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It is a self-contained compact unit designed for easy installation and

bench mounting. An eddy current dynamometer is used to load the engine. The dynamometer is
provided with a manual control of the load. The test set is supplied with, as standard, a Robin engine
which is a single cylinder, four-stroke, spark ignited, air-cooled, side valve type of engine. This is a
typical small
engine commonly used in various industrial and domestic applications throughout the world.
The engine and dynamometer are carried on a solid
steel base plate resiliently mounted within a steel
framework. Included within the framework are the fuel
system, which incorporates a fuel tanks and valves,
and the air induction system. The instrumentation and
control panel are mounted on the front frame.
An additional engines, four-stroke diesel engine is
supplied and easily interchangeable with the standard
engine to enable characteristics comparisons. This
alternative engine is air-cooled single cylinder engine.

Slow speed disel engine

Fire-tube boiler
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A fire-tube boiler is a type of boiler in which hot gases from a fire pass through one or (many) more
tubes running through a sealed container of water. The heat of the gases is transferred through the
walls of the tubes by thermal conduction, heating the water and ultimately creating steam.
The fire-tube boiler developed as the third of the four major historical types of boilers: low-pressure
tank or "haystack" boilers, flued boilers with one or two large flues, fire-tube boilers with many small
tubes, and high-pressure water-tube boilers. Their advantage over flued boilers with a single large

flue is that the many small tubes offer far greater heating surface area for the same overall boiler
volume. The general construction is as a tank of water penetrated by tubes that carry the hot flue
gases from the fire. The tank is usually cylindrical for the most partbeing the strongest practical
shape for a pressurized containerand this cylindrical tank may be either horizontal or vertical.

Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil - or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl,
or propyl) esters. Biodiesel is typically made by chemically reacting lipids (e.g., vegetable oil, soybean oil,[1] animal
fat (tallow[2][3])) with an alcohol producing fatty acid esters.
Biodiesel is meant to be used in standard diesel engines and is thus distinct from the vegetable and waste oils used
to fuel converted diesel engines. Biodiesel can be used alone, or blended with petrodiesel in any
proportions.[1] Biodiesel blends can also be used as heating oil.
The National Biodiesel Board (USA) also has a technical definition of "biodiesel" as a mono-alkyl ester.[4]


Fluids are accelerated in nozzles, while the pressure decreases. When using compressible fluids
(e.g. air) very high speeds can be achieved by this process, often in the supersonic range. Nozzles
are used in steam turbines, in injector devices, in supersonic aircraft and rockets. The impact forces
or thrust (action or reaction force) occurring in the fluid is referred to when designing the shape of
HM 260 offers two experiment layouts for nozzles, in which either the occurring action force or
reaction force of the fluid is considered. Characteristics such as flow velocity and nozzle efficiency are
measured. In addition, the "choking effect" is demonstrated, where the mass flow stops increasing
upon reaching the critical pressure ratio. Air is used as a compressible fluid.
In the first experiment layout to determine the reaction force, a nozzle is inserted into the force
measuring device. The force measuring device consists of a bending beam, whose deformation is
measured electronically. The air pressure upstream and downstream of the nozzle can be adjusted.
Compressed air flows through the nozzle and the occurring reaction force (thrust) of the fluid is
In the second experiment layout, the baffle plate is inserted into the force measuring device and the
nozzle is positioned above the baffle plate. The position of the nozzle is adjustable, so that the
distance between the nozzle and the baffle plate can be varied. The flow at the nozzle outlet impacts
against the baffle plate and the action force (impact force) of the fluid is detected by the deformation
of the bending beam.
Pressures and mass flow are also detected in addition to the force. The temperatures are also
measured, in order to determine the mass flow precisely. Four convergent-divergent and one
convergent nozzle as well as a baffle plate are available for experiments.


this Air Compressor Study Unit (Model: WT 01) is designed to enable students to study the characteristic
of a two-stage air compressor and the compressed airflow through different types of flow arrangement.
This unit is self-contained, fully instrumented, mild steel frame-mounted on raised foundation, with
and air receivers. An AC motor drives the compressor. The intercooler will provide adequate cooling to the
system and is supplied with pressure and temperature measuring instruments at the inlet and outlet.

Rankine cycle

The Rankine cycle is a model that is used to predict the performance of steam turbine systems. The Rankine
cycle is an idealizedthermodynamic cycle of a heat engine that converts heat into mechanical work. The
heat is supplied externally to a closed loop, which usually uses water as the working fluid. It is named
after William John Macquorn Rankine, a Scottish polymath and Glasgow University professor.

The Rankine cycle closely describes the process by which steam-operated heat engines commonly found in
thermal power generation plantsgenerate power. The heat sources used in these power plants are usually nuclear
fission or the combustion of fossil fuels such ascoal, natural gas, and oil.
The efficiency of the Rankine cycle is limited by the high heat of vaporization of the working fluid. Also, unless the
pressure and temperature reach super critical levels in the steam boiler, the temperature range the cycle can
operate over is quite small: steam turbine entry temperatures are typically around 565C and steam condenser
temperatures are around 30C. This gives a theoretical maximum Carnot efficiency for the steam turbine alone of
about 63% compared with an actual overall thermal efficiency of up to 42% for a modern coal-fired power station.
This low steam turbine entry temperature (compared to a gas turbine) is why the Rankine (steam) cycle is often
used as a bottoming cycle to recover otherwise rejected heat in combined-cycle gas turbine power stations.


In a steam engine thermodynamic energy in the form of vapour pressure from steam generators is
converted into mechanical energy. This can be used further downstream in the process to generate
electricity or to power machinery and vehicles.
A steam power plant consists of a heat source for generating steam, a turbine or steam engine with
generator and a cooling device for condensing.
The ET 810 trainer contains the main components of a steam power plant: steam is generated in a
gas-fired steam boiler and fed to a piston steam engine. The energy from the steam is converted into
mechanical energy by a piston and a crankshaft assembly. A generator in the form of a DC motor
generates electricity from the mechanical power. Four light bulbs are used as consumers of the
resulting electrical energy. The exhaust steam is condensed in a water-cooled condenser.
Safe operation is ensured by safety devices that monitor the boiler temperature and a safety valve.
Sensors record the temperature, pressure and flow rate at all relevant points. The measured values
can be read on displays. Current and voltage from the generator are measured and displayed in the
experimental unit.
The well-structured instructional material sets out the fundamentals and provides a step-by-step
guide through the experiments.

Gas turbine
A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of internal combustion engine. It has an upstream
rotating compressorcoupled to a downstream turbine, and a combustion chamber in between.
The basic operation of the gas turbine is similar to that of the steam power plant except that air is used instead of
water. Fresh atmospheric air flows through a compressor that brings it to higher pressure. Energy is then added by
spraying fuel into the air and igniting it so the combustion generates a high-temperature flow. This high-temperature
high-pressure gas enters a turbine, where it expands down to the exhaust pressure, producing a shaft work
output in the process. The turbine shaft work is used to drive the compressor and other devices such as an electric
generator that may be coupled to the shaft. The energy that is not used for shaft work comes out in the exhaust
gases, so these have either a high temperature or a high velocity. The purpose of the gas turbine determines the
design so that the most desirable energy form is maximized. Gas turbines are used to
power aircraft, trains, ships, electrical generators, or even tanks.[1]