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Renewables

This lecture and next


Hydroelectric power
Solar energy
Wind turbines
Wave &Tidal
Geothermal

Example problems

Hydroelectric power

Hydroelectric power
Gravitational energy -> flow -> turbine -> El.
Electric power production:
P ghqk

P : Power (W)
: density (998 kg/m3)
h : height (m)
q : flow rate (m3/s)
g : gravity acceleration (9.8 m/s2)
k : efficiency coefficient

Example
What is the power generation of a dam operating with a flow
rate of q = 100 m3/s, with a net head (height) of h = 150 m. The
turbine is 85 % efficient.

P ghqk

P : Power (W)
: density (998 kg/m3)
h : height (m)
q : flow rate (m3/s)
g : gravity acceleration (9.8 m/s2)
k : efficiency coefficient

P = 998 x
9.8 x 150 x 100 x 0.85 = 124,700,100 W = 124.7 MW

Units: kg m2 s-3 = W

Hydroelectricity
No CO2 emission
Most widely used renewable (2.3% of total)

Competitive: low cost per kWh.


Environmental impact: Changes river system.
Destroys local habitats. Areas submerged.

Three Gorges Dam


Worlds largest power station: 22.5 GW capacity.
Avoids 100 million tonnes CO2 emission by replacing coal.

Solar Photovoltaics (PV)


Generates electricity directly from solar radiation.
Third most installed renewable (after hydro and wind).

Total installed capacity: 140 GW


36.8% annual growth

The photovoltaic effect


Semiconductor material (traditionally silicon)
pn-junction: separates negative and positive charges
generated by photons.
Charge build-up generates a voltage
Current flows in external circuit.

PV systems
PV panel

PV cell

PV system

PV farm

Efficiency: typical 15 20 %

Example 1
On a sunny summer day the solar irradiance is I = 1 kW/m2. What is the
power output of a 10 m2 PV array on the roof of a house? The efficiency
of the PV array is 12%

P = AI = 0.12 x 10 x 1 = 1.2 kW

Regulator and conversion efficiencies also factor in

Example 2
Annual solar energy output: E = A H PR
where
E = Energy (kWh)
A = Total solar panel Area (m)
= solar array efficiency (%) (at standard test conditions)
H = Annual average solar radiation on tilted panels
PR = Performance ratio, coefficient for losses (range between 0.5 and 0.9)

Calculate annual solar energy output for the module in example 1, when
H = 1000 kWh/m2, and the performance ratio is PR = 0.75

E = 10 x 0.12 x 1000 x 0.75 = 900 kWh per year

Solar thermal
Solar energy produces heat for domestic hot water
(DHW) or space heating.
Low grade energy for low grade energy requirement

Solar thermal flat plate collector


Solar radiation heats absorber plate
Heat carrier fluid (water or air) transports heat to heat
reservoir.

Flat panel heat output


Heat output: Q = (Absorbed energy heat loss) x Area
Heat output: Q = [I U(Tp Ta)]A
where
: transmittance of cover plate
: absorbtance of absorber plate
I : solar irradiance (kW/m2)
U : heat loss coefficient (kW/(deg C m2)
Tp : Mean absorber temperature (deg C)
Ta : ambient temperature (deg C)
A : collector area (m2)

What is the efficiency?

Collector efficiency vs. operating temperature

Concentrated solar power


Sunlight is concentrated by mirrors or lenses to a small absorber
area and converted to heat. A heat engine converts the heat to
electric power.

Power tower

Parabolic dish

Parabolic trough

Solar energy
+ Renewable
+ No pollution (except manufacture and transport)
+ Can be used in remote areas
+ Surplus energy can be sold to grid
- Intermittent supply. Requires storage
- Cost of solar cells high (but decreasing rapidly)
- Not equally distributed energy

Solar Energy
Photovoltaics: Solar energy converted directly into
electricity. Internal electric field separates mobile charge
carriers generated through absorption of photons.

Solar heat: Solar energy converted to low temperature


heat used for e.g. DHW and space heating. Collector
efficiency depends on optical properties and heat loss.

Concentrated solar power: Sunlight is concentrated by


mirrors or lenses to a small absorber area and
converted to heat. A heat engine converts the heat to
electric power.

Wind power

2013: 320 GW installed capacity


12.7% annual growth

Wind power
Convert kinetic energy of wind to
electricity.
Kinetic energy:

1 2
E mv
2

Wind power
Kinetic Energy:

1 2
E mv
2

What is the wind mass?

1
Which gives: E Atv 3
2
What is the power of the wind?

E
P
t

1
3
P Av
2

Turbine efficiency
The efficiency of the wind turbine must be
factored in.
Theoretical limit: Betz Limit = 59.3 %
Conversion efficiency: e.g. 70%

Power coefficient: Cp = 0.593 x 0.7 = 0.42


Turbine power generation:

1
3
Pel Av Cp
2

Example
What is the power generated by a wind turbine with rotor blade length
of 50 m when the wind speed is 12 m/s? The turbines power coefficient
is Cp = 0.4, and the density of air is 1.23 kg/m3.

1
Pel Av 3Cp
2
Cross-sectional area:

A R 2

= 7850 m2

Power generation:

1
Pel Av 3Cp = 0.5 x 1.23 x 7850 x 123 x 0.4
2
= 3.3 MW