Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 65
Introduction to Computer Science By Dr. Ahmed Taha Lecturer, Computer Science Department, Faculty of Computers
Introduction to Computer Science By Dr. Ahmed Taha Lecturer, Computer Science Department, Faculty of Computers
Introduction to Computer Science By Dr. Ahmed Taha Lecturer, Computer Science Department, Faculty of Computers

Introduction to Computer Science

By Dr. Ahmed Taha

Lecturer, Computer Science Department, Faculty of Computers & Informatics, Benha University

2
2
2

2

2
2
3
3

3

3
Book Title: New Perspectives on Computer Concepts, 2014, Comprehensive Authors: June Jamrich Parsons, Dan Oja
Book Title: New Perspectives on Computer Concepts, 2014, Comprehensive Authors: June Jamrich Parsons, Dan Oja

Book Title:

New Perspectives on Computer Concepts,

2014, Comprehensive

Authors:

June Jamrich Parsons, Dan Oja

Publisher:

Course Technology;

Edition:

16 edition (January 30, 2013)

4

Authors: June Jamrich Parsons, Dan Oja Publisher: Course Technology; Edition: 16 edition (January 30, 2013) 4

Book Contents

#

Chapter Title

1

Computers and Digital Basics

2

Computer Hardware

3

Computer Software

4

Operating Systems and File Management

5

Local Area Networks

6

The Internet

7

The Web and E-mail

8

Digital Media

9

The Computer Industry: History, Careers, and Ethics

10

Information Systems Analysis and Design

11

Databases

12

Computer Programming

5

Careers, and Ethics 10 Information Systems Analysis and Design 11 Databases 12 Computer Programming 5
Computer Hardware 6

Computer Hardware

Contents

1 Personal Computer Basics
1
Personal Computer Basics
2 Microprocessors and Memory
2
Microprocessors and Memory
3 Storage Devices
3
Storage Devices
4 Input and Output Devices
4
Input and Output Devices

7

Contents 1 Personal Computer Basics 2 Microprocessors and Memory 3 Storage Devices 4 Input and Output
Personal Computer Basics 8
Personal Computer Basics
Personal Computer
Basics

8

Personal Computer Basics 8

Desktop Computer System Components

Desktop Computer System Components 9

9

Desktop Computer System Components 9

Desktop Computer System

Desktop Computer System 10

10

Desktop Computer System 10

Peripheral Devices

The term peripheral device designates input, output, and storage equipment that might be added to a computer system to enhance its functionality.

Popular peripheral devices include printers, digital

cameras, scanners, game controllers, and speakers

 Popular peripheral devices include printers, digital cameras, scanners, game controllers, and speakers 11

11

 Popular peripheral devices include printers, digital cameras, scanners, game controllers, and speakers 11

Portable Computers

A desktop computer fits on a desk and runs on power from an electrical wall outlet.

A portable computer is a small, lightweight personal computer with input, output, storage, and processing

components integrated into a single unit that runs on

power supplied by an electrical outlet or a battery

processing components integrated into a single unit that runs on power supplied by an electrical outlet

12

processing components integrated into a single unit that runs on power supplied by an electrical outlet

Portable Computers

Portable Computers Clamshell units are hinged with a screen on top and a keyboard below. The

Clamshell units are hinged with a

screen on top and a keyboard below. The advantage of this form factor is that the screen is protected when the unit is closed.

is that the screen is protected when the unit is closed. Slate units have a screen,

Slate units have a screen, but no

physical keyboard. The screen accepts touch input. These units are lighter and smaller than their clamshell counterparts.

13

keyboard. The screen accepts touch input. These units are lighter and smaller than their clamshell counterparts.
Microprocessors and Memory 14
Microprocessors and Memory
Microprocessors
and Memory

14

Microprocessors and Memory 14

Microprocessor

A microprocessor (simply a processor) is an integrated circuit designed to process instructions.

It is the most important, and usually the most expensive, component of a computer.

to process instructions.  It is the most important , and usually the most expensive ,

15

to process instructions.  It is the most important , and usually the most expensive ,

Microprocessor

It is the largest chip on the system board, although it might be hidden under a cooling fan.

Microprocessor  It is the largest chip on the system board , although it might be
Microprocessor  It is the largest chip on the system board , although it might be

16

Microprocessor  It is the largest chip on the system board , although it might be

Microprocessor

A microprocessors performance is affected by several factors:

Clock Speed

Bus Speed

Word Size

Cache Size

Instruction Set

Number of Cores

Processing Techniques

 Bus Speed  Word Size  Cache Size  Instruction Set  Number of Cores

17

 Bus Speed  Word Size  Cache Size  Instruction Set  Number of Cores

Processors Performance: Clock Speed

Microprocessor Clock: a timing device that sets the pace for executing instructions.

timing device that sets the pace for executing instructions. One Clock Cycle  The speed of
One Clock Cycle
One Clock
Cycle

The speed of a microprocessor is specified in Gigahertz.

Gigahertz (GHz) means a billion cycles per second.

A cycle is the smallest unit of time in a microprocessors universe.

Every action a processor performs is measured by these

cycles.

18

of time in a microprocessor ’ s universe.  Every action a processor performs is measured

Processors Performance: Clock Speed

A microprocessor with 2.13 GHz means that the microprocessors clock operates at a speed of 2.13 billion cycles per second.

Clock speed comparisons are only valid when comparing

processors within the same chip family.

For example:

i7 1.87 GHz processor is faster than i7 1.6 GHz processor

i7 1.6 GHz processor is faster than the i5 2.4 GHz processor

19

processor is faster than i7 1.6 GHz processor  i7 1.6 GHz processor is faster than

Processors Performance: Number of Cores

A microprocessor that contains circuitry for more than one processing unit is called a multi-core processor.

More cores usually produce faster performance.

The 2.4 GHz i5 processor has two

cores, giving it the equivalent of 4.8

GHz performance (2.4 x 2).

The 1.6 GHz i7 processor has four

cores, giving it the equivalent of 6.4

GHz performance (1.6 x 4).

20

x 2).  The 1.6 GHz i7 processor has four cores , giving it the equivalent
x 2).  The 1.6 GHz i7 processor has four cores , giving it the equivalent

data

data

Processors Performance: Front Side Bus

Front Side Bus (FSB) refers to the circuitry that transports data to and from the microprocessor.

A fast FSB moves data quickly and allows the processor to work at full capacity.

FSB speed is measured in

Microprocessor

Microprocessor

FSB

megahertz (one million cycles per

second).

Todays computers have

FSB speeds ranging from 1000

MHz to 1800 MHz. Higher numbers indicate faster FSB speeds.

21

Today ’ s computers have FSB speeds ranging from 1000 MHz to 1800 MHz . Higher

Processors Performance: Cache Size

CPU cache is special high-speed memory that allows a microprocessor to access data more rapidly than from memory located elsewhere on the system board.

CPU cache is structured into several levels. Level 1 cache (L1) is the fastest, whereas Level 2 (L2) and Level 3 (L3) are slightly slower.

whereas Level 2 ( L2 ) and Level 3 ( L3 ) are slightly slower. 

Cache capacity is usually measured in megabytes.

22

whereas Level 2 ( L2 ) and Level 3 ( L3 ) are slightly slower. 

Processors Performance: Word Size

Word Size refers to the number of bits that a microprocessor can manipulate at one time.

For example, a 64-bit processor has 64-bit registers and processes 64 bits at a time.

A large word size gives processors the ability to handle more data during each processing cycle.

Todays personal computers typically contain 32-bit or 64- bit processors

23

during each processing cycle.  Today ’ s personal computers typically contain 32-bit or 64- bit

Processors Performance: Processing Techniques

Can a microprocessor execute more than one instruction at a time?

execute more than one instruction at a time? S e r i a l P r

Serial Processing

Pipelining Processing

24

Parallel Processing

r i a l P r o c e s s i n g Pipelining Processing

Companies producing Microprocessors

Todays Popular Server, Desktop, and Mobile Microprocessor Families

Companies producing Microprocessors  Today ’ s Popular Server, Desktop, and Mobile Microprocessor Families 25
Companies producing Microprocessors  Today ’ s Popular Server, Desktop, and Mobile Microprocessor Families 25

25

Companies producing Microprocessors  Today ’ s Popular Server, Desktop, and Mobile Microprocessor Families 25
Companies producing Microprocessors  Today ’ s Popular Server, Desktop, and Mobile Microprocessor Families 25
Companies producing Microprocessors  Today ’ s Popular Server, Desktop, and Mobile Microprocessor Families 25

Memory

RAM

ROM

RAM stands for Random Access Memory

ROM stands for Read Only Memory

RAM is temporary memory (volatile

ROM is permanent memory (non-

memory)

volatile memory)

The data in RAM can be changed or deleted

The instructions written in ROM cannot be changed or deleted

Instructions in Ram change continuously as different programs are executed and new data is processed

It is not possible to write new information or instructions in ROM

The instruction is written into the RAM at the time of execution

The instructions written into ROM at manufacturing time

instruction is written into the RAM at the time of execution The instructions written into ROM
instruction is written into the RAM at the time of execution The instructions written into ROM
instruction is written into the RAM at the time of execution The instructions written into ROM

Random Access Memory

RAM (Random Access Memory) is a temporary holding area for data, application program instructions, and the operating system.

In a personal computer, RAM is usually several chips or small circuit boards that plug into the system board within the computers system unit.

RAM is the waiting roomfor the computers processor.

the “ waiting room ” for the computer ’ s processor.  Unlike disk storage, most

Unlike disk storage, most RAM is

volatile, which means it requires electrical power to hold data.

27

s processor.  Unlike disk storage, most RAM is volatile , which means it requires electrical

Random Access Memory (RAM)

RAM
RAM

Dynamic RAM (DRAM)

The main memory

in personal

computers is

DRAM.

Dynamic indicates that the memory must be constantly

refreshed or it will

lose its contents

be constantly refreshed or it will lose its contents Static RAM (SRAM) • It is typically
Static RAM (SRAM) • It is typically used for CPU caches. • Static RAM is
Static RAM
(SRAM)
• It is typically used
for CPU caches.
• Static RAM is faster
and less volatile
than dynamic RAM,
but it requires more
power and is more
expensive
• Static RAM is faster and less volatile than dynamic RAM, but it requires more power

Random Access Memory (RAM)

SRAM

DRAM

SRAM stands for Static Random Access

DRAM stands for Dynamic Random

Memory

Access Memory

It is typically used for CPU caches

The main memory in personal computers is DRAM

It is faster than DRAM

It is slower than SRAM.

It is more expensive

It is less expensive

It does not need to be power- refreshed

It has to be refreshed after each read operation

It utilizes less power

It utilizes more power

power- refreshed It has to be refreshed after each read operation It utilizes less power It

Read Only Memory (ROM)

ROM (Read Only Memory) is a type of memory circuitry that is housed in a single integrated circuit which is plugged into the system board.

The contents of ROM remain in place even when the

computer power is turned off.

Early ROM technologies were not

modifiable; updating ROM meant physically replacing the chip

30

is turned off .  Early ROM technologies were not modifiable ; updating ROM meant physically
is turned off .  Early ROM technologies were not modifiable ; updating ROM meant physically

Read Only Memory (ROM)

ROM contains a small set of instructions and data called the bootstrap loader

In a PC, the contents of ROM are sometimes referred to as the BIOS (Basic Input/Output System)

The bootstrap loaders instructions

tell the computer how to access the hard disk, find the operating system, and load it into RAM.

31

’ s instructions tell the computer how to access the hard disk, find the operating system,
’ s instructions tell the computer how to access the hard disk, find the operating system,

Read Only Memory (ROM)

PROM

EPROM

PROM stands for Programmable Read- Only Memory

EPROM stands for Erasable Read-Only Memory

It is a programmable memory

It is electronically programmable

memory

The user can write instructions on PROM only once

The user can write instructions on EPROM many times.

The instructions written by the user cannot be erased from PROM

The instructions written by the user can be erased from EPROM

If there is an error while writing on PROM, it becomes unusable

If there is an error while writing on EPROM, it can still be used again

It provides less usability as

It provides more usability as

instructions are written only once

instructions are written many times

as It provides more usability as instructions are written only once instructions are written many times

Virtual Memory

Virtual memory is a feature of an operating system (OS) that allows a computer to compensate for shortages of physical memory by temporarily transferring pages of data from random access memory (RAM) to disk storage.

33

of physical memory by temporarily transferring pages of data from random access memory (RAM) to disk
of physical memory by temporarily transferring pages of data from random access memory (RAM) to disk
Storage Devices 34
Storage Devices
Storage Devices

34

Storage Devices 34

Storage Basics

A data storage system has two main components: a storage medium and a storage device.

A storage medium is the disk, tape, CD, DVD, paper, or other substance that contains data.

A storage device is the

mechanical device that records and retrieves data from a storage

medium.

35

contains data.  A storage device is the mechanical device that records and retrieves data from
contains data.  A storage device is the mechanical device that records and retrieves data from
contains data.  A storage device is the mechanical device that records and retrieves data from

Storage Basics

Three types of storage technologies are commonly used for personal computers: magnetic, optical, and solid state

Each storage technology has its advantages and disadvantages.

computers: magnetic, optical, and solid state  Each storage technology has its advantages and disadvantages .

36

computers: magnetic, optical, and solid state  Each storage technology has its advantages and disadvantages .

Magnetic Storage Technology

Magnetic storage stores data by magnetizing microscopic particles on a disk or tape surface. Tape

The particles retain their magnetic orientation until that orientation is changed, thereby making disks fairly

permanent but modifiable storage media.

is changed, thereby making disks fairly permanent but modifiable storage media. Hard disk Floppy disk 37

Hard disk

is changed, thereby making disks fairly permanent but modifiable storage media. Hard disk Floppy disk 37

Floppy disk

37

is changed, thereby making disks fairly permanent but modifiable storage media. Hard disk Floppy disk 37

Tape

is changed, thereby making disks fairly permanent but modifiable storage media. Hard disk Floppy disk 37

Hard Disks

A hard disk drive contains one or more platters and their associated read-write heads.

A hard disk platter is a flat, rigid disk made of aluminum or glass and coated with magnetic iron oxide particles.

More platters mean more data storage capacity. The platters rotate as a unit on a spindle, making thousands of rotations per minute.

Hard disk platters are typically 3.5" in diameter, with storage capacities ranging from 40 GB to 2 TB.

38

 Hard disk platters are typically 3.5" in diameter , with storage capacities ranging from 40

Hard Disks

Hard Disks 39
Hard Disks 39

39

Hard Disks 39

Hard Disks

Hard Disks 40

40

Hard Disks 40

Hard Disks

Hard Disks 41
Hard Disks 41
Hard Disks 41

41

Hard Disks 41

Hard Disks

Hard Disks 42

42

Hard Disks 42

Hard Disks

Each platter has a read-write head that hovers just a few microinches above the surface.

A read-write head mechanism in the disk drive magnetizes particles to write data, and senses the particlespolarities to

read data.

Hard disk technology is the preferred type of main storage for most personal computers because:

It provides lots of storage capacity.

It provides fast access to files.

A hard disk is economical.

43

 It provides lots of storage capacity .  It provides fast access to files. 

Hard Disks

Hard Disks 44 LOGO
44 LOGO
44
LOGO

External Hard Disks (Portable)

The storage capacity of your desktop or laptop computer

can be increased by adding a second hard disk drive.

Internal drives are inexpensive and can be easily installed

in a desktop computers system unit.

External drives are slightly more expensive and connect to a desktop or laptop computer using a cable.

unit.  External drives are slightly more expensive and connect to a desktop or laptop computer

45

unit.  External drives are slightly more expensive and connect to a desktop or laptop computer
unit.  External drives are slightly more expensive and connect to a desktop or laptop computer

Floppy Disk

Floppy disks (also called floppies

or diskettes) is a type of disk

storage composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium, sealed in a rectangular

plastic carrier lined with fabric that

removes dust particles.

carrier lined with fabric that removes dust particles.  This storage technology is no longer used

This storage technology is no longer used because a floppy disks 1.44 MB capacity is not sufficient for todays media- intensive applications.

used because a floppy disk ’ s 1.44 MB capacity is not sufficient for today ’

46

used because a floppy disk ’ s 1.44 MB capacity is not sufficient for today ’

Tapes

A tape is a magnetically coated strip of plastic on which

data can be encoded.

Tapes are similar to tapes used to store music.

Storing data on tapes is considerably cheaper than storing data on disks.

47

similar to tapes used to store music.  Storing data on tapes is considerably cheaper than

Tapes

Accessing data on tapes, however, is much slower than

accessing data on disks.

Tapes are sequential-access media, which means that to

get to a particular point on the tape, the tape must go

through all the preceding points

media , which means that to get to a particular point on the tape, the tape

48

media , which means that to get to a particular point on the tape, the tape

Optical Storage Technology

CD, DVD, and Blu-ray technologies are classified as optical storage, which stores data as microscopic light and dark spots on the disc surface.

The dark spots are called pits. The lighter, non-pitted

surface areas of the disc are called lands.

 The dark spots are called pits . The lighter, non-pitted surface areas of the disc
 The dark spots are called pits . The lighter, non-pitted surface areas of the disc
 The dark spots are called pits . The lighter, non-pitted surface areas of the disc

49

 The dark spots are called pits . The lighter, non-pitted surface areas of the disc

Optical Storage Technology

Optical drives contain a spindle that rotates the disc over a laser lens.

The laser directs a beam of light toward the underside of the disc.

The dark pits and light lands on the disc surface reflect the light differently.

As the lens reads the disc, these differences are translated into the 0s and 1s that represent Data

50

differently.  As the lens reads the disc, these differences are translated into the 0s and

Optical Storage Technology

Optical Storage Technology 51

51

Optical Storage Technology 51

Optical Storage Technology

Optical Storage Technology 52

52

Optical Storage Technology 52

Optical Storage Technology

Optical technologies are grouped into three categories:

read-only, recordable, and rewritable.

Read-only
Read-only

Read-only Technology (ROM)

You cannot write to a

-ROM disc, which left the factory with data already on it. A -ROM drive can read discs but not write to them, and has no use at all for a blank disc.

not write to them, and has no use at all for a blank disc. Recordable Recordable

Recordable

Recordable Technology (R)

You can write to one of these discs once

(provided you have

an -R drive). But when you're done, it's effectively a - ROM disc

Rewritable Rewritable Technology (RW) You can write to these discs, erase them, and write to
Rewritable
Rewritable
Technology (RW)
You can write to
these discs, erase
them, and write to
them again.
The term re-
recordable (RE) is
sometimes used
instead of rewritable
discs, erase them, and write to them again. The term re- recordable (RE) is sometimes used

CD (Compact Disc)

CD (Compact Disc) technology was originally designed to hold 74 minutes of recorded music.

The original CD standard was adapted for computer storage with capacity for 650 MB of data.

Later improvements in CD standards increased the capacity to 80 minutes of music or 700 MB of data.

of data.  Later improvements in CD standards increased the capacity to 80 minutes of music

54

of data.  Later improvements in CD standards increased the capacity to 80 minutes of music
of data.  Later improvements in CD standards increased the capacity to 80 minutes of music

DVD (Digital Video Disc)

DVD (Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a variation of CD technology that was originally designed as an alternative to VCRs, but was quickly adopted by the computer industry to store data.

The initial DVD standard offered 4.7 GB (4,700 MB) of

data storage.

A double layer DVD has two recordable layers on the

same side and can store 8.5 GB of data.

) of data storage.  A double layer DVD has two recordable layers on the same

55

) of data storage.  A double layer DVD has two recordable layers on the same

Blu-ray

Blu-ray is a high-capacity storage technology with a 25 GB capacity per layer.

The name Blu-ray is derived from the blue-violet colored laser used to read data stored on Blu-ray discs.

DVD technology uses a red laser; CD technology uses a near infrared laser

read data stored on Blu-ray discs.  DVD technology uses a red laser ; CD technology
read data stored on Blu-ray discs.  DVD technology uses a red laser ; CD technology

56

read data stored on Blu-ray discs.  DVD technology uses a red laser ; CD technology
read data stored on Blu-ray discs.  DVD technology uses a red laser ; CD technology

Solid State Storage Technology

Solid State Storage (sometimes called flash memory) is

a

technology that stores data in erasable, rewritable

circuitry, rather than on spinning disks or streaming tape.

It

is widely used in portable consumer devices, such as

digital cameras, portable media players, iPads, and cell

phones.

It

is also used as an alternative for hard disk storage in

some laptop computers.

57

and cell phones.  It is also used as an alternative for hard disk storage in

Solid State Storage Technology

Solid state storage contains a grid work of circuitry.

Each cell in the grid contains two transistors that act as gates to hold the 1s and 0s that represent data

Very little power is required to open or close the gates,

which makes solid state storage ideal for battery-operated devices, such as digital cameras and media players.

gates, which makes solid state storage ideal for battery-operated devices , such as digital cameras and

58

gates, which makes solid state storage ideal for battery-operated devices , such as digital cameras and

Solid State Storage Technology

Solid state storage has the following advantages:

Fast access to data because it includes no moving parts.

Very durable; it is virtually impervious to vibration, magnetic fields, or extreme temperature fluctuations.

However, the capacity of solid state storage does not

currently match that of hard disks.

The cost per megabyte of solid state storage is slightly

higher than for magnetic or optical storage.

59

disks.  The cost per megabyte of solid state storage is slightly higher than for magnetic

Solid State Storage Technology

Several types of solid state storage are available to todays consumers: memory cards, solid state drives, and USB flash drives.

solid state storage are available to today ’ s consumers: memory cards, solid state drives, and
solid state storage are available to today ’ s consumers: memory cards, solid state drives, and

60

solid state storage are available to today ’ s consumers: memory cards, solid state drives, and
solid state storage are available to today ’ s consumers: memory cards, solid state drives, and

Memory Cards

A memory card is a flat, solid state storage medium commonly used to transfer files from digital cameras and media players to computers.

A card reader is a device that reads and writes data on

solid state storage.

and media players to computers.  A card reader is a device that reads and writes

61

and media players to computers.  A card reader is a device that reads and writes
and media players to computers.  A card reader is a device that reads and writes

Solid State Drive (SSD)

A solid state drive (SSD) is a package of flash memory that can be used as a substitute for a hard disk drive.

Some solid state drives are about the same size as a microprocessor chip, whereas others are about the size of

a small hard disk drive.

drives are about the same size as a microprocessor chip, whereas others are about the size
drives are about the same size as a microprocessor chip, whereas others are about the size

62

drives are about the same size as a microprocessor chip, whereas others are about the size

USB Flash Drives

A USB flash drive is a portable storage device that plugs directly into a computers system unit using a built-in connector.

USB flash drives have capacities ranging from 16 MB to

256 GB.

Flash drives are slower than hard disk drives.

63

USB flash drives have capacities ranging from 16 MB to 256 GB .  Flash drives
USB flash drives have capacities ranging from 16 MB to 256 GB .  Flash drives

Advantages & Disadvantages of Different Storage Technology

Advantages & Disadvantages of Different Storage Technology 64

64

Advantages & Disadvantages of Different Storage Technology 64
65
65