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Digestive System

I.
Introduction/Overview
A.

B.

____________________:
1.

Breakdown of ____________________ into small soluble ____________________

2.

Occurs ____________________ and ____________________

____________________:
1.

C.

II.

Taking ____________________ the body of the specific compounds

____________________:
1.

____________________ of materials not absorbed (taken into) the body

2.

____________________

Location of Parts and Function

A.
1.

Teeth

Type of teeth depends on ____________________ type:


a.

____________________: teeth for grasping ____________________ and severing


meat from bones

b.

____________________: flat teeth surfaces for ____________________ plant


fibres

c.

____________________: have a variety of tooth types for both


____________________ and ____________________ matter

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2.

Structure
a.

Covered by a very hard substance called


____________________

b.

Under this: is the softer ____________________


(bony)

c.

Living part of the tooth is the pulp which contains


____________________ and
____________________ ____________________

d.
3.
B.

Function: ____________________ digestion of food.

Tongue
1.

2 functions:
a.

b.
C.

Teeth fit into ____________________ in the ____________________

____________________
i.

____________________

ii.

____________________

iii.

____________________

iv.

____________________

Help ____________________ ____________________ in the teeth

Salivary Glands
1.

2.

3 pairs:
a.

____________________ on side of face (swell with the mumps)

b.

____________________ (below tongue)

c.

____________________ both in lower jaw

Produce ____________________
a.

Helps forms a ____________________ (food ball)

b.

Begins ____________________ digestion with the


____________________ ____________________

D.

c.

Rinse/____________________ the mouth

d.

____________________ mouth lining

e.

____________________e soluble particles

f.

____________________/lubricate food

Palates
1.

Locate at the ____________________ of the mouth

2.

Both ____________________ (____________________) and ____________________


(____________________)

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3.

Separates the ____________________ from the ____________________


cavity

4.
E.

End in a flap called the ____________________

Pharynx (#8)
1.

Area between the ____________________ and the ____________________

2.

Pharynx is a ____________________ used for breathing and eating

3.

____________________ (#9) closes off the opening to the glottis (larynx) when food is
swallowed to prevent ____________________

F.

Esophagus (#7)
1.

Muscular tube that pushes the food to the ____________________ by


____________________

G.

Cardiac Sphincter (#10)


1.

____________________ that surrounds the ____________________ at its


junction with the ____________________

2.
H.

____________________ to admit food into the ____________________

Stomach (#6)
1.

____________________ pouch or enlargement of the


____________________ tract

2.

Located slightly ____________________ of center in the body

3.

Capacity: about ____________________

4.

Inner ____________________ lining contains ____________________


glands
a.

____________________ cells to produce ____________________

b.

____________________ cells produce ____________________, which is activated


by ____________________ into
enzyme ____________________

c.

____________________ cells produce mucus to


____________________ the stomach lining

5.

Function
a.

____________________ ____________________ for ingested food (empties in


____________________ hours)

b.

Place for ____________________ ____________________ (pepsin and salivary


amylase) to work

c.

____________________ of small molecules (e.g.


____________________, ____________________)

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d.

____________________ amount of ____________________


produced:
i.

Extra protein will stimulate lower stomach to secrete hormone called


____________________ which will stimulate the ____________________
____________________ cells to produce ____________________
____________________

I.

Pyloric sphincter (#11)


1.

____________________ that surrounds the ____________________ at its junction with


the ____________________
____________________

2.

Opens to admit ____________________ into the ____________________


____________________

J.

Small Intestine
1.

____________________ meters or 10 feet in length

2.

Walls highly convoluted to ____________________.

3.

Interior folds covered with ____________________: tiny fingerlike projections that further
____________________.

4.

Divided into 3 parts


a.

____________________ (first 25 cm) (#3)


i.

Produces digestive enzymes: ____________________


____________________ ____________________
____________________

ii.

____________________ duct and ____________________ duct enter here


with their secretions.

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b.

____________________

c.

____________________

5. Functions:
a.

Completes ____________________ ____________________

b.

____________________ of nutrients
i.

____________________, ____________________,
____________________, ____________________ are
transported into ____________________ ____________________, and
diffuse into _________________

ii.

____________________ diffuse into intestinal cells and are deposited in the


____________________ (lymph vessel in the villus)

K.

Liver (#2)
1.

____________________ internal organ in the body

2.

Constant monitoring of the ____________________ contents as the blood comes from the
small intestine via the ____________________ ____________________
____________________

3.

Functions:
a.

____________________ and ____________________ toxic materials


i.

b.

Example: ____________________ detoxification

____________________ extra glucose in the form of ____________________


i.

Will also convert ____________________ to ____________________

when blood sugar levels drop


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c.

Destroys old red blood cells


i.

Hemoglobin broken down:


1.

____________________ is recovered/sent to bone marrow for use


in new red blood cells

2.

Protein is degraded into bilirubin and biliverdin that are excreted as


____________________

d.

Produces bile
i.

____________________ fluid

ii.

Stored in the ____________________ ____________________

iii.

____________________ fats
1.

Breaks fat drops into ____________________ droplets

2.

Helps fats stay in suspension in ____________________


environment

3.

Increased surface area of the fat aids ____________________


function

e.

Produces ____________________ from breakdown product of


____________________ ____________________
i.

Urea is ____________________ waste

f.

Makes ____________________ proteins

g.

Stores ____________________ and the ________________________________________ vitamins A, D, E and K

h.

Converts ____________________ ____________________ to


____________________ if necessary (____________________)

L.

Pancreas (#5)

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1.

Produces ____________________ juice (____________________


____________________ and ____________________ ____________________ to
neutralize acidic ____________________)

2.

Produces ____________________, a hormone that influences the cells


____________________ of ____________________ from the ____________________

3.

____________________ juice and ____________________ are produced in response to


the ____________________ ____________________ from the stomach
a.

____________________ triggers the release of the hormones


____________________ and ____________________ (CCK) from the
____________________
i.

____________________ triggers release of


____________________ ____________________

ii.

____________________ triggers release of


____________________

M.

Caecum
1.

____________________ pouch at the end of the small intestine

2.

____________________ ____________________ in humans (vestigial)

3.

In herbivores, the ____________________ is broken down here by microbes that live in


the animal

4.

Appendix (#12) is a ____________________ ____________________-

____________________ growth off the end of the caecum


N.

Large Intestine (#4)


1.

5 parts
a.

____________________ ____________________

b.

____________________ ____________________

c.

____________________ ____________________

d.

____________________ - ____________________
____________________

e.

____________________- muscles close the rectum until release of feces is


appropriate

2.

Functions
a.

____________________ of ____________________
i.

b.
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____________________ of the daily 10 L of water is removed

____________________ of ____________________

c.

____________________ of some amino acids, growth factors, vitamins B's and K


by E.coli)

3.

E. coli bacteria
a.

____________________ some undigestable material

b.

Produce ____________________ (____________________)

c.

Produce ____________________ ____________________

d.

Produce ____________________

e.

Produce ____________________ factors (proteins that stimulate cell


growth)

4.

III.

Feces is composed of
a.

____________________ food (mainly cellulose)

b.

Dead ____________________

c.

____________________

Digestive Enzymes
A.

Enzymes break down food into small molecules which are then absorbed

Name:

IV.

Source:

pH:

Digests:

Product:

Swallowing and Peristalsis


A.

Swallowing:
1.

Occurs in the ____________________

2.

A ____________________ action

3.

____________________ ____________________ closes off nasal cavities

4.

____________________ covers the opening to the ____________________

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B.

The esophagus moves the ____________________ into the stomach by ____________________


1.

(defn): a rhythmic, wavelike contraction of the ____________________ and


____________________

2.

Muscle contractions (____________________ muscle) run along the tube and push food
material in
____________________ direction

V.

Insulin (and Glucagon)


A.

Insulin (secreted in response to high glucose levels after eating)


1.

Produced by cells in the pancreas called ____________________ of


____________________, which secrete directly into ____________________

2.

Acts upon the cell membranes of ____________________, ____________________, &


____________________ cells

3.

Insulin receptors on outer membrane open ____________________ proteins in the


____________________, allowing ____________________ to enter the cells from the
blood

4.

Stimulates the ____________________ and ____________________ to convert


____________________ to ____________________, as well as promoting the formation
of fats and proteins

5.

Big Picture: Insulin promotes


_______________________________________________________________________
______________

B.

Glucagon (secreted between meals)


1.

Also produced by cells ____________________ of ____________________

2.

Increases ____________________ glucose levels

3.

Stimulates ____________________ of stored nutrients

4.

Big Picture: Glucagon promotes


___________________________________________________________

Mrs. Kusec Biology 12