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Bridge Bearing

Bearing is a mechanical device placed between


superstructure and substructure to transmit vertical and
horizontal load allowing some translational and rotational
movement.
Translational and rotational movement of bridge
superstructure may be due to
Shrinkage of concrete
Elastic shortening of concrete due to prestressing
Creep of concrete
Temperature expansion and contraction
Movement due to external load
Translational and rotational movement of bridge deck may be in
longitudinal or transverse or other direction of bridge

Types of Bridge Bearing


Bearing

Fixed Bearing
Bearing, which allows rotational movement
Free Bearing (Expansion Bearing)
Bearing, which allows horizontal and rotational movement

Metalic Bearing
Bearing made up of Metal i.e. steel or cast iron
Elastomeric Bearing
Bearing made up of artificial rubber (Neoprene)

Metalic Bearing

Roller Bearing
Single Roller
Multiple Roller
Rocker Bearing
Linear Rocker
Point Rocker
Rocker Cum Roller
Knuckle Bearing
Cylindrical Knuckle
Spherical Knuckle
Pin Knuckle
Leaf Knuckle
Sliding Plate Bearing

Single Roller Bearing

Multiple Roller Bearing

Linear Rocker Bearing


Cylindrical Knuckle Bearing

Point Rocker Bearing


Spherical Knuckle Bearing

Slide Plate Bearing

Elastomeric Bearing

Pin Knuckle Bearing

Pad
Pot

Elastomeric Pad Bearing

Leaf Knuckle Bearing

Elastomeric Pot Bearing

ELASTOMERIC BEARING

Elastomeric bearing is made of synthetic rubber. Elastomer is the


trade name of Neoprene. Elastomeric bearing is designed to be
sufficiently soft horizontally to allow translation and sufficiently
stiff vertically to prevent appreciable changes in their height
under variable loads.

Bearing may be reinforced or unreinforced. In reinforced bearing,


mild steel plates are embedded. Unreinforced bearing may only
be used at support of slab culverts or slab bridges.

Elastomeric bearings are not expensive, easy to install and


maintain.

Life of bearing is about 25 years. So there should be provision of


replacement of the elastomeric bearings after about 25 years.

Elastomeric Bearing

Loads on Bearing
Vertical load

DL from superstructure
LL from superstructure
Vertical load due to braking effort
Vertical Seismic load
Vertical wind load

Horizontal load

Wind load from superstructure


Load induced by creep, shrinkage and temperature effect
Braking load
Vertical load due to seismic effect

These loads are combined according to the load


combinations specified by IRC 6 and bearing is
designed for critical combination of loads

Load Combination

Design of Elastomeric Bearing

Geometrical Design
Find overall length (lo), breadth (bo) and thickness (h) of elastomeric pad. Find number
of internal layers of elastomer(n), thickness of internal layers of elastomer (hi), number
of steel plates (ns), thickness of steel plates (hs), effective cover to steel plate (he) and
side cover (c). Approximate sizing of bearing is done on the basis guidelines provided by
IRC 83 Pt. II (Refer Table Appendix. I)
bo

hs
hi

Cross Section of Bearing

he

Steel plate
c
c
l

lo

Plan of Bearing

Table Appendix I, IRC 83 Part II

Standard Plan Dimensions and Design Data of Elastomeric Bearing

The thickness of the internal layer of elastomer hi, the thickness of the steel plate
hs, and the elastomer cover at the top and bottom he should correspond to the
following dimensions.
hi (mm)
8
10
12
16
hs (mm)
3
3
4
6
he (mm)
4
5
6
6

The side cover (c) of elastomer for the steel laminates is 6 mm.

Check the geometrical dimensions of bearing as follows.

h bo / 10 and h bo / 5

Bearing stress in concrete below bearing Allowable bearing stress in concrete


Where, Allowable bearing stress = 0.25(fck)1/2

Shape factor (S) >6


12
Where, S = l x b / 2 ho(l + b )

Design
1. Check bearing for shear strain
Total shear strain in bearing 0.7
d = b /h 0.7

bo
b
h

Where,
Total shear strain (d) = Strain due to creep, shrinkage and
temperature variation + shear strain due to horizontal load

Translational Movement
of Bearing

2. Check bearing for rotation


Maximum rotation of girder Permissible rotation
d n bi,max
Where,
d = maximum rotation, which may be taken as 400 Mmax L/(EcI) 10-3
n= number of internal elastomer layers
= (m/m,max)
m = average compressive stress ; m,max = 10N/mm2
bi,max = (0.5 m hi )/(bs2)
M - Maximum BM at mid span
L- span of girder
Ec Modulus of elasticity of concrete [In short term loading ; Ec = 5000(fck)1/2 ]
I = Gross moment of inertia of main girder

h
bo
Rotational Movement
of Bearing

3. Check bearing for friction

Total Shear Strain (d) 0.2 + 0.1 m


Normal stress m 2 N/mm2 and 10 N/mm2

Where,
m = Normal compressive stress
m,max = 10N/mm2

4. Check bearing for Shear Stress


Total shear stress due to normal and horizontal loads and rotation 5 N/mm2
c + r + 5 N/mm2
Where,
Shear stress due to normal load (c )=(1.5 m )/S
Shear stress due to horizontal load ( r ) = Total shear strain
Shear stress due to rotation( )= 0.5(b/hi)2 bi max