IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

3, Issue 08, 2015 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna for 2.45 GHz Wireless
Applications
Miss Anjali Majale1 Mrs.S.R.Mahadik2
1
P.G. Student 2Associate Professor
1,2
Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering
1,2
Dr. J. J. Magdum College of Engineering Jaysingpur, Shivaji University, Kolhapur India
Abstract—This paper presents a microstrip patch antenna
with diagonally symmetrical slots for RFID applications.
The unequal length center slots with four rectangular slots
on its diagonal axes are embedded onto the square patch
radiator. These slots are introduced to achieve compact size.
The coaxial feed is used to excite the proposed antenna. The
antenna is fabricated using FR4 Dielectric Substrate
(relative permittivity =4.4, loss tangent=0.001) and coaxial
feed. These designed antennas are fabricated and used in
real time applications. Microstrip Patch Antenna using IE3D
software and study the effect of antenna dimensions Length
(L),and substrate parameters, relative Dielectric constant,
substrate thickness (t) on the Radiation parameters of
Bandwidth and Beam-width.
Key words: FR4 Dielectric Substrate, Microstrip Patch
Antenna, Return Loss, RFID Reader Antenna, VSWR, IE3D

are also widely used [1]. The inner conductor of the coaxialline (sometimes referred to as a probe) is connected to the
radiating patch, while the outer conductor is connected to
the ground-plane, as shown in Figure 2 Hence among
different feeding techniques; co-axial fed technique is used
for the design of rectangular microstrip patch antenna at
2.45GHz

I. INTRODUCTION
In the field of wireless communications, antenna plays very
important role. Microstrip antenna is key building in
wireless communication. Out of many antennas in
communication system, microstrip antenna is very popular
and well known for its advantages such as low fabrication
cost, low profile, low volume and it has capability of dual
and triple frequency operations. Because of these features
this antenna attracts many researchers to investigate
performance of antenna in various ways. Different types of
microstrip antennas have been proposed for many
applications with different shapes such as rectangular,
circular disc, elliptical etc [7]. In this paper, we used
rectangular structure.
The demand in commercial and military wireless
systems is due to capabilities of proposed Antenna such as
low weight, low profile, low cost, easily combined with design and technology, and relatively simple fabrication.

Fig. 2: The Co-axial Probe Feed Technique
II. DESIGN SPECIFICATION
In this the procedure for designing a square microstrip patch
antenna in IE3D software is explained. And the results
obtained from the simulations are demonstrated. The
Rectangular microstrip patch antenna parameters are
calculated from the following formulas [1]. Hence, the
essential parameters for the design are:
f r = 2.45 GHz


 r =4.4

h = 1.6 mm

A. Calculation of the Width (W):
The width of the Micro-strip patch antenna is given by
equation as:
1

W=

2 fr  0 0

2 = 0
2
r  1 2 fr r  1

B. Calculation of Effective Dielectric Constant (εreff):
The following equation gives the effective dielectric
constant as:
Fig. 1: Microstrip patch antenna
In order to simplify analysis and performance
prediction, the patch is generally rectangular, circular,
triangular, elliptical or some other common shape. The
rectangular microstrip patch antenna is the widely used of
all the types of microstrip antennas that are present .The
substrate material, dimension of antenna, feeding technique
will determines the performance of microstrip antenna. The
simplest method of feeding the patch is by a coplanar microstrip line, also photo etched on the substrate. Coaxial feeds

eff 

r  1 r  1
2

2

1
h

1  12 
w

C. Calculation of the Effective length (Leff):
The following equation gives the effective length as:
0
c
Ll  L  2L 

2 l 2 f 0 l
L 

h

l

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570

Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna for 2.45 GHz Wireless Applications
(IJSRD/Vol. 3/Issue 08/2015/147)

D. Calculation of the Length Extension (ΔL):
The following equation gives the length extension as:
w
 0.264
h


 eff  0.258  w  0.8
h

L =0.412h  eff  0.3

E. Calculation of actual length of patch (L):
The actual length is obtained by the following equation:
1
L
 2L
2 fr eff  0 0
F. Calculation of the ground plane dimensions (Lg and
Wg):
Lg = 6h + L =6(1.6) +28.83=38.43
Wg = 6h + W =6(1.6)+37.26=46.86
G. Feed Location Design:
The position of the coaxial cable can be obtained byusing
(Dr. Max Ammnan):

X

f

L


2

reff

Where Xf is the desire input impedance to match the coaxial
cable and εreff is the effective dielectric constant.
=W

Y

f

2

III. ANALYSIS AND PARAMETERS FOR ANTENNA
DIMENSIONS

The rectangular Microstrip patch Antenna designed at
2.45GHz frequency, dielectric constant =4.4 and height
from the ground plane h= 1.6 mm. The parameter of
rectangular microstrip patch antenna are L=30mm, W=30
mm. The simple rectangular Microstrip patch Antenna is
designed at 2.45 GHz.

Fig. 3: Top View of the rectangular patch
A coaxial probe type feed is to be used in this
design. As shown in Figure 3, the center of the patch is
taken as the origin and the feed point location is given by
the co-ordinates (Xf, Yf) from the origin. The feed point
must be located at that point on the patch, where the input
impedance is 50 ohms for the resonant frequency. Hence, a
trial and error method is used to locate the feed point. For
different locations of the feed point, the return loss (RL) is
compared and that feed point is selected where the R.L is
most negative. There exists a point along the length of the
patch where the RL is minimum. Hence in this design, Yf
was kept constant at zero and only Xf was be varied to
locate the optimum feed point.
Parameter
Dimension Unit

Dielectric constant(  r )
4.4
Frequency( f r )
2.45
GHz
Height(h)
1.6
mm
Practical Width(W)
mm
Velocity of Light(v)
3*10^8
ms^-1
0.001
Loss Tangent(  )
Practical Length(L)
mm
Table 1: Microstrip patch antenna specification
IV. SIMULATED RESULTS
The simulated results obtained by considering an equivalent
circuit of rectangular microstrip patch antenna for
calculating various parameters. The designed parameters are
utilized on Zealand’s IE3D evaluation software version 9.2.
A. Return Loss:
The proposed rectangular micro-strip patch antenna
(RMSA) with dimensions given above in table 1 was
simulated as shown in figure 2 using FR4 substrate with
dielectric constant 4.4 and the substrate height is 1.6 mm,
and loss tangent is 0.001 is considered [7]. The value of
return loss is -23db in this proposed antenna. A negative
value of return loss shows that this antenna had not many
losses while transmitting the signal.
B. VSWR:
The value of voltage standing wave ratio(VSWR) should be
ranges from 1 to2.The return loss of the antenna obtained is
-23 dB at the center frequency of 2.45 GHz as shown in Fig.
2.

Fig. 4: RL Curve
VSWR parameter of a patch antenna indicates how
well is the antenna matched with the feed. VSWR result
obtained from the simulation is 1.3 at 2.45GHz which
implies proper matching at the intended frequency.

Fig. 5: VSWR plot

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571

Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna for 2.45 GHz Wireless Applications
(IJSRD/Vol. 3/Issue 08/2015/147)

[6] Dr. Max Ammnan, “Design of Rectangular Microstrip
Patch Antennas for the 2.4 GHz Band” Dublin Institute
of Technology
[7] Pozar D.M., and Schaubert D.H (1995) Microstrip
Antennas, the Analysis and Design of Microstrip
Antennas and Arrays, IEEE Press, NewYork, USA

Fig. 6: Smith Chart plot

Fig. 7: 3D Radiation pattern
V. CONCLUSION
A microstrip patch antenna with diagonally symmetrical slot
for RFID applications is presented for 2.45GHz frequency.
The results for the proposed antenna above shows that the
coaxial probe fed rectangular microstrip patch antenna can
be used for applications in cordless handset and for cellular
applications. The resonance frequency of the simulated
patch is 2.43GHz. The simulated results show that the
rectangular microstrip patch antenna will be compact and
low cost solution for cell phone applications in GSM band.
REFERENCES
[1] Constantine. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory, Analysis and
Design, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2005
[2] Raied A. R. Ibrahim, Mustapha C.E. Yagoub, Riadh
W.Y.Habash,“Microstrip Patch Antenna for RFID
Applications”School of Information Technology and
Engineering,University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario.
Canada
[3] Harvesh Singh Panwar, Firoz Khan, Puneet Khanna
“Design & Analysis of Square Microstrip Patch
Antenna” (IJRTE) ISSN: 2277-3878, Volume-2, Issue3, July 2013
[4] Er Nitin Agarwal, Dr.D.C.Dhubkarya, Er Rinkesh
Mittal “Designing & Testing of Rectangular Micro
strip antenna operating at 2.0 GHz using IE3D” Global
Journal of Researches in Engineering Volume 11 Issue
1 Version 1.0, February 2011
[5] Yogesh choukiker optimization of dual band microstrip
patch antenna using PSO by Department of electronic
and communication engineering National Institute of
Technology Rourkela India in 2009.

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