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Frequency Spectrum
Bandwidth Frequency range

Audio Frequency 0.3 - 3 KHz

Low Frequency (LF) 3-3000 KHz
High Frequency (HF) 3-30 MHz
Very High Frequency (VHF) 30-300 MHz
Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) 300-3000 MHz
Microwave 3-300 GHz
L: 1-2 GHz ,S:2-4 GHz, C:4-8 GHz,
X = 8-11 GHz, Ku =11-18 GHz,K =18-27 GHz
Ka =27-40 GHz
For Path Planing
LOS - Line of Sight

• Line of sight is the direct free-space path that exists

between two points.
• Obstruction

Kind of Obstructions
Topographic features, such as mountains
The curvature of the Earth
Buildings and other urban developement
Trees /Vegetation
How to improve LOS?
• Raise the antenna mounting point on the existing structure
• Build a new radio tower, which is tall enough to mount the antenna
• Increase the height of an existing tower
• Locate a different mounting point, i.e. building or tower, for the antenna
Fresnel Zone
• An elliptical area surrounding the visual path
• Area occupied by strongest radio signal

Tx Rx
First Fresnel Zone
R = 72.1
d1 = distance from Tx antenna to the obstruction
d2 = Distance from Rx antenna to the obstruction
D = Total distance
f = Transmitting frequency in GHz
R = Height of the First Fresnel zone
Earth Bulge

• Curvature of the earth


• Spreading of waves

Around Edge Narrow Gap Wide Gap


• Bending of M/w beam beyond Optical horizon - direction changes

• Upper wavefront travel faster compared to lower wavefront


• Electric field vector of wave perpendicular to earth surface

• Sea water - good RF Reflector with reflection coefficient of 1.0
Requirement of map study comes here !

Types of maps
• Reference map - Topographic map
• Thematic map

Reference map

• Topographic map is location based

• Scaled map ( Ratio 1:50,000)
• Two-dimensional representations
• Latitude & Longitude
Contour Lines

• Contour Lines are lines drawn on a map

connecting points of equal height.
• Contour lines are parallel lines with a difference
of elevation of atleast 20m between them.
• Elevation means height above sea level ( HASL)

Location a point with given coordinates on the Map

1. Select the Map which contains the point.

2. Calculate the distance on the map , equivalent to change
in coordinates by one second.
3. Draw the line corresponding to latitude of the point.
4. Draw the line corresponding to longitude of the point.

The point of intersection of the two lines gives the location

of the point on the Map.
Select the Map that contains the point

Lets say the point is

(15º 25’ 30” S , 30º 42’ 40” E )
Calculate the distance on the map ,
equivalent to change in coordinates by one sec

Dx = 54 cm / 15 x 60 sec
= 0.06 cm/sec
60 cm

Dy = 60 cm / 15 x 60 sec
= 0.066 cm/sec

54 cm
Draw the line corresponding to latitude of the point

(15º 25’ 30”)

Minus (15º 25’)
= 30 sec

Dy x 30sec

15º 25’ 30” S

Draw the line corresponding to longitude of the point

(30º 42’ 40”)

15º 25’ 30” S
Minus (30º 40’)
= 2’40 sec
= (2x60)+40 sec
= 160 sec

Dx x 160sec
30º 42’ 40” E
Reading Contours
At point 0
closest Contour = 500
Reading = ?




• Joining of 2 points
• Draw Line b/w these points
• If other point not in the same map
• Joining of 2 map of more if required

How to join?

• Index to adjoining sheets

A1 B3 C1

B1 B2 A2

C2 B4 A3
For calculating Link budget

Link Budget - A rough calculation of all known elements of the

link to determine if the signal will have proper strength when it
reaches the other end of the link.

• Frequency of the link

• Free space path loss
• Power of the transmitter
• Antenna gain
• Length of the cable & loss per unit length at the specified frequency
• Number of connectors used
• Path Length
Calculate FSL - Free Space Loss

• Scattering
• Beam Diversion
• Atmosphere - Rain, fog, wind, lightening

FSL (dB) = 32.45 + 20 log D + 20 log F

dB = Decibel (Signal/Noise ratio)

D = Path length in km
F = Frequency in Mhz