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Engineering Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/engstruct

Strength and drift capacity of squat recycled concrete shear walls under

cyclic loading

Youkai Peng a, Hui Wu a, Yan Zhuge b,

a

Beijing Higher Institution Engineering Research Center of Civil Engineering Structure and Renewable Material, Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing

100044, China

b

School of Civil Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 28 February 2014

Revised 12 June 2015

Accepted 15 June 2015

Available online 26 June 2015

Keywords:

Shear wall

Squat wall

Recycled concrete

Cyclic loading

Drift capacity

Strength

a b s t r a c t

In order to provide an improved understanding of the behavior of squat reinforced concrete shear walls

and promote the application of recycled concrete in structures, six rectangular squat recycled concrete

wall specimens were tested under in-plane cyclic loading. The specimens were designed based on

Chinese code for design of concrete structures GB 50010-2010, which specied minimum horizontal

and vertical reinforcement ratios of 0.25% in web, and vertical reinforcement ratio of 1.0% in boundary

element. The main parameters investigated are axial load level and the amount of vertical and horizontal

web reinforcement. This research presents the experimental results which include test observation, lateral load versus drift response, and measured strain distribution of vertical and horizontal reinforcement,

measured strength and drift capacity of wall specimens. It was found that increasing of axial load level

resulted in a higher peak load but less ultimate drift capacity, and increasing of horizontal web reinforcement had small effect on peak load but could improve the drift capacity. In this study, a mixed exure and

diagonal compression mechanism was proposed to reect the lateral load resisting behavior of squat

walls. Particularly, a simplied analytical method was developed to predict the peak loads of squat walls

failed in exure or a mixed exuraldiagonal compression mode, which was proved to accurately predict

the peak loads of specimens.

2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Recycled concrete is prepared by partially replacing the natural

aggregate in mix proportion by recycled aggregate which is the

product of construction and demolition concrete waste. It provides

a sustainable way of both preserving natural aggregate and solving

the pollution problem. At present in China, with the rapid development of construction industry, shortage of resources is becoming

an urgent matter. At the same time, billion tons of construction

waste is generated each year. The traditional disposal method of

landll or dumping will have fatal impact on environment, recycling and reuse of the huge amount of the construction waste

becomes an inevitable choice and is attracting more research activities in the area.

Studies on the structural performance of using recycled concrete have been carried out in the past decade [14]. Letelier

et al. [1] investigated the seismic behavior of recycled concrete

E-mail address: yan.zhuge@usq.edu.au (Y. Zhuge).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2015.06.025

0141-0296/ 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

the seismic behavior of plane frame under cyclic loading and conducted a shaking table test of a 1/4-scale recycled concrete frame

[2]. Their testing results indicated that it was feasible to use recycled concrete in reinforced concrete structures. More recently, the

exural behavior of reinforced concrete beams that use recycled

concrete aggregates were studied by Arezoumandi et al. [3]. They

found out that recycled concrete aggregates beams have comparable ultimate exural strength and approximately 13% higher

deection corresponding to the ultimate exural strength of the

conventional concrete. Although a large amount of experimental

research has been conducted, additional studies should be performed to further the knowledge and use of recycled concrete in

reinforced concrete building structures, especially laboratory testing on large-scale recycled concrete specimens. Previous study [4]

carried out by the authors on the seismic behavior of full-scale

recycled concrete columns indicated that recycled concrete specimens exhibited more brittle characteristic than normal concrete

specimen. In order to meet the requirements of seismic design, it

is suggested that the seismic behavior of recycled concrete members must be carefully studied.

357

lw ratio of less than 2 are commonly used in low-rise buildings

because they show good performance in lateral load resistance

and drift control. Since the 1950s, many research projects have

been carried out in order to understand the behavior of squat reinforced concrete walls under monotonic or simulated earthquake

loading. Some of them are shown in Refs. [515]. When shear walls

are used in the lateral force resisting system, it is highly desirable

that they are designed to exhibit a ductile behavior which means

supplying sufcient shear strength to favor a exural yielding

[7,8]. However, for a squat wall, the behavior is dominated by a

shear response or mixed modes of exure and shear. Although a

relatively large number of wall tests are reported in the literature

[7], there is a signicant uncertainty to predict the squat wall

behavior. This is due to the following factors: wall specimens experienced different failure modes (exure, shear and sliding shear)

and the interaction between each failure mode was not well

dened; different parameters (e.g., material strength, geometry

of wall cross section, amount and distribution of reinforcement)

were used which resulted in different formulas; and small-scale

specimens used may not reect the real behavior of full-scale

walls. Consequently, the deign equations derived from the experimental data probably give least predictable behavior of squat walls

[15].

Currently, there is still a lack of studies on the behavior of

large-scale squat recycled concrete walls. In this study, six

large-scale rectangular squat recycled concrete wall specimens

with a height to length ratio of 0.89 were designed and tested

under quasi-static cyclic loading. This research aimed at providing

an improved understanding of squat recycled concrete shear walls

and giving design suggestions. The principal research objectives

are: (1) the lateral load-transferring mechanism and failure modes

of squat recycled concrete shear walls; (2) the peak load and its

prediction method; (3) drift capacity; (4) the effect of vertical

and horizontal web reinforcement; and (5) the adequacy of current

detailing requirements for design of recycled concrete walls.

[16], as shown in Table 1. The main variables are axial load level,

the amount of vertical and horizontal web reinforcement. All

specimens have a length of 1800 mm and a height of 1600 mm

(hw/lw = 0.89), and a thickness bw of 180 mm. The height from wall

base to the action point of lateral loading (H) is 1800 mm. The

length of boundary element lc is 360 mm, which is two times the

thickness or 20% of the overall length of wall specimen. The details

of specimens are illustrated in Fig. 1.

The boundary element of all specimens was vertically reinforced with six hot rolled ribbed bars D14 (diameter = 14 mm),

constituting a longitudinal reinforcement ratio q of 1.4%; and

transversely reinforced with hot rolled plain bars D10 (diameter = 10 mm) hoops and ties spaced at 75 mm (D10@75). The

details in boundary element meet the requirements of Chinese

code. Hot rolled plain bars D8 (diameter = 8 mm) spaced at

180 mm (D8@180) were used as the vertical web reinforcement

of specimens RCSW-1 through RCSW-4, and hot rolled plain bars

D10 spaced at 135 mm (D10@135) were used as the vertical web

reinforcement of specimens RCSW-5 and RCSW-6, constituting

vertical web reinforcement ratios qv of 0.310% (minimum requirement 0.25%) and 0.646%, respectively. The horizontal web reinforcement ratio qh varies from 0.186% to 0.873%. Specimens

RCSW-1 through RCSW-6 were horizontally reinforced in web

region by D10@100, D10@150, D10@150, D10@300, D8@150 and

D8@300, respectively. In order to prevent a premature sliding

shear failure at wall base, four hot rolled ribbed bars D14 with a

length of 700 mm were added as dowel reinforcement for all specimens. The length of the dowel bars extended into the foundation

and into the wall section was 400 mm and 300 mm, respectively.

The axial load ratio of specimens RCSW-1, RCSW-3 and RCSW-4

2100

300

B

Top beam

450

Lateral load

250

2. Research signicance

This study presents the experimental results of six large-scale

squat recycled concrete shear walls under cyclic loading. It can

be used as reference for engineering practice and development of

design guidelines. Especially, the proposed mixed exure and diagonal compression mechanism is quite suitable for explaining the

lateral load resisting behavior of squat walls with boundary elements, and the simple analytical method for predicting the peak

loads will be useful for the rational design of squat walls.

1800

1600

Dowel

Reinforcement

4D14

1800

Foundation beam

(length 3500)

Web

Boundary

element

3. Experimental program

400

500

B

180

360

Six rectangular squat wall specimens were designed based on

Chinese code for design of concrete structures GB 50010-2010

1080

1800

A-A

B-B

360

All dimensions are in mm

Table 1

Parameters of specimens.

Specimen

hw (mm)

lw (mm)

lc (mm)

bw (mm)

fcu (MPa)

fc (MPa)

ft (MPa)

q (%)

qv (%)

qh (%)

N (kN)

N/(Acfc)

RCSW-1

RCSW-2

RCSW-3

RCSW-4

RCSW-5

RCSW-6

1600

1600

1600

1600

1600

1600

1800

1800

1800

1800

1800

1800

360

360

360

360

360

360

180

180

180

180

180

180

50.3

50.3

51.9

51.0

53.4

49.3

42.0

42.0

43.2

42.5

44.0

46.7

2.26

2.26

2.16

2.16

2.16

2.16

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.4

0.310

0.310

0.310

0.310

0.646

0.646

0.873

0.582

0.582

0.291

0.372

0.186

1792

870

1818

1791

0.13

0.06

0.13

0.13

Note: fcu = average compressive strength of three 150 mm cubs; fc = average compressive strength of three 150 mm 300 mm prisms; ft = splitting tensile strength; N = axial

load; N/(Acfc) = axial load ratio; Ac = lwbw.

358

was 0.13 while that of specimen RCSW-2 was 0.064, and the axial

load was not applied for specimens RCSW-5 and RCSW-6.

In ACI 318 code [17], if hw/lw dose not exceed 2.0, it is required

that the vertical web reinforcement ratio shall not be less than the

horizontal web reinforcement ratio. This is mainly based on the

observation that in long and low shear walls, the vertical web reinforcement will be more effective in restraining the inclined cracks,

especially for walls with hw/lw less than 0.5. In this study, specimens RCSW-4 through RCSW-6 satisfy the requirement. For specimens RCSW-1 through RCSW-3, the amount of horizontal web

reinforcement is more than that of vertical web reinforcement.

They were designed to investigate the benecial effect of horizontal web reinforcement on drift capacity. To attain nearly the same

exural strength of specimens with similar axial load, the amount

of vertical web reinforcement was kept constant for RCSW-1,

RCSW-3 and RCSW-4 (0.310%), and for RCSW-5 and RCSW-6

(0.646%), respectively.

3.2. Materials

The mix proportions per m3 of recycled concrete were 170 kg

water, 290 kg cement, 392 kg natural coarse aggregate, 308 kg natural ne aggregate, 588 kg recycled coarse aggregate, 462 kg recycled ne aggregate, 91 kg ay ash, 82 kg mineral powder, and

18.5 kg pumping agent. The recycled aggregate was produced

properly and supplied by a local production line. The average compressive and tensile strength of recycled concrete tested on the day

of cyclic testing are shown in Table 1. The mechanical properties of

reinforcement are show in Table 2 and stressstrain curves shown

in Fig. 2.

3.3. Theoretical strengths and predicted failure modes

The average shear stress V/(lwbw) achieved by walls is closely

related to their failure mechanisms, where V is the applied shear

force. In the design applications, exural failure is preferred since

it is ductile and easy to predict the peak load with satisfactory

accuracy. However, the squat shear walls are prone to fail in a

mixed exureshear or shear mode. Three typical shear failure

modes were summarized by Paulay et al. [8], namely, diagonal tension, diagonal compression and sliding shear failure. Diagonal tension failure, characterized by a corner to corner cracking, often

occurs when insufcient horizontal reinforcement is provided.

Adding horizontal reinforcement can prevent diagonal tension failure and lead to diagonal compression failure, characterized by

crushing of concrete struts near the base of the wall. This type of

failure is common in walls with stiff boundary elements or with

a high axial load. It usually attains a high shear stress. Sliding shear

failure differs from diagonal tension or compression, characterized

by resisting shear force by aggregate interlock in the compression

zone and dowel action of the vertical reinforcement at base section. It occurs in walls with adequate horizontal reinforcement to

prevent diagonal tension failure, with low axial loads and no stiff

boundary elements so that diagonal compression failure would

be avoided, or in walls with light vertical reinforcement. Since

shear failures are brittle in nature, walls or other members are

Table 2

Mechanical properties of reinforcement.

Type

D8

D10

D14

fy (MPa)

398

363

477

fu (MPa)

518

482

628

strengths to suppress shear failures in seismic design.

The calculation of exural strength is based on the plane sections assumption which is applicable to exure-dominant members. Thus, the assumption will not apply to the squat walls

because their shear deformations are expected to be considerable.

Even so, the ideal and ultimate exural strength (Vif and Vuf) of wall

specimens were calculated for comparison. The predicted exural

strengths according to Chinese code GB 50010 are shown in

Table 3. The formulae for the calculation of Vif and Vuf are shown

in Eqs. (1) and (2), where V represents Vif or Vuf. The strain limit

of concrete in compression is 0.0033 and the tensile stress of concrete is not considered. The only difference between Vif and Vuf is

that the latter takes into account of the strain-hardening of

reinforcement.

N a1 f c bw x

0

X

A0si f si f c

Asi f si

VH N0:5lw 0:5x

Asi f si di 0:5x

2.1 10

2.1 105

2.0 105

ey (106)

1895

1729

2385

Note: fy is the yield stress; fu is the ultimate stress; Es is the modulus of elasticity; ey

is the yield strain.

A0si f si di 0:5x

2

block, xn is the actual depth of compression zone, a1 and b1 are

the coefcients of rectangular stress block (taken as 1.0 and 0.8

0

for normal strength concrete, respectively), Asi is the area of bar i

0

in compression zone, fsi is the stress of compression bar i (positive

in compression), Asi is the area of bar i in tension zone, fsi is the

stress of tension bar i (positive in tension), di is the distance from

the extreme compression ber to the centroid of bar i. In calculation

0

of Vif, it is assumed that fsi and fsi equal to the yield stress of vertical

reinforcement (Table 2). However, in calculation of Vuf, the stresses

0

fsi and fsi are obtained from the testing stressstrain curves of reinforcement (Fig. 2). For example, the strain of the outermost bar in

tension in RCSW-1 is 0.012 and the corresponding stress is

592 MPa.

Due to the uncertainty of shear strength of walls, design codes

often give a lower bound prediction to estimate the shear strength

conservatively. In Chinese code GB 50010 [16], the peak shear

strength of shear walls (hw/lw 6 1.5) can be simplied as Eq. (3).

Es (MPa)

Ash

h0

s

where h0 is the effective depth of cross section (taken as the distance from the center of boundary element in tension to the

extreme compressive ber of concrete), N is axial load which is no

more than 0.2fcbwlw, fy is the yield stress of horizontal web reinforcement, and Ash is the total cross-sectional area of horizontal

web reinforcement within the spacing s. In ACI 318 code [17], the

359

Table 3

Calculated strengths and failure modes.

Specimen

Vif (kN)

Vuf (kN)

RCSW-1

RCSW-2

RCSW-3

RCSW-4

RCSW-5

RCSW-6

1200

867

1215

1203

614

616

1279

984

1294

1282

753

753

Diagonal tension

strength (kN)

VGB50010

VACI318

VBarda

VPark

1486

1058

1167

856

747

531

1552

1209

1217

870

1017

793

1626

1418

1644

1631

1633

1660

2157

1235

2183

2156

833

833

VWood (kN)

1050

1050

1065

1056

1075

1107

Failure mode

Predicted

Tests

F

F

F-DT

DT

F

F

F-DC

F-SL

F-DC

DT

F

F/DC

Note: F exural; DT diagonal tension; DC diagonal compression; SL sliding shear; F/DC exural failure in the negative direction, diagonal compression in the positive

direction.

combination of the contribution of concrete and horizontal reinforcement, as shown in Eq. (4), and the benecial effect of axial load

is not considered.

q

0

V ACI318 0:25 f c qh f y lw bw

(cylinder strength), which is equal to prism strength fc in this study

(the small difference between them is ignored). Eqs. (3) and (4)

assume a diagonal failure plane inclined as 45 and yielding of all

horizontal web reinforcement across the failure plane. In the prediction of failure modes, the maximum value of Eqs. (3) and (4)

was regarded as a potential diagonal tension resistance of shear

walls. To estimate the potential diagonal compression strength of

wall specimens, the equation suggested by Barda et al. [6] was used.

The Barda et al. equation was derived based on the test results of

eight squat walls with heavily reinforced anges. Since diagonal

compression failure occurred in Bardas study, it is reasonable to

use the equation to predict the diagonal compression strength of

squat walls for research purpose. Additionally, the equation suggested by Park and Paulay [18] was used to predict the sliding shear

strength of shear walls, which is shown in Eq. (5).

V Park N Av f y N qv lw bw f y

in web and boundary elements, which is taken as qvlwbw so that

the contribution of heavy reinforcement in the boundary elements

could not be overestimated, qv is the vertical web reinforcement

ratio, and fy is the yield stress of web reinforcement. Moreover,

the shear strength predicted by Wood [19] which was based on

the testing results of 143 specimens was also calculated.

As shown in Table 3, based on the calculated exural and shear

strengths, all specimens except RCSW-4 could achieve the ideal

exural strength. It was predicted that exural failure would occur

in RCSW-1, RCSW-2, RCSW-5 and RCSW-6, critical exuraldiagonal tension failure would occur in RCSW-3, and diagonal tension

failure would occur in RCSW-4. However, for squat walls with

boundary elements, a signicant portion of lateral load introduced

at the top of a cantilever wall could be transmitted directly to the

wall base by compressive struts, thus the lateral load resistance

would be the combined contribution of exural and diagonal compression mechanisms and probably be lower or higher than the

exural strength of the critical section (evidenced by the results

of this study). Since the relative contributions of the lateral load

resisting mechanisms are unknown, the peak loads and actual failure modes are hard to predict accurately.

3.4. Construction

The specimens were constructed at the structural laboratory of

Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture. For each

wall the foundation beam was cast by normal concrete rst.

Then the wall together with the top beam was cast vertically by

recycled concrete. After casting of walls, the specimens were cured

at least 28 days before testing. The foundation beam and top beam

were designed to be elastic in loading process and sufciently stiff

to bear and transfer forces with negligible deformation.

3.5. Test setup

Fig. 3 shows the test setup. The specimen was stressed to the

strong oor and horizontally restrained to prevent rocking and

sliding. The lateral load was applied by a horizontal actuator with

a capacity of 2000 kN. The axial load was applied vertically by a

loading system which included two hydraulic jacks with a total

capacity of 4000 kN, a stiff steel beam for transferring forces, two

post-tension bolts, and two hinged connections. Additionally, a

steel beam was placed on the top of wall specimen to make sure

that the axial load was applied uniformly to the wall.

3.6. Instrumentation

The applied lateral and vertical loads were monitored by load

cells. A series of linear variable displacement transducers (LVDTs)

were used to measure the deformation. As shown in Fig. 4, the

top displacement at the application point of lateral load was measured by a 250 mm stroke LVDT. Moreover, three LVDTs on each

side of the specimen and two LVDTs in diagonal directions were

installed for measuring the exural and shear deformation respectively, and a LVDT was installed at the foundation beam to measure

the sliding displacement of the specimen. As shown in Fig.5, electrical resistance strain gages (3 mm length) were mounted on the

vertical and horizontal reinforcement to monitor the steel strain

during testing. The selected locations of stain gauges of RCSW-2

through RCSW-4 and RCSW-6 were same as those of RCSW-1

and RCSW-5, respectively.

3.7. Loading procedure

The axial load remained constant when the specimen was

tested under cyclic lateral load. In order to prevent unexpected

sudden shear failure in the loading process, force control was taken

with the increasing amplitude of 100 kN, and each target load was

applied once before the minimum of 0.75Vif and VGB50010 (shear

strength based on Chinese code) was achieved. After that, displacement control was conducted. The target displacement or drift (displacement divided by wall height) was 1, 1.5, 2, . . . times the

displacement or drift corresponding to the minimum of 0.75Vif

360

Hydraulic jack

Negative Positive

Actuator

Steel beam

Post-tension

bolt

Specimen

Reaction wall

Hinged

connection

Strong floor

Fig. 3. Test setup.

were applied.

4. Experimental results

4.1. RCSW-5 and RCSW-6: no axial load

Specimen RCSW-5 and RCSW-6 were designed to reect the

behavior of squat recycled concrete shear walls without axial

loads. They had same vertical web reinforcement (0.646%) but

different horizontal web reinforcement. The horizontal web

reinforcement of RCSW-6 (0.186%) was one half of that of

RCSW-5(0.372%).

Vertical:

D8@180

Strain

gauge

half of the boundary element at the end of the 300 kN cycle. In the

0.3% drift cycle, the short cracks developed into the web region

obviously. In the following loading stages, inclined cracks

increased and climbed along the height of the specimen. In the

1.29% drift cycle, the peak load was achieved. The crack pattern

of RCSW-6 at peak load is shown in Fig. 6(f), it was observed that

the cover concrete at the toes of the specimen was slightly damaged and web concrete was divided into many compressive struts.

An ultimate drift of +2.93% (corresponding to 85% of the peak load,

namely, failure load) was achieved in the positive direction, and

the loss of load-carrying capacity was caused by the degradation

of compressive struts. However, a lower ultimate drift of 2.54%

was achieved in the negative direction, and the loss of

load-carrying capacity was caused by crushing of concrete in the

left boundary element (Fig.7(f)). The lateral load versus drift

response of RCSW-6 is shown in Fig. 8(f). It should be noticed that

the asymmetry of peak load and the degradation trend of

load-carrying capacity is obvious. In the positive direction, a peak

load of +592 kN was achieved which was only 79% of the calculated

ultimate exural strength, and in the negative direction, the calculated ultimate exural strength (753 kN) was achieved. This could

be a consequence of different controlling mechanism which

occurred in two directions. Since exural failure occurred in negative direction and diagonal compression failure occurred in positive direction (Table 3), two controlling mechanisms would result

in different capacity. In this test, the specimen was not symmetrically loaded in two loading directions due to unexpected horizontal sliding of the footing beam. Based on the test observation and

measured vertical strain distribution of vertical reinforcement

across the base section, it was found that the depth of compression

Vertical:

D10@135

Strain

gauge

300mm

300mm

(b) RCSW-5

(a) RCSW-1

Fig. 5. Measured strain gauges.

361

(a) RCSW-1

(d) RCSW-4

(b) RCSW-2

(c) RCSW-3

(e) RCSW-5

(f) RCSW-6

(a) RCSW-1

(d) RCSW-4

(b) RCSW-2

(e) RCSW-5

Fig. 7. Crack patterns of specimens at failure load.

(c) RCSW-3

(f) RCSW-6

362

Fig. 8. Lateral load versus drift response: (a) RCSW-1; (b) RCSW-2; (c) RCSW-3; (d) RCSW-4; (e) RCSW-5; (f) RCSW-6.

thus a shorter force arm would also result in a lower moment

capacity.

Specimen RCSW-5 developed less cracks than RCSW-6 at the

end of 300 kN cycle due to larger amount of horizontal web reinforcement. A peak load of +675 kN and 698 kN was achieved at

+1.17% drift and 1.50% drift, respectively. The crack pattern at

peak load is shown in Fig. 6(e). Similar to RCSW-6, the calculated

ultimate exural strength of RCSW-5 was also not achieved.

However, there was also substantial yielding of vertical reinforcement in the web and boundary element. Obvious crushing of cover

concrete in left boundary element was observed in the 2.75% drift

cycle. After that, the load-carrying capacity in negative direction

decreased rapidly to failure load at 2.84% drift, but the specimen

still kept stable lateral load-carrying capacity in positive direction

until the spalling of web concrete (Fig. 7(e)) at +3.42% drift. As

shown in Fig. 8(e), it exhibited ductile behavior and could meet

the requirements of seismic design.

Specimen RCSW-2 was designed to reect the behavior of the

squat wall with a small axial load ratio. The horizontal cracking

700 kN cycle. At the end of the 800 kN cycle, two cross inclined

cracks in web concrete were observed. A peak load of +1111 kN

and 1093 kN was achieved at +1.36% drift and 1.92% drift,

respectively. Different from specimen RCSW-5 and RCSW-6, the

peak load of RCSW-2 is higher than its calculated ultimate exural

strength. The crack pattern at peak load is shown in Fig. 6(b), ne

compressive struts and the crushing of concrete at the toes of the

specimen could be observed. The loss of load-carrying capacity

was caused by horizontal sliding shear in web at a height of

350 mm and crushing of boundary elements (Fig. 7(b)). The sliding

surface almost located at the end of dowel reinforcement. As

shown in Fig. 8(b), the specimen exhibited stable load-carrying

capacity until an average ultimate drift of 2.56% was achieved.

Specimen RCSW-4 was lightly reinforced in horizontal direction

and diagonal tension failure was expected. Horizontal cracking initiated in the boundary elements during the 1000 kN cycle (0.2%

drift). Cross diagonal cracking occurred at 0.75% drift. A peak load

of +1492 kN and 1499 kN was achieved at +1.21% drift and 1.0%

drift, respectively. It is much higher than the predicted diagonal

363

Fig. 6(d). The specimen failed suddenly due to the spalling and

crushing of boundary elements and the main diagonal cracks

developed to the wall base (Fig. 7(d)), only an ultimate drift of

1.455% was achieved (Fig. 8(d)).

Specimen RCSW-3 was designed with more horizontal web

reinforcement (0.582%) than that of RCSW-4 (0.291%). Horizontal

cracking initiated in the boundary elements during the 1000 kN

cycle (0.25% drift). A peak load of +1467 kN and 1570 kN was

achieved at +1.18% drift and 0.81% drift, respectively. As shown

in Fig. 6(c), vertical cracking in boundary elements could be

observed. In the following cycles, the cover concrete spalled gradually. The loss of lateral load-carrying capacity was caused by

boundary crushing and immediately followed web crushing (see

Fig. 7(c)). Compared with RCSW-4, an improved ultimate drift of

1.83% was achieved.

Specimen RCSW-1 had a horizontal web reinforcement ratio of

0.873%. Horizontal cracking was observed in the boundary elements during the 0.36% drift cycle. A peak load of +1529 kN and

1535 kN was achieved at +1.28% drift and 0.90% drift, respectively. As shown in Fig. 6(a), the increasing of horizontal web reinforcement resulted in ner compressive struts compared with the

specimens RCSW-3 and RCSW-4 with less horizontal web reinforcement. The lateral load-carrying capacity was lost due to compressive failure of boundary elements and spalling of web concrete

(Fig. 7(a)). Because of the brittle nature of diagonal compression

failure, its ultimate drift (1.92%) was not greatly improved compared with RCSW-3.

Test results of specimens are summarized in Table 4.

4.4. Measured wall strain distribution

As shown in Fig. 5, the strains of four vertical bars in boundary

elements and three vertical bars in web were monitored by strain

gauges at a height of zero (wall base section) and 300 mm. Five

horizontal bars located at a height of 50 mm, 350 mm, 650 mm,

950 mm and 1250 mm were selected to measure their strains.

For each horizontal bar, three strain gauges were installed at left,

middle and right respectively. The measured vertical and horizontal reinforcement strains of specimens at various drift levels are

shown in Figs. 916 (1le = 1 106). It can be observed that the

strain of vertical reinforcement varies linearly across the base section of the wall at small drift levels for all specimens. However, the

strain distribution of vertical reinforcement at base section does

not satisfy the plane sections assumption after the wall developed

obvious plastic deformations due to the yielding of reinforcement

and cracking or spalling of concrete, especially for specimens with

higher axial load ratio (such as RCSW-1). As evidenced in Fig. 9,

most of the vertical reinforcement of RCSW-1 (axial load ratio

0.13) yield or enter strain-hardening phase at +0.95% and 0.90%

drift (before the peak load was achieved). For specimen RCSW-5

without axial load, the strain distribution approximately keeps linear at +0.89% and 0.88% drift (Fig. 11). Even so, it is also found

that most of reinforcement in tension zone yield at the peak load.

For specimen RCSW-6, the depths of compression zone are different in two loading directions. As shown in Fig. 12, the depth is

more than 600 mm in positive direction at +0.51% drift, however,

it is about 300 mm in the negative direction at 0.59% drift. For

both RCSW-5 and RCSW-6 walls, the vertical strains in the boundary reinforcement appear to be relatively low and strain-hardening

is not obvious, therefore the stresses are much lower than the ultimate stress of reinforcement, which would result in a relatively

lower moment. This is consistent with that the peak load was

lower than the calculated ultimate exural strength.

The maximum value of strain gauges located at left, middle and

right (see Fig. 5) is taken as the representative strain of a horizontal

bar. As shown in Figs. 1316, the strains of horizontal reinforcement are very small at the initial drift levels for all specimens. As

the increasing of drift, the strains become larger. The horizontal

reinforcement of RCSW-1 and RCSW-5 did not yield when the

specimens achieved their peak loads. For other specimens, the

yielding of some horizontal reinforcements was observed at their

peak loads, but the yielding of all the horizontal reinforcements

was not measured, which was also observed in the studies of other

Table 4

Test results.

Specimen

Vpeak+ (kN)

Vpeak (kN)

Vpeak (kN)

Dpeak/H (%)

Du/H (%)

Vpeak/Vif

Vpeak/Vuf

p

Vpeak/(Ac fc)

RCSW-1

RCSW-2

RCSW-3

RCSW-4

RCSW-5

RCSW-6

1529

1111

1467

1492

675

592

1535

1093

1570

1499

698

753

1532

1102

1518

1495

686

672

1.090

1.641

0.996

1.114

1.336

1.266

1.915

2.555

1.833

1.455

3.132

2.738

1.28

1.27

1.25

1.24

1.12

1.09

1.20

1.12

1.17

1.17

0.91

0.89

0.73

0.52

0.71

0.71

0.32

0.30

(8.76)

(6.30)

(8.55)

(8.49)

(3.83)

(3.64)

Note: Vpeak is the average peak load of positive direction Vpeak+ and negative direction Vpeak; Dpeak is the average lateral top displacement corresponding to peak load; Du is the

lateral top displacement corresponding to 85% of the peak load (failure load); 0.73 and 8.76 are the results when the value of fc in MPa and fc in psi is used respectively.

Fig. 9. Measured vertical reinforcement strain across the base section of RCSW-1.

364

Fig. 10. Measured vertical reinforcement strain across the base section of RCSW-2.

Fig. 11. Measured vertical reinforcement strain across the base section of RCSW-5.

Fig. 12. Measured vertical reinforcement strain across the base section of RCSW-6.

increase rapidly, and the maximum strain appears at a height of

350 mm or 650 mm (nearly one third of the total height).

4.5. Analysis of wall strength

As shown in Table 4, the comparison of average peak load Vpeak

with Vif indicates that all specimens achieved the ideal exural

strengths. Moreover, the ratio Vpeak/Vuf shows that RCSW-1 through

RCSW-4 achieved the peak loads higher than calculated ultimate

exural strengths, and RCSW-5 and RCSW-6 did not achieve their

ultimate exural strength. In order to give a better prediction of

the peak loads of squat walls in this study, a mixed exural and

diagonal compression mechanism is proposed as shown in

Fig. 17(a). It is assumed that the lateral load resistance is a contribution of exural mechanism (Vexural) and diagonal compression

mechanism (Vdiagonal) which can transfer loads directly to the

have the same compression zone. The ultimate condition is that

the crushing of extreme compression ber due to the contributions

of the two mechanisms. For simplicity, it is assumed that only the

compressive struts pointed into the compression zone are effective

in transferring lateral load. The analytical peak load (Vanalytical)

could be expressed as Eq. (6).

Eq. (7).

N V diagonal tan h a1 f c bw x

A0si f si f c

Asi f si

(taken as 45 in this study), Vdiagonaltan h is the total vertical component of compressive force in effective compressive struts, x = b1xn is

the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, xn is actual

365

depth of compression zone, a1 and b1 are the coefcients of rectangular stress block (taken as 1.0 and 0.8, respectively), Asi is the area

of tension bar i, fsi is the stress of tension bar i (taken as the yield

the centroid of tension bar i. Since the contribution of diagonal compression to the peak load (Vdiagonal) will not produce moment at the

366

Effective

compressive

strut

Boundary element

in tension

Boundary element

in compression

Compressive

struts

Vdiagonal

Vflexural

di

Compression zone Asifsi

xn

Asi'fsi'

Stress

block

xn

Vdiagonal

Vflexural

Vdiagonal

Vflexuralhw

V Center line of

lateral load

Vflexural

Vdiagonal tan

si si

Vflexural

Base section

(a)

Base section

Vdiagonal tan

(b)

Vdiagonal

(c)

Fig. 17. Mechanisms of lateral load resistance: (a) mixed exure and diagonal compression mechanism; (b) exural mechanism; (c) diagonal compression mechanism.

moments at the center of rectangular stress block yields Eq. (8).

Asi f si di 0:5x

X 0 0

Asi f si di 0:5x

mechanism

known, the stress of vertical reinforcement in compression needs

to be assumed. In this study, the vertical reinforcement in com0

pression (Asi ) in Eq. (7) and Eq. (8) is ignored in the calculation.

P 0 0

For Eq. (8), the component Asi fsi (di 0.5x) is small since the vertical reinforcement in compression was symmetrical to the center

0

of compression zone in most cases. For Eq. (7), ignoring Asi will

have some effects on the results. According to the behavior of reinforced concrete beam sections with and without compression rein0

forcement under bending, ignoring Asi will give a relatively

conservative prediction of the ultimate load-carrying capacity.

The analytical results are shown in Table 5. Since it is not possible to get four unknowns through Eqs. 68, it is assumed that

Vanalytical equals Vpeak. Consequently, the compression zone x,

Vexural, Vdiagonal can be determined based on the tested peak loads.

It is shown that 1325% of peak load could be transferred by diagonal compression mechanism. Particularly, as it is shown in

Table 5, the lateral load resistance of exural mechanism for all

specimens is nearly 95% of the ideal exural strength, so that Eq.

(9) can be proposed.

V flexural 0:95V if

5. Discussions

Eq. (9) will be quite useful in the prediction of the peak load. If

the exural component Vexural is determined, the compression

zone x, Vdiagonal and Vanalytical can be obtained from Eqs. 68.

action of boundary elements, the diagonal compression mechanism will be effective in transferring lateral load to the foundation.

The mixed exural and diagonal compression mechanism

described above reasonably reects the lateral load resisting

behavior of specimens and accurately predicts the peak loads of

all specimens if the uniform contribution of 0.95Vif (exural mechanism) is assumed. Since the number of specimens tested is limited, the exural component of 0.95Vif may only be used for

similar walls to those in this study. However, the analytical

method applies to the squat walls failed in exure or in a mixed

exure and diagonal compression mode, characterized by yielding

of vertical reinforcement out of compression zone and crushing or

spalling of concrete in the boundary element. It is required that the

diagonal tension or sliding shear strengths calculated by design

equations are larger than the predicted loads by the proposed

model.

The axial load level, amount of horizontal and vertical web reinforcement, and the details of boundary elements are regarded as

the main factors which affect the behavior of squat walls. As shown

in Table 4, the experimental results show that the increasing of

axial load level results in improvement of peak loads but decrease

Table 5

Analytical results.

Specimen

xn (mm)

x (mm)

h ()

Vexural (kN)

Vdiagonal (kN)

Vexural/Vif

Vexural/Vanalytical

Vdiagonal/Vanalytical

Vanalytical/Vpeak

RCSW-1

RCSW-2

RCSW-3

RCSW-4

RCSW-5

RCSW-6

466

294

453

454

172

160

373

235

362

363

138

128

45

45

45

45

45

45

1142

834

1159

1148

582

585

385

266

358

346

103

89

0.95

0.96

0.95

0.95

0.95

0.95

0.75

0.76

0.76

0.77

0.85

0.87

0.25

0.24

0.24

0.23

0.15

0.13

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

sponding to an average shear stress of 0.73 fc MPa can be achieved

by specimen RCSW-1 with sufcient horizontal web reinforcep

ment. However, the average shear stress may be less than 0.5 fc

MPa if an ultimate drift of more than 2.5% is expected.

The effect of vertical and horizontal web reinforcement was discussed in previous studies. Barda et al. [6] found that both of the

vertical and horizontal reinforcements were effective in producing

a more distributed crack pattern and in reducing crack width,

and suggested that minimum horizontal and vertical reinforcement should be provided for all walls. For the walls with

height-to-length ratio of 1.0, Cardenas et al. [22] reported that both

horizontal and vertical web reinforcements were effective in contributing to the shear strength. As shown in Table 4, for the squat

walls failed in exure or a mixed exure and shear mode, the comparison of the peak load and drift capacity of specimens RCSW-1,

RCSW-3 and RCSW-4 indicates that the increasing of horizontal

web reinforcement has a small effect on the peak load when the

vertical web reinforcement remains constant, however, it can

improve the drift capacity of specimens. Consequently, increasing

of horizontal web reinforcement could be an effective method in

order to gain a more ductile behavior. In this study, the amount

of vertical web reinforcement was not changed for the specimens

with the same axial load level, so that its effect on strength and

drift capacity was not investigated. The only design indication is

that the minimum requirement of vertical web reinforcement ratio

0.25% will not be adequate to resist sliding shear for the squat

walls with low axial load level, such as RCSW-2, RCSW-5 and

RCSW-6.

The equations for predicting the shear strengths of squat walls

can be found in building codes, guidelines or literatures as

described in previous sections. Gulec et al. [23] found that the

equation proposed by Wood [19] resulted in a median ratio of

the predicted to measured strengths (of 120 rectangular walls)

close to 1.0 with a small coefcient of variation. In this study, the

shear strengths of specimens were calculated by equations in

codes and equations suggested by researchers as shown in

Table 3. Although the specimens tested failed in exure or a mixed

exure and shear mode, the comparison of the predicted shear

strength VGB50010 with the peak load Vpeak shows that Eq. (3) always

gives a conservative prediction. ACI 318 (Eq. (4)) gives a slightly

higher estimation of shear strength than Chinese code (Eq. (3)).

Since the benecial effect of boundary elements, the diagonal tension strength of specimen with little horizontal web reinforcement

such as RCSW-4 was greatly higher than that predicted by Chinese

code or ACI 318. The peak loads of specimens which failed in a

mixed exure and diagonal compression mode such as RCSW-1

and RCSW-3 are close to the predicted strength by Barda et al. It

is found that the Wood equation gives a conservative prediction

of the shear strength for the specimens with axial loads.

Additionally, Park equation was used to predict the sliding shear

strength of specimens. In this test, sliding shear failure only

occurred in RCSW-2 with a peak load of 1102 kN, which is 10%

lower than the predicted 1235 kN.

6. Conclusions

Based on the experimental study on six large-scale squat recycled concrete walls, ndings and conclusions may be summarized

as follows.

367

1. The peak loads and failure modes of wall specimens were not

accurately predicted by the existing formula. It is shown that

the experimental peak loads may be 10% lower or 20% higher

than the predicted ultimate exural strengths of squat walls

which are predicted to fail in exure.

2. In order to accurately predict the peak loads of squat walls, a

mixed exural and diagonal compression mechanism is proposed, which assumes that the lateral load resistance of squat

walls is a combined contribution of the exural mechanism

and diagonal compression mechanism. It is found that 1325%

of peak load can be directly transferred to the wall foundation

by diagonal compression according to the proposed analytical

method in this study.

3. The increasing of axial load level results in improvement of

peak loads but decrease of drift capacities. An ultimate drift of

p

1.92% corresponding to an average shear stress of 0.73 fc

MPa can be achieved by providing sufcient horizontal web

reinforcement. However, the average shear stress may be less

p

than 0.5 fc MPa if an ultimate drift of more than 2.5% is

expected.

4. The increasing of horizontal web reinforcement had small effect

on peak load when vertical web reinforcement remains constant but could improve the drift capacity.

5. The explicit calculation of diagonal tension, diagonal compression and sliding shear strength is recommended in the design

of squat walls. However, the suitable equations for predicting

the shear strengths of squat walls should be further compared

and investigated.

Acknowledgements

The research reported in this paper was funded by Beijing

Natural Science Fund (Grant No. 8091002). We would like to

thank two anonymous reviewers for their specic and helpful

suggestions.

References

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