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Veterinary Entomology

Entomology is the branch of biological science, which deals with different aspect of the
phylum Arthropoda. Arthropoda word is derived from two Greek word Arthros and podos.
Arthros means- jointed
Podos means foot
These individuals have jointed legs. Arthropods are defined as a bilaterally symmetrical body
and segmented legs bearing invertebrate animal possessing chitinous exoskeleton.
Phylum- Arthropoda
Out of four classes only two classes are very important for the transmission of nematodes,
protozoan, rickettsia and other diseases for veterinary and medical importance and also
cause other pathogenic effects.A part from this some crustacea act as intermediate host and
some millipedes may be poisonous due to their stinging nature or by accidental ingestion
through contaminated food and water.
Class Insecta
This class includes about 70% of all the known species of animals of all kinds. The body
of the insect is mainly divided into three parts i.e., head, thorax and abdomen.
Head- The head is an ovoid or globular shape, composed of a number of plates or sclerites,
at the anterior end of the body. The head of the insect containsOne pair of antennae
Three pair of mouth parts (mandibles, upper pair jaw, Ist maxillae, maxillae is the lower
pair of jaw, and labium or fused 2nd maxillae)
One pair of compound eyes
Three pairs of simple eyes called as ocelli.
Antennae These are pair of tactile organs having sensory hairs. The hairs are sensitive to
air currents. These are situated in front of the compound eyes.
Types of antennae
1. Bracycerous- when the antenna has few jointed segment. These are mostly contains 34segmented, e.g., larvae of butterfly and moth.
2. Nematocerous antenna- When the antenna contains many segments i.e., larvae of
3. Pilose antenna- when the antennae joints hears very few hairs. This is present in
female mosquito.
4. In case of cyclorrhapha group of flies the antenna is three segmented. The segments
are called as scapes. The third segment bears a filamentus structure called as arista.
The caracteristic of arista helps to identify the flies of different types.
Types of arista1. Plumose on both sides up to the tip, e.g., Musca domestica.
2. Plumose only on the dorsal side with 8-10 hairs, e.g., Stomoxys fly.
3. Plumose on the dorsal side with lateral branches, e.g., Glossina fly.
4. Arista plumose on both sides up to the middle and the rest have no plumose,
e. g., Sarcophaga fly.
5. Arista may not contains any plumose, e.g., Oestrus ovis fly.
Eyes- There is two compound eyes present dorso-ventrally above the gena (check region).
They contain large number of facets. Each facet is provided with a lens. The object is seen
by the mosaic theory of vision. In this type of vision only a part of the object is reflected
on one facet and the combined reflection and the full image the object is formed in the
retina. By this way the object is visible to the insect. There are two types of compound
eyes are present.

1. Dichoptic eye- here the eyes are widely apart from each other. Mostly seen in female
2. Holoptic eye- here the eyes are close to each other. Mostly seen in males.
Apart from these compound eyes, there are three simple eyes present and called as
ocelli. These simple eyes have a single facet with a single lens.
Mouth parts of insect In insect there is three types of mouth parts found according to
their feeding habit.
1. Biting and chewing type- this type of mouthpart is commonly found in lice and
2. Lapping and sucking type- this type of mouthpart is seen in Musca fly and also in
cyclorrhapha groups of flies.
3. Piercing and sucking type- Commonly found in mosquitoes, ticks, Tabanus flies,
Stomoxys flies and Glossina flies etc.
The common mouth parts that are seen in insects are1. Labrum (upper lip)- This formed the upper boundary of mouth opening.
2. Labium (lower lip)- This formed the lower boundary of the mouth opening
and anteriorly it is attached with one pair of labellum, which is act as tactile
3. Mandibles and maxillae- each of these structures are paired in nature. These
are cutting and piercing organs. These are present in between labrum and
4. Epipharynx- it is a membranous structure present below the labrum or upper
lip. It is fused with labrum hence, these two structures are collectively known
as labrum-epipharynx. The epipharynx bears the taste organs.
5. Hypopharynx- it is a membranous structure. It is present on the dorsal side of
labium. This is not fused with labium. Hypopharynx is otherwise known as
tongue. The epipharynx and hypopharynx are collectively forms a tubular
structure through which food passes to the intestine.
Though the common insect mouthparts may contains all these parts but they
differ from one insect to the other either by modification of mouth- parts or by
completely absence of some of the mouthparts.
Thorax- the thorax consists of three segments.
Each segment bears a pair of legs. So there are three pairs of legs in adult
insect. In most cases the meso and metathorax bear a pair of wings. Each
segment of thorax is made up of number of chitinous plates called as sclerites.
The plate that is present on the dorsal side is called tergum. The plate on the
ventral side is called as sternum. The two plates on lateral sides are called as
pleuron plates.
Tergum- it is present on dorsal side of thorax. It is otherwise called as notum.
It is further divided into four different portions.
Post scutellum
Parts of thorax-

Leg- In case of class insecta there is three pairs of legs. In case of class
Arachnida, there is four pair of legs. The leg is divided into a number of
segments. Each segment is called as podomere. There are usually five
segments present. These segments areCoxa, trochanter, femur, tibia and tarsus or (CTFTT).
The tarsus is divided into 3-5 segments and the last segment of the tarsus has a
pair of claws. In between the claws there is a spine like structure called as
empodium. Below the claws there is a pair of soft pad like structure known as
Wings- In case of insects there are two pairs of wings present. One pair on
mesothrorax and other pairs are on metathrorax. Some time there are some
modifications, e.g., In case of diptera, the insects have one pair of wings on
mesothorax. The 2nd pair of wings or metathoracic pair of wings modifies
into knob like structure called as Halters or balancers. They help during
In case of beetles the mesothroracic pairs of wings are hard and chitinous.
They do not help in flying. They only remain as a protective covering over the
metathoracic pair of wings. These hard wings are known as elytra (in
Coleoptera). The wings develop during pupal stage. These contain breathing
tubes, which are commonly termed as wing veins.
Morphology of the wings- Each wing has- two borders, three margin and three
The anterior portion of the wing is known as costal border and the posterior
par or border of the wing is known as ventral border. The portion of the wing
that aways from the body is known as apex. The angle between anterior body
and costal margin is called as costal angle. The angle between costal margin
and apical margin is called as apical angle. The angle formed by posterior
margin and posterior part of the body is called as anal angle.
At the base of wings on the posterior border in some insects there are a large
number of lobes towards the posterior borders. These are termed as-squama,
antisqama, aluta and anal lobe or SAAA.
Wing venation- they are cuticular out growth which contains veins, which are
breathing tubes or trachea. Different insects have different types of wing
venations i.e., the wing veins are arranged in different insects in different
manner but there is a common pattern of wing venation in which the wing
veins are named and their branching are situated. Wing veins are named and
their branching are situated.
Wing venation can be studied by two methods.
1. Comstock Needhams system (RCN system)- There are six main or large
wing veins.
The main wing veins are present in the basal half of the wing. These veins
areCostal vein
Medial vein
Subcostal vein
Cubital vein
Radial vein
Anal vein
The costal and subcostal veins are unbranched. Radial, medial and some
time cubital vein may be divided into four branches.
Anal vein is divided into two branches. In some insects the last four veins
may not have any branches or in some cases only few branches are
present or some times a complete vein may be absent.

At the anterior margin of the wing there is a vein called costa. Below this
there is another vein subcosta. The radial vein is divided into two main
branches the first one is R1and second one is R2. The R2 is
nd these names are given to those veins that are present in the apical half
of the wing. The vein that is present immediately below the subcostals
known as first longitudinal vein and next to it is the second longitudinal
vein and like wise the number are given. Apart from these longitudinal
veins there are some crossed veins which join with the longitudinal veins
producing or forming some areas which are known as cells. The name of
the cells is given according to the vein that is present anterior to the cell.
Some cells may not be surrounded by vein from all the sides called open
cells and those, which are surrounded by the veins called as closed cells.
Abdomen- this consists of 10-11segments out of which some time or many
times only eight segments are visible due to the fusion between the segments.
The abdomen is a long tube like structure. Each abdomenal segment has two
spiracles, which are also known as stigmata. Through these spiracles the
insects respire. In case of males the last three abdominal segments are
modified into male genital organ known as hypogium and in case of females
the last abdominal segment is very small and becomes telescopic to form the
ovipositor which helps in depositing the eggs or the larvae according to their
will. The abdomen has various stripes colour bands and some hairs or bristles.
The study of hair or bristles on the abdomen is known as chaetotary.
Internal structure- Just below the exoskeleton transverse muscle fibres is
present. At the anterior part these muscles are responsible for the functioning
of the mouthparts, locomotory organs such as wing and legs, respiration etc.
Below the muscle fibers the body cavity is present which is known as
haemocoel. This contains all the internal system such as the digestive systems,
respiratory, circulatory, excretory, nervous and reproductive system.
Digestive system- the alimentary canal is divided into three parts.
Foregut or fore intestine or stomodaeum
Midgut or mesenteron
Hindgut or proctodaeum
Stomodaeum and proctodaeum are ectodermal in origin and it also covered
external part of the body but the midgut or mesenteron is endodermal on
The midgut or the mesenteron is the true stomach where digestion of food
materials takes place. In the hindgut the first potion is a ring of malpighian
tubules which are present at the junction of the midgut and hindgut. These
tubules are responsible for collecting the waste materials from the surrounding
body cavity and expel them into hindgut. The hindgut cosists of small
intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus and a number of rectal papillae.
In cycorrhapha group of insects the midgut and hindgut are lined by a thin
delicate and chitinous membrane, known as the peritrophic membrane. This
membrane is permeable in nature and food materials are absorbed through the
membrane. The second layer of this membrane is also protects the epithelial
cells from injury by the food materials. It is closed attached in the anterior part
of the midgut and hangs loosely in the hindgut.
Circulatory system- Although there is no definite blood vescular system in
case of insects. The circulatory system consists of a heart and aorta. The heart
is tubular in nature and is divided into several compartments. Each
compartment has two opening known as ostia and in between these

compartment there are valves. The heart is surrounded by pericardium, which

is sac like structure. Blood enters into the pericardium and through the ostia
they reach into the heart and pump away through the ostia. The aorta supplies
blood to other organs in the body cavity all organs are bathed with the blood.
The blood of insect is known as haemolymph and colour of this may differs
from insect to insect due to the present of some pigments. In case of larvae of
Chironomus dorsalis the blood contains haemoglobin and is red in colour
hence these larvae are sometimes known as blood worm.
Respiratory system- The respiratory system consists of branching tube which
are3 made up of chitin. These tubes are known as trachea and they ramify or
branch in the body of the insects and end in small branches. The trachea opens
to out sides at the sides of the body and these openings are known as spiracles
or stigma. Spiracle lined by a chitinous plate known as peritrema. This
chitinous plate may also contain some hairs, which control inflow of air into
the spiracles. The number and position of the spiracles may be different in
different types of insects and also in their developing stages of insect such as
larvae. According to the position of spiracle the larvae of insects may be
divided into different types.
1. Holopneustic larvae- In this case spiracles are present on the meso,
metathorax and in all the abdominal segment e.g., Hymenoptera (bee).
2. Peripneustic larvae- In this case spiracles are present in the prothrorax and
in all the abdominal segment e.g., Catterpiller (larvae of butterfly).
3. Amphipneustic larvae- Spiracles are present on lthe prothorax and only on
the last abdominal segment e.g., 2 nd and 3rd stage larvae of Musca and
4. Propneustic larvae- In this case spiracles are present only on the prothorax
e.g., larvae of mosquitoes belonging to the genera Anopheles, Culex,
Aedes and Mansonia.
5. Metapneustic larvae- Spiracles are present only on last abdominal
segment e.g., 1st stage larvae of Musca and Stomoxys.
6. Apneustic larvae Spiracles are absent on the segment of the body e.g.,
the larvae of some aquatic insects which respires through the skin.
Nervous system- In the nervous system there is a supra oesophageal ganglia.
This is present on the dorsal side of oesophagus and it supplies nerve fibres to
the brain. Below this supra oesophageal ganglia there is sub-oesophageal
ganglia. These two are connected by transverse oesophageal commissure.
From this sub oesophageal ganglia the nerve trunk or nerve fibres run down
words and this join with the ganglia of the abdominal and thoracic segment.
From this ganglia nerves fibbers arise and supply to the different organ of the
Reproductive system- the males and female are found separately. The male
reproductive system is known as Hypopygium. It consists of two testes, from
which vas efferent arise and joins together and form the vas deferens in which
there is dilated portion known as seminal vesicle. Seminal vesicle is followed
by an ejaculatory duct, which opens into the penis. This male reproductive
system also consists of a pair of accessory glands. The female reproductive
system consists of a pair of ovaries which is divided into number of
compartment and each compartment is known as ovariole from each ovary an
oviduct arises which joins together and continues as the uterus and ends in
vagina. In most insects one ovipositor is present. The female reproductive
system also has some accessory glands.

Development of insects- Usually lay eggs but some insects are larviparous in
nature and they deposited the larvae e.g., Glossina species, Sarcophaga
species, Oestrus ovis etc. In the development of insects, the larvae usually
moult three times resulting in four stages. Each stage that results after a moult
is known as instar. The period between two moults is known as stadium.
After the third moult of skin of the larvae is may or may not cast off and
remains as a protective covering over the 3 rd stage larvae which later becomes
hard and is known as puperium. After the third moult the larvae develop into
pupa in case of fly and mosquitoes. But in case of lice, ticks and mites, pupa
stage is known as nymph. The young arthropods that comes out from the
puperium is known as imago which develops commonly known as maggots
and the cast of skin after the moult is known as exuviae.
Moulting- It is a process of casting of the exoskeleton and development of
new exoskeleton in place of it. During this process the exoskeleton also cover
the entire body and, lining of the fore gut or the stomodaeum, hind gut,
respiratory trachea and outer body covering, it also cast off and new lining are
produced. They are ectodermal in origin.
Metamorphosis- It is a proces in which there is change of form i.e. associated
with each moulting during development of insect that means often each moult
the insect change in form. This change is known as metamorphosis. It is of
three types1. Ametamorphosis or ametabolous- In this case there is no change of form
i.e., the stage that comes out from the egg completely resemble with the adult
one e.g., silverfish insect.
2. Imcomplete metamorphosis or hemimetabolous- this type of development is
mostly seen in lice, tick, mite, bedbug and cockroach. In this case the form
results after each moult partially resemble with each other or sometimes
greatly resemble, sometime they only different between the young and adult
one are the genital organ and the wings. The stage that comes from the egg is
known as the larva, which moults to 1 st stage nymph- 2nd stage nymph- 3rd
stage nymph Adult.
2. Complete metamorphosis or holometabolous- In this case there is
complete change of form between the stages that result after each moult.
Hence different names are given to each stage e.g. egg- larva- pupa
Imago. Each stage is completely different from the other one e.g.,
Dipterous fly- mosquitoes, butterfly etc.
Types of larva- there are different types of larvae according to the
development of head and mouthparts and legs.
1. Eucephalous larvae- they have got well-developed head and welldeveloped masticatory mouth parts e.g., larvae of mosquitoes,
Chironomus dorsalis and Phlebotomus species of fly.
2. Hemicephalous- In this case there is not well developed head but
masticatory mouth parts are present e.g., larvae of Musca, Stomoxys,
Tabanus, calliphora group of flies.
3. Acephalous- In this case both head and masticatory mouthparts are not
developed e.g., Glossina sp., Melophagus ovinus.
4. Polypod- In this case there are three pairs of legs on the thoracic segments
and also there are some false legs that are known as prolegs which are
present on abdominal segments e.g., larvae of butterflies.
5. Oligopod- In this case legs are only present on thoracic segment e.g.,
larvae of the beetles.

6. Apodous- In this case legs are completely absent on both thoracic and
abdominal segments e.g., larvae of flies and mosquitoes.
Types of pupa1. Free or exarate- these pupae are very much active, they move freely
because their legs and wings are not bound by the molting fluid e.g.,
pupae of beetles.
2. Obtectate pupae In this case though the moulting fluid bound the legs
and wings but there is some movement of pupa. The cast skin of the 3 rd
larvae stage do not remain attach with the pupa as puparium hence there is
some movement of pupa e.g., mosquitoes, butterfly, Tabanus and
Simulium sp.
3. Coarctate pupae- In this case the cast skins of the 3 rd lavae stage remains
attached with the body of the pupa as puperium and pupa remains inside
the puparium and it can not move freely e.g., the pupa of Musca,
Stomoxys, Oestrus fly, Hypoderma etc.
Imago- It is the young insect that comes out from puparium either by making
a T shaped opening or circular opening at one end of the puparium.
Harms caused by insects1. Annoyance and worry- the biting and siting of insects cause discomfort
and worry to the animals due to this the animal swing their tail and stamp
their feet. They do not get proper rest and become off feed. Due to this
there is loss of condition, sometime due to they attach of some flies such
as Hypoderma and Oestrus species the animal become terrified and they
run here and there and make injury themselves. Most of the flies cause
worry and annoyance to the animal e.g., mosquito, tick, and fly.
2. Direct injury-The stings of bees and wasps and sometime the stings of
scorpions cause direct injury on the skin of the animal. They produce very
painful swelling on the skin.
3. Dermatosis The lice and mites directly attach on the skin and cause
thickening and wrinkling of the skin and there is loss of hair or wool.
4. Myiasis- It is a condition caused by invasion of dipterous fly larvae in
living tissue of animals. This is also known as maggoted wound e.g., by
Tabanus and Stomoxys.
5. Setiasis- this is a similar condition like myiasis but thi is caused by
Lepidopterous fly larvae in the living tissue of animal resulting in
irritation and injury.
6. Anaemia and loss of condition- the tick and some blood sucking fly or
arthropods e.g., Tabanus are voracious blood suckers and when they are
found in large number in animal body they cause severe anaemia and loss
of condition.
7. Disease transmission- a large number of bacterial, viral, rickettsia,
helminthes and protozoan disease are transmitted by insect. These
diseases produce a great loss to the livestock industries. The transmission
of disease takes place by mainly two methods.
a. Mechanical transmission- In this case the disease producing organism
remain in the mothparts or proboscis of the insects they do not under go any
chang or development but are directly transmitted from animal to animal
while biting and sucking blood e.g., Trypanosoma evansi.
b. Biological or cyclical transmission- It is three typesi.
Propagative transmission- In this case the disease producing agent
multiply inside the body of insect before they are transmitted to



another host e.g., number of bacterial diseases are transmitted by fly

and flea.
Cyclodevelopmental transmission- in this case the diseaseproducing organism develops into the infective stage inside the
insect body before being transmitted to another host e.g., the filarial
worm transmitted by mosquito.
Cyclo-propagation- In this the organisms both multiply and
devoloped into the infective stage inside the insect body before they
are transmitted to the new host e.g., Babesia species transmitted by
ticks, malaria parasite transmitted by mosquito.

Classification of class insecta

Class- Insecta

Subclass 1. Apterygota- these are primarily wingless insects and metamorphosis is

completely absent or very slight.
Subclass 2. Pterygota- Wings are primarily present but they may be absent or reduced
during the adult stage or during other stage of development or metamorphosis is variable
i.e. it may be holometabolous or hemimetabolous.
Pterygota is again divided into two divisions.
Division a. Exopterygota- the different are in the exopterygota the wings develops
externally as buds and the metamorphosis, simple, incoplete and rearly pupal stage found
or hatch from eggs into adult without pupal period. The immature stages usually resemble
with adult in structure and habit.
a. Exopterygota (wings are develop externally)
Wings can be folded when no in use, can crowl like wing less form e.g.,
Locust, Cricket, Mantis etc.
Wings can not be folded, good fliers, predator insects and ancient group e.g.,
Exopterygota further divided into ten orders these are as follows1. Orthoptera- e.g. grasshopper and cockroach
2. Dermaptera-e.g. earwings
3. Isoptera- e.g. ant, termite.
4. Plecoptera- e.g. stone flies
5. Siphunculata (syn. Anoplura)- sucking lice families are i. pediculidae e.g.
pediculus, phthirus pubis ii. Haemtopinidae e.g. Haematopinus iii. Linognatidae
e.g. Linoghatha.
6. Hemiptera it has two families i. cimicidae e.g. Cimex and ii. Reduviidae e.g.
Reduviid and Tritoma bugs.
7. Psocoptes e.g. book lice, bark lice
8. Odonato- e.g. dragon fly
9. Mallophaga (biting lice)- it divided into two sub orders i. Amblycera e.g.
Menopon, Menacanthus etc. ii. Ischnocera e.g. Goniodes, Damalina, Goniocotes
10. Thysanopter e.g. thrips

Endopterygota- Wings developed from inside of the body and metamorphosis is
complete. wings are developed internally. They are holometabolous and pupal
is always present. This division is divided into following orders1. Coleoptera e.g., beetles
2. Hymenoptera e.g., bees and wasps
3. Lepidoptera e.g., butterfly and moth
4. Siphonaptera or Aphaniptera e.g., fleas
5. Diptera e.g., true flies (mosquito, housefly, sandfly etc.)
6. Neuroptera e.g., lace wings



Order Diptera this order is divided into two suborers. The insects belonging to this
order have only one pair of wings on the mesothorax. The metathorax pair of wings are
modified into knob like structure known as balancers or halters.
This order is divided into two suborders
a. suborder 1. Orthorrhapha
b. suborder 2. Cyclorrhapha

a. suborder 1. Orthorrhapha- Larvae are eucephalus. The puae obtectate and the imago
comes out from the puparium by making a T shaped opening on the dorsal side of
the puparium. It is divided into two series i. Nematocera and ii. Brachycera.
Nematocera- The antennae are many segmented. The maxillary palp is 4-5
segmented and the third long vein in the wings is never forked or divided
e.g. mosquitoes.
Nematocera further divided into seven families, these are as follows1. Psychodidae- e.g Phlebotomus
2. Simulidae e.g. Simulium (black fly)
3. Tipulidae e.g. (daddy long legs crane flies)
4. Chironomidae e.g. chironomus
5. Biolonidae e.g. non biting medges
6. Ceratopogonidae-e.g. culicoides (biting medges)
7. Culicidae i. sub family- culicinae e.g Culex, Aedes, Mansonia
ii. sub family- Anophelinae e.g. Anopheles
Brachycera- The antennae are 3-4 segment, the palp are two
segments and the 2nd long vein is not divided. This series brachycera is
divided into only one family Tabanidae. Tabanidae family divided into
two sub families i. tabaninae- e.g. Tabanus fly, Haematopota etc. ii.
Pagoninae-e.g. Pangonia, Chrysops etc.
b. Sub order 2. Cyclorrhapha- Larvae are hemicephalous, the pupae are coarctate and
imago comes out of the puparium from a circular opening at one end. The
cyclorrhapha suborder is divided into five families1. Anthomydae e.g. Tabanus, Stomoxys, Glossina etc.
2. Tachinidae- this family divided into two subfamilies i.
sarcophaginae e.g. Sarcophaga and ii. Caliphorinae e.g. Caliphora.
3. Oestridae e.g. Oestrus, Hypoderma etc.
4. Gasterophilidae e.g. Gasterophilus.
5. Hippoboscidae e.g. Hippobosca, Melanophaga.
Suborder Cyclorrhapha can be divided into three seriesseries1. Aschiza

series2. Schizophora- it is further divided into two sub series i.

Calyptera e.g. Musca, Stomoxys etc. and ii. Acalyptera has the family
Gasterophilidae e.g. Gasterophilus.
Series3. Pupirara (larviparous) this series has the family Hippoboscidae
e.g. Hippobosca, Melaphagus, Pseudolynchia etc.
Family 1. Psychodidae
This family has the genera Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia, some species of the genera arePhlebotomus argentipes, P. sergenti, P. major, P. papatasii and Sergentomyia babu.
Common name of this insects are sand flyor sometime known as owl midges.