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NotaRingkas:ScienceForm3:Chapter1:Respiration

RESPIRATION
Definition : a process in breaking of glucose ( food ) with the presence of oxygen to produce
energy / oxidation of food process.
During respiration, humans obtain oxygen which at the same time remove carbon dioxide
and water vapour through the respiratory system.
Oxygen is obtains through breathing.
HUMAN BREATHING MECHANISM

STRUCTURE
NASAL CAVITY

FUNCTION
Air entering from the nostrils is led to the nasal cavity

TRACHEA

An airway through which respiratory air travels. The rings


of cartilage within its walls keep the trachea open.

BRONCHUS

Passage divided from trachea


[ singular = bronchus, plural = bronchi ]

BRONCHIOLE

A narrow tube inside the lungs that branches off the main
air passages bronchi

ALVEOLUS

Place where exchange of gases take place

RIB CAGE

To protect the lungs and help in breathing mechanism

LUNG

A respiratory organ

INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES

Antagonistic muscles that help the movement of rib cage

for breathing mechanism


DIAPHRAGM

A muscular membrane that separates the thoracic cavity


and the abdominal cavity
BREATHING MECHANISM

INHALATION

EXHALATION

= a process when air is force into the lungs

= a process when air is force out of the lungs

External intercostal muscle


contract, while internal
intercostal muscle relax
Moves upwards and outwards

Intercostal muscle
Rib cage

External intercostal muscle relax,


while internal intercostal muscle
contract
Move downwards and inwards

Contract and become flat

Diaphragm

Relax and become dome shape

Volume increase

Thoracic cavity

Volume decrease

Decrease

Air pressure in the


lung

Increase

Air from outside enters the lungs

Air movement

Air is force out of the lungs

**** You just need to memorize 1 process because the other part is just the OPPOSITE

Pathway taken by air during inhalation:


Nostril ---> Nasal cavity--> Trachea--->Bronchus---->Bronchiole--->Alveolus

Pathway taken by air during exhalation:


Alveolus ---> Bronchiole --> Bronchus ---> Trachea ----> Nasal cavity ---> Nostril

Transport of oxygen in human body


Exchange of gases takes place in the alveoli by diffusion.
Characteristics of alveoli that help exchange of gases to take place effectively:

1) Has one cell thick wall (very thin)


2) Inside surface has thin film of
moisture
3) A large number of alveoli
4) Has network of blood capillaries
surround each alveoli

TRANSPORTATION OF OXYGEN

1. Oxygen dissolves in the moist lining of the alveolus


2. Then, oxygen diffuses into the blood capillaries
3. Blood inside the capillaries contains red blood cells that are rich with haemoglobin
4. Oxygen combines with haemoglobin to form oxyhaemoglobin
5. Oxyhaemoglobin is transported in the blood to heart and then pump to all parts of
the body
6. Oxyhaemoglobin breaks down, oxygen diffuses into the cells, at the same time
carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood

EFFECTS OF OTHER AIR POLLUTANTS


CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE
Carbon monoxide

SOURCES
Car exhaust

Sulphur dioxide
Hydrocarbons
Nitrogen oxide

Industry, vehicles
Industry, vehicles
Industry, vehicles

Haze

Industry, vehicles, open


burning

DAMAGING EFFECTS
Reduces amount of oxygen in
the food
Damages lung tissues
Cause cancer
Interacts with hydrocarbons to
form haze
Causes breathing difficulties