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Introduction

Seismic
Processing
Seismic
Acquisition

Logs,
Cores,
VSP

Interpretation

Objective of course
BasicMacrovelocity
concepts
Model
Outline of the course
Prognosis

Drilling

Objective of course

Introduction

Objective:
To understand the process of traveltime inversion and how to apply it both
efficiently and effectively.

1.1

Objective of course

Introduction

Travel Time Inversion


[t] x [V] [z]
Have

Estimate

Abundant seismic x
data recorded in time

Need

Velocity
model

Structural model
in depth

Objective of course

Introduction

Travel-Time Inversion
Seismic
Field
Data

Processing

Macro
Velocity
Model

Well
Data

Time
Structure

Travel-time
Inversion

Structure
in depth

The macro velocity model and form of travel time inversion


depend upon the structural complexity and amount of well
velocity information available . . .
1.2

Course Outline

Introduction

Velocity for T -Z Conversion


To depth convert seismic times we need:
average velocity from datum to reflector
or depth expressed in terms of travel-time
We usually have: some checkshots (or VSP)
sections of sonic logs
some stacking or time migration velocities
How do we build the macro velocity model?

Course Outline

Introduction

Velocity Models
Volume models from well data
Mathematical equation
Usually a function relating V, t and z
Horizon models from seismic data
Grids of data values
Volume models from seismic data
Volume of data values

1.3

Objective of course

Introduction

Technology Usage
. . . It also depends on the state of technical development . . .
Technology Usage
100
Percentage of seismic
data

80
60
40
20

Objective of course

Introduction

Depth Conversion
. . . and company policy.
100

Percentage
of Assets

Analytic
Functions/
Deterministic

anisotropic
dm

pre stack
dm

post stack
dm

depth
conversion

time
migrate

stack

Seismic
Velocities/
Stochastic

Cost/
Time

1.4

Complex/
Depth
Imaging

Objective of course

Introduction

New Paradigm
Seismic
Processing
Seismic
Acquisition

Interpretation
Macrovelocity
Model

Logs,
Cores,
VSP

Prognosis

Drilling

Basic concepts

Introduction

Macrovelocity
Macrovelocity changes over distances much greater than a
seismic wavelength (>5).

Velocity Log = Macro + Mezzo + Micro

seismic
wave
Propagation

1.5

wells

Trace
Inversion

Basic concepts

Introduction

The Macrovelocity Model


A macrovelocity model portrays subsurface velocity and
geologic structure.

Basic concepts

Introduction

The Macrovelocity Model


The velocity model portrays only subsurface velocity
with respect to time or depth.
Velocity
Model

Macrovelocity
Model

1.6

Basic concepts

Introduction

The Macrovelocity Model


The velocity distribution may be connected or unconnected to
the geologic structure.
Unconnected,
Unconsolidated rocks

Connected,
Older rocks

Basic concepts

Introduction

Structural sources
Depth maps from wells
poor structural control but
accurate depth control.

Depth maps from seismic


- good structural control,
but poor depth control.

1.7

Basic concepts

Introduction

Well Velocities
Velocity measurements - Hard Data
Considered Accurate - pitfalls
Finely sampled in depth
Often vertical
Sparsely sampled laterally
Velocity (analytic) functions
describe volume models
Deterministic Depth Conversion

Basic concepts

Introduction

Well Velocities
Wells - measured
Checkshot/VSP - Average (constant) interval velocity
Sonic/Velocity Log - Velocity gradients (vertical)

+
=
1.8

Basic concepts

Introduction

Seismic Velocities
Subsurface
Velocity

Travel-time
inversion
Structural
image

Macro
model

Micro
model

Synthetic
seismograms

Modelling

Rock and Pore


Parameters

reflection

propagation

Structural mapping

Trace inversion

seismic
response

Reservoir mapping

Basic concepts

Introduction

Seismic Velocities
Processing parameters NOT velocities
Estimates of velocity - Soft Data
Influenced most by dip and horizontal variations
Coarsely sampled in depth
Finely sampled laterally
Horizon models
Deterministic and stochastic depth conversion
1.9

Basic concepts

Introduction

Seismic Velocities
Seismic - estimated
Time gather Stacking / RMS velocity
Depth gather RMS interval velocity
For both we obtain horizontal gradients.

Basic concepts

Introduction

Structural Detail
The effects due to the upper and lower surfaces of a thin bed
almost cancel each other out as far as travel time inversion is
concerned and so they need not be included in a model.
}

OR
RR
E
=

The thin bed may well generate a strong reflection if there is


a large acoustic impedance contrast but its presence will not
affect depth conversion or depth imaging.
1.10

Basic concepts

Introduction

Structural Detail
In a macrovelocity model each layer is much thicker than
the dominant seismic wavelength in that particular layer
(> 5 or 10 times).
Wavelength = Velocity / Frequency

1500 m/s
50 Hz
4500 m/s
25 Hz

Consequently deeper
layers will generally
be thicker than
shallow layers and
show less structural
detail.

>?m

>?m

Basic concepts

Introduction

Surfaces to Model
Water bottom

Carbonate

Unconformity

Intraformational
surface

Overpressure

Fault
Evaporite
Reservoir

1.11

Basic concepts

Introduction

The Macrovelocity Model


Well velocity
model

Seismic velocity
model

These two views are not inconsistent, lower average velocity


at the edge of the basin, higher velocity in the centre.

Basic concepts

Introduction

Well Density
Approaches to depth mapping of the subsurface depend upon
the density of well control available.
Categories are:
Very dense less than 80 acre spacing (~300m)
Dense
80 240 acre spacing ( to 1 km)
Moderate
1 to 5 km
Occasional 5 to 25 km
Sparse
over 25 km
None
As the well density decreases we have to rely more on seismic
velocities
1.12

Basic concepts

Introduction

Pr
eSt
ac
k

Ti

k
ac
St
e- pth on
Pr De ati
r
ig
M

Structural
complexity
Lateral velocity
variations
Data Availability

Po
st
-S
ta
ck

ep
th

eM
ig
ra
tio

e
m
Ti
ck n
ta tio
- S ra
st ig
k
ac
Po M
St

The form that traveltime inversion and


the associated
velocities takes
depends on a
number of factors.

Structural Complexity

Seismic Velocities

M
ig
ra
t io
n

Lateral Velocity Variation

Basic concepts

Introduction

Structural Complexity
Approaches to depth mapping also depend upon the structural
complexity of the subsurface and seismic data availability.
Categories are:
Simple structural overburden (dips < 10 degrees)
Horizon based stacking velocity, post stack time migrated data

Moderate structural overburden ( 10 to 30 degrees)


Use map migration, model based stacking velocities, pre-stack time
migration velocities and/or post stack depth migration imaging

Complex structural overburden (> 30 degrees)


Pre-stack depth migration
For land data it is assumed that statics have been correctly applied or data
migrated from topography.
1.13

Course Outline

Introduction

Definitions
Well velocities
Stacking and time migration velocities
Depth conversion
Depth migration velocities
Imaging of complex structures
Anisotropy
Strategies

Introduction

Bo
th

Depth
Imaging

V W
el el
oc l
iti
es

S
V eis
el m
oc ic
iti
es

Structural Complexity

Course Outline

Density of Well Velocity Data


1.14

Map
Migration

Depth
Scaling

Introduction

Bo
th

Depth
Imaging

V W
el el
oc l
iti
es

S
V eis
el m
oc ic
iti
es

Structural Complexity

Course Outline

Map
Migration

Depth
Scaling

Density of Well Velocity Data

Introduction

Bo
th

Depth
Imaging

V W
el el
oc l
iti
es

S
V eis
el m
oc ic
iti
es

Structural Complexity

Course Outline

Density of Well Velocity Data


1.15

Map
Migration

Depth
Scaling

Introduction

Bo
th

Depth
Imaging

V W
el el
oc l
iti
es

S
V eis
el m
oc ic
iti
es

Structural Complexity

Course Outline

Map
Migration

Depth
Scaling

Density of Well Velocity Data

Introduction
In this section we reviewed: Objective of course
To understand the macrovelocity model

Basic concepts
Associated with the macro velocity model

Outline of the course


Well velocities, seismic velocities, depth
conversion and imaging
1.16