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SEK MEN SAINS MUZAFFAR SYAH

9.4
Logic gates as switching circuits in electronic systems

Security lamps, alarm systems, and washing machines can make some simple decisions.
The switching on and off operations are controlled by electronic switches made up of logic
gates.
Logic gates work using tiny transistors as switches. They are manufactured as integrated
circuit (IC), with each chip holding several gates.
A logic gate is a circuit that has one or more input signals but only one output signal.

For each gate, the input or inputs are on the left of the symbol. The output is on the right
Each input and output can be either high (logic 1) or low (logic 0).
A binary 0 represents 0 V, and a binary 1 represents a non zero voltage.
A truth table lists all input possibilities and the corresponding output for each input.
List, draw symbols and state the action of the logic gates
Gates
1.

AND gate

2.

OR gate

3.

NOT gate

Truth table

Action
For the input to be ON,
both inputs must be ON.
Output in ON only when
both inputs A and B are
ON.
For the output to be ON at
least one of the inputs
must be ON.
Output Q is ON when input
A or B or both is ON

The output is ON when the


input is OFF, and vice
versa

4.

NAND gate
It is equivalent to an AND
gate with its output
inverted by a NOT gate.
Output Q is OFF when
inputs A and B are both
ON

5.

NOR gate
It is equivalent to an OR
gate with its output
inverted by a NOT gate.
Output Q is ON when both
input A and input B are
OFF

Built truth tables for logic gates in combination for a maximum of 2 inputs

Describe applications of logic gate control systems.


1. There are smoke sensors and temperature
detectors in hotels. If there is no smoke or
high temperature in a room, the alarm will not
trigger. But if one of the inputs is HIGH or
both the smoke and the temperature sensors
are HIGH, then the alarm will trigger.
Complete the truth table

2. Diagram 2 shows a simple


electronic control system that is
used as an automatic and
manual switches to switch on
the street lights when it is dark.
The control system allows the
street lights either to switch on
manually by a switch at any time,
or automatically by a light
sensor when it is dark.
Light sensor:
daytime
=1
Dark /night = 0

Complete truth table

Diagram 2

3. A student would like to construct a


logic gate circuit to switch on an air
conditioner in his home automatically.
He has chosen a light sensitive
device to detect daytime and night
and a heat sensitive device to detect
the surrounding temperature. He has
constructed a truth table to show the
function of the logic gate circuit to
switch on the air conditioner.
Draw the logic gate circuit that will
switch on the air conditioner based on
the function stated in the truth table
4. You are given two sensors and a
switch.
(a) temperature sensor A is hot =
ON (1) cool = OFF (0)
(b) Light sensor B is
sunlight =
ON night = OFF
Design a combination gate from the
truth table given below. Using any
two of the given logic gates (NOT,
AND and OR), place the gate
combination in the box provided.

Input P
Night = 0
Night = 0
Day = 1
Day = 1

Input Q
Cold = 0
Hot = 1
Cold = 0
Hot = 1

Output R
Off = 0
On = 1
On = 1
On = 1

TUTORIAL 9.4
1. The diagram shows an electric circuit.

Which of the following symbol is


equivalent to the circuit above?

4. Which of the following is equivalent to a


NOT gate?

5. The diagram shows a circuit containing


three logic gates.

Which of the following logic gate is


equivalent to the circuit above?
A OR gate
B
AND gate
C NOT gate
D
NAND gate

2. The diagram shows an electric circuit.

Which of the following logic gate is


equivalent to the circuit above?
A AND gate
B OR gate
C NAND gate
D NOR gate
3. The diagram shows a logic gate G whose
truth table is a shown in the table below.

M
0
1
0
1
A AND gate
C NAND gate

N
0
0
1
1

X
0
0
0
1

B
D

OR gate
NOR gate

The diagram shows the combination


three logic gates.

The truth table for the combination of three


logic gates is as follows.
Input
Output
P
Q
R
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
What is the gate X?
A AND
C NAND

B
D

OR
NOR

20
6

9. The diagram shows a circuit containing


four NAND gates.

C P

Which of the following logic gate is


equivalent to the circuit above?
B
D

P Q

0
0
1
1

0
1
1
0

D
0
0
1
1

A OR gate
C NOR gate

Q
0
1
0
1

0
1
0
0

0
1
0
1

13. The diagram shows a combination of


three logic gates.

AND gate
NAND gate

10

A NOR gate with input signals


M = 01010101 and N = 011010100 . What
is the output signal of the logic gate.
A 01010101
B
10000010
C 01111101
D
01000000
A
11

Which truth table is correct for the


combination of three logic gates?

The diagram shows a circuit containing


three logic gates.

P
0
1
0
1

Q
0
0
1
1

R
1
1
1
1

P
0
1
0
1

Q
0
0
1
1

R
0
0
1
0

P Q

0
1
0
1

1
1
0
1

D
If the input signals P and Q are
respectively 1001 and 1100 what is the
output signal at X?
A 0001
B
0010
C 1010
D
1110
12

0
0
1
1

0
0
0
0

0
0
1
1

14. The diagram shows the combination of


four logic gates.

The diagram shows a logic gates circuit.

Which of the following truth table


represents output R in the circuit?
(2003)
A

0
1
0
1

P
0
0
1
1

Q
0
1
0
1

R
1
0
1
0

P
0
0
1
1

Q
0
1
0
1

R
0
1
0
1

Which of the following is the correct truth


table for output X?
A

X
0
0
1
1

Y
0
1
0
1

Q
0
1
1
0

X
0
0
1
1

Y
0
1
0
1

Q
1
1
1
0

C
D

X Y

0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1

1
0
0
1

0
0
1
1

0
1
1
1

0
1
0
1

17

The diagram shows the combination of


AND gate , OR gate and NOT gate.

15. The diagram shows a circuit containing


two logic gates.
Which of the following is the correct
truth table for output C?

Which of the following is the correct


truth table for output R?
A
B

16

P Q R

P Q

0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1

0
0
0
1

0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1

0
1
0
0

P
0
0
1
1

Q
0
1
0
1

R
0
0
1
0

X
0
0
1
1

Y
0
1
0
1

Q
1
0
0
0

The diagram shows a circuit containing


three logic gates.

Which of the following is the correct


truth table for output R?
A P
0
0
1
1
C

19

Q
0
1
0
1

R
0
1
1
1

P
0
0
1
1

Q
0
1
0
1

R
1
0
1
1

P
Q R
D
X Y Q
0
0 1
0 0 1
0
1 0
0 1 0
The
1 figure
0 1shows a OR1 gate
0 with
0
input
1 signals
1 0 P and Q.1 1 1

A A
0
0
1
1

B
0
1
0
1

C
0
0
0
0

A
0
0
1
1

B
0
1
0
1

C
1
1
1
1

C A
0
0
1
1

B
0
1
0
1

C
0
1
0
1

A
0
0
1
1

B
0
1
0
1

C
1
0
1
0

18
The table shows a truth table for a
combination of logic gates.
P Q R
0 0 1
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 0
Which of the following is true to show a
circuit according to the truth table
above?

Which of the following is the


output signal of the OR gate?

21

The diagram shows a logic gate


circuit with input signals, K and L.

Which of the following output signals is


produced by the logic gate circuit?
20

The figure shows a OR gate with


input signals P and Q.

Which of the following is the


output signal of the OR gate?

23
22

(a) The diagram shows a logic


gate ,L with input signals A and
B.

(i)

Name the logic gate L.

The diagram shows a circuit is used as a


safety system in a house.

(a)

Name logic gate R.

(b)

Using two switches , two dry


cells and a bulb draw a circuit
that equivalent to logic gate S.

_
(ii) Draw the output signal C in the
graph below.

(c)

Later , logic gate L is connected to


logic gates M and N as shown in
the diagram below.

(c) The following truth table represents


the logic gate in the figure above.
A
B
L
M
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
(i) Complete the truth table above.
(ii) What happen to door and the
gate when the main switch is
closed?
_

(i) Complete the truth table below.

24(a)

X
Y
Z
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
Figure shows a circuit made up
from a combination of a few
basic logic gates.

(iii) Give two methods to open the


door and the gate
simultaneously.
_

Figure (a)
(i) Based on the arrangement of
the logic gates in the Figure
(a) complete the truth table
below.
Figure (c)
(i)
Inpu t
K
0
0
1
1

L
0
1
0
1

Output
M

(ii) State a single logic gate which


produced the same output as the
output in (a)(i).

(b) Figure(b) shows a circuit diagram


of a vending machine . The
vending machine accepts 10 sen
coins, 20 sen coins and 50 sen
coins. Three light dependent
resistors (LDR) , X , Y and Z are
used to check the size of coins
slotted in the machine. The light
sources of the slot machine
where the coins are slotted are as
shown in Figure (c).

Figure (b)

Complete the truth table in the table


below.
State of LDR
X
Y

Input
Output
K L M
S

No
coin
10
sen
(ii) Name the gate that is probably
20 in the black box.
Bright
Dark
Dark
sen
0 1 1
50
_
sen

0
0
0
1

SPM 2004 No. 7


25. Ali wishes to design a security system in
his house as shown in Figure 1.1. When
a person crosses the infrared beam at
night, the infrared sensor will send a
signal to a logic gate which then lights
up a spotlight. The spotlight has a 240 V
alternating current (a.c) supply and will
only light up at night.

(c)

Component S is a switch that


connects the 240 V a.c. spotlight
circuit.
(i) What type of switch is component
S?
_

_
[1]
(ii) Why is component S necessary in
the circuit?
_

_
[1]
(d) The following truth table shows the
operation of a logic gate in the circuit
in Figure 26.2
Key:

Figure 1.1
The circuit that could help Ali to
develop the security system is shown
in Figure 1.2.

Dark surroundings : high input voltage


at P, logic 1
Bright surroundings : low input voltage
at P, logic 0
Person crossing the path : high input
voltage at Q, logic 1
Nobody crossing the path : low input
voltage at Q, logic 0
Switch S is on : high output voltage at
R, logic 1
Switch S is off : low output voltage at
R, logic 0
Input P

Surroundings
Bright
Bright
Dark
Dark
Figure 1.2
(a)

If the potential difference across


resistor W is 2 V, what is the
potential difference across the
infrared sensor?

[1]
Component X has a high resistance
when the surroundings are dark and a
low resistance in bright surroundings.
Name the component X.
_

Input Q
Person
Input
crossing
voltage
at Q
No
0
Yes
No
Yes

(i)

Using the given key, complete the


truth table above.
[4]

(ii)

Name the logic gate in the circuit in


Figure 26.1.
_

_
(b)

Input
voltage
at P
0

_
[1]

Out
put

SPM 2006 No. 7


26. A student wants to build s simple lift
motor control system which operates
using two buttons, A and B, for a twostorey building.
A: Up button
B: Down button
The lift motor only activates when
someone presses any one of the
buttons.
Figure (a) shows the circuit that can be
used to activate the motor.

Figure (a)
Keys:
Buttons A and B:
When pressed,logic 1
Not pressed, logic 0
X Output: Motor is activated,logic 1
(a) The table is a truth table which
shows the operations of the logic
gates in a lift motor.
Using the keys given, complete
the table.
A
0
0
1
1

B
0
1
0
1

(b) Why is a relay switch needed in the


circuit?
_
_
_