain traffic problems. To overcome such problems, JICA study started from this year. It
will expect to implement basic ITS Infrastructure after study.
3) Projects
ATMS : In Phnom Penh, 36 intersections equipped the fixed time traffic signals since 1979. The
cycle of the signal are set 57 seconds or 27 seconds.
As the public transportation such as bus or train are not available in the city, people use passenger
cars, motorcycles, cyclo( 3 wheel vehicle ) and bicycles.
4) Promoting activities / organization
Ministry of Public Work & Transportation and Traffic police office are related surface traffic system.
Since March 2000, JICA study started under the name of Transport Master Plan in the Phnom Penh
Metropolitan Area. The subjects of this study are road improvement, traffic control & management
and public transport ( bus ). The study focuses not only technical but also legal, institutional and
40

business aspects. The study will complete at November 2001.


China (Peoples Republic of China)
1) Profile
China occupies most of habitable East Asia. Its neighbors are Mongolia to the north, Russia to the
northeast and northwest, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhhstan to the west, India, Nepal,
Bhutan, Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam to the south and North Korea to the northeast. The population of
1,246.8 million is officially reported as spread between Atheism, Buddhism and Taoism, with some
Muslims and Christians. The capital, Beijing has a population of 11.3 million. There are 155 cities
with populations over 1 million, 223 cities with populations between 800,000 and 1 million and 401
cities with populations over 500,000. By agreement with Great Britain, Hong Kong reverted to
Chinese sovereignty July 1,1997 and Macau was returned from Portugal Dec.20 1999.
Website : www.china-embassy.org
2) Summary
Like other developing Asian countries, China has serious traffic problems largely explained by the
dramatic increase in transportation demands resulting from rapid economic growth. The number of
traffic fatalities in China are estimated to be the highest in the world. The combination of vehicles,
bicycles and pedestrians at intersections explains the problem.
To date, the Chinese government has responded to the problem by the construction of new transport
methods. In accordance with The National Development Program for the Year 2010, beginning with
the 8th Five-year Plan (1991-1995), construction of a national trunk highway system (NTHS), water
transport corridors, terminal hubs and pertinent supportive systems was to take place over a thirty
year period. Over the next two decades, the backbone of the national trunk road system will
include construction across the country of five longitudinal and seven horizontal routes of high grade
roads, with a total mileage of about 35,000 km. The 9th Five-year Plan (1996-2000) allocates 1
trillion yuan for transportation. Recently, traffic experts have recognized ITS as the alternative of
the future for solving traffic problems. Road construction is currently the focus of Chinas
transportation development. There are limited applications of information technology, primarily
providing a platform for the future, more extensive implementation. To prepare for the coming ITS
era, several activities have already been undertaken by government leadership. In May 1998, the
Ministry of Communication issued the Study on the Development Strategy of ITS in China
which introduced ITS principles, system architecture, strategies, and standards development. One
notable ITS activity, begun in 1997, is the cooperative effort with ERTICO to improve traffic
conditions in Beijing. Under a mutual agreement, training centers were established in the Northern
Jiaotong University (serving as the headquarters and ITS Center) and the MOC (Ministry Of
Communication) and as branch office. As a result of this joint effort, implementation of a traffic
control system in Beijing is planned for 2002. Private sector companies from Europe, the U.S. and
Japan have participated in the technical development of ETC. Standards setting is essential to the
development of ITS since it ensures the compatibility and interoperability of ITS systems across the
41

country. As mentioned earlier, in China today electronic toll systems are incompatible with each
other. Development of ITS standards has begun in China. The Road Traffic Engineering Standard
Committee, established in 1995 (MOC) and the ISO/TC204 China Domestic Committee focus on
the formulation of DSRC standards for 1999. By the year 2050 the Chinese government plans to
have completed a nationwide traffic information system.
3) Projects
ATMS: In the late 1970s, the first trial of a computerized signal control system was introduced by the
Ministry of Communication, Research Institute of Highways in cooperation with the Beijing Public
Security Bureau. At present, 250 signals are computer controlled in Beijing by the SCOOT. Under
cooperative work with ERTICO, Ring road (beltway) 2nd and 3rd are being studied to implement
advanced traffic control system to be completed by the year of 2002. In Shanghai, the Australian
SCATS system has been in use since the early 1980s. Several traffic control systems are used
throughout the country. Some cities have deployed a Belgian system, while Guangzhou has
deployed SCATS; Dailian makes use of SCOOT; Shenzhen and Wucxi use a Japanese system, and
finally Nanjing, Zhongshan, Xiamen, Weihai, Kunming, and Chongqing have adopted a domestic
system.
The Capital Expressway linking Capital International Airport and the city center of Beijing makes
use of a Spanish made monitoring and surveillance system. The system covers approximately 19km
of highway and is equipped with 7 CCTVs, 2 VMSs and 8 loop detector points. In Shanghai,
reconstruction of the ring road traffic management system is expected to be complete by the end of
1999. Due to the expansion of urban areas, construction of new ring roads is planned and a new
comprehensive traffic management system is now being studied jointly by Shanghais Science and
Technology Commission and the University.
ATIS: The national traffic information broadcasting network operated by the National Department of
Broadcasting and Film/TV and the National Department of Public Security provides information
about road conditions, dispatching, calling, and freight services. Road signs have been installed on
highways and urban expressways and exits. However, information collection is insufficient and
further improvements are needed for deployment of ATIS.
APTS: For the 5000 city buses, running 300 routes in Beijing, an AVL system using GPS is under
study by the Northern Jiaotong University, ITS Engineering & Research Center in cooperation with
ERTICO and a French bus company. The primary goal is to solve problems of public
transportation, uncontrolled and low efficiency, which are not adaptive to the capital public
transportation functions and roles. The main functions are as below. Monitoring running buses,
optimal dispatching plan, displaying vehicles position and connecting with public security
department. GPS is used for positing.
ETC: ITS Center, MOC, has been studying ETC technology since 1998 using five foreign products
from US, Norway, Sweden, Germany and Japan. Pilot sites are set at Beijing, Capital Airport
Expressway Developments Co ETC is regarded as the platform of ITS in expressway for the future
42

implementation, and standardization of ETC is the urgent issue at moment.


4) Promoting activities/organization
Five public authorities, Ministry Of Science and Technology (MOST), Ministry Of Communication
(MOC), Ministry Of Public Security (MOPS), Ministry of Railway and Ministry of Construction,
are involved in ITS deployment.
The MOCs ITS Center was founded in January 1998. Its predecessor the ITS Research Center of
the Research Institute Of Highway (RIOH) (within the MOC) was built in 1996 and was one of the
earliest organizations devoted to the ITS development and applications in China. In November 1999,
the National ITS Engineering and Technology Research Center (National ITS Center) was
established. It is based in the ITS Center of MOC. The Center was slated to organize ITS China,
with participation from the five organizations listed above, with MOST serving as the lead ministry.
An ITS Seminar and Exhibition was held in October 1999 in Beijing and was sponsored by MOST,
MOC and MOPS. An ITS steering committee was established in 1999, and is now headed by the
Vice Minister. A Study on the Development Strategy of ITS in China set forth 6 principles to be
considered in advancing ITS implementation:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Putting ITS into the Comprehensive Planning


Building the sound foundation for ITS development
Implementing ITS in stages
Organizational cooperation across various sectors
Stressing the profitability of ITS implementation
Justifying appropriate breakthrough points

The report also identified 6 subsystems and 21 services as the logical services of a national ITS
systems architecture. The report developed three implementation stages: short term (1998-2000),
middle term (2000-2010) and long term (2010-2020). The short term stage is considered the study
stage. Attention should be paid to the study and formulation of ITS system standardization and ITS
standards. In the middle term, a complete set of ITS technology and equipment should be developed
to the international advancing level. And from the year 2020 forward, advanced communication and
electronic technology will be widely applied in the expressway network (which will be completed
during the previous phase), and will gradually improve the efficiency and safety of the entire road
network.
HKSAR
1) Profile
HKSAR, located at the mouth of the Zhu Jiang in Southeast China and 90 miles south of Canton,
was a British dependency from 1842 until July 1,1997, when it became a Special Administrative
Region of China. Hksar has a population of 6.4 million.

43

2) Summary
Like Singapore. HKSAR is actively using ITS to cope with problems of high density population in a
small area. Many tunnels and bridges linking HK Island and Kowloon and Tsuen Wan of Mainland
China are equipped with traffic control systems and ETC. These systems will be augmented to
accommodate the proposed expansion of the transport infrastructure, new road networks and Mass
Transit Railway, to the new territories and Lantau Island. In July 1998, a new expressway
management system began operation to support the opening of a new airport. Prompted by the 1998
deployment of a road pricing system in Singapore, such a system is now under study in HKSAR.

3) Projects
ATMS: Started as a pilot program in west Kowloon in 1977, the then Area Traffic Control system
(ATC) was the first computerized system in Southeast Asia. (Japan began implementation in 1971)
In 1982, about 90 intersections on HK Island were put under control of ATC by using extra capacity
from the Kowloon system. The deployment of an independent ATC with SCOOT capability for HK
Island started in 1984 and has been in operation since 1989. In Kowloon, the 20-year old system has
been replaced by a new system with SCATS capability since 1995. In 1995 the same system with
SCATS capability was installed in Tsuen Wan. At the end of 1998, there were 1377 signalized
junctions, of which 994 were under the control of ATC. On HK Island 40 CCTV cameras were in
use for traffic surveillance, with 60 more in Kowloon and 22 in Tsuen Wan, Kwai Tsing and Sha.
New towns such as Tai Po, Fanling, Sheung Shui, Tuen Mun and Yuen Long are now pursuing the
development of traffic control systems. The Tsing Ma Control Area (TMCA) has been designated to
cover a key section of the highway route to HKs new international airport Chek Lap Kok to ensure
safe and efficient traffic operations. It covers 17 Km and is equipped with the most extensive traffic
control and surveillance system yet introduced in HKSAR. The system provides a high degree of
automation to regulate traffic flow, to assist in dealing with incidents and provide useful information
to motorists. It has 30 VMS, 30 CCTV and 24 Loop detectors, and the system updates information
in 30 second intervals.
ATIS: Via the World Wide (www.igsd.gov.hk) real-time traffic conditions can be obtained.
Clicking on the position of a given CCTV on the map produces a picture projecting real-time road
conditions.
APTS. In 1995 a small scale Bus Priority System began operation. It equipped about 50 buses
with tags, used 5 controlled intersections, and improved 3 seconds in each intersection.
ETC: In 1993, the first ETC system in Asia was introduced at Harbor-cross tunnel using US
technology.
ERP: Road Pricing System has been studying using two different technologies, DSRC and VPS
(Vehicle Positioning System), from the UK and Japan. DSRC is the same technology used in the
road pricing system in Singapore and VPS is based on GPS. Recently, the Transport Department and
44

consulting companies undertook a technology evaluation and will issue a final report.
4) Promoting activities/organization
The Transport Department is major promoter of ITS in HKSAR.
India (Republic of India)
1) Profile
India occupies most of the Indian subcontinent. It is bordered by Pakistan to the West; China, Nepal
and Bhutan to the North, to the East by Myanmar and Bangladesh to the East. Indias population
numbers 1,000.8 million and is 80% Hindu and 14% Muslim. The official national language is
Hindi, with English a secondary national language. There are 14 official regional languages. New
Delhi, the capital, has a population of 99 million.
Website : www.indianembassy.org
2) Summary
With three million kilometers of roads, India has the worlds second largest road network after the
USA. At 10 billion, Indias population is second only to that of China. India has experiences
accelerated economic growth since it began liberalizing in 1991. This growth has put a great strain
on the road network and made its expansion more urgent. The long term road development plan of
1981 envisioned the construction of 10,000 km of expressways, 66,000 km of national highways,
144,000 km of rural roads and 280,000 km of roads. From a historical perspective, Bangladesh and
India exhibit similar characteristics. Traffic conditions are also similar in the two countries. Due to
the lack of mass-transportation such as a subway, people use buses, taxies, auto rickshaws (3 wheel
and called Baby Taxi in Bangladesh), motorcycles and bicycles (in some places, animal-carts). All of
these modes of transportation and huge numbers of pedestrians co-exist on the major roads of
downtown of Mumbai (Bombay) and Old Delhi. Road width is narrow and light vehicles are very
popular. To avoid accidents and beat traffic, use of noisy horns is common. Power outages cause
traffic signals not to work well. Policeman control traffic flow during rush hours. Generally speaking,
infrastructure is very poor and traffic manners are terribly bad. Even in those situations, ITS is
known by several people is already being studied to some extent. The 1997-1998 Annual Report of
the Central Road Research Institute (CRRI) in New Delhi, ITS was reported as follows. In India,
research and development in this field is at a very primitive stage and there is a need to provide a
thrust in order to expedite the progress of developments in surface transportation. With an objectives
to develop and demonstrate an ITS using Information Technology, Electronics and
Telecommunications, for solving the congestion and increase the throughput and on radiating
national highways, a research program has been initiated by the Institute
3) Projects
ATMS : In the cities of Mumbai and Delhi traffic signals are operated locally. In Delhi nearly 500
45

signals are in use. The World Bank has undertaken a feasibility study for a traffic control system in
Mumbai. JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) is cooperating with the NHAI (National
Highway Authority of India) on the Expressway / highway Traffic & Information Technology
feasibility study, to assess ITS applications on an initial highway in India starting operation in 2002.
4) Promoting activities/organization
Three road classifications exist in India, national highways, state highways and local roads in each
jurisdiction. The Ministry of Surface Transportation and NHAI control the national highways. The
Public Works Department (PED) is responsible for state highways and cooperating with
municipalities for maintaining local roads. The National Highways Act was amended in 1995 to
provide for building, maintenance, management and operation of the national highways by private
agencies for stipulated periods, and authorized the levy of fees to cover their costs and generate a
reasonable rate of returns. The Ministry of Surface Transportation and its related Research Institute
discussed the establishment of ITS India in cooperation with the CRRI.
Indonesia (Republic of Indonesia)
1) Profile
Indonesia is an archipelago located southeast of the Asian mainland along the Equator. Indonesias
neighbors are Malaysia to the north and Papua New Guinea to the east. The population of 216.1
million is 87% Muslim and 6% Protestant. The capital, Jakarta has a population of 9.1 million.
2) Summary
Just as in other developing countries, Indonesia has basic road traffic problems such as
overpopulation in major cities, congestion, pollution, two or three wheel vehicles, roundabouts, lack
of mass transportation, violent driving manner, etc. The recent occurrence of political and economic
problems is common knowledge. JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) in cooperation
with traffic experts, recently conducted a feasibility study of comprehensive traffic planning to
improve traffic conditions in metropolitan Jakarta. In Jakarta and Bandung, foreign manufacturers
have installed traffic control systems. On highways, expressway management systems are being
installed and ETC is being considered.
3) Projects
ATMS: In Jakarta, 231 out of 431 traffic signals are controlled by three different foreign signal
control systems from Australia, Spain and Germany. The other 200 signals are operated locally. 33
CCTV are
installed at major intersections and monitored by a traffic control center. The main
objectives of this system are control traffic signals do not provide traffic information to outside. An
Australian system is in use in Bandung and controls 130 highway traffic signals. An expressway
management system is under design by a foreign consultant company with plans to deploy.
ETC: Although taken into consideration earlier, such a system has not been seriously considered
46

since the onset of the economic crisis.


4) Promoting activities/organization
Indonesia Transport Society is related with ITS association in Indonesia.
Korea (Republic of Korea)
1) Profile
Korea is located in northern East Asia and neighbors North Korea to the north. The population of
46.9 million is 49% Christian and 47% Buddhist. The capital, Seoul has a population of 10.2
million.
2) Summary
For more than two decades, Korea has experienced rapid economic growth and explosive
motorization as well, and as a result is experiencing serious traffic problems. In spite of the operation
of new subways and expressways in Seoul, there remains heavy traffic. The average driving speed is
about 18km per hour. Comparing to Japan, fatal figures by traffic accidents is higher even though the
number of vehicles in use is about one eighth. The estimated economic loss due to traffic
congestion in 6 major cities in 1997 was $10 billion (US). To improve this situation, ITS is
recognized as an alternative solution to conventional approaches such as operation of exclusive bus
lanes, attempt of 'one day out of ten days non-operation vehicles, increasing public transportation
service and building more roads. Government proposing three implementation plans, short-term at
1996 to 2000, mid-term at 2001-2005 and long-term at 2006-2010 formulated ITS national plan. For
the short-term, the primary objective is to establish a basic system architecture, for the mid-term to
grow & expand ITS deployments, and for the long-term to mature & upgrade ITS implementations.
A demonstration project was carried out in Kwachen City, located south of metropolitan Seoul,
investing US$13 million. An update of the ITS Master Plan is under study and according to the plan
and new law, the Transportation Systems Efficiency Act, ITS implementation will be more actively
carried out.
3) Projects
ATMS : Urban traffic control systems are already installed in major cities such as Seoul, Taegue,
Pusan, Kwangju, Inchon and Daejon. The system in Seoul controls more than 2,000 signals and
supplies information through several VMS. The Expressway Traffic Management System
(ETMS) is operational on the expressway between Seoul and Pusan, collects real-time information
on traffic conditions and provides traffic information through VMS and Broadcasting media.
Recently, more ETMS are under construction in Seoul and other areas.
Automated Speed Enforcement System (ASE) has been in operation since 1979. 142 stations with
13 local centers existed by 1998, and there are plans for over 5, 000 stations by 2002.

47

ATIS: Several services are already operational in Korea. The Korean Road Traffic Information
Service Center (KORTIC) was established to provide traffic information through the media such as
radio broadcasting, telephone answering, pager service. Field tests such as that of the DARC system
are being carried out to provide information to the in-vehicle navigation system and car navigation
equipment being sold. Through web (www.kortic.or.kr) traffic conditions are available in text and by
CCTV. A private company, LG Traffic Information Corporation, began ATIS service in 1999 in
Seoul by constructing beacons in order to collect traffic information. By means of radio wave
beacons (224 MHz, 4.8kbps), travel time by probe cars is collected. Commercial services are offered
through the Internet, PCS and cellular phones. Information is also used for yaxi call dispatch service.
CVO: To improve the trade-related EDI documents of the freight, Korea-integrated Logistics
Information Network ( K-LIN ) is in operation by the Korea Telecom and KL-Net as a joint service
provider. Using this network additional services such as CALS, EC and other ITS systems will be
provided in the near future. In Seoul, over 1200 call taxies are equipped with GPS and provide quick
service upon request.
APTS: A bus card system using contact-less IC smart card is in service in Seoul and Pusan. This
service is being expanded for use in the subway as well.
ETC: Korean Highway Corporation started a demo ETC on a segment of the expressway to test
the performance of the system.
4) Promoting activities/organization
The Ministry of Construction & Transportation (MOCT), National Police Agency (NPA), Ministry
of Science & Technology, Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy and Ministry of Information &
Communication (MIC) are involved in ITS. Under those governmental authorities, various
corporations, associations and institutes are working toward the development of ITS. The Korea
Transport Institute (KOTI) plays a major role in ITS R&D and design in Korea. The Korean
Research Institute for Human Settlement (KRIHS) under MOCT Development in cooperation with
other authorities and academia is promoting the National Architecture and the ITS Standardization
Program of Korea. The Traffic Science Institute (TSI) of Road Traffic Safety Association (RTSA)
under NPA is in charge of basic research on advanced traffic control systems, traffic enforcement
systems, and safety enhancements through ITS. The development of such systems on urban streets is
done by NPA with each citys approval and financial support. The Korean Highway Corporation
(KHC) deploys systems on expressways.
Founded in April of 1999 ITS Korea began actively promoting ITS deployment.
The 5th ITS World Congress was held in Seoul with close to 3500 participants from 50 countries in
attendance.
The original master plan for ITS was completed in 1997 and is now under revision. Revised
services include 7 large groups, 16 middle groups and 63 small groups. Since 1995, the ISO/TC 204
48

Local committee was formed and has been participating in TC 204 meetings. In 1999, 24 standards
work items are being developed by KRIHS.
5) Others
The Asian economic crisis hit ITS development and deployment to some degree. The upgrade of the
traffic control system in cities and ETMS were postponed due to a restricted government budget.
Research programs were also restricted by budget constraints. However, as a result of quick
economic recovery, there will be no further delays in the deployment of ITS.
Laos (Lao People's Democratic Republic)
1) Profile
The Laos is located in South East Asia at the center of the Indochinese Peninsula between latitude
14-23 degrees north and longitude 100108 degrees east.
Laos has an eastern border with the Vietnam, a western border Thailand, a southern border with
Cambodia a northern border with the China and a North Western border Myanmar. Total area of
Laos is 236,800 square kilometers, three quarters of which is mountainous The Population of the
Laos is estimated at 4,581,128 (1995). The capital is Vientiane
2) Summary
Total population is about 5 million and 570 thousands is the population of Vientiane. In Vientiane,
about 30 intersections equipped the traffic signals made by China, India and Vietnam. The vehicle
number including 2 or 3 wheels are about 200 thousands and has few congestion in the city even in
the rush hour time. But, the fatal number by traffic accidents in 1999 was 362 in the country and
three times compared to 5 years ago. Therefore, traffic problem will be the one of the social
problems in near future.
3) Projects
Currently, there is no specific ITS project plan.
4) Promoting activities / organization
.
MCTPCMinistry of Communication Transport Post and Construction is responsible for surface
traffic issues.
Malaysia
1) Profile

49

Malaysia is located at the southeast tip of Asia and the north coast of the island of Borneo.
Neighboring countries are Thailand to the north and Indonesia to the south. The population of 21.4
million is chiefly Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist and Christian. The capital, Kuala Lumpur has a
population of 1.2 million.
2) Summary
The demand of vehicle traffic caused by the rapid economic growth, insufficient public
transportation such as a railroad network is very high in Malaysia. During last two decades, the
number of registered vehicles has increased by about 10% per year. Naturally, traffic problems
occurring in Kuala Lumpur (hereinafter KL), and other major cities such as Penang and Johor Bahru,
and congestion on roads to and from the city centers are most serious during the morning and
afternoon rush hours. In response to these situations, several projects are under way. The move of
government agency offices to the newly constructed town of Putra Jaya is one of the expected
solutions. The operation of new mass-transportation called LRT (Light Rail Transit) and Monorail
and expanding highways are also expected to improve the traffic situation. At the moment, road
restrictions caused by construction of new projects has caused the problem to worsen. Even upon
completion of the projects, it is projected that traffic problems will remain. In the recent past
transportation experts have paid special attention to ITS. Several seminars have been held during the
last two years. Some ITS technology has been deployed already. New and expanded systems have
been proposed. Most of the projects are promoted by private financing and have been influenced by
the recent economic crisis to some extent.
3) Projects
ATMS: The cities of KL, Johor Bahru, Seremban, Kuching and Penang have already deployed
signal control systems. Of three hundred intersections in KL, about one hundred located in the center
of the city have been controlled since 1994 by SCATS, an Australian system. For the remaining
intersections, in 1998 KL City Hall introduced ITACA, a signal control system from Spain, but due
to the economic crisis faced by the region, actual deployment of the project was halted until mid1999. Installation of ITACA started in the middle of 1999. Private concessionaires have already
installed surveillance systems on expressways. It is therefore necessary to establish a central traffic
information center which will co-ordinate all information collected from the individual control
centers and process and disseminate the information to the drivers.
ATIS; Since October 1999 traffic conditions in KL are available on the Web at www.jpbdbkl.gov.my
CVO: Although not yet fully operational, a taxi location system using GPS was installed for airport
taxis. The location of a taxi is sent by wireless communication to the management center for efficient
dispatching.
ETC: ETC has been progressively introduced on expressways since 1994, and expanded the
installation by the expressway concessionaires with four different types of systems from abroad.
As of 1998 more than 100,000 smart cards have been used for paying tolls in the expressway
50

tollbooths. A common electronic toll tag is under consideration to make all the different toll
programs interoperable.
4) Promoting activities/organization
The Road Engineering Association of Malaysia (REAM) by means of a public-private partnership
established a new Technical ITS Committee in 1996 and began discussing ITS in Malaysia. The 4
major tasks to be undertaken by the committee are: 1. Carry out technical harmonization of ITS
architecture to establish guidelines, standards and specifications, to meet the needs in Malaysia, 2.
Formulate a strategic plan for ITS development and deployment in Malaysia, 3. Promote ITS
awareness in Malaysia, 4. Identify and recommend appropriate ITS research and development
directions for Malaysia. The REAM exchanged a Memorandum of Agreement with other countries
such as Japan and Canada on August 4,1998 and Australia on November 9,1999 in Toronto during
the ITS World Congress. Recently, the ITS master plan was completed and will be endorsed by the
government. Under the 6 ITS sectors (ATMS, ATIS, APTS, EPS, CVO and AVCS), 24 user
services are set and 3 deployments schedules, short-term (1999-2004), medium-term (2005-2010)
and long-term (2010-2020) have been proposed. To date the installation of systems for urban roads
was carried out by the city hall, and systems for expressways have been installed by individual
contractors of the BOT base supervised by the Malaysia Highway Authority.
Several seminars have been held since 1997. In 1999, the 3rd Asia-Pacific Seminar was held in
Kuala Lumpur, sponsored by VERTIS and REAL.
5) Others
As in other Asian countries, the influence of the economic crisis has been widespread and to some
extent has affected ITS development. Because many projects in Malaysia rely on private financing
through BOT methods, constructors were unable to secure sufficient funds as a result of the
economic crisis credit crunch. But some projects like the LRT were resumed by a guarantee of
funds from the government.
Myanmar ( Union of Myanmar

formerly Burma )

1) Profile
Myanmar is located between South and South East Asia on Bay of Bengal. Neighbor countries are
Bangladesh and India on West, China, Laos, Thailand on East. Population is 48.1 million and
capital is Yangon, formerly Rangoon ( 3.9 million ).
Website : www.myanmar.com/e-index.html
2) Summary
By the economic sanction led by US, investment to the infrastructure is very poor. The traffic signals
are few and pedestrians experience very dangerous to cross the roads. The public transportation is
51

only buses and almost all buses are very busy. Basic ITS Infrastructure such as traffic signals are
urgently needed at present. But driving manner is relatively moderate compare to other Asian
countries and fatal number is not large at the moment.
3) Projects
ATMS : In Yangon, 121 intersections equipped the traffic signals and police men control the signal
timing locally at busy time. They want to install more advanced system such as SCATS for two or
three intersection at the beginning.
About five thousands buses are used in this country and almost all buses at Yangon are very
crowded.
4) Promoting activities / organization
In Yangon, Yangon city Development Committee is the key player of surface transportation.
Nepal (Kingdom of Nepal)
1) Profile
It landlocked between China and India; total land area 147,181 square kilometers. : Mountainous and
hilly, although with physical diversity. Three broad physiographic areas run laterally--lowland Tarai
Region in south; central lower mountains and hills constituting Hill Region; high Himalayas, with
8,796-meters-high Mount Everest and other peaks forming Mountain Region in north. Of total land
area, only 20 percent cultivatable. Kathmandu is the capital.
2) Summary
The traffic conditions in Katomandu become worse every year. Annual fatal number by traffic
accidents in Nepal is nearly 1000 and the number of 4-wheel vehicles is 53 thousands. Those
number is mostly occurred to Kathmandu. The vehicle number increased two times for last ten years
and the traffic congestion in downtown is becoming seriously. To cope with those traffic situation,
10 busy intersections are planed to improve using JICA cooperation in 2001.
3) Projects
ATMS : In Kathmandu, 1 intersection(THAPATHALI) equipped the fixed time traffic signals with
4 phases since 1994 by the donation of JICA. It plans to expand to 10 intersections in 2001, and in
future it is expected up to 20 intersections with center control.
4) Promoting activities / organization
.
The signal system is designed by the Department of Roads Design Branch.

52

Philippines (Republic of the Philippines)


1) Profile
The Philippines is an archipelago off the southeast coast of Asia, and its nearest neighbors are
Malaysia and Indonesia to the south and CH Taipei to the north. The population of 79.3 million is
83% Roman Catholic, 9% Protestant and 5% Muslim. The capital, Manila has a population of 1.7
million.
Website : www.census.gov.ph
2) Summary
Traffic conditions in Manila are terribly bad, perhaps among the worst. Due to a malfunctioning
traffic control system, the manual operation of traffic signals by policemen is a daily occurrence at
busy traffic intersections. To address the traffic problem, construction of mass rapid transit is in
progress, but the traffic regulations imposed as a result of the construction make the traffic condition
worse. The driving behavior by buses and mini buses (called zippny or jeepney) are also making the
traffic situation worse. There are about 8000 buses operated by more than 10 private companies
and one public authority. Buses cannot be relied upon to make scheduled stops to pick up passengers.
By and large, ITS is not being utilized and other systems or infrastructure need to be put into place
before any ITS can be deployed.
3) Projects
ATMS: In Metropolitan Manila, a traffic management system has been deployed in three phases.
Phase I, funded by a loan from the International Bank for Reconstruction (IBRD) developed a
system covering 134 intersections and was completed in 1982. Phase II and Phase III continued the
system development, covering another 425 intersections. These Phases were funded by a loan
from the Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund (OECF). The Department of Public Works and
Highway (DPWH) installed the system using foreign technology. The project was completed in
1992. The system was equipped with 1250 vehicle detectors, 19 CCTVs and 2 VMS. The system is
operated by the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA). At present, due to broken
coil loops and communications problems between the center and terminals, the system does not
work very well. Control of traffic flow at busy intersections is done manually by policemen. The
improvement of the system appointed by the SCATS system.
4) Promoting activities/organization
As explained above, there is no clear ITS activity.
Singapore (Republic of Singapore)
1) Profile
53

Singapore is off the tip of the Malayan Peninsula in Southeast Asia. Singapores nearest neighbors
are Malaysia to the north and Indonesia to the south. This 250 square mile country has a population
of 3.5 million which is 32% Buddhist, 22% Taoist, 15% Muslim and 13% Christian. Chinese,
Malay, Tamil and English are all official languages.
Website : www.singstat.gov.sg
2) Summary
Singapore has a stringent policy to restrict the growth of vehicle to 3 % per annum, Vehicle Quata
System (VQS) was introduced in 1990, and a galaxy of ITS projects has been implemented and
there are further plans to equip the region with additional ITS. Due to those activities, there are few
traffic problems in this country. The Fatality Rate is low in spite of the high number of Vehicles Per
Road. The public transit system including buses and the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) has been greatly
improved over the years. With about 12% of this countrys land taken up by road-related
infrastructure, any further expansion might adversely affect the quality of life. Therefore, ITS is well
accepted in Singapore so there is less need for promotion.
3) Projects
ATMS: The GLIDE (Green Link Determining) System, based on the SCATS, is already introduced
island-wide, and links almost 1300 sets of traffic signals and controlled by the system.
The Expressway Monitoring and Advisory System (EMAS) is already operating on the Central
Expressway and will be deployed on the Pan-Island Expressway (PIE), the East Coast Parkway
(ECP) ahd the Ayer Rajah Expressway (AYE) by mid 2000. The system includes incident detection
technology and provides traveler information via variable message sings.
ATIS: Traffic Scan is a system utilizing taxis equipped with GPS receivers as probe cars and
providing information to road users by Internet web.
APTS: A Bus Information System is being operated by TIS (Travel Information System) and a Bus
Priority System is currently considered. Those two systems are to provide a more efficient ride for
the commuters and make public transport a more attractive alternative to owning a car. The
application of GPS in the management of taxi fleets has been in place for about three years. BusCam
(Bus Lane Enforcement Camera) allows the digital cameras to take pictures of the rear license plates
of vehicles violating the bus lane restriction rules during the bus operating hours.
The pilot scheme was launched in 1997 and there are plans to equip 20 buses in the 1st phase.
CVO: Share-A-Cab is a ride-share program that encourages taxi commuters with common
destinations to share a cab. An electronic display and destination panel are used to support the
system.
ERP: Electric Road Pricing has been in operation since April 1998, and is expanding one step at a
time. The concept of Road Pricing was introduced in 1975 under the Area Licensing Scheme (ALS),
54

followed manually operated Road Pricing Scheme (RPS) in 1995. The vehicle equipment was
supplied by the government for the first installation. Future installations are the drivers
responsibility. The implementation began at the city entrance from East Coast Parkway in April
1998. It fully replaced the ALS scheme and RSP in August 1998, then expanded to all
expressways leading towards the Central Business District (CBD) in 1999. Currently, a second ERP
system is being planned with considerations for other ITS services as well. Land Transport Authority
(LTA) and representatives from universities, research institutes, the Economic Development Board
(EDB), and other government departments are involved in the planning. Industries will be invited
to take part in the development of the new systems.
4) Promoting activities/organization
An ITMS (Integrated Transport Management System) is promoted by LTA under the Ministry of
Communication. Since 1997, three phased implementation schedules are planned and progressing.
Phase 1 is the integration of traffic management systems. In this phase, the ITMS collects traffic
data from individual ITS such as the EMAS, TrafficScan, ERP, GLIDE. These are individual
systems implemented for specific traffic management purposes. In order to collect, process, fuse and
store the information, Transport Information Hub (TI-Hub) is prepared by LTA. This phase finished
in 1999. Phase 2 is the integration public transports systems and will be ready in 2000. In this phase,
information relating to the public transport such as the schedule and fares of the bus and train will be
linked to the ITMS. Phase 3 is the integration of information from phase 1 and 2 and will be ready
2001. In this phase, the ITMS will be developed into a system that is smart enough to advise
commuters, in real-time, of the best and modes of transport to use bases on their criteria, both before
the commuters embark on their journeys and while they are traveling.
CH Taipei
1) Profile
Located off the southeast coast of China between the East and South China seas Taipeis only
neighbor is China. The population of 22.1 million is made up of Buddhists, Taoists and
Confucianists. The capital, Taipei has a population of 2.6 million. Website : www.gio.gov.tw
2) Summary
Due to overpopulation of such a small area, there is severe traffic congestion in urban areas such as
Taipei, Taichung and Kaohsiung. The expressway running in the western part of CH Taipei is also
suffering heavy congestion. Motorcycles are more common in CH Taipei than in other countries.
The sheer number of motorcycles makes traffic conditions even worse. To cope with those situations,
ITS, influenced by Japan and US, is becoming actively pursued by traffic experts. A master plan
for ITS implementation is now under study by Ministry of Transportation & Communications
(MOTC) in cooperation with ITS Taiwan. An ITS model system is also planned. A traffic control
system, an expressway management system and a bus location system are already equipped in CH
Taipei. Japanese companies have commercial navigation systems in private cars.
55

3) Projects
ATMS: In Taipei, Taitung and Kaohsiung have installed centralized computer control system. After
the inauguration of the new traffic control center in 1997, transport engineers are better able to
supervise and control traffic flow in Taipei. This system is now covering 1048 intersections with 496
detectors (mainly loop, some ultrasonic), 26 CCTV and 20 Variable Message Signs installed by
Bureau of Transportation, Taipei City Government. Signal control operates under fixed programs
and there are plans to change to adaptive in the near future. The heaviest traffic section, KeelungYangmei section, of the Sun Yat-sen National Expressway is the first implementation of the Traffic
Surveillance & Control System (TSCS) and commence operation on 1984. Recently, a rampmetering system was installed to alleviate congestion.
ATIS : By the Web ( www.tcc.taipei.gov.tw ) real time traffic condition can be seen. Users can
click on the site of CCTV on the map and get the real time road conditions.
APTS : The bus location system was installed in 1997 on 6 routes in Taipei for about 100 buses.
Spread Spectrum Technology (SST) has been employed for bus positioning and communication
purposes, which is the first demonstration project that employs such technology for APTS
application in the Asia-Pacific region.

4) Promoting activities / organization


Ministry of Transportation & Communications (MOTC) is mainly responsible for ITS development
and deployment in CH Taipei. Under MOTC, an ITS Task Force (ITS TF) was organized joining
Bureau of Transportation of Taipei City and other related sectors. The ITS TF is studying the ITS
master plan for CH Taipei. MOTC is currently developing the National ITS System Architecture
(SA). ITS Taiwan, a private-public partnership, non-profit organization, was established in July 1998
with 260 participating members. It has four objectives, which are to promote ITS projects, to attend
ITS international meetings, to assist government for making standards and to assist in the
development of a master plan. ITS Taiwan held the first CH Taipeis ITS International Conference &
Exhibition in May 1999 in CH Taipei.
Thailand (Kingdom of Thailand )
1) Profile
Thailand is located on the Indochinese and Malayan peninsulas in South East Asia. Its neighbors are
Myanmar on west and north, Laos on north, Cambodia on east and Malaysia on south. It has a
population of 60.1 million and 95 % is Buddhist and 4 % is Muslim. The capital is Bangkok ( 6.5
million )
Website : http//emailhost.ait.ac.th/Asia/info.html

56

2) Summary
The traffic conditions during rush hour are still terribly bad in spite of the operation of the new
expressway in the Bangkok City. The manual operation of the traffic signals by policemen a daily
scene at the busy traffic intersections due to the malfunction of traffic control system. Road
restrictions, resulting from the construction of the subway and Mass Rapid Transit, make the traffic
conditions worse. The congestion cost is estimated about Baht 163 billion (US $ 4.3 billion) annually.
But, the master plan, announced recently by the Office of the Commission for the Management of
Land Traffic (OCMLT), proposed several improvement policies, and after completion of the masstransportation system and new expressways, drastic improvement in traffic conditions is expected.
Then, ITS such as traffic control system, will be considered to work effectively.
3) Projects
ATMS : An ATC (Area Traffic Control) system has been implemented in 3 steps. The first step has
already been implemented and covers 143 intersections and 3 pedestrian crossings in the Bangkok
city based on SCOOT system. It covers 31 Km2 and includes 5 CCTV. The system is being
expanded to control 226 intersections covering 150 Km2. The final system will cover 1580 Km2 of
the whole city. An expressway management system is operated by the Bangkok Expressway public
Company (BECL). The main function is to supply real time road traffic information by variable
message signs.
4) Promoting activities / organization
There are 17 traffic-related authorities or organizations in the Bangkok area. Of them, the
Department Of Highway (DOH), Expressway and Rapid Transit Authority of Thailand (ETA),
Police Department and the Bangkok Metropolitan Authority (BMA) are the main authorities with an
interest in ITS. The OCMLT acts as the coordination core of 17 traffic related bodies, and the
Master Plan recently released included a phased implementation strategy consisting of a short-term
action plan, and a medium and longer-term transport strategy.
5) Others
The economic crisis expanded deeply in various fields, and affected ITS development to some extent.
The projects done in Thailand are usually constructed using BOT (Built, Operate and Transfer)
methods, and constructors could not move forward because of a funds deficit resulting from the bank
credit crunch. Many projects were stopped or postponed. But ITS has not been high priority yet,
and the other projects such as the construction of the mass-transportation system, took precedence
over ITS development. Interest in ITS among the transportation community remains low. It is
expected that serious ITS discussions may not begin for a few years.
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of Vietnam)
1) Profile
57

Vietnam is located in South East Asia on the east coast of the Indochinese Peninsula. Its neighbor
countries are China on north, and Laos and Cambodia on west. Its population is 77.3 million and
its capital is Hanoi ( 1.2 million ).
Website : www.batin.com.vn
2) Summary
Since 1986, Vietnam government promoted liberalization movement called Doi moi and sustained a
high economic growth rate through foreign investment. As a result, it experienced several traffic
problems such as congestion and accidents. Especially, the number of motorcycles is very large
and the annual rate of increase was more than 20 % in 1996. Due to a lack of mass-transportation
and insufficient transit services, people use motorcycles. The greatest concern for traffic control
system managers is how to control motorcycles effectively.
3) Projects
ATMS: In Hanoi, a traffic control center was equipped in 1997 with funding support from the
French government. The main function of this system is monitoring signal timing and traffic
surveillance using 21 CCTV. The system covers 106 traffic signals with 6 loop detectors. In Ho
Chi Min City, a feasibility study of traffic control systems is being conducted through a foreign
consultant company.
4) Promoting activities / organization
The establishment of an ITS association has been discussed by the Ministry of Transport and
Communication and the Research Institute for Transportation Science and Technology. But ITS is
still known by a limited number of people and it will take more time to proceed. The Ministry of
Police in Hanoi operates the traffic control center in Hanoi.

58

C. Snap shots of country-by-country


Each photo was taken in the following years.
1997-8
1999
2000
2001
2002

Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, Thailand


Bangladesh, China, HKSAR, CH Taipei, Korea, India, Indonesia, Vietnam
Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand
Laos, Nepal
Thailand

Bangladesh

ion at Dhaka

Policeman control the flow by flags

Cambodia

Phnom Penh City

59

China

Intersection at Beijing

Expressway management center

HK

Urban traffic control center

60

India

Animal cart and auto rickshaws

Policeman at Bangalore

Indonesia

Toll gate at Jakarta

Urban traffic control center

61

Korea

ITS World congress in 1998

Laos

3-wheel vehicle in Vientiane

Signal in Vientiane

62

Malaysia

ETC at KL

Myanmar

Busy Buses at Yangon

Traffic Signal with time indication

63

Nepal

Traffic in Kathmandu

Traffic signal

Philippines

Modified Buses

Signal control center in Manila

64

Singapore

Electric Road Pricing System

CH Taipei

Traffic control center in Taipei

65

Thailand

Expressway management center

Vietnam

Motorcycles at Ho Chi Minh

Urban traffic control center

66

D. ATIS in the world


D.1 ATIS in Japan
One of the ATIS in Japan is the VICS which is Vehicle Information and Communication Systems.
In the Annex E,VICS is introduced in detailed. Web site address is www.vics.or.jp
D.2 ATIS in US
In US, many ATIS projects have been done by public, private or public-private partnership.
Followings are the web sites of each project.
1. Public systems
1.1. Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiatives
San Antonio: www.transguide.dot.state.tx.us/
Phoenix: www.aztech.org
Seattle: www.smarttrek.org/
NY/NJ : www.xcm.org
1.2. Other Projects
TravInfo - SF Bay area : www.travinfo.org
Atlanta Metropolitan Area : www.georgia-navigator.com
Houston Metropolitan Area : www.houstontransar.org
2. Private companies
Mobility Technologies ( former Traffic.com) : www.trffic.com
Westwood one ( former SmarTraveler & Metronetwork & Traffic station) :
www.westwoodone.com
TeleAtlas North America (former Etak) : www.etak.com
TrafficCast : www.trafficcast.com
CUE : www.cue.com
OnStar: www.onstar.com
ATX: www.atxtechnologies.com/
D.3 ATIS in Europe
The ATIS in Spain, Germany, Sweden, Scotland and England are introduce by the following report
prepared by the Study Tour Team of ITS America, which will be posted ITSA homepage soon.
Traveler Information Systems AASHTO / FHWA Scan Tour of Europe

67

E. VICS
E.1 History
After long preparation together with government agencies, academic organizations and private
companies, VICS, which stands for Vehicle Information and Communication System, started
operation April 23rd 1996. VICS supplies real time traffic information such as congestion, journey
time, road restriction and parking conditions, to an In-vehicle unit through 3 different transmission
media, whereby the drivers will know the best route to their destinations. VICS aims at smoother and
safer driving.
Table E-1 Past activities about VICS
1960

1970

1980

1990

ERGS(1967)
CACS(1973-1978)
Keiyo Road Travel Time system
RACS Committee (1984)
Pilot Test (1987-1990)
RACS Promotion Council (1989)
VICS Committee (3/1990)
Pilot Test at Expo (1990)
AMTICS Promotion Council (1987)

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

VICS Promotion Council (10/1991)


WG/SWG Activities
International Activities ( Visit Europe 8/1992 )
Grand Seminar (5/1993)
Open Demonstration (11/1993 )
VICS Preparation Office ( 9/1994 )
VICS Center ( 7/1995 )
WG/SWG Activities
VICS Demonstration ( 11/1995 at WC Yokohama )
VICS Commenced Service ( 4/1996 )
Extend Service Areas
One Million Shipped (3/1999 )

E.2 System Configuration and Data Flow


Comprehensive system configuration is shown m Fig.E-1 The system comprises four functions,
information resource, information processing, information supply and information use.
1) Information Resource: Traffic Control Centers
Traffic control centers for expressways and urban roads are equipped by different authorities
throughout Japan, and gather real tithe traffic information by their system. That information is
transmitted to the VICS center through leased lines. The data format and the communication
68

protocol between control centers and the VICS center are standardized.

Fig.E-1 System Configuration of VICS


2) Information Processing : VICS Center
The information from different traffic control centers is merged in the VICS center, and monitored.
The degrees of congestion are classified by 3 levels showing different colors depending on the speed
as describe blow.
Table E-2 Definition of Congestion

The condition of the parking spaces is also displayed and indicates the parking location and the
vacancy status. Text messages are also transmitted from traffic control centers, which use on-board
unit to display information directly. That information is edited and distributed to three level media
centers. Table E-3 shows the contents of VICS data.
69

TableE-3 Contents of the VICS data


3) Information Supply : Media Center
VICS uses three different media, Infrared beacon, Radio beacon and FM multiple broadcast. Each
media is controlled by a media center. Media centers have their territories related to equipment of the
beacons or supply information by their media. FM and Infrared beacon centers cover prefecture
areas for their territories. Radio wave beacon centers generally cover a 200-Km of an expressway.
The VICS center distributes adequate information to the media centers according to each coverage.
Regarding the beacon, the media center distributes the information to each beacon appropriate to
their coverage. Coverage by lnfrared and Radiowave beacon is defined as Fig.E-2. As each beacon is
fixed with the location and the direction of the lane absolutely, the area to supply information to
vehicle is determined along with the vehicle's progressing direction. At the media center information
for the simple graphic display is produced. Simple graphic display consist of static background data
and dynamic traffic data transmitting from the VICS center.

Fig.E-2 Coverage by the Beacon


4) Information Use: Vehicle Unit
Vehicle units receive information from each media and display it for the driver. VICS provides
three different types of display, those are map display type, simple graphic display type and text
display type. Depending on the function of the vehicle units, they my combine with each other.
4.1) Map display type
Information on traffic congestion and others are displayed overlaying the map screen of installed
navigation devise. Driver can see their location and the congested route. By watching the changing
the real time traffic information, drivers can choose the lease or the less congested route. Fig.E-3
shows the typical sample of this type.
70

4.2) Simple graphic display type


Simple graphics showing the road traffic information display on the screen installed in vehicles. 15
to 20 graphics are prepared in each prefecture on FM broadcast, and the 1 or 2 graphics are prepared
by each beacon. Fig.E-4 is one of the samples already available.
Fig.E-3 Map display type

Fig.E-4 Simple graphic display type

4.3) Text display type


Character display messages is shown on the display of vehicles. Typically, a message has 2 lines
and 15 characters per line.

71

F. Conventional detecting methods

72

G. Probe-car
There are three technologies for probe-car methods.

Technologies (1) : Passive


multilateration
(TOA, AOA, TDOA, signal attenuation, hybrids)

Technologies (2) : Active


(GPS)

Location information
contained in digital
signal transmission
G O TO

PA G E

Q UIT

EN TER

PO W ER

G PS

D IG ITA L
C ELL
PH O N E
Combined Unit

Technologies (3) : Pattern recognition


(passive) (LF)

73

H. Summary Report of the Simulation Training at TReL, FHWA

Summary Report of the Simulation Training


at TReL, FHWA

January 28, 2002

Dr. Yasuhiko Kumagai

74

1. Objectives
1.1 Through studying following items, to understand the current ITS activities at the TReL.
A. To study about whole structure of Turner Research Center
B. To study what TReL is doing
C. To study about simulation programs
1.2 To study about DynaSmart using Bangkok data
2. Persons
2.1 Lectures
Raj Ghaman : Team Leader, Travel Management Team, Office of Operations R&D
Henry Lieu : Highway research engineer, Travel Management Team, Office of Operations R&D
Deborah Curtis : Highway research engineer, Travel Management Team, Office of Operations
R&D,
Shiow-min Lin : ITT Industries, System Division
Li Zhang : ITT Industries, System Division
2.2 Trainees
Yasuhiko Kumagai

: VP, Sumitomo Electric USA / International Fellow, ITS America

2.3. Schedule
January 22 (Tuesday)
9:00 AM - 9:15 AM
9:30 AM -10:15 AM
10:30 AM 11:45 AM
1:30 PM - 3:00 PM
3:15-PM - 4:45 PM
January 23 (Wednesday)
9:00 AM - Noon
1:30 PM - 4:45 PM
January 24 (Thursday)
9:00 AM - Noon
1:30 PM - 2:30 PM
January 25 (Friday)
9:00 AM - Noon
1:30 PM - 4:45 PM
January 28 (Monday)
9:00 AM - 10:30 AM

H & K meet with Raj


TReL Introduction/Site Tour
DYNASMART-P Model Features
DYNASMART-P Demo/GUI
DYNASMART-X Demo/GUI

Rajs 0ffice
Raj Ghaman
Henry Lieu
Henry Lieu
Henry Lieu

DYNASMART-P Inputs
Shiow-min
DYNASMART-P Inputs/Outputs Interpretation Shiow-min
Coding Baseline Network
Visit the TMC of Montgomery County

Shiow-min
Raj Ghaman

Evaluating Baseline Network


Lin and Lieu
Evaluating ATIS Strategies for the Baseline Network Lin and Lieu
TSIS/CORSIM Demo, Inputs and Outputs
75

Shiow-min

10:45 AM - Noon
1:30 PM - 4:45 PM

Discussing Claire,DYNASMART-X,
RHODES deployment in Houston TranStar
General Discussions

Raj Ghaman
All

3. Generic Learned Items & Some Specific Points


3.1 Organizational structure & activities
A. Turner Research Center :
B. Office of Operation
C. TReL
Three main subjects by TReL : Simulation software, Control software and Hardware
1) Simulation software : TSIS and DTA
A. TSIS : CORSIM V.5 + TRAFVU+TRAFED
CORSIM : NETSIM (micro simulator for surface street) + FRESIM(micro simulator for
freeway)
TRAFED : to provide an easy-to use visual tool
TRAFVU : to allows the user to animate traffic simulation in multiple
CORSIM is already licensed more than 2000 users. They use for signal timing optimization,
road construction planning, teaching students and others.
B. DTA : DynaMIT + DYNASMART P & X
2) Control Software : ATC (used to be called RT-TRACS or UTCS)
Three adaptive signal control software is now under evaluation by TReL
Reston VA : OPAC + MIST for 16 intersections
Chicago IL : RTACL + MIST for 12 intersections
Seattle WA : RHODES + MIST for 14 intersections
Tucson AR : RHODES + ICON for 12 intersections with video sensors
3) Hardware : Standardization of 2070
In addition to NEMA and 170 signal controllers, 2070 are developed chaired by Mr.Ghaman,
committee was established and standardization are discussing. 2070 are gradually deployed in major
cities like LA or Houston. 2070 is installed in the rack structure and additional functions like ramp
metering, VMS and others are equipped by inserting PC card. It has NTCIP.
3.2 DTA : by Dr. Lieu
DynaMIT was originally developed by MIT and DYNASMART was by the University of Texas
at Austin. Both are mesoscopic(between macro and micro) simulators. One of the key concepts is the
introduction of OD between zones. Usually, every MPO has such data. The size of zone is roughly
equivalent to the size of producing 1000 trips per day. In Houston and LA, DynaMIT and
DYNASMART will be evaluating using on-line software. Both will use French software called
Claire for operational purpose after incidents. To do so, EXPERTS based on each operators
76

handling will be equipped.


The following applications are expected for the DYNASMART-P
Evaluation of Geometric Improvements, Assessment of ATMS Strategies
Ramp metering control, Signal coordination, Traffic adaptive signal control (approx.), HOV lanes
VMS implementation, Assessment of ATIS Technologies, Effects of the ATIS-equipped vehicle
market penetration, ATIS information strategies provided by ISP, Demand Management
Time-varying OD demand, High occupancy toll (HOT) lanes , Toll value required for LOV using
HOV lane, Congestion pricing schemes, Site Impact Analysis, Environmental Concerns, Traffic
Impact Analysis for Work Zone Planning, Incidents Management Analysis, Security and
Evacuation Planning
3.3 Case study by DYNASMART : attached CD file prepared by Dr. Lin
Three operational functions of DYNASMART, which are input, output and applications, are
studied. As for input, three different files (System file, optional file and GUI file) are required.
The followings are input data.
Scenario input data, Network geometry data, Zones, nodes, and links, Traffic demand data,
OD data or travel plans, Movement data at intersections, Signal control data, Ramp metering
control data, VMS data Others (bus data, incidents, pricing, etc.)
The followings are outputs.
Speed (mph), Volumes and throughput (vph), Total/Average vehicle trip times (hours or
minutes) Entry queue time, travel time, overall trip time, Total/Average vehicle stop time
(minutes) Total/Average vehicle trip distance (miles), Intersection delays and queue lengths,
Travel times between OD pairs Network Performance, Vehicle-miles, vehicle-hours, vehicledelays, capacity utilization
4. Conclusions & Comments
Although training period is too short, we could understand the outline of TReL activities and
DYNASMART P. Thanks to the kind instructions by Mr. Ghamans staff, we believe that we
accomplished all of our intended objectives.
During our training times, we felt several issues as follows.
1) Acronym
Similar to other advanced technologies, ITS has a lot of new technical terms. Sometimes, ordinary
term for us is not easy to understand for others. During training, some abbreviations make us in
confusion. So, we strongly recommend to prepare a sheet of acronyms.
2) Training Courses
Depending on the level and purposes of trainee , the period of training may be classified into
three courses as follows.
Short course : 1 or 2 days course for learning conceptual contents.
Medium course : 1 week course for learning more technical contents
77

Long course : Minimum 3 week course for learning more operational skill
Probably, short or medium course are for decision-making persons and long course is for operation
person.
3) Applications and benefits
Regarding TSIS, we are told more than 2000 are licensed. Probably, many trainees would like to
know more about applications and benefits. Especially, we are interested in the benefit evaluation
between before and after.
4) Documentation
We are very much impressed with the documentation of each system. We would like to get some of
them if possible.

78

I. Contact List
1) Over All
National Police Agency
Traffic Management and Control Division Traffic Bureau
2-1-2, Kasumigaseki Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100 Japan T. 3-3581-0141 F. 3-3593-2375
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport(former Ministry of Construction)
ITS Policy and Program Division Road Bureau
2-1-3, Kasumigaseki Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo,100-8944 Japan T. 3-5251-1778 F. 3-3503-7588
Ministry of Public Management, Home affairs, Post and Tele-communication (former Ministry of
Post &Telecommunication)
Land Mobile Communications Division Telecommunications Bureau
1-3-2, kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 100-90 Japan T. 3-3504-4874 F. 3-3504-4048
ITS Japan (former VERTIS)
Nishi-Shinbashi Tachikawa Bldg. 2-11-4, Nishishinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-0003 Japan
T. 3- 3519-2181 F. 3-3592-0091
VICS Center
Nippon Press Center BLDG., 2-2-1, Uchisaiwaicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 100 Japan
T. 3-3591-8831 F. 3-3591-8838
Kenzo Akazawa Professor Kobe University
1-1 Rokko-daicho Nadaku kobeshi 657 Japan T. 78-803-1183 F. 78-803-1217
Mr. Nobuo Yumoto Coporate Advisor Sumitomo Electric Ind. / Board of Directors ITS America
1-1-3 Shimaya I-1-3 Konohanaku Osaka 554-0024 Japan T. 6-6461-1031
2) Each country and region
Each contact person was met in the following years.
1997-8
1999
2000
2001
2002

Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, Thailand


Bangladesh, China, HKSAR, CH Taipei, Korea, India, Indonesia, Vietnam
Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand
Laos, Nepal
Thailand

Cambodia
Chea Sophara Governor Municipality of Phnom Penh
79

City Hall M.V. Preah Monivong Phnom Penh Cambodia T. 855-12-877-777


Pho Khan Colonel Premier Directeur Adjoint du Department de IOrdre
T. 855-15-914-585
Tatsuyuki Sakurai Executive Vice President Katahira Engineers International
Tokyo Office Taiko Bldg. 4-2-16 Ginza Chuo-ku Japan T. 81-3-3563-4053 1.2.13
China
Mr. Shi Dinghuan Director General Dep. of High-Tech. Development & Industrization MOST
15B, Fuxing Road Beijing, 100862 T. 86-10-68512619 F. 86-10-68515004
Mr. Wang Xiao-jing Deputy General MOC ( Ministry Of Communication ) ITS Research
Cente 48. Bel San Huan Zhong Lu. Beijing 100088
T. 86-1062075448 F. 86-10-62014130
Dr. Chang Guo Wu Professor ITS Research Center of Northern Jiotong University
100044 Beijing T. 86-63240140
Mr. Zhong Chongbo Research Institute of Highway ITS Research Center
No.8 Xi Tucheng Rd., Haidian Dist, Beijing 100088 T. 86-10-62079526
Mr. Hu Jia Lun Director Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality
200 Ren Min Ave. Shanghai 200003 T. 86-21-63119262 F. 86-21-63584443
Dr. Dong Decum Professor Shanghai Tiendao University Dep. Of Telecom.
450 Zhennan Road, Shanghai 200331
T. 86-56220566 F. 86-62506812
HK
Mr. Tong Nai-piu Chief Engineer Area Traffic Control Div. Nathan Road, Kowloon HK
17/F., Kowloon Government Offices 405 T. 852-2782-7070
F. 852-2770-4135
Mr. Tsang King-man Chief Engineer ERP Div.
39/F., Immigration Tower 7 Gloucester Road Wan Chai, HK T. 852-2829-5562
F. 852-2845-7489
Mr. Perry J. Craig Manager, Traffic Management Systems Delcan International Corporation
14th Floor, Honest Motors Building, 9-11 Leighton Road, Causeway Bay T. 852-2836-3191
F. 852-2836-0912
India
Mr. J.B. Mathur Chief Engineer ( Planning & P.I. ) Ministry of Surface Transport Government of
India Transport Bhavan 1, Snasad Marg New Delhi- 110001 T. 91-11-371-8575
Prof. P.K.. Sikdar Director CRRI ( Central Road Research Institute )
P.O.CRRI. Delhi-Mathura Road, New Delhi- 110020 T. 91-11-684-8917 F. 91-11-684-5943
Mr. Alok N. Bansal
Transport Planner The World Bank
70. Lodi Estate New Delhi-110003 T. 91-11-461-9491 F. 91-11-461-9393
Mr. Arun Mokashi Transport Specialist The World Bank
70. Lodi Estate New Delhi-110003 T. 91-11-461-7241 F. 91-11-461-9393
Mr. Shri Suryakant Traffic Police Department Police Sub-Inspector Maharashtra State
Government Home Ministry
80

Indonesia
Mr. Iskandar Abubakar Director Directorate General of Land Transport Ministry of
Communication Jl. Medan Merdeka Barat No 8 Gd. Karya Lt 10 Jakarta 10110 T. 62-21-3506143 F. 62-21-350-6144
Dr. Ir Suyono Dikun, MSc, Assistant Minister For Industry and Services Office of Coordinating
Ministry For Economy, Finance and Industry Jl Taman Suropati No. 2 Jakarta 10310
T.62-21-334-371
Mr. Naoaki Suetsugi Chief Technical Specialist JICA(Japan International Cooperation Agency )
Directorate General of Land Transport Jl. Medan Merdeka Barat No 8 Gd. Karya Lt 10 Jakarta
10110 T. 62-21-350-6160
Mr. Doi Hirotsugu Expert for Arterial Roads JICA(Japan International Cooperation Agency )
Ministry of Public WorksJL Pattimura No.20 Gedung Bina Morga 5th Floor Kebayaran BaruJakarta Selatan 12110 T. 62-21-725-1455
Korea
Mr. Keung Whan YOUNG Executive Vice President ITS Korea
4F Ku Sang BLDG.1009-5, DAECHI-DONG KANGNAM-KU, SEOUL T. 82-2-562-1715
F.82-2-562-5775
Dr. Seung-Hwan Lee Professor of Transportation Eng. Ajou University
San 5, Wonchung-dong Paldal-ku Suwon T. 82-331-219-2420 F. 82-331-215-7604
Dr. Keechoo Choi Associate Professor of Transportation Eng. Ajou University
San 5, Wonchung-dong Paldal-ku Suwon T. 82-331-219-2538 F. 82-331-215-7604
Dr. Jeong-Gyu Kang Chief Researcher ITS Lab. Traffic Science Institute Road Traffic Safety
Association137-17-#300-11, Yeomgok-Dong, Secho-ku Seoul T. 82-2-3498-2185
F.82-2-3498-2061
Dr. Sang-Keon Lee Research Fellow Korean Research Institute for Human Settlement
1591-6 Kwanyang-Dong, Dongon-Gu Anyang-Si Kyounggi-Do 431-060 T.82-343-80-0337
F.82-343-80-0484
Dr. Sibok Lee Associate Research Fellow Korean Research Institute for Human Settlement
1591-6 Kwanyang-Dong, Dongon-Gu Anyang-Si Kyounggi-Do 431-060 T. 82-343-80-0345
F.82-343-80-0484
Laos
Mr. Shigeru Tawatari, JICA Expert, MCTPCMinistry of Communication Transport Post and
Construction T.856-20-520203
Malaysia
Dr. Leong Siew Mun Director Urban Transportation Dep. City Hall of Kuala Lumpur

81

19th Fl. Menera Tun Razak Jalan Raja Laut50350 Kuala LumpurT. 60-3-291-0555
F. 62-3-293-9245
Ir. Raymond Chiew Huey ShengDeputy DirectorCity Hall of Kuala Lumpur19th Fl. Menera
Tun Razak Jalan Raja Laut50350 Kuala Lumpur T. 60-3-291-0555 F. 62-3-293-9245
Mr. Tomihiko Sekiya Technical Advisor
JICA(Japan International Cooperation Agency ) /MHA ( Malaysia Highway Authority )
KM. 6 Jalan Serdong-Kajang 43000 Kajang Selangor Darul Ehaan T. 60-3-837-2021
F. 62-3-837-8610
Mr. Mohd. Noor Amin PresidentITS MalaysiaT. 60-3-718-3648
Myanmar
Mr. U Kyawaye E Executive Engineer Myanmar Post & Telecommunications T.95-0233222
Mr. U Nay Soe Naing managing Director Ministry of Construction Public Works T.95-1-283197
Mr. U Bo Htay Head of the Department Engieering Dep. Yangon City Development Committee
T.95-1-289782

Nepal
Mr Sunil Poudyal Department of Roads Design Branch T.009771262693
Dr Lochan Lal Amatya Nepal Telecom T.011-61292
Singapore
Mr. Sing Mong Kee Manager, Transport Technology LTA ( Land Transport Authority )
No. Hampshire Road Singapore 219428
T. 65-3757100
F. 65-3961132
Mr.Chang Mook Choog Head, Transport System LTA ( Land Transport Authority )
No. Hampshire Road Singapore 219428
T. 65-3757100
F. 65-3961132
CH Taipei
Dr. Chi-Chung Tao Secretary General
ITS Taiwan
5F, No.84,Hsin-Hai Rd., Sec. 1, Taipei 106 T. 886-2-2364-3100 F. 886-2-2364-3101
Mr. Mitch Chung Traffic Control Center Chief of Section Taiwan City Government Bureau of
Traffic Eng. B3, No.32, Hua Yin St. Taipei T. 886-2-2550-1695 F.886-2-2550-1693
De. Shou-Ren Hu Senior Transportation Planner Institute of Transportation Ministry of
Transportation and Communication 9F 240 Tunhwa North Road, Taipei T.886-2-2349-6782
F. 886-2-2712-0223
Mr. Eric H. Yi Section Head Systems Engineering Sec. Delcan International Corporation
5.B 153 Tun-Hwa N Road,Taipei T. 886-2-716-6320 F. 886-2-712-4127
Dr. Jin-Yuan Wang Associate professor Department of Transportation National Chiao Tung
University1001 University Road Hsinchu 30010
T. 886-573-1737 F. 886-3-572-5804

82

Thailand
Mr. Tophon Vachanasvasti Deputy secretary-general OCMLT 35 Petchburi Rd., Rachahewi.
Bangkok 10400 T. 66-2-215-9889 F. 66-2-216-5559
Mr.Aroon Deopanich Director of Traffic Eng. Div. DOH( Department of Highway )
Sri-ayutthaya Rd., Rajthevee, Bangkok 10400 T. 66-2-246-7760
Mr. Sujin Mungnimit Traffic Engineer T. 66-2-245-5426
F. 66-2246-7766
M.Eng. Chirsak Ninchaikowit Head of Traffic Control Center City Hall
Pol, Lt.Col. Pravit Doungprateep Inspector Traffic Police Div. T.066-245-9932
Pol, Lt.Col. Suppavass Youngcharoen Traffic Engineer Inspector Traffic Control and Command
Center Traffic Police Div., Royal Thai Police T. 662-245-9914
Mr. Yook Jarupume Chief of Analysis and EvaluationDiv. Bangkok Mass Transit Authority
T. 246-0966
Mr. Silpachai Jaukasemratana Transport Advisor Department of Land Transport T.662-272-5423
Dr. Somsak Panyakeow Dean Faculty of Engineering Chulalongkon University T. 2527178
Dr. Sorawit Narupiti Lecturer Transportation and Traffic Eng. Dep. of Civil Eng. T.662-2186460

Vietnam
Dr. Tong Tran Tung Vice Director Department of Science and Technology
Ministry of Transport and Communications 80 Tran hung Dao Str. Hanoi T. 84-4-8-252085
F. 84-4-8-220578
Dr. Tran Dan Loi Director Management Unit for Construction Projects on Hanoi Metropolitan
Traffic Control 40B Hang Bai Str. Hanoi T. 84-4-8-257610
F. 84-4-8-260384
Dr. Vu Hai Vice Director Research Institute for Transportation Science and Technology
610 Lang Thuong Road- CauGiay- Dong Da Hanoi T. 84-4-8-343029 F. 4-4-8-343403
Mr. Ngo Kiem Toan Vice Director Transport and Urban Public Works Services of Ho Chi Minh
City 23-25 HamNghi St. Dist. 1 - Ho Chi Minh City
T. 84-8-8214866 F. 84-8-8214864

83

J. References
Overall
[1] Phil Sayeg Ian Nuttall ITS in Asia : Prospect to 2006 Part One ASEAN ( 1997 )
[2] Robert L. French, E, Ryerson Case, Yoshizaki Noguchi, Chiristopher Queree, Kentaro
Sakamoto, Ove Sviden, A Comparison of IVHS Progress in the United States, Japan & Europe
Through 1993 IVHS America (1994)
[3] Jun Shibata, Robert L. French, A Comparison of Intelligent Transformation Systems
ITS America (1997)
[4] Yasuhiko Kumagai. Introducing ITS in Developing Countries Asia Past and Future ITS America
(2000)
[5] Asahi Shinbunsha. ITS Intelligent Transport Systems Feb.(1998)
[6] IRF World Road Statistics Data 1993-97 (1999)
[7] The World ALMANAC (2000)
[8] The World Bank World Development Indicators (1999)
[9] Web Sites http://www.stat.go.jp/ and others
Each country and region
China
[10] The Ministry of Communications, P.R. China, A Study on the Development Strategy of ITS in
China (1998)
[11] EU-China Conference on ITS and Transport Telematics Applications June (1997)
[12] Yang Xiaoguang, Xu Aigong, Studies on Architecture for Transportation Information Systems
in China Proceedings of ITS 99 Shanghai International Conference (1999)
[13] Hanyi, Ge Fang, Zhang Guowu, Intelligent Dispatching System of Beijing Public
Transport Company Proceedings of 99 Shanghai International Symposium on Urban
Transportation (1999)
[14] Beijing Capital Expressway Development Co., LTD. Pamphlet of Beijing Capital Expressway
(1998)
HK
[15] Transport Department, Annual Transport Digest (1998)
[16] Transport Department Pamphlet Area Traffic Control in Hong Kong
[17] ITS International January/February 2000, Sky High Tolling (2000)
Indonesia
[18] Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi Annual Report (1997-1998) Indonesia

[19] Jakarta Japan Club, Indonesia Handbook (1995-1996)


[20] Local Documents Juhlah lantas dan korbannya tahun (1997)
84

Korea
[21] Seung-Hwan Lee, An Overview of ITS Activities in Korea (1999)
[22] Keung-Whan Young, Current Status and Vision of ITS in Korea Koran Road &
Transportation Association (1998)
[23] Keechoo Choi, ATIS Experience & National ITS Deployment Program in Korea TRB Jan.
(2000)
[24] Reports by KORTIC, Road Traffic Safety Association, MOCT
Malaysia
[25] L.L. Malaysia, JICA, Proceedings of Seminar on Integrated Transport Information
system Towards ITS in Malaysia (1997)
[26] REAM, IHT, IE Malaysia, Proceedings of Seminar on Intelligent Transport System (1998)
Philippine
[27] Department of public Works and Highways Traffic control center Metro Manila Traffic Control
System
Singapore
[28] Sing Mong Kee, Needs for Intelligent Transport Systems in Singapore The first
Asia-Pacific ITS Seminar (1996)
[29] Land Transport Authority, Transport Technology (1998-1999)
[30] Land Transport Authority, Annual report (1997)
[31] ITS International January/February 2000 No free ways about it
CH Taipei
[32] Bureau of Transportation Taipei City Government (1997) The Tenth Anniversary Special
Issues Annual Report
[33] ITS Taiwan Pamphlet Intelligent Transport Systems
[34] Taiwan Area National Freeway Bureau, Pamphlet Freeway Traffic Surveillance & Control
Systems
[35] Taiwan Area National Freeway Bureau, Pamphlet Introduction of Sun Yat-Sen National
Freeway Ramp Metering System
[36] Bureau of Traffic Engineering Taipei City Government, Pamphlet Introduction of Traffic
Control Center
Thailand

85

[37] OCMLT, Traffic and Transport (1998)


[38] Tavepatana Tinamas, Chayatan Phromsorn, ITS Application in Thailand ; Current and Future
needs 5th ITS world Congress (1998)
[39] Department of Highways Highways in Thailand
Vietnam
[40] Local document, Technical design of Traffic light system (1999)
VICS
[41] Shinsaku Yamada, General Concept and Practical Application of VlCS Proceeding of the
Second World Congress on Intelligent Transport System '95 YOKOHAMA (1995)
[42] Hiroshi Kojima, VlCS Information and Its Method of Use Proceeding of the Second World
Congress on Intelligent Transport System 95 YOKOHAMA (1995)
[43] Makoto Mizoguchi, VICS Strategy and Deployment Plan Proceeding of the Second
World Congress on Intelligent Transport System 5 YOKOHAMA (1995)
[44] Okihiko Fujita, Social Effect of VlCS - Coat and Benefits Proceeding of the Second
World Congress on Intelligent Transport System '95 YOKOHAMA (1995)
[45] Shinsaku Yamada, Yasuhiko Kumagai, State of Development and Diffusion of VICS Unit,
Proceeding of the 4th World Congress of ITS, Berlin (1997)
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