Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 129

A study was made on the amount of converted

sugar in a certain process at various temperatures. The


data were coded and recorded as follows:
Estimate the linear regression line.
T, (x)
Converted Sugar, y
Residual
1
8.1 0.01504077 8.08495923
1.1
7.8 0.01653806 7.78346194
1.2
8.5 0.01803535 8.48196465
1.3
9.8 0.01953264 9.78046736
1.4
9.5 0.02102993 9.47897007
1.5
8.9 0.02252722 8.87747278
1.6
8.6 0.02402451 8.57597549
1.7
10.2 0.0255218 10.1744782
1.8
9.3 0.02701909 9.27298091
1.9
9.2 0.02851638 9.17148362
2
10.5 0.03001367 10.4699863

Resumen
Estadsticas de la regresin
Coeficiente de0.70702644
Coeficiente d 0.49988639
R^2 ajustado 0.44431821
Error tpico
0.63260724
Observacione
11
ANLISIS DE VARIANZA
Grados de libertad
Regresin
1
Residuos
9
Total
10
Coeficientes
Intercepcin 6.41363636
Variable X 1 1.80909091

Anlisis de los residuales


Observacin
Pronstico para Y
1 8.22272727
2 8.40363636
3 8.58454545

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

8.76545455
8.94636364
9.12727273
9.30818182
9.48909091
9.67
9.85090909
10.0318182

Hiptesis
H0
H1
Significancia

y no es funcin de x
y es funcin de x

0.05

b=0
b<>0

95%

Criterio
Se rechaza H0, si Fcalc>Fcrit
Se rechaza H0, si pcalc<pcrit

F crit

0.00413425

Clculos

Suma de cuadrados
Promedio de los cuadradosF
Valor crtico de F
3.60009091 3.60009091 8.99591105 0.0149729
3.60172727 0.40019192
7.20181818
Error tpico Estadstico t Probabilidad Inferior 95% Superior 95%Inferior 95.0%
0.92463802 6.93637536 6.7865E-005 4.32195985 8.50531288 4.32195985
0.60316734 2.99931843 0.0149729 0.4446316 3.17355022 0.4446316

Resultados de datos de probabilidad


Residuos
-0.12272727
-0.60363636
-0.08454545

Percentil
4.54545455
13.6363636
22.7272727

Y
7.8
8.1
8.5

1.03454545
0.55363636
-0.22727273
-0.70818182
0.71090909
-0.37
-0.65090909
0.46818182

31.8181818
40.9090909
50
59.0909091
68.1818182
77.2727273
86.3636364
95.4545455

8.6
8.9
9.2
9.3
9.5
9.8
10.2
10.5

Residual

12
10
8
Residual
6
4
2
0
0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.2

12
10
8
Converted Sugar, y

y calc
4
2
0
0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Superior 95.0%
Superior 95%Inferior 95.0%
Superior 95.0%
8.50531288 8.50531288 4.32195985 8.50531288
3.17355022 3.17355022 0.4446316 3.17355022

2.2

Residual

2.2

verted Sugar, y

X 1regresin
Grfico de
los
Variable X Variable
1 Curva de
ajus
1.2

12

1
0.8

10

Grfico de probabilidad norma


0.6

8 12

0.4
Residuos

6 10
4

0.2

Prons

0
0.8
-0.2

1.2

1.4

1.6

-0.4
2
Y

-0.6

-0.8

0
0.84

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.2
Variable
X1

Variable X 1
2

0
0

20

40

60
Muestra percentil

80

10

X 1regresin
Grfico de
los residuales
de
ajustada

robabilidad normal

Y
Pronstico para Y
1

1.2

1.8

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.2
Variable
X1

60

Muestra percentil

80

100

120

2.2

Se han obtenido los siguientes datos de presin de saturacin del etanol para diferentes temperatura
a.- Suponiendo que no se conoce la funcionalidad entre T (x) y Ps (y), ajustar un modelo emprico a lo
b.- Ajuste los parmetros de lecuacin e Antoine
c.- Ajuste los parmetros de la ecuacin de Antoine modificada
d.- Ajuste los parmetros de la ecuacin DIPPR
T [C]

P [mmHg]
25
55.9
30
70
35
97
40
117.5
45
154.1
50
190.7
55
241.9

a.- Suponiendo que no se conoce la funcionalidad entre T (x) y Ps (y), ajustar un modelo emprico a lo

T [C]

P [mmHg]
25
55.9
30
70
35
97
40
117.5
45
154.1
50
190.7
55
241.9

Se tienen tres posibilidades, exponencial, potencia y polinmica


a1.- Potencia
x

y
25
30
35
40
45
50
55

a
0.12762815
b
1.86791248
lnx
lny
ycalc
residuos
55.9 3.21887582
4.0235643802 52.1406036 3.75939635
70 3.40119738
4.248495242 73.2959018 -3.29590179
97 3.55534806
4.5747109785 97.7530769 -0.75307693
117.5 3.68887945
4.7664383336 125.445278 -7.94527788
154.1 3.80666249
5.0376017423 156.315755 -2.21575512
190.7 3.91202301
5.2507015126 190.315316 0.38468391
241.9 4.00733319
5.4885244176 227.400625 14.4993751

Resumen
Estadsticas de la regresin
Coeficiente de 0.995443
Coeficiente d 0.99090676

R^2 ajustado 0.98908811


Error tpico
0.05537768
Observacione
7
ANLISIS DE VARIANZA
Grados de libertad
Suma de cuadrados
Promedio de los cuadrados F
Valor crtico de F
Regresin
1 1.67091238
1.6709123753 544.859137 2.686E-006
Residuos
5 0.01533343
0.0030666869
Total
6 1.68624581
Coeficientes Error tpico
Intercepcin -2.05863434 0.29329241
Variable X 1 1.86791248 0.08002292

Estadstico t
Probabilidad Inferior 95%
-7.0190509485 0.00090535 -2.81256647
23.3422179073 2.6859E-006 1.66220701

a2.- Polinomica
x

x2
25
30
35
40
45
50
55

y
625
900
1225
1600
2025
2500
3025

55.9
70
97
117.5
154.1
190.7
241.9

ycalc
error
56.4904761905 -0.59047619
71.2642857143 -1.26428571
92.3642857143 4.63571429
119.7904761905 -2.29047619
153.5428571429 0.55714286
193.6214285714 -2.92142857
240.0261904762 1.87380952

Resumen
Estadsticas de la regresin
Coeficiente de 0.999242
Coeficiente d 0.99848457
R^2 ajustado 0.99772686
Error tpico
3.20310489
Observacione
7
ANLISIS DE VARIANZA
Grados de libertad
Suma de cuadrados
Promedio de los cuadrados F
Valor crtico de F
Regresin
2 27040.1576 13520.07880952 1317.76176 2.297E-006
Residuos
4 41.0395238 10.2598809524
Total
6 27081.1971
Coeficientes Error tpico
Intercepcin 77.5142857 21.5551859
Variable X 1 -4.00404762 1.12489347
Variable X 2 0.12652381 0.0139795

Estadstico t
3.5960852401
-3.5594905011
9.0506704247

Probabilidad
0.02283762
0.02359681
0.00082582

Inferior 95%
17.6674954
-7.12725259
0.08771051

a3.- Exponencial
x

y
25
30
35
40
45
50
55

lny
ycalc
error
55.9 4.02356438 56.5299898978 -0.6299899
70 4.24849524
72.229552111 -2.22955211
97 4.57471098 92.2892115775 4.71078842
117.5 4.76643833 117.9198586268 -0.41985863
154.1 5.03760174 150.6686731946 3.43132681
190.7 5.25070151 192.5125194907 -1.81251949
241.9 5.48852442 245.977278321 -4.07727832

Resumen
Estadsticas de la regresin
Coeficiente de0.99867198
Coeficiente d 0.99734572
R^2 ajustado 0.99681487
Error tpico
0.02991911
Observacione
7
ANLISIS DE VARIANZA
Grados de libertad
Suma de cuadrados
Promedio de los cuadrados F
Valor crtico de F
Regresin
1 1.68177004
1.6817700447 1878.7515 1.234E-007
Residuos
5 0.00447577
0.000895153
Total
6 1.68624581

Intercepcin
Variable X 1

Coeficientes Error tpico


2.8093814 0.04662556
0.0490156 0.00113084

Estadstico t
Probabilidad Inferior 95%
60.254102947 2.3828E-008 2.68952657
43.3445671157 1.2336E-007 0.04610869

Se selecciona el modelo polinmico


b.- Ecuacin de Clausius-Clapeyron
T [C]
25
30
35
40
45
50
55

P [mmHg]
T [K]
ln(Ps)
(1/T)
Ps calc
55.9
298.15
4.0235643802 0.00335402 55.4116344
70
303.15
4.248495242 0.0032987 72.256477
97
308.15
4.5747109785 0.00324517 93.4139435
117.5
313.15
4.7664383336 0.00319336 119.780169
154.1
318.15
5.0376017423 0.00314317 152.392766
190.7
323.15
5.2507015126 0.00309454 192.445399
241.9
328.15
5.4885244176 0.00304739 241.302818

Resumen
Estadsticas de la regresin
Coeficiente de0.99908475
Coeficiente d 0.99817033
R^2 ajustado 0.9978044
Error tpico
0.02484057
Observacione
7
ANLISIS DE VARIANZA
Grados de libertad
Suma de cuadrados
Promedio de los cuadrados F
Valor crtico de F
Regresin
1 1.68316054
1.6831605393 2727.73585 4.865E-008
Residuos
5 0.00308527
0.0006170541
Total
6 1.68624581
Coeficientes Error tpico
Intercepcin 20.1079555 0.2938245
Variable X 1 -4798.17742 91.8703026

Estadstico t
Probabilidad Inferior 95%
68.4352586508 1.2616E-008 19.3526556
-52.2277306209 4.8651E-008 -5034.33755

c.- Ecuacin de Antoine

T [C]

B
C
18.9119 3804.150388285

P [mmHg]
T [K]
Ps calc
25
55.9
298.15 59.0963706314
30
70
303.15 78.4773984521
35
97
308.15 103.1111389724
40
117.5
313.15 134.1217467523
45
154.1
318.15 172.8074260369
50
190.7
323.15 220.6557771302
55
241.9
328.15 279.3589908247
78.35
760
351.5 759.9993934027
243.05
47880
516.2 53909.45256518
(1/T1+C)
T-T
-41.68
0.00389909
0.22493086 0.0032987
0.5511466 0.00324517
0.74287395 0.00319336
1.01403736 0.00314317
1.22713713 0.00309454

-41.68
error
-3.19637063
-8.47739845
-6.11113897
-16.6217468
-18.707426
-29.9557771
-37.4589908
0.0006066

ln(Psi/Ps1)

0.0006003945
0.0006539187
0.0007057337
0.0007559201
0.0008045534

0.000135
0.00036041
0.00052427
0.00076653
0.0009873

1.46496004 0.00304739
2.60975405 0.00284495

0.0008517046
0.0010541413

0.00124771
0.00275105
0.0066373

ra diferentes temperaturas.
r un modelo emprico a los datos

r un modelo emprico a los datos

P [mm
300
250

f(x) = 0.1276281477 x^1.86791


R = 0.990906762

200
150
100

y ax b
ln y ln a b ln x

50
0
20

25

30

35

40

45

Y A bX
20
15
10
5
0
20
-5
-10

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

5
0
20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

50

55

-5
-10

crtico de F

Superior 95%
-1.3047022082
2.0736179495

Inferior 95.0% Superior 95.0%


-2.81256647 -1.30470221
1.6622070106 2.07361795

y a bx cx 2
a
b
c

77.5142857
-4.00404762
0.12652381

error
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-1 20

25

-2
-3

crtico de F

Superior 95%
137.3610759841
-0.8808426521
0.1653371123

-4

Inferior 95.0% Superior 95.0%


17.6674954445 137.361076
-7.127252586 -0.88084265
0.0877105067 0.16533711

30

35

40

45

y ae bx
ln y ln a bx
A
a
b

2.809381396
16.5996464349
0.0490155958

Y A bx
error
6
4
2
0
20

25

30

35

40

45

50

-2
-4
-6

crtico de F

Superior 95%
2.9292362181
0.0519225023

error
0.4883656102 A
-2.2564770386 B
3.5860564535
-2.2801688055
1.7072339999
-1.7453989855
0.597181749

Inferior 95.0% Superior 95.0%


2.689526574 2.92923622
0.0461086894 0.0519225

20.1079555
-4798.17742

ln Ps A

B
T

4
3
2
1
0
20

25

30

35

40

3
2
1
0
20

25

30

35

40

-1
-2

ln(Ps)

-3

6
5
4

crtico de F

3
2
1

Superior 95%
Inferior 95.0% Superior 95.0%
20.8632554117 19.3526555787 20.8632554
-4562.017286808 -5034.337549175 -4562.01729

ln Ps A

0
0.003

0.00305 0.0031 0.00315 0.0032 0.00325

B
T C

Ps ca

60000
300

50000

e
10.2167852135
71.8662845154
37.3460195398
276.2824650969
349.9677889267
897.3485834736
1403.175993601
0.000000368
3046.20392074

f(x) = 1.1399531982x
R = 0.9994317294

250

40000

200
30000

150

20000

100

10000

50
0

0
0

50

100

50

150

100

200

150

Tc
18.9119

3803.98

-41.68

351.5

516.2
243.05

250

200

0.0014

0.0012

f(x) = 0.0002196076x - 9.84158050336106E-0


R = 0.9964260493

0.001

0.0008

0.0006

0.0004

0.0002

0
0

P [mmHg]

.1276281477 x^1.86791248
990906762

35

40

45

50

P [mmHg]
Power (P [mmHg])

55

60

Column F

45

50

55

60

Column F

45

50

55

60

error

45

50

55

60

or

error
45

50

55

60

B
T

Column G
35

40

45

50

55

60

Column G
35

40

45

50

55

60

ln(Ps)

ln(Ps)

0315 0.0032 0.00325 0.0033 0.00335 0.0034

Ps calc

1.1399531982x
0.9994317294

100

Ps calc
P [mmHg]

200

150

250

200

300

Pc
63
47880

250

300

Ps calc
Linear (Ps calc)

8050336106E-005

Column F
Linear (Column F)

t/C
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800

0
0
0.033
0.178
0.431
0.787
1.242
1.792
2.431
3.154
3.957
4.834
5.78
6.786
7.848
8.956
10.099
11.263
12.433
13.591

10
-0.002
0.043
0.199
0.462
0.828
1.293
1.852
2.499
3.23
4.041
4.926
5.878
6.89
7.957
9.069
10.215
11.38
12.549
13.706

20
-0.003
0.053
0.22
0.494
0.87
1.344
1.913
2.569
3.308
4.127
5.018
5.976
6.995
8.066
9.182
10.331
11.497
12.666
13.82

30
-0.002
0.065
0.243
0.527
0.913
1.397
1.975
2.639
3.386
4.213
5.111
6.075
7.1
8.176
9.296
10.447
11.614
12.782

40
0
0.078
0.267
0.561
0.957
1.451
2.037
2.71
16
3.466
14
4.299
12
5.205
6.175
10
7.205
8.2868
9.416
10.563
11.7314
12.8982
0
-2

ycalc
x
0 57.2130581
100 77.9452866
200 161.419835
300 281.203216
400 406.698618
500 517.865349
600 611.254984
700 696.783068
800 788.067899
900 891.718537
1000 1002.73927
1100 1109.77645
1200 1205.32678
1300 1294.71346
1400 1391.52811
1500 1501.89532
1600 1609.51571
1700 1692.71762
1800 1801.61742

x2
0
0.033
0.178
0.431
0.787
1.242
1.792
2.431
3.154
3.957
4.834
5.78
6.786
7.848
8.956
10.099
11.263
12.433
13.591

0
0.001089
0.031684
0.185761
0.619369
1.542564
3.211264
5.909761
9.947716
15.657849
23.367556
33.4084
46.049796
61.591104
80.209936
101.989801
126.855169
154.579489
184.715281

x3

x4

0
3.5937E-005
0.00563975
0.08006299
0.4874434
1.91586449
5.75458509
14.366629
31.3750963
61.9581085
112.958766
193.100552
312.493916
483.366984
718.360187
1029.995
1428.76977
1921.88679
2510.46538

0
1.1859E-006
0.00100388
0.03450715
0.38361796
2.37950369
10.3122165
34.9252751
98.9570536
245.168235
546.042673
1116.12119
2120.58371
3793.46409
6433.63383
10401.9195
16092.2339
23894.8184
34119.735

ycalc
2000
1800

200

400

600

ycalc
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
0

200

400

600

800

1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000

50
0.002
0.092
0.291
0.596
1.002
1.505
2.101
2.782
3.546
4.387
5.299
6.276
7.311
8.397
9.524
10.679
11.848
13.014

16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2

60
0.006
0.107
0.317
0.632
1.048
1.561
2.165
2.854
3.626
4.475
5.394
6.377
7.417
8.508
9.639
10.796
11.965
13.13

70
0.011
0.123
0.344
0.669
1.095
1.617
2.23
2.928
3.708
4.564
5.489
6.478
7.524
8.62
9.753
10.913
12.082
13.246

80
0.017
0.141
0.372
0.707
1.143
1.675
2.296
3.002
3.79
4.653
5.585
6.58
7.632
8.731
9.868
11.029
12.199
13.361

90
0.025
0.159
0.401
0.746
1.192
1.733
2.363
3.078
3.873
4.743
5.682
6.683
7.74
8.844
9.984
11.146
12.316
13.476

100
0.033
0.178
0.431
0.787
1.242
1.792
2.431
3.154
3.957
4.834
5.78
6.786
7.848
cero
8.956
diez
10.099
20
11.263
12.433
13.591

0
-2

200

400

600

800

x5

x6

0
3.9135E-008
0.00017869
0.01487258
0.30190733
2.95534359
18.4794919
84.9033437
312.110547
970.130707
2639.57028
6451.18048
14390.2811
29771.1062
57619.6246
105048.985
181246.83
297084.277
463721.319

0
1.2915E-009
3.1807E-005
0.00641008
0.23760107
3.67053674
33.1152495
206.400029
984.396666
3838.80721
12759.6827
37287.8232
97652.4473
233643.641
516041.358
1060889.7
2041383.05
3693648.82
6302436.44

x7

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

residual
Resumen
0 57.2130581
4.2618E-011 -22.0547134Estadsticas de la regresin
5.6616E-006 -38.5801649 Coeficiente de0.99941259
0.00276275 -18.796784 Coeficiente d 0.99882553
0.18699204 6.69861765 R^2 ajustado 0.99807814
4.55880663 17.8653493 Error tpico
24.6696045
59.3425272 11.254984 Observacione
19
501.758469 -3.21693161
3104.78708 -11.9321011 ANLISIS DE VARIANZA
15190.1601 -8.28146308
Grados de libertad
61680.3064 2.73926792 Regresin
7
215523.618 9.77645128 Residuos
11
662669.508 5.32678089 Total
18
1833635.3 -5.28653771
4621666.4 -8.47188571
Coeficientes
10713925.1 1.89531693 Intercepcin 57.2130581
22992097.3 9.51570624 Variable X 1 638.559017
45923135.8 -7.28237535 Variable X 2 -315.687222
85656413.7 1.61742463 Variable X 3 99.7519458
Variable X 4 -17.2945004
Variable X 5 1.64405055

200 1400 1600 1800 2000

Variable X 6 -0.08039265
Variable X 7 0.00157987

ycalc

Resultados de datos de probabilidad


Percentil
2.63157895
7.89473684
13.1578947
18.4210526
23.6842105
28.9473684
34.2105263
39.4736842
44.7368421
50
55.2631579
60.5263158
65.7894737
71.0526316
76.3157895
81.5789474
86.8421053
92.1052632
97.3684211

Y
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800

residu
80

60

40

20

Suma de cuadrados
Promedio de los cuadradosF
Valor crtico de F
5693305.52 813329.36 1336.41726 3.2194E-015
6694.48323 608.589385
5700000

0
0

200

400

-20

Error tpico
16.2003623
67.3659154
70.9950196
30.2497845
6.319667
0.68697156

Estadstico t
3.53159126
9.47896296
-4.44661081
3.29760848
-2.73661578
2.39318576

Probabilidad
0.00470167
1.2586E-006
0.00098419
0.00710809
0.01934815
0.03565989

Inferior 95% Superior 95%Inferior 95.0%


21.556301 92.8698152 21.556301
-40
490.287637 786.830397 490.287637
-471.946206 -159.428237 -471.946206
33.172619 166.331272
33.172619
-60
-31.2039937 -3.38500713 -31.2039937
0.13203635 3.15606475 0.13203635

600

800

1000 120

0.03727139 -2.15695315 0.05398985 -0.16242643 0.00164113 -0.16242643


0.00079674 1.98292514 0.0729038 -0.00017374 0.00333348 -0.00017374

Grfico de probabilidad normal

1400
1200

tos de probabilidad

1000
800

600
400
200
0
0

10

20

30

40

Muestra percentil

50

60

70

00

Grfico de probabilidad normal


2000
Y

Y
Y

1000

Grfico de probabilidad normal


Grfico de probabilidad normal

2000
0
2000
1000 0
1000
0
00
0

10

20

30

40

10
10

2020
20

30 30 40 40 50 50 60
40
60
Muestra percentil

residual

residual

600

800

1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000

Superior 95.0%
92.8698152
786.830397
-159.428237
166.331272
-3.38500713
3.15606475

60

70

80

Muestra percentil

Muestra percentil

400

50

6070
80

70
80
80
90
100

100
90
120

0.00164113
0.00333348

70

d normal
normal
normal

60

70

6070
0

70
80
80
90
100

80

100
90
120

n=1
Time/h

[(CH3)3CBr]/ Ccalc
0
0.1051
0.1051
5
0.0803 0.08035162
10
0.0614 0.06143086
15
0.047 0.04696545
20
0.0359 0.03590628
25
0.0274 0.02745127
30
0.021 0.02098719
35
0.016 0.01604524
40
0.0123 0.01226699
k

-2.252843
-2.52198566
-2.79034544
-3.05760768
-3.32701798
-3.59721227
-3.86323284
-4.13516656
-4.39815602
-0.0537

0 5.9187E-019
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40

0
-0.5

10

15

20

25

30

-1
-1.5
-2
-2.5
-3
-3.5
-4
-4.5
-5

f(x) = - 0.0536872471x - 2.25331810


R = 0.999995463

0.12
0.1
0.08
Ccalc

0.06

Column B
0.04
0.02
0
5

10

15

20

25

300

x) = - 0.0536872471x - 2.2533181066
= 0.999995463

35 5 40 10 45 15

20

25

30

Column D
Linear (Column D)

35

40

45

Ccalc
Column B

45

x1
96
78.7
76.7
54.6
64.8
78.9
97.4
90.5
93
86.3

x2
1
0.5
-0.5
-1
-0.5
0.5
0
0
0
0

x1x1
0
0.866
0.866
0
-0.866
-0.866
0
0
0
0

x2x2
1
0.25
0.25
1
0.25
0.25
0
0
0
0

x1x2

0
0.749956
0.749956
0
0.749956
0.749956
0
0
0
0

0
0.433
-0.433
0
0.433
-0.433
0
0
0
0

Resumen
Estadsticas de la regresin
Coeficiente de0.94943797
Coeficiente d 0.90143246
R^2 ajustado 0.77822304
Error tpico
6.54640487
Observacione
10
ANLISIS DE VARIANZA
Grados de libertad
Suma de cuadrados
Promedio de los cuadradosF
Valor crtico de F
Regresin
5 1567.70733 313.541467 7.31626224 0.03839439
Residuos
4 171.421667 42.8554167
Total
9
1739.129

Intercepcin
Variable X 1
Variable X 2
Variable X 3
Variable X 4
Variable X 5

Coeficientes
91.8
16.483333
3.3775982
-16.5
-17.201009
-6.9861432

x1
96
78.7
76.7
54.6
64.8
78.9

Error tpico
3.27320243
3.77956861
3.77967948
5.66935292
5.66968554
7.55935897

x2
75
60
30
15
30
60

2
2.866
2.866
2
1.134
1.134

Estadstico t
28.0459281
4.36116791
0.89362026
-2.91038505
-3.03385594
-0.92417138

Probabilidad
9.6161E-006
0.0120511
0.42203206
0.04366132
0.03863416
0.40770184

Inferior 95%
82.7121331
5.98956856
-7.11647445
-32.2406472
-32.9425798
-27.9742884

x1x1

x2x2

x1x2

5625
3600
900
225
900
3600

4
8.213956
8.213956
4
1.285956
1.285956

150
171.96
85.98
30
34.02
68.04

97.4
90.5
93
86.3

45
45
45
45

2
2
2
2

2025
2025
2025
2025

4
4
4
4

90
90
90
90

Resumen
Estadsticas de la regresin
Coeficiente de0.94943797
Coeficiente d 0.90143246
R^2 ajustado 0.77822304
Error tpico
6.54640487
Observacione
10

-66.5676624

ANLISIS DE VARIANZA
Grados de libertad
Suma de cuadrados
Promedio de los cuadradosF
Valor crtico de F
Regresin
5 1567.70733 313.541467 7.31626224 0.03839439
Residuos
4 171.421667 42.8554167
Total
9
1739.129

Intercepcin
Variable X 1
Variable X 2
Variable X 3
Variable X 4
Variable X 5

Coeficientes
-66.5676624
2.66518732
82.6608494
-0.01833333
-17.2010091
-0.23287144

Error tpico
34.9527566
0.76893493
25.635622
0.00629928
5.66968554
0.25197863

Estadstico t
-1.90450393
3.46607654
3.22445265
-2.91038505
-3.03385594
-0.92417138

Probabilidad
0.12956414
0.02567518
0.0321443
0.04366132
0.03863416
0.40770184

Inferior 95%
-163.612072
0.5302817
11.4849522
-0.03582294
-32.9425798
-0.93247628

>> a0=91.8; a1=16.48333333;a2=3.377598152;a11=-16.5;a22=-17.20100913;a1=-6.986143187;


>> xp=-1:.1:1;yp=-1:.1:1;
>> [x y]=meshgrid(xp,yp);
>> z=a0+a1*x+a2*y+a11*x.^2+a22*y.^2+a12*x.*y;
??? Undefined function or variable 'a12'.
>> a0=91.8; a1=16.48333333;a2=3.377598152;a11=-16.5;a22=-17.20100913;a12=-6.986143187;
>> xp=-1:.1:1;yp=-1:.1:1;
>> z=a0+a1*x+a2*y+a11*x.^2+a22*y.^2+a12*x.*y;
>> mesh(x,y,z)
>> contour(x,y,z)
>> meshc(x,y,z)
>> surf(x,y,z)
>> surfc(x,y,z)
>> -66.5676 2.66518732 82.6608494 -0.01833333 -17.2010091 -0.23287144
??? -66.5676 2.66518732 82.6608494 -0.01833333 -17.2010091 -0.23287144
|
Error: Unexpected MATLAB expression.
>> a0=-66.5 2.66518732 82.6608494 -0.01833333 -17.2010091 -0.23287144
??? a0=-66.5 2.66518732 82.6608494 -0.01833333 -17.2010091 -0.23287144
|
Error: Unexpected MATLAB expression.

>> a0=-66.56766237;a1=2.665187324;a2=82.66084944;a11=-0.018333333;a22=-17.20100913;a1
a12 =
-0.2329
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>

xp=10:1:80;yp=1:.05:2;
[x y]=meshgrid(xp,yp);
z=a0+a1*x+a2*y+a11*x.^2+a22*y.^2+a12*x.*y;
surfc(x,y,z)

91.78
82.92
72.48
58.82
60.58
83.12
91.8
91.8
91.8
91.8

a0

a1
a2
a11
91.8 16.4833333 3.37759815

crtico de F

Superior 95%Inferior 95.0%


Superior 95.0%
100.887867 82.7121331 100.887867
26.9770981 5.98956856 26.9770981
13.8716708 -7.11647445 13.8716708
-0.75935284 -32.2406472 -0.75935284
-1.45943846 -32.9425798 -1.45943846
14.002002 -27.9742884 14.002002

-92594.42
-59652.15
-14995.98
-3645.08
-14519.66
-58812.83

-16.5

-33269.7517
-33269.7517
-33269.7517
-33269.7517

2.66518732 82.6608494 -0.01833333 -17.2010091 -0.23287144

crtico de F

Superior 95%Inferior 95.0%


Superior 95.0%
30.4767476 -163.612072 30.4767476
4.80009295 0.5302817 4.80009295
153.836747 11.4849522 153.836747
-0.00084373 -0.03582294 -0.00084373
-1.45943846 -32.9425798 -1.45943846
0.4667334 -0.93247628 0.4667334

20100913;a1=-6.986143187;

20100913;a12=-6.986143187;

333333;a22=-17.20100913;a12=-0.23287144

a22
a12
-17.2010091 -6.98614319

Experiencia x1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

x2
-1
1
-1
1
-1
1
-1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

x3
-1
-1
1
1
0
0
0
0
-1
-1
1
-1
0
0
0

x1x1
0
0
0
0
-1
-1
1
1
-1
-1
1
1
0
0
0

x2x2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0

1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0 2

Resumen
Estadsticas de la regresin
Coeficiente de0.98104962
Coeficiente d 0.96245836
R^2 ajustado 0.89488342
Error tpico
26.6894174
Observacione
15
ANLISIS DE VARIANZA
Grados de libertad
Suma de cuadrados
Promedio de los cuadradosF
Valor crtico de F
Regresin
9 91309.7083 10145.5231 14.242829 0.004626
Residuos
5
3561.625
712.325
Total
14 94871.3333
Coeficientes Error tpico Estadstico t Probabilidad Inferior 95%

Intercepcin
a1
a2
a3
a11
a22
a33
a12
a13
a23

624
9.375
6
-43.25
-92.25
36.75
-18.5
-19.5
109.25
-63

15.4091423
9.43613401
11.2783373
11.2783373
15.2013691
15.2013691
15.2013691
13.3447087
13.3447087
18.1857725

Resultados de datos de probabilidad


Percentil
3.33333333
10
16.6666667
23.3333333
30
36.6666667
43.3333333
50
56.6666667
63.3333333
70
76.6666667
83.3333333
90
96.6666667

Y
350
458
532
535
563
580
595
596
599
600
620
645
648
653
656

40.4954401
0.99352129
0.53199331
-3.83478511
-6.06853235
2.41754541
-1.21699565
-1.46125333
8.18676545
-3.46424657

1.7316E-007
0.3660732
0.6175107
0.01218817
0.00175455
0.0602998
0.2779094
0.203788
0.00044229
0.01796008

584.389539
-14.8813547
-22.9918891
-72.2418891
-131.326363
-2.32636324
-57.5763632
-53.8036658
74.9463342
-109.748016

624

(a) Fit the second-order model.


(b) Perform the canonical analysis. What type of surface
has been found?
(c) What operating conditions on x1, x2, and x3 lead to the
stationary point?
(d) What operating conditions would you recommend if it
is important to obtain a viscosity that is as close to 600
as possible?

x3x3

700

600

500

400

300

200

100
0
0

x1x2
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
4 0

x1x3
1
-1
-1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
80

10

x2x3
0
0
0
0
1
-1
-1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
12
0

14

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
-1
0
0
0 16

ycalc
y

535
580
596
563
645
458
350
600
595
648
532
656
653
599
620

Grfico de probabilidad no
700
600
500

crtico de F
0.05

400
Y

300
200

Superior 95%Inferior 95.0%


Superior 95.0%

100
0
0

20

40

60

Muestra percentil

80

300
200

663.610461
33.6313547
34.9918891
-14.2581109
-53.1736368
75.8263632
20.5763632
14.8036658
143.553666
-16.2519835

584.389539
-14.8813547
-22.9918891
-72.2418891
-131.326363
-2.32636324
-57.5763632
-53.8036658
74.9463342
-109.748016

663.610461
33.6313547
34.9918891
-14.2581109
-53.1736368
75.8263632
20.5763632
14.8036658
143.553666
-16.2519835

9.375

-43.25

100
0
0

20

40

60

Muestra percentil

-92.25

36.75

-18.5

80

ycalc
533.625
591.375
584.625
564.375
656.375
456.625
351.375
588.625
616.5
616.5
542
656
624
624
624

de probabilidad normal

40

60

Muestra percentil

80

100

120

40

60

80

100

120

Muestra percentil

-19.5

109.25

-63

Problema 1.56 El factor irritante Y de aire contaminado puede determinarse en funcin de las concentraciones d

siguientes estn disponibles donde X1 = partes NO2 por 10 millones de partes de aire y X 2 = partes
Determinar el factor irritante como una funcin de X1 y X2
X1

X2
10
12
15
16
19
21
25
28

Y
12.5
15
18
21
26
30
35
40

65
72
82
95
110
122
125
130

140
120
100
80
60
40
20

Modelo 1
(Ojo parecen ser cuadraticas)
y=a0+a1x1+a2x2

0
5

Exp

X1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

X2
10
12
15
16
19
21
25
28

Y
12.5
15
18
21
26
30
35
40

65
72
82
95
110
122
125
130

Ycalc
error
70.96681922 -5.966819222
76.12471396 -4.124713959
80.70881007 1.291189931
90.64416476 4.35583524
103.6355835 6.364416476
115.0989703 6.901029748
125.4147597 -0.414759725
138.4061785 -8.40617849

Resumen
Estadsticas de la regresin
Coeficiente de 0.973659234
Coeficiente de 0.948012304
R^2 ajustado 0.927217225
Error tpico
6.815020764
Observaciones
8
ANLISIS DE VARIANZA
Grados de libertad
Suma de cuadrados
Promedio de los cuadrados F
Valor crtico de F
Regresin
2 4234.65246 2117.32623 45.58830141 0.00061624
Residuos
5
232.22254 46.44450801
Total
7
4466.875

Intercepcin
Variable X 1
Variable X 2

Coeficientes
45.17734554
-2.675629291
4.203661327

Error tpico Estadstico t


15.22904931 2.966524345
5.214044264 -0.513158147
3.315482409 1.267888292

Probabilidad Inferior 95%


0.031282312 6.029828006
0.629701889 -16.07875677
0.260670672 -4.319057529

10

Resultados de datos de probabilidad


Percentil
6.25
18.75
31.25
43.75
56.25
68.75
81.25
93.75

Y
65
72
82
95
110
122
125
130

Modelo 2

y=a0+a1x1+a2x2+a12x1x2

EXP

X1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

X2
10
12
15
16
19
21
25
28

x1x2
12.5
15
18
21
26
30
35
40

Y
125
180
270
336
494
630
875
1120

Ycalc
65 64.03839389
72 73.61881153
82 81.42568235
95 95.01907295
110 110.0957595
122 121.6398346
125 125.1015005
130 130.0609446

1.5
1
0.5

Resumen

Estadsticas de la regresin
Coeficiente de 0.999548985
Coeficiente de 0.999098173
R^2 ajustado 0.998421803
Error tpico
1.003537143
Observaciones
8

-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2

ANLISIS DE VARIANZA
Grados de libertad
Suma de cuadrados
Promedio de los cuadrados F
Valor crtico de F
Regresin
3 4462.846653 1487.615551 1477.147306 1.5245E-006
Residuos
4 4.028347192 1.007086798
Total
7
4466.875

Intercepcin
Variable X 1

Coeficientes Error tpico Estadstico t Probabilidad Inferior 95%


-1.307215858 3.816445569 -0.342521814 0.749200078 -11.90336748
-1.497778166 0.77176434 -1.94071958 0.124274574 -3.64053949

Variable X 2
Variable X 3

7.588772748 0.537519979 14.11812219 0.000146102 6.096378032


-0.116290144 0.007725455 -15.05285377 0.000113502 -0.137739445

Resultados de datos de probabilidad


Percentil
6.25
18.75
31.25
43.75
56.25
68.75
81.25
93.75

Y
65
72
82
95
110
122
125
130

Modelo 3

y=a0+a11x1x1+a22x2x2+a12x1x2

EXP

X1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

X2
10
12
15
16
19
21
25
28

x1x1
12.5
15
18
21
26
30
35
40

x2x2
100
144
225
256
361
441
625
784

x1x2
156.25
225
324
441
676
900
1225
1600

125
180
270
336
494
630
875
1120
20

Resumen

15

Estadsticas de la regresin
Coeficiente de 0.942719339
Coeficiente de 0.888719753
R^2 ajustado 0.805259567
Error tpico
11.14758892
Observaciones
8

10
5
0
0
-5

ANLISIS DE VARIANZA
-10
Grados de libertad
Suma de cuadrados
Promedio de los cuadrados F
Valor crtico de F
Regresin
3 3969.800045 1323.266682 10.64842771 0.0223386
-15
Residuos
4 497.0749551 124.2687388
Total
7
4466.875
Coeficientes

Error tpico

Estadstico t

Probabilidad

Inferior 95%

Intercepcin
Variable X 1
Variable X 2
Variable X 3

66.57427079 13.79153855
4.8271823 0.008478622 28.28282108
-4.135859445 4.53357894 -0.912272511 0.413234085 -16.7230925
-2.32180343 2.577009252 -0.900968217 0.418547773 -9.476728155
6.275660854 6.843592244 0.917012679 0.411022717 -12.72519733

Resultados de datos de probabilidad


Percentil
6.25
18.75
31.25
43.75
56.25
68.75
81.25
93.75

Y
65
72
82
95
110
122
125
130

Modelo 4

cuadratica completa

EXP

X1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

X2
10
12
15
16
19
21
25
28

Resumen

x1x1
12.5
15
18
21
26
30
35
40

x2x2
100
144
225
256
361
441
625
784

x1x2
156.25
225
324
441
676
900
1225
1600

125
180
270
336
494
630
875
1120
0.8
0.6

Estadsticas de la regresin
Coeficiente de 0.999866288
Coeficiente de 0.999732593
R^2 ajustado 0.999064077
Error tpico
0.772810547
Observaciones
8

0.4
0.2
0
-0.2

-0.4
ANLISIS DE VARIANZA
Grados de libertad
Suma de cuadrados
Promedio de los cuadrados F
Valor crtico de F
-0.6
Regresin
5 4465.680528 893.1361055 1495.448856 0.000668383
Residuos
2 1.194472285 0.597236142
-0.8
Total
7
4466.875

a0
a1
a2
a11
a22
a12

Coeficientes
30.91803754
-24.04409976
21.58570945
3.216715361
1.143586935
-3.967027861

Error tpico Estadstico t


16.0573611 1.925474388
10.86918923 -2.212133698
6.720156754 3.212084217
1.480973587 2.172027503
0.52644465 2.172283327
1.767846805 -2.243988477

Resultados de datos de probabilidad


Percentil
6.25
18.75
31.25
43.75
56.25
68.75
81.25
93.75

Probabilidad Inferior 95%


0.194034175 -38.17121103
0.15746032 -70.81044646
0.084779157 -7.328791355
0.161978993 -3.155399685
0.161949611 -1.121521574
0.153993648 -11.57345874

y a0 a1 x1 a2 x2 a

Y
65
72
82
95
110
122
125
130

Ejemplo 1.49 Vamos a desarrollar una ecuacin para los datos sobre la capacidad de calor de vapor de benceno

T [K]

Cp=b1T

Cp [cal/mol-K]
300
19.65
400
26.74
500
32.8
600
37.74
700
41.75
800
45.06
900
47.83
1000
50.16
T [K]

Cp [cal/mol-K]
300
19.65
400
26.74
500
32.8
600
37.74
700
41.75
800
45.06
900
47.83
1000
50.16
Resumen

Cp=b0+b1T+b2T2
Cp=b0+b1T+b21/T
Cp=b0+b1T
Cp=b1T

6
Cpcalc
residual
16.903815789 2.7461842105
22.538421053 4.2015789474
28.173026316 4.6269736842
33.807631579 3.9323684211
39.442236842 2.3077631579
45.076842105 -0.0168421053
50.711447368 -2.8814473684
56.346052632 -6.1860526316

4
2
0
200
-2
-4
-6
-8

300

400

-2
-4
-6

Estadsticas de la regresin
Coeficiente de 0.995310132
Coeficiente de 0.990642258
R^2 ajustado 0.847785115
Error tpico
4.034905571
Observaciones
8

-8

ANLISIS DE VARIANZA
Grados de libertad
Suma de cuadrados
Promedio de los cuadrados F
Regresin
1 12064.53506 12064.53506 741.0437333
Residuos
7 113.9632408 16.28046297
Total
8 12178.4983

Intercepcin
Variable X 1

Coeficientes Error tpico Estadstico t Probabilidad


0 Err:512
Err:512
Err:512
0.056346053 0.002069863 27.22211846 2.31535E-008

Cp=b0+b1T+b2T2

T [K]

T^2
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000

90000
160000
250000
360000
490000
640000
810000
1000000

Cp [cal/mol-K] Cpcalc
residual
19.65 19.89958333 -0.249583333
26.74 26.60410714 0.135892857
32.8 32.50160714 0.298392857
37.74 37.59208333 0.147916667
41.75 41.87553571 -0.125535714
45.06 45.35196429 -0.291964286
47.83 48.02136905 -0.191369048
50.16
49.88375
0.27625

Resumen
Estadsticas de la regresin
Coeficiente de 0.999745942
Coeficiente de 0.999491949
R^2 ajustado 0.999288728
Error tpico
0.284820955
Observaciones
8
ANLISIS DE VARIANZA
Grados de libertad
Suma de cuadrados
Promedio de los cuadrados F
Regresin
2 797.9685726 398.9842863 4918.264899
Residuos
5 0.405614881 0.081122976
Total
7 798.3741875

Coeficientes Error tpico Estadstico t Probabilidad


-5.056130952 0.867641576 -5.827441992 0.002102837
0.095291071 0.002890283 32.9694621 4.82473E-007
-4.0351E-005 2.19744E-006 -18.3628064 8.80860E-006

b0
b1
b2

11.11. Se ha realizado un experimento en base al diseo de BoxBehnken, obtenindose los siguientes datos en la tabla P11.5
(a) Ajuste un modelo de Segundo orden.
(b) Que tipo de superficie se obtendr?
(c) Cuales son las condiciones de x1, x2, y x3 para alcanzar un punto estacionario?
(d) Que condiciones de operacin usted recomienda para alcanzar una viscosidad cercana a 600?

NIVEL
High
Middle
Low

Temperatura Velocidad de aPresin


200
10
175
7.5
150
5

Experiencia

x1

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

x2
-1
1
-1
1
-1
1
-1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

x1
25
20
15

x3
-1
-1
1
1
0
0
0
0
-1
1
-1
1
0
0
0

x2
-1
0
1

x1x1

-1
0
1

x2x2

0
0
0
0
-1
-1
1
1
-1
-1
1
1
0
0
0

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0

Resumen
Estadsticas de la regresin
Coeficiente de 0.972106623
Coeficiente de 0.944991286
R^2 ajustado 0.845975602
Error tpico
32.30711996

a0
624

a1
9.375

Observaciones

15

ANLISIS DE VARIANZA
Grados de libertad
Suma de cuadrados
Promedio de los cuadrados F
Valor crtico de F
Regresin
9 89652.58333 9961.398148 9.543854513 0.011495939
Residuos
5
5218.75
1043.75
Total
14 94871.33333

Intercepcin
Variable X 1
Variable X 2
Variable X 3
Variable X 4
Variable X 5
Variable X 6
Variable X 7
Variable X 8
Variable X 9

Coeficientes
624
9.375
27.625
-26
-75
19.5
-35.75
-19.5
109.25
17.75

Error tpico Estadstico t Probabilidad Inferior 95%


18.6525244 33.45391682 4.48663E-007 576.0521596
11.4222918 0.820763483 0.44912778 -19.98693583
11.4222918 2.418516396 0.060227555 -1.736935826
11.4222918 -2.276250725 0.071874375 -55.36193583
16.81315829 -4.460791881 0.006635594 -118.2195993
16.81315829 1.159805889 0.298496391 -23.7195993
16.81315829 -2.126310797 0.086808764 -78.9695993
16.15355998 -1.207164243 0.281355656 -61.02404786
16.15355998 6.763215052 0.001073582 67.72595214
16.15355998 1.09882899 0.321915154 -23.77404786

600

400

200

-200

-400
1

0.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5

-2

-2

-1

n de las concentraciones de SO 2 y NO2 en la atmsfera. Los datos

es de aire y X 2 = partes de SO2 por 100 millones de partes de aire.

X1
140
120
100
Y

80
60
40
20
0
5

10

15

20

25

30

X1
8
6
4
2

Exp

0
-2 0

-4
-6
-8
-10

Por los residuales, se puede decir que es cuadratica

crtico de F

Superior 95% Inferior 95.0%Superior 95.0%


84.32486307 6.029828006 84.32486307
10.72749819 -16.07875677 10.72749819
12.72638018 -4.319057529 12.72638018

residual
0.961606114
-1.618811527
0.574317649
-0.019072952
-0.095759507
0.36016536
-0.101500538
-0.060944601

Grfico
140
120
100
80

Column G

60
40
20
0

crtico de F

Parece exponencial

Superior 95% Inferior 95.0%Superior 95.0%


9.28893576 -11.90336748 9.28893576
0.644983158 -3.64053949 0.644983158

10

20

9.081167463 6.096378032 9.081167463


-0.094840842 -0.137739445 -0.094840842

Y
65
72
82
95
110
122
125
130

20

Ycalc
esidual
74.66414709 -9.664147094
78.22369267 -6.223692667
78.1700149 3.829985096
92.50098716 2.499012843
104.1663543 5.833645702
106.7035065 15.29649349
128.6561631 -3.656163086
137.9151343 -7.915134286

15
10
5
Column I
0
0

-5
-10

crtico de F
-15

Superior 95% Inferior 95.0%Superior 95.0%

104.8657205 28.28282108
8.451373612 -16.7230925
4.833121295 -9.476728155
25.27651904 -12.72519733

104.8657205
8.451373612
4.833121295
25.27651904

Ycalc
residual
65 64.7769202 0.223079802
72 72.62353965 -0.623539652
82 81.9849121
0.0150879
95 94.39194951 0.608050489
110 109.8958382 0.104161792
122 122.1353898 -0.135389839
125 125.5070926 -0.507092608
130 129.6843579 0.315642117

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
Column I

0
-0.2

-0.4

crtico de F
-0.6
-0.8

Superior 95% Inferior 95.0%Superior 95.0%


100.0072861 -38.17121103 100.0072861
22.72224694 -70.81044646 22.72224694
50.50021025 -7.328791355 50.50021025
9.588830407 -3.155399685 9.588830407
3.408695445 -1.121521574 3.408695445
3.639403022 -11.57345874 3.639403022

x1 a2 x2 a11 x1 a22 x2 a12 x1 x2

calor de vapor de benceno como funcin de la temperatura. Los valores experimentales se muestran en la tabla

0+b1T+b2T2
0+b1T+b21/T

6
4
2
0
200
-2
-4
-6
-8

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

Column E

-2
-4
-6
-8

es cuadratica

Valor crtico de F
1.62397E-007

Inferior 95% Superior 95% Inferior 95.0%Superior 95.0%


Err:512
Err:512
Err:512
Err:512
0.051451605 0.061240501 0.051451605 0.061240501

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
200
-0.1

Column F
300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

-0.2
-0.3
-0.4

Valor crtico de F
5.81793E-009

C p b0 b

Inferior 95% Superior 95% Inferior 95.0%Superior 95.0%


-7.286474627 -2.825787278 -7.286474627 -2.825787278
0.087861363 0.10272078 0.087861363 0.10272078
-4.6000E-005 -3.4702E-005 -4.6000E-005 -3.4702E-005

guientes datos en la tabla P11.5, donde la variable respuesta es la viscosidad de un polmero:

x3
-1
0
1

x3x3

x1x2

x1x3

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0

a2
27.625

x2x3

1
-1
-1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Viscosidad
VisCALC
0
535
512
0
580
569.75
0
596
606.25
0
563
586
0
645
639.125
0
458
439.375
0
350
368.625
0
600
605.875
1
595
623.875
-1
648
643.625
-1
532
536.375
1
656
627.125
0
653
624
0
599
624
0
620
624

0
0
0
0
1
-1
-1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

a3
-26

a11
-75

a22
19.5

-9.375

a33
-35.75

a12
-19.5

-27.625
26

crtico de F
Xopt

Superior 95% Inferior 95.0%Superior 95.0%


671.9478404 576.0521596 671.9478404
38.73693583 -19.98693583 38.73693583
56.98693583 -1.736935826 56.98693583
3.361935826 -55.36193583 3.361935826
-31.7804007 -118.2195993 -31.7804007
62.7195993 -23.7195993 62.7195993
7.469599299 -78.9695993 7.469599299
22.02404786 -61.02404786 22.02404786
150.7740479 67.72595214 150.7740479
59.27404786 -23.77404786 59.27404786

-1

X2
140
120
100
Y

80
60
40
20
0
10

Exp
9

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Grfico de probabilidad normal


140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Muestra percentil

70

80

90

100

estran en la tabla

000

Column F
1100

C p b0 b1T b2T 2

residual
23
10.25
-10.25
-23
5.875
18.625
-18.625
-5.875
-28.875
4.375
-4.375
28.875
29
-25
-4

40
30
20
10
0
-10

Column
0

-20
-30
-40

aleatorio

a13
109.25

-150

a23
17.75

-19.5

109.25

10

12

14

16

-19.5
109.25

2.184959602
-0.871370859
2.758601451

39
17.75

17.75
-71.5

45

Column M
14

16

x^2+2x+1=0
x

f(x)

f'(x)

2
0.5
-0.25
-0.625
-0.8125
-0.90625
-0.953125
-0.9765625
-0.98828125
-0.99414063
-0.99707031
-0.99853516
-0.99926758
-0.99963379
-0.99981689
-0.99990845
-0.99995422
-0.99997711
-0.99998856
-0.99999428
-0.99999714
-0.99999857
-0.99999928
-0.99999964
-0.99999982
-0.99999991
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1

9
2.25
0.5625
0.140625
0.03515625
0.00878906
0.00219727
0.00054932
0.00013733
3.4332E-005
8.5831E-006
2.1458E-006
5.3644E-007
1.3411E-007
3.3528E-008
8.3819E-009
2.0955E-009
5.2387E-010
1.3097E-010
3.2742E-011
8.1855E-012
2.0464E-012
5.1159E-013
1.2790E-013
3.1974E-014
7.9936E-015
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

6
3
1.5
0.75
0.375
0.1875
0.09375
0.046875
0.0234375
0.01171875
0.00585938
0.00292969
0.00146484
0.00073242
0.00036621
0.00018311
9.1553E-005
4.5776E-005
2.2888E-005
1.1444E-005
5.7220E-006
2.8610E-006
1.4305E-006
7.1526E-007
3.5763E-007
1.7881E-007
8.9407E-008
8.9407E-008
8.9407E-008
8.9407E-008
8.9407E-008
8.9407E-008
8.9407E-008
8.9407E-008
8.9407E-008
8.9407E-008

f x x 1

f ' x 4 x 1

f ' ' x 12 x 1

conv
0.75
1.5
-1.5
-0.3
-0.11538462
-0.05172414
-0.02459016
-0.012
-0.00592885
-0.00294695
-0.00146915
-0.0007335
-0.00036648
-0.00018317
-9.157E-005
-4.578E-005
-2.289E-005
-1.144E-005
-5.722E-006
-2.861E-006
-1.431E-006
-7.153E-007
-3.576E-007
-1.788E-007
-8.941E-008
-4.470E-008
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

x
2
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1

f x h f x h
2h
x x h
f x h 2 f x f x h
h2

f x x 1

f ' x 4 x 1

f ' ' x 12 x 1

conv 0.0001

f x h f x h
2h
x x h
f x h 2 f x f x h
h2

f'

f''

conv

-1
-0.33333333
0.11111111
0.40740741
0.60493827
0.73662551
0.82441701
0.88294467
0.92196312
0.94797541
0.96531694
0.97687796
0.98458531
0.98972354
0.99314903
0.99543268
0.99695512
0.99797008
0.99864672
0.99909781
0.99939854
0.99959903
0.99973269
0.9998218
0.99988119
0.9999208
0.9999472
0.9999648
0.99997653
0.99998435
0.99998957
0.99999305
0.99999536
0.99999691
0.99999794
0.99999863
0.99999908
0.99999939
0.99999959

16
3.16049383
0.62429508
0.12331755
0.02435902
0.00481166
0.00095045
0.00018774
3.7085E-005
7.3255E-006
1.4470E-006
2.8583E-007
5.6460E-008
1.1153E-008
2.2030E-009
4.3516E-010
8.5957E-011
1.6979E-011
3.3539E-012
6.6250E-013
1.3086E-013
2.5850E-014
5.1061E-015
1.009E-015
1.9923E-016
3.9354E-017
7.7737E-018
1.5356E-018
3.0332E-019
5.9915E-020
1.1835E-020
2.3378E-021
4.6178E-022
9.1217E-023
1.8018E-023
3.5591E-024
7.0304E-025
1.3887E-025
2.7431E-026

-32
-9.48148148
-2.80932785
-0.83239344
-0.24663509
-0.07307706
-0.02165246
-0.00641554
-0.0019009
-0.00056323
-0.00016688
-4.945E-005
-1.465E-005
-4.341E-006
-1.286E-006
-3.811E-007
-1.129E-007
-3.346E-008
-9.913E-009
-2.937E-009
-8.703E-010
-2.579E-010
-7.641E-011
-2.26E-011
-6.708E-012
-1.987E-012
-5.889E-013
-1.745E-013
-5.170E-014
-1.532E-014
-4.539E-015
-1.345E-015
-3.985E-016
-1.181E-016
-3.498E-017
-1.036E-017
-3.071E-018
-9.100E-019
-2.696E-019

48
21.3333333
9.48148148
4.21399177
1.87288523
0.83239344
0.36995264
0.16442339
0.07307706
0.0324787
0.01443498
0.00641554
0.00285135
0.00126727
0.00056323
0.00025032
0.00011126
4.9447E-005
2.1976E-005
9.7673E-006
4.3410E-006
1.9293E-006
8.5748E-007
3.811E-007
1.6938E-007
7.5280E-008
3.3458E-008
1.4870E-008
6.6089E-009
2.9373E-009
1.3055E-009
5.8021E-010
2.5787E-010
1.1461E-010
5.0937E-011
2.2639E-011
1.0062E-011
4.4719E-012
1.9875E-012

-0.66666667
-1.33333333
2.66666667
0.48484848
0.21768707
0.11918063
0.07099279
0.04419127
0.02821403
0.01829323
0.0119764
0.00788977
0.00521868
0.00346105
0.00229941
0.00152942
0.00101806
0.00067802
0.0004517
0.000301
0.00020061
0.00013371
8.913E-005
5.9414E-005
3.9607E-005
2.6404E-005
1.7602E-005
1.1734E-005
7.8228E-006
5.2152E-006
3.4768E-006
2.3178E-006
1.5452E-006
1.0301E-006
6.8676E-007
4.5784E-007
3.0523E-007
2.0349E-007

0.99999973
0.99999982
0.99999988
0.99999992
0.99999995
0.99999996
0.99999998
0.99999998

5.4186E-027
1.0703E-027
2.1142E-028
4.1763E-029
8.2494E-030
1.6295E-030
3.2188E-031
6.3581E-032

-7.989E-020
-2.367E-020
-7.013E-021
-2.078E-021
-6.157E-022
-1.824E-022
-5.405E-023
-1.602E-023

8.8333E-013
3.9259E-013
1.7448E-013
7.7549E-014
3.4466E-014
1.5318E-014
6.8081E-015
3.0258E-015

1.3566E-007
9.0438E-008
6.0292E-008
4.0195E-008
2.6796E-008
1.7864E-008
1.1909E-008
7.9397E-009

x h

f x h

f'
9
0
0
0
0
0
0

f''
6
0
0
0
0
0
0

conv
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

1.5
0
0
0
0
0

x h

f x h

0.000001

x-h
x
x+h
f(x-h)
f(x)
f(x+h)
-1.000001
-1
-0.999999 16.000032
16 15.999968
-0.3333936
-0.333392595 -0.3333916 3.16106524 3.16105575 3.16104627
0.11107677
0.1110777683 0.11107877 0.62439156 0.62438875 0.62438594
0.40737377
0.4073747713 0.40737577 0.12334555 0.12334471 0.12334388
0.60491067
0.6049116716 0.60491267 0.02436583 0.02436558 0.02436534
0.73660705
0.736608052 0.73660905 0.00481301 0.00481293 0.00481286
0.82440442
0.8244054189 0.82440642 0.00095072 0.0009507 0.00095068
0.88293595
0.8829369516 0.88293795 0.0001878 0.00018779 0.00018779
0.92195697
0.9219579735 0.92195897 3.7097E-005 3.7095E-005 3.7093E-005
0.94797098
0.9479719834 0.94797298 7.3279E-006 7.3274E-006 7.3268E-006
0.96531366
0.9653146556 0.96531566 1.4476E-006 1.4474E-006 1.4472E-006
0.97687544
0.9768764371 0.97687744 2.8595E-007 2.8590E-007 2.8585E-007
0.98458329
0.9845842914 0.98458529 5.6489E-008 5.6475E-008 5.6460E-008
0.98972186
0.9897228609 0.98972386 1.1160E-008 1.1155E-008 1.1151E-008
0.99314757
0.993148574 0.99314957 2.2048E-009 2.2036E-009 2.2023E-009
0.99543138
0.9954323827 0.99543338 4.3565E-010 4.3527E-010 4.3489E-010
0.99695392
0.9969549219 0.99695592 8.6092E-011 8.5979E-011 8.5866E-011
0.99796895
0.997969948 0.99797095 1.7017E-011 1.6984E-011 1.6950E-011
0.99864563
0.9986466321 0.99864763 3.3647E-012 3.3548E-012 3.3449E-012
0.99909675
0.999097755 0.99909875 6.6561E-013 6.6267E-013 6.5974E-013
0.9993975
0.9993985036 0.9993995 1.3177E-013 1.3090E-013 1.3003E-013
0.999598
0.9995990029
0.9996 2.6115E-014 2.5856E-014 2.5599E-014
0.99973167
0.9997326693 0.99973367 5.1842E-015 5.1073E-015 5.0314E-015
0.99982078
0.9998217806 0.99982278 1.0317E-015 1.0088E-015 9.8638E-016
0.99988019
0.9998811886 0.99988219 2.0606E-016 1.9927E-016 1.9264E-016
0.99991979
0.9999207947 0.99992179 4.1382E-017 3.9356E-017 3.7406E-017
0.9999462
0.9999472 0.9999482 8.3778E-018 7.7721E-018 7.1998E-018
0.99996381 0.9999648053 0.99996581 1.7163E-018 1.5343E-018 1.3672E-018
0.99997554 0.9999765447 0.99997754 3.5768E-019 3.0266E-019 2.5426E-019
0.99998337
0.999984375 0.99998537 7.6392E-020 5.9605E-020 4.5749E-020
0.9999886 0.9999896011 0.9999906 1.6883E-020 1.1694E-020 7.8039E-021
0.99999209 0.9999930941 0.99999409 3.9067E-021 2.2745E-021 1.2166E-021
0.99999444 0.9999954361 0.99999644 9.5832E-022 4.3384E-022 1.6132E-022
0.99999602 0.9999970178 0.99999802 2.5147E-022 7.9095E-023 1.5438E-023
0.9999971 0.9999981033 0.9999991 7.0407E-023 1.2942E-023 6.4653E-025
0.99999788 0.9999988755 0.99999988 2.0372E-023 1.5990E-024 2.4025E-028
0.99999847 0.9999994686 1.00000047 5.5000E-024 7.9748E-026 4.8214E-026
0.99999897 0.9999999744 1.00000097 1.1062E-024 4.2669E-031 9.0162E-025
0.99999903 1.0000000254 1.00000103 9.0224E-025 4.1569E-031 1.1055E-024

0.99999897
0.99999903
0.99999898
0.99999902
0.99999898
0.99999902
0.99999898
0.99999902

0.9999999748
1.0000000251
0.9999999751
1.0000000248
0.9999999754
1.0000000245
0.9999999757
1.0000000242

1.00000097
1.00000103
1.00000098
1.00000102
1.00000098
1.00000102
1.00000098
1.00000102

1.1048E-024
9.0343E-025
1.1034E-024
9.0459E-025
1.1021E-024
9.0570E-025
1.1009E-024
9.0677E-025

4.0511E-031
3.9494E-031
3.8514E-031
3.7570E-031
3.6661E-031
3.5784E-031
3.4938E-031
3.4122E-031

9.0284E-025
1.1041E-024
9.0402E-025
1.1028E-024
9.0515E-025
1.1015E-024
9.0624E-025
1.1002E-024

conv
0.6666074
1.33317407
2.6674735
0.48490214
0.21771175
0.11919143
0.07099848
0.04419457
0.02821605
0.0182945
0.01197722
0.00789031
0.00521902
0.00346129
0.00229956
0.00152953
0.00101813
0.00067806
0.00045173
0.00030102
0.00020062
0.00013372
8.9135E-005
5.9419E-005
3.9611E-005
2.6407E-005
1.7606E-005
1.1740E-005
7.8304E-006
5.2262E-006
3.4930E-006
2.3421E-006
1.5817E-006
1.0855E-006
7.7220E-007
5.9309E-007
5.0585E-007
5.0950E-008

xp
100
59.5198412698
36.8436724566
22.2839694656
13.4149338374
7.9030939872
4.5037892458
2.4012042819
1.1021364576
0.2991736945
-0.1970622302
-0.5037581753
-0.6933054477
-0.8104523987
-0.8828531267
-0.9275992537
-0.9552538773
-0.9723453755
-0.982908502
-0.9894368734
-0.9934716287
-0.9959652446
-0.9975063841
-0.9984588606
-0.9990475235
-0.9994113371
-0.9996361863
-0.9997751508
-0.9998610355
-0.9999141152
-0.9999469203
-0.9999671949
-0.9999797254
-0.9999874696
-0.9999922558
-0.9999952138
-0.999997042
-0.9999981718
-0.9999988701

xq

fp

fq

150
100
59.5198413
36.8436725
22.2839695
13.4149338
7.90309399
4.50378925
2.40120428
1.10213646
0.29917369
-0.19706223
-0.50375818
-0.69330545
-0.8104524
-0.88285313
-0.92759925
-0.95525388
-0.97234538
-0.9829085
-0.98943687
-0.99347163
-0.99596524
-0.99750638
-0.99845886
-0.99904752
-0.99941134
-0.99963619
-0.99977515
-0.99986104
-0.99991412
-0.99994692
-0.99996719
-0.99997973
-0.99998747
-0.99999226
-0.99999521
-0.99999704
-0.99999817

10201
3662.65119
1432.14355
542.143234
207.790318
79.2650825
30.2916961
11.5681906
4.41897769
1.68785229
0.64470906
0.24625595
0.09406155
0.03592829
0.01372339
0.00524187
0.00200222
0.00076478
0.00029212
0.00011158
4.2620E-005
1.6279E-005
6.2181E-006
2.3751E-006
9.0721E-007
3.4652E-007
1.3236E-007
5.0557E-008
1.9311E-008
7.3762E-009
2.8175E-009
1.0762E-009
4.1106E-010
1.5701E-010
5.9973E-011
2.2908E-011
8.7499E-012
3.3422E-012
1.2765E-012

22801
10201
3662.65119
1432.14355
542.143234
207.790318
79.2650825
30.2916961
11.5681906
4.41897769
1.68785229
0.64470906
0.24625595
0.09406155
0.03592829
0.01372339
0.00524187
0.00200222
0.00076478
0.00029212
0.00011158
4.2620E-005
1.6279E-005
6.2181E-006
2.3751E-006
9.0721E-007
3.4652E-007
1.3236E-007
5.0557E-008
1.9311E-008
7.3762E-009
2.8175E-009
1.0762E-009
4.1106E-010
1.5701E-010
5.9973E-011
2.2908E-011
8.7499E-012
3.3422E-012

5.0620E-008
5.0297E-008
0.00000005
4.9669E-008
4.9364E-008
4.9065E-008
4.8770E-008
4.8481E-008

-0.9999993017
-0.9999995684
-0.9999997333
-0.9999998352
-0.9999998983
-0.9999999369
-0.9999999613
-0.9999999613

-0.99999887
-0.9999993
-0.99999957
-0.99999973
-0.99999984
-0.9999999
-0.99999994
-1

4.8761E-013
1.8630E-013
7.1165E-014
2.7200E-014
1.0325E-014
3.9968E-015
0
0

1.2765E-012
4.8761E-013
1.8630E-013
7.1165E-014
2.7200E-014
1.0325E-014
3.9968E-015
0

The function to be minimized is f(x) = x^2 - x and is illustrated in Figure E5. la. Three
points bracketing the minimum (- 1.7, - 0.1, 1.5) are used to start the search for the
minimum off (x); we use equally spaced points here but that is not a requirement of
the method.
x

x2
-0.17
-0.1
1.5

y
0.0289
0.01
2.25

0.1989
0.11
0.75

Resumen
Estadsticas de la regresin
Coeficiente de
1
Coeficiente d
1
R^2 ajustado
65535
Error tpico
0
Observacione
3
ANLISIS DE VARIANZA
Grados de libertad
Suma de cuadrados
Promedio de los cuadradosF
Regresin
2 0.24040481 0.1202024 Err:512
Residuos
0
0
65535
Total
2 0.24040481

a
b
c
x*

Valor crtico de F
Err:512

Coeficientes Error tpico Estadstico t Probabilidad Inferior 95%


0
0
65535 Err:512
0
-1
0
65535 Err:512
-1
1
0
65535 Err:512
1
0.5

e E5. la. Three


earch for the
quirement of

crtico de F

Superior 95%Inferior 95.0%


Superior 95.0%
0
0
0
-1
-1
-1
1
1
1

We illustrate two stages in bracketing the minimum in minimizing the function from Fox (1971)

x1
1
1.4
1.2304
1.34088389
1.25683492
1.30333082
1.26179332
1.27802693
1.25692389
1.25958096
1.24762075
1.24472266
1.2365886
1.2316892
1.22510953
1.21964577
1.21373859
1.20823986
1.20269252
1.19733597
1.1920461
1.1868847
1.18182017
1.17686678
1.17201659
1.16727206
1.16263077
1.15809242
1.15365571
1.14931969
1.14508321
1.14094514
1.13690426
1.13295937
1.12910918
1.12535241
1.12168771

x2
2
1.8
1.832
1.76837683
1.77429539
1.73536311
1.72802474
1.70084427
1.68734598
1.66584832
1.64998749
1.6313015
1.6149081
1.59775676
1.58161706
1.56547232
1.54988502
1.53454029
1.51960094
1.50497461
1.49070238
1.47675668
1.46314441
1.44985531
1.43688733
1.42423444
1.41189237
1.39985595
1.38812038
1.3766806
1.36553163
1.35466842
1.34408589
1.33377898
1.32374257
1.31397156
1.30446086

f(x)
5
4.1856
4.1542818
4.1170776
4.1038572
4.0933559
4.0870052
4.0818541
4.0775636
4.0736714
4.0700452
4.0666078
4.0633284
4.0601921
4.0571906
4.0543184
4.0515707
4.0489434
4.0464325
4.0440339
4.0417438
4.0395582
4.0374736
4.0354861
4.0335921
4.0317881
4.0300706
4.0284363
4.0268818
4.0254039
4.0239994
4.0226653
4.0213986
4.0201964
4.019056
4.0179746
4.0169495

Gf1

Gf2

s1

-4
1.696
-1.10483892
0.84048971
-0.46495898
0.41537496
-0.16233604
0.21103034
-0.0265707
0.1196021
0.02898091
0.08134059
0.04899401
0.06579667
0.05463761
0.0590718
0.05498737
0.05547339
0.05356547
0.05289867
0.05161403
0.0506453
0.04953386
0.04850197
0.04744523
0.04641296
0.04538345
0.04436714
0.04336015
0.04236481
0.04138076
0.04040872
0.03944896
0.03850186
0.03756775
0.03664693
0.03573968

2
-0.32
0.63623168
-0.05918556
0.38932274
0.07338378
0.27180469
0.13498288
0.21497661
0.15860823
0.18685991
0.163934
0.17151347
0.16139694
0.16144739
0.15587302
0.1534473
0.14939348
0.1462633
0.14272237
0.13945693
0.13612278
0.13289098
0.12967976
0.1265289
0.12342074
0.12036413
0.11735579
0.11439776
0.11148968
0.10863214
0.10582522
0.10306918
0.10036409
0.09771004
0.09510704
0.09255506

4
-1.696
1.10483892
-0.84048971
0.46495898
-0.41537496
0.16233604
-0.21103034
0.0265707
-0.1196021
-0.02898091
-0.08134059
-0.04899401
-0.06579667
-0.05463761
-0.0590718
-0.05498737
-0.05547339
-0.05356547
-0.05289867
-0.05161403
-0.0506453
-0.04953386
-0.04850197
-0.04744523
-0.04641296
-0.04538345
-0.04436714
-0.04336015
-0.04236481
-0.04138076
-0.04040872
-0.03944896
-0.03850186
-0.03756775
-0.03664693
-0.03573968

1.11811375
1.11462912
1.11123243
1.10792226
1.10469716
1.10155567
1.09849631
1.09551762
1.09261809
1.08979623
1.08705054
1.08437951
1.08178164
1.07925542
1.07679936
1.07441195
1.07209172
1.06983717
1.06764684
1.06551927
1.063453

1.29520535
1.28619995
1.27743958
1.26891917
1.26063368
1.25257811
1.24474746
1.2371368
1.22974121
1.22255583
1.21557583
1.20879644
1.20221294
1.19582065
1.18961498
1.18359135
1.17774529
1.17207236
1.16656821
1.16122852
1.15604908

4.0159783
4.0150584
4.0141876
4.0133634
4.0125838
4.0118465
4.0111496
4.010491
4.0098689
4.0092814
4.0087268
4.0082035
4.0077098
4.0072442
4.0068052
4.0063915
4.0060018
4.0056346
4.0052889
4.0049634
4.0046571

0.03484625
0.03396687
0.03310174
0.03225104
0.03141492
0.03059352
0.02978694
0.02899528
0.02821859
0.02745692
0.02671029
0.02597872
0.02526217
0.02456063
0.02387405
0.02320235
0.02254547
0.02190329
0.02127573
0.02066265
0.02006392

0.09005401
0.08760375
0.08520411
0.08285486
0.08055574
0.07830644
0.07610662
0.07395589
0.07185383
0.0698
0.0677939
0.06583503
0.06392284
0.06205677
0.06023623
0.05846061
0.05672927
0.05504158
0.05339685
0.05179441
0.05023357

-0.03484625
-0.03396687
-0.03310174
-0.03225104
-0.03141492
-0.03059352
-0.02978694
-0.02899528
-0.02821859
-0.02745692
-0.02671029
-0.02597872
-0.02526217
-0.02456063
-0.02387405
-0.02320235
-0.02254547
-0.02190329
-0.02127573
-0.02066265
-0.02006392

unction from Fox (1971) 4


2
2
2
f x1 2 x2 x1 x2 x1 2 x1 5

f
x
4 x13 4 x2 x1 2 x1 2
1
f x

2
2 x1 2 x2
f

x2
Minimizar s f x

s2
-2
0.32
-0.63623168
0.05918556
-0.38932274
-0.07338378
-0.27180469
-0.13498288
-0.21497661
-0.15860823
-0.18685991
-0.163934
-0.17151347
-0.16139694
-0.16144739
-0.15587302
-0.1534473
-0.14939348
-0.1462633
-0.14272237
-0.13945693
-0.13612278
-0.13289098
-0.12967976
-0.1265289
-0.12342074
-0.12036413
-0.11735579
-0.11439776
-0.11148968
-0.10863214
-0.10582522
-0.10306918
-0.10036409
-0.09771004
-0.09510704
-0.09255506

converg
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1

0.16288
0.00748236
0.00895565
0.0032111
0.0025589
0.00155146
0.00126037
0.0010511
0.00095454
0.00089016
0.00084457
0.00080642
0.00077184
0.00073925
0.00070794
0.00067771
0.00064846
0.00062015
0.00059277
0.0005663
0.00054074
0.00051606
0.00049227
0.00046933
0.00044724
0.00042598
0.00040554
0.00038589
0.00036702
0.00034891
0.00033154
0.00031489
0.00029894
0.00028368
0.00026908
0.00025512

-0.09005401
-0.08760375
-0.08520411
-0.08285486
-0.08055574
-0.07830644
-0.07610662
-0.07395589
-0.07185383
-0.0698
-0.0677939
-0.06583503
-0.06392284
-0.06205677
-0.06023623
-0.05846061
-0.05672927
-0.05504158
-0.05339685
-0.05179441
-0.05023357

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1

0.00024178
0.00022905
0.0002169
0.00020531
0.00019426
0.00018374
0.00017372
0.00016419
0.00015513
0.00014651
0.00013832
0.00013055
0.00012317
0.00011617
0.00010954
0.00010325
9.7290E-005
9.1649E-005
8.6309E-005
8.1258E-005
7.6481E-005

NEWTON
x

f'

f''

1
-11
-4
2
3
1
24
26
2.07692308 -11.649977 5.11242604 14.9230769
1.73433783 -12.606113 0.70418792 10.8120539
1.66920793 -12.629597 0.02545142 10.0304952
1.66667053 -12.62963 3.8631E-005 10.0000464
1.66666667 -12.62963 8.9539E-011
10
1.66666667 -12.62963
0
10
1.6666667 -12.62963
0
10
QUASI NEWTON
h
x-h

x+h

1.1
2.2625
1.78970481
1.67283846
1.66470406
1.66466426
1.66466426
1.6646643

1.2
2.3625
1.88970481
1.77283846
1.76470406
1.76466426
1.76466426
1.76466426

f(x-h)

f(x)
f(x+h)
-11
-11.388
-11.744
-11.1565742 -10.43148 -9.53488672
-12.6269514 -12.550213 -12.358709
-12.587263 -12.629439 -12.5708738
-12.5797678 -12.62961 -12.5796884
-12.5797297 -12.62961 -12.5797297
-12.5797297 -12.62961 -12.5797297
-12.5797297 -12.62961 -12.5797297

CUADRTICA
X1

X1^2
1
1.5
2

x x

0.1

1
2.1625
1.68970481
1.57283846
1.56470406
1.56466426
1.56466426
1.56466426

f x

Y
1
2.25
4

Resumen
Estadsticas de la regresin
Coeficiente de
1
Coeficiente d
1
R^2 ajustado
65535
Error tpico
0

-11
-12.5
-12

f x h

Observacione

ANLISIS DE VARIANZA
Grados de libertad
Suma de cuadrados
Promedio de los cuadradosF
Regresin
2 1.16666667 0.58333333 Err:512
Residuos
0
0
65535
Total
2 1.16666667

Intercepcin
Variable X 1
Variable X 2

Valor crtico de F
Err:512

Coeficientes Error tpico Estadstico t Probabilidad Inferior 95%


-2
0
65535 Err:512
-2
-13
0
65535 Err:512
-13
4
0
65535 Err:512
4

CUBICA
X

X2
0
1
2
3
4

X3
0
1
4
9
16

Y
0
1
8
27
64

-8
-11
-12
1
40

Resumen
Estadsticas de la regresin
Coeficiente de
1
Coeficiente d
1
R^2 ajustado
1
Error tpico 6.8616E-016
Observacione
5
ANLISIS DE VARIANZA
Grados de libertad
Suma de cuadrados
Promedio de los cuadradosF
Valor crtico de F
Regresin
3 1.6604928 0.5534976 1.176E+030 6.7798E-016
Residuos
1 4.7082E-031 4.7082E-031
Total
4 1.6604928

Intercepcin
Variable X 1
Variable X 2
Variable X 3

Coeficientes
-8
1.2602E-013
-5
2

Error tpico Estadstico t


2.9873E-014
8E+014
6.1951E-014 2.03415111
4.1308E-014
0E+014
8.8919E-015 2.249E+014

Probabilidad Inferior 95%


2.3772E-015
-8
0.29087764 -6.611E-013
5.2595E-015
-5
2.8304E-015
2

f 2 x3 5 x 2 8
f ' 6 x 2 10 x
f ' ' 12 x 10

f x h f x h
2h
x x
f x h 2 f x f x h
h2

x*

1.625

crtico de F

Superior 95%Inferior 95.0%


Superior 95.0%
-2
-2
-2
-13
-13
-13
4
4
4

AX3+BX2+CX+D
A
B
2
ax2+bx+c
a
b
6
Det

crtico de F

Superior 95%Inferior 95.0%


Superior 95.0%
-8
-8
-8
9.1318E-013 -6.611E-013 9.1318E-013
-5
-5
-5
2
2
2

-5

-10
10

x1
x2
1.6666667 1.258252761E-014
2a
b
12
-10
f"
f"
10 -1.50990331E-012
Minimo
Mximo

C
D
1.260171164E-013
c
1.260171164E-013

-8

5.10 Find the maximum of the following function

(a) Analytically. (b) By Newton's method (two iterations will suffice). Start at x = -2.
List each step of the procedure. (c) By quadratic interpolation (two iterations will suffice).
Start at x = -2. List each step of the procedure.
50

GRAFICA EXPLORATORIA
x
f
-3
-162.65
-2
19.4
-1 13.6166667
0
1
1
-7.45
2 -14.7333333
3
-1.85
4
-11.8
5 -353.583333

0
-4

-3

-2

-1-50 0

-100
-150

Column B

-200
-250
-300
-350
-400

10 3 1 4 4 5 1 6
x x x x
3
4
5
6
2
3
4
5
f ' 8 4 x 10 x x 4 x x

ANALITICAMENTE
>> p=[-1 4 1 -10 4 -8];
>> r=roots(p)

f 1 8x 2x 2

f ' ' 4 20 x 3 x 2 16 x 3 5 x 4
r=
x1
x2
x3

3.51470
-1.7134
2
0.0993 + 0.8089i
0.0993 - 0.8089i

f"1
f"2
f"3

-97.5520835 MAXIMO
-76.499154 MAXIMO
24 MINIMO

NEWTON
x

f'

f''

converg

-6
-4.72712284
-3.73195877
-2.9671965
-2.39996311
-2.01194724
-1.79482722
-1.72143445
-1.71348501
-1.71339704

-12831.8
-3187.51648
-748.933101
-148.940416
-9.45253889
19.0067491
23.1964304
23.467199
23.469688
23.4696883

12352
4001.71694
1285.63227
406.026303
123.300916
33.8389394
6.96030023
0.62170344
0.00673151
8.1750E-007

-9704
-4021.16302
-1681.08748
-715.801123
-317.772869
-155.853615
-94.8363234
-78.2071546
-76.5171121
-76.4985276

0.21214619
0.21052215
0.20492248
0.19116813
0.16167576
0.10791536
0.04089127
0.0046179
5.134E-005

k 1

f ' xk
x
f " xk
k

CUADRATICA
X
XX
-2.1
-2
-1.9
-1.8

Y
4.41 15.3848635
4
19.4
3.61 21.8915862
3.24 23.159152

b
c
x*

Resumen
Estadsticas de la regresin
Coeficiente de 0.9999363
Coeficiente d 0.9998726
R^2 ajustado 0.9996178
Error tpico
0.06697694
Observacione
4
ANLISIS DE VARIANZA
Grados de libertad
Suma de cuadrados
Promedio de los cuadradosF
Valor crtico de F
Regresin
2 35.2065819 17.6032909 3924.1284 0.01128719
Residuos
1 0.00448591 0.00448591
Total
3 35.2110678
Coeficientes
Intercepcin -190.03524
Variable X 1 -242.073688
Variable X 2 -68.6892667

Error tpico
12.7056075
13.0639384
3.34884721

Estadstico t
-14.9568007
-18.5299166
-20.511317

Probabilidad
0.04250065
0.03432303
0.03101293

Inferior 95%
-351.47529
-408.066764
-111.240405

art at x = -2.
ations will suffice).

Column B

10 3 1 4 4 5 1 6
x x x x
3
4
5
6
2
3
4
5
10 x x 4 x x
2

3 x 2 16 x 3 5 x 4

k 1

f ' xk
x
f " xk
k

-242.073688
-68.6892667
-1.7620925

crtico de F

Superior 95%Inferior 95.0%


Superior 95.0%
-28.5951892 -351.47529 -28.5951892
-76.0806128 -408.066764 -76.0806128
-26.1381284 -111.240405 -26.1381284

DIRECCIONES CONJUGADAS
k

x1
0

x2
1

G1

G2
4

-0.11111111 0.44444444 -2.7777777778 -0.44444444 0.88888889

2
3

-3

#DIV/0!

#DIV/0!

#DIV/0!

#DIV/0!

#DIV/0!

PENDIENTE DESCENDENTE
k

x1
0
1
2
3

x2
1

f
0

G1

G2
4

-0.11111111 0.44444444 -2.777777778 -0.44444444 0.88888889


0.07407407 0.07407407 -2.983539095

0.2962963 0.14814815

-0.00823045 0.03292181 -2.998780674 -0.03292181 0.06584362

0.00548697 0.00548697 -2.99990968

0.02194787 0.01097394

-0.00060966 0.00243865 -2.99999331

-0.00243865 0.00487731

0.00040644 0.00040644 -2.999999504

x1
0
1

x2
1

f
0

0.00162577 0.00081288

G1

G2
4

-0.11111111 0.44444444 -2.777777778 -0.44444444 0.88888889

-3

s1

s2

-4

-2

-4

#DIV/0!

#DIV/0!

s1

s2
-4

0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2

4
0
4
0
4
0
4
0
4
0
4
0
4
0

0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2

H
-2

0.44444444 -0.88888889
-0.2962963 -0.14814815
0.03292181 -0.06584362
-0.02194787 -0.01097394
0.00243865 -0.00487731
-0.00162577 -0.00081288

r1

s1*
4
0
4
0
4
0
4
0

s1

s2
-4

H
-2

0.04938272 0.24691358 -0.98765432

4
0
4
0

s2*
1

-4

0.5

#DIV/0!

#DIV/0!

alfa
0.27777778
0.41666667
0.27777778
0.41666667
0.27777778
0.41666667
0.27777778

alfa
0 0.27777778
2
0
0.45
2

4
0

0
2

#DIV/0!

alfa
0.27777778
0.11111111
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!

3.5
3
2.5

x1

x2

L1

0
3

L2

0 0.57142857
4
0

L3

2
0

3
0

1
0.5
0

0
3

x1
L1

0.5

1.5

x2
0
-1

1
0

0
2

2
0

-1

L3

0
0

2
0

L4

0
2

0
0

L2

x1
P1
P2

1.5

x2
0
0

f
0
1

0
3

2.5

P3
P4

0.5
2
0

1.5
0
0

L1

0
2

4
0

-2

0
5

2.5
0

-0.5

2.5

L3

0
0

0
4

L4

0
5

0
0

L2

5 MAXIMO
2
0

F
P1
P2
P3
P4

0
0
1
2
0

x1

0
2.5
2
0
0

x2
2
1

0
7.5
8 MAXIMO
4
0

x3
1
2

x4
1
0

f
0
1

0
0

-2

-3

1.5
0.5
-0.5

0
1
0

1
0
0

-0.5
0.5
1.5

0
0
1

0 0.66666667 -0.33333333
1 -0.33333333 0.66666667
0 0.33333333 1.33333333

0
0
1

0
1
0

0
0
1

1
0
0
1.5
0.5
-0.5

1
0
0

-0.5
0.5
1.5

30
L2
L3

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

2.5
2

1
-1

2
0

1.5
1
0.5
0
-1.5

Soluciones
x1

x2

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
2
1.5

2.5

0
3

0
-1

0
0

2
-4

0
2

1.5

0
-3

1
2

3
3

1
0.5
0
-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

-0.5
-1
-1.5

4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0

b
4
5

0
1.5
2.5 x2
7.5 f
1 x1
2 x2
8f
1.5
2.5
7.5

L1
L2
L3
L4

0.5

1.5

2.5
2
1.5

2.5

2.5
2
1.5
L1

L2
L3

0.5

L4
RF

0
-2

-1

-0.5
-1
-1.5

L1
L2
L3
L4
RF

Example 2.2 In a two-stage compressor, the working gas leaving the first stage of
compression is cooled (by passing it through a heat exchanger) before it enters the
second stage of compression to increase the efficiency [2.13]. The total work input to
a compressor (W) for an ideal gas, for isentropic compression, is given by

where cp is the specific heat of the gas at constant pressure, k is the ratio of specific
heat at constant pressure to that at constant volume of the gas, and T1 is the temperature
at which the gas enters the compressor. Find the pressure, p2, at which intercooling
should be done to minimize the work input to the compressor. Also determine the
minimum work done on the compressor.

rst stage of
it enters the
l work input to

atio of specific
1 is the temperature
h intercooling
ermine the