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Cinéma et études de genre

Geneviève Van Cauwenberge
Année académique 2015-2016

Travail final
Analyse du film Gabriela (1983), en anglais

Vasconcelos Gabriel F.

1ère année du Master en Arts du Spectacle

Janvier, 2016
1

in the third and most important part of the article. the film will be analyzed from the point of view of Laura Mulvey’s feminist theory. 2. First there will be a brief summary of the story. comes to Ilhéus. until then focused on purely political-social themes because of his communist militancy. Dona Flor e seus dois maridos (1976) was the record holder of audience in Brazil for 34 years. Cravo e Canela. directed by Carlos Diegues. as well as the representation of “amadian women” in the cinema is analyzed in the next pages through the film Gabriela. cinema and television. followed by a short analysis that uses what David Bordwell wrote about the Hollywood Classic Film. she is hired as a cook by the Italo-Syrian Nacib Saad (Marcelo Mastroianni). the author began to write also about the cultural traits of the Brazilian people: the religions with an African origin. Introduction: Gabriela and others “amadian” women in the cinema. Main meeting point of 2 . the owner of the Vesúvio bar and known to all as "The Turkish". Finally. being represented with equal prominence in novels such as Dona Flor e seus dois maridos. Starred by Brazilian actress Sonia Braga. Tieta do Agreste. At that stage. The film brought about 12 million spectators to movie theaters. considered crucial to building an image fetishised of Brazilian women around the world. the book is a landmark of transition in Amado’s work. one of 49 books of the acclaimed modernist writer Jorge Amado. Also directed by Bruno Barreto. The critics attributed this to the use of the Star System and the indiscriminate use of nudity. From then on. the female characters earn a central role in his work. a young retreatant who. a seaside city. fleeing the drought of 1925 in the hinterland of Bahia. form a major triad of female representation in the Brazilian cinema. with the age of 21.1. The story The film tells the story of Gabriela (Sônia Braga). the gastronomy. The two films of Barreto and Tieta do Agreste (1996). This stratagem of success. and Teresa Batista cansada de guerra. On arrival. Launched in 1958. applied to the most representative scenes. and sensuality as basis of the archetype of the Brazilian woman. the object of study. these three films have achieved a huge success of public. Gabriela is a Brazilian film of 1983 directed by the filmmaker Bruno Barreto and based on the novel Gabriela. All these stories have been adapted more than once for the theatre.

Nacib's closest friend and son of the local leader. In fact. Then the Turkish decides to marry Gabriela to ensure the relationship. However. but at the same time is docile and innocent. Nacib to take home. he becomes ecstatic because of the appearance of the young girl. When Nacib discovers the betrayal. all the clientele become astonished with her beauty. the marriage certificate was also false and therefore liable to annulment. getting more and more praise from customers. take care of the House and preparing the food for the restaurant. which she loves. the Turk doesn't get the fame of betrayed. It arouses jealousy in Nacib. All goes very well until Gabriela appears at the bar. With the move. Nacib does not recognize in Gabriela all qualities required by the local society to take her as a wife: her family origin is unknown. he feels the urge to kill Gabriela. Morally shaken. They were arranged by own Nacib. Once married. Nacib expelled Gabriela home and discovers a way to annul the marriage: the documents of the young. she is not virgin. 3 . With that. eat and discuss the political life of the city. Gabriela begins an extramarital relationship with Tonico Bastos (Antonio Cantafora). were false. foreign to the nature of the girl. the husband forbids her to move freely: she can no longer attend the games in the street or go to the circus. Gabriela begins to frequent the establishment. as dresses and shoes. In addition. Dissatisfied with the hardships. Beyond beauty. he orders her to take a bath. which makes bar sales increase. have a wild way. From then on. Gabriela cooks very well. the bar brings together since the large farmers. she can't read etc. “who smells like clove and cinnamon”. and to attend monotonous events such as poetry recitals where she should keep quiet. Gabriela is forced to wear clothes with which was not used. Colonel Ramiro Bastos (Jofre Soares). Nacib falls in love for the girl and they begin an intense love relationship. called colonels (old oligarchic order) to industrialists and professionals (new order). sensuality and sympathy. the brothel of the city. Without knowing the beauty of Gabriela. The next day. hidden by the dust of travel. All of them go there to drink. As well as the Turkish. but is dissuaded by friends. Nacib spends more and more time at the bar and continues to go to the Bataclan. although secret. Enchanted by his skills. when he see Gabriela clean. which allowed the marriage. There. Nacib prohibits Gabriela to go to the bar and tries to educate her within the bourgeois standard of that time.Ilhéus society.

his narrative is filled with features of the Classic Hollywood Cinema (1917-1960). after the death of Ramiro Bastos. and the relationship between the engineer Romulo and Gerusa Bastos. the film brings a different story: the political confrontation between the Group of colonels headed by Ramiro Bastos and the progressives led by industrial group Mundinho Falcão (Flávio Galvão). Gabriela conquest freedom back. murdered his wife and her lover after confront them in bed. the procedure becomes clear in the early scenes: a group of retreatants walks in the hinterland when one of them asks a passerby if Ilhéus are away. One of the aspects listed that is present is the linearity. 20 4 . In the end. In fact. Some of these features have been listed by the American neoformalista David Bordwell on the article "Classical Hollywood Cinema: Narrational Principles and Procedures". A classic narrative with influences of “Pornochanchada” Although the film Gabriela has been launched in 1983. which picks up the suspended line (often via a ‘dialogue hook’)”1. The other two love stories are left open. Classical Hollywood Cinema: Narrational Principles and Procedures. but she also falls in sadness for not having more the company of her husband. In addition. New York. betrayed. p. in this kind of movie. there are three other short stories: the trial of Colonel Jesuíno.but without his lover. “at least one line of action must be left suspended. 3. This is the hook for the scene in the "slave market". 1 BORDWELL. daughter of Ramiro Bastos. who. At the same time. who meets a Colonel and tell him about the search for a chef for the restaurant. which begins with images of the city. Then comes the character Nacib. 1986. Nacib and Gabriela secretly get back together as lovers. which summarizes his research on the topic. who plans to become mayor and enlarge the port of Ilhéus to modernize the city's economy. based on the exportation of cocoa. Punished. starts a depressive routine. David. sustained by a Colonel. Colonel Jesuíno is convicted in an unprecedented decision and. Mundinho Falcão gets the support of other colonels to be elected mayor of the city. where Nacib will find Gabriela. The question drives the next sequence. This chaining happens in practically the whole movie. Columbia University Press. the involvement of the poor Professor Joshua with Glória. The American theorist explains that. in order to motivate the shifts to the next scene. In parallel to the story of the couple.

as those that predominate in the whole movie. obstacles. that shows the couple embraced. two cores are left open. Here. are soon presented the two main stories in the film: the involvement of Gabriela and Nacib and the dispute policy. p. the other line involving another sphere-work. The plot may dose off one line before the other. p. the romance sphere and the other sphere of action arc distinct but interdependent. This dichotomy meets Bordwell analysis: Usually the classical svuzhet presents a double causal structure. 19 3 Idem. Typical of the Classic Hollywood Cinema. two plot lines: one involving heterosexual romance (boy/girl husband/wife). The slow advancement of progressist vision against the conservatism is proposed in the outcome of the two main stories: on the one hand Mundinho wins the election. the reconciliation of Gabriela and Nacib coincides with the result of the election and the restoration of social peace: the characters won the instabilities and a new "equilibrium stage" was established. Each line will possess a goal. but often the two lines coincide at the climax.Within this temporal logic. and a climax (…). whose approach demonstrates the passage of time. war. but keep it in secret because he is still connected to the old social ideals. Nacib accepts Gabriela back. but with the same meaning. here measured by a calendar. is preceded by a sex scene. On the other. This profusion of nudity and sex can be seen as a direct inheritance of 2 Idem. a brief celebration of the stable state achieved by the main characters” 3. the happy ending of Gabriela. That's exactly what we see in the two sequences that terminate the film. which also meets what Bordwell called “pseudo-closure”: “our forgetting is promoted by the device of closing the film with an epilogue. 19) In the development of two stories. (Bordwell. this deadline is the event of the election. it is worth noting how social change is translated into different narrative signs. Still about the end of the film. 1986. there are also what the theorist calls "deadline”2. which bring Mundinho’s inauguration and the resumption of the main couple. a mission or quest. pg. but has to accept the support of colonels and make concessions. In the film. other personal relationships. In most cases. not incidentally. 22 5 . as has been said. Everything has to work out there and.

However. a subgenre of Brazilian cinema whose films are commonly described as "erotic comedy". everything indicates that Barreto had inspired in these productions to attract the most popular audience. In fact. In addition. surpassing the mark of one million viewers”. already recognized as a sex symbol of cinema and television at that time. Classical Hollywood Cinema: Narrational Principles and Procedures. during the decades of 1960 and 1970. the strategy was successful. Roughly speaking. at the height of the civil-military dictatorship. David. 4 The “Pornochanchada” flooded theaters of Brazil with which was called “erotic comedies” (chanchadas). these productions are "characterized by certain care in the preparation of the script. as do the hardcore porn. of the character and of the spectator. to attract the public.1. Columbia University Press. the production used the star system and featured stars of the Brazilian and world cinema. Analysis of the film according to a feminist perspective 4. as the Italian Marcello Mastroianni and actress Sonia Braga. How well defined Bordwell. This cinematographic device generates a series of processes that act to strengthen the established order. “the star system has as one of its functions the creation of a rough character prototype which is then adjusted to the particular needs of the role”5. Although Gabriela does not follow the style as it is not a comedy and have a more complex narrative. Laura Mulvey investigates how the film has been able to reinforce patriarchal logic. 5 BORDWELL. this concept can be understood as sexual pleasure from the "fix. This point will be better explained later. 4. the casting and the work of direction. Gabriela’s sensuality is only suggested poetically. p. curious and controller” gaze on someone else as object. they never show the sexual act explicit.“Pornochanchada”4. 1986. in Jorge Amado’s book. These films brought stories of the popular Brazilian universe with humor and lots of nudity. while in the film it is shown with a strong fetichized bias. In this sense. New York. Identification and voyeurism in Gabriela On the paradigmatic article "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema". According to the researcher Jonathan Ramos. but incurred the wrath of the critics. Mulvey explains that this device is supported on the Freudian concept of Scopophilia. They are also commercial successes. which allows a harmonic mix of the points of view of the camera. 18 6 . She points out the organization of the look.

Complementary. This conception of women as male target. in general. as she demonstrates. This is evident in the use of subjective cameras: early in the film. however. In the second. The narrative structure of traditional cinema establishes the male character as active and powerful: he is the agent around whom the dramatic action unfolds and the look gets organized.It is true that every movie brings an inherent dimension for being. the two phenomena uphold on gender differentiation and serve the patriarchal rationale. Nacib or a group of men are carriers of the look. pp 6-18 7 . indifferent to the presence of the audience. London. this device stimulates two simultaneous and complementary processes: the identification and voyeurism. It is analogous to the behavior of the child in Lacan's mirror stage and the formation of the ideal ego. But.e. narcissistic pleasure comes from the approach. For that. this anguish is offset by the fetishization of women. All this set of processes appears to a greater or lesser extent in Gabriela. the bearer of the look is a male character with which the spectator identifies himself. the passive part. producing for them a sense of separation and plan on their voyeuristic phantasy”6. 16.. Screen. while Gabriela or other female characters are objects of the look. “a hermetically sealed world which unwinds magically. During almost the entire movie. for 6 MULVEY. that is the emphasis of beauty and overexposure of the female body as symbol of perfection to suppress the absence of the phallus. 2007. 1975. in the words of Mulvey. how do you explain the researcher Anneke Smelik in his article "Feminist Film Theory": Mulvey analysed scopophilia in classic cinema as a structure that functions on the axis of activity and passivity. is in the films of Classical Hollywood Narrative that this visual delight is explored to the fullest in conformation with the symbolic patriarchal order. subject of the look. This feeling can also be offset by scapegoating and punishment of women taken as disturbing element to the male gaze. Laura. in a character. brings psychoanalytic issues as the nuisance of the castration complex. the voyeuristic pleasure comes from the distance between the subject and the object of the gaze. the active part of this relationship. from the own projection of the spectator. The first phenomenon. the estrangement of man unconscious because the woman doesn't have a penis. Visual Pleasure And Narrative Cinema. the object of the look. As notes Mulvey. The female character is passive and powerless: she is the object of desire for the male character(s) (Smelik. 491) So. This binary opposition is gendered. and the object is a female character. vol. i.

as psychologically defined individual who struggle to solve a clear-cut problem or to attain specific goals”7. although the character of Gabriela is the center of attention and name the movie. 1975. whether or not to marry his lover and. This is clear. especially Gabriela. in a sequence that shows Gabriela showering outdoors. As the spectator identifies with the main male [1] protagonist. 1986. disturbing element of the "initial state of things". This discovery is also the path offered to the Spectator. Classical Hollywood Cinema: Narrational Principles and Procedures. who can assign a lead role. how to deal with the betrayal. Finally. This voyeurism reaches its peak in the scenes of nudity and sex. he is the causative agent responsible for the development of the intrigue.example. in the sequence that shows a striptease show in the Bataclan. the camera focuses on her bare legs. In fact. he is tricked into designing in Nacib. Obviously there is an attempt to eroticize the housework. she is seen cooking with a sexy dress. he projects his look on to that of his like. so that the power of the male protagonist as he controls events coincides with the active power of the erotic look. building the image of the perfect housewife. Columbia University Press. is reserved the position of object. the dancer serves the look of Group of male characters and the spectator. (Mulvey. that fulfills the tasks of the home and at the same time retains its beauty vainly. exactly as provided by Mulvey: The man controls the film phantasy and also emerges as the representative of power in a further sense: as the bearer of the look of the spectator. finally. In addition. Similarly. 18 8 . Later. New York. as if agreed to show her body. All of these issues make up a single problematic: to discover. Nacib al Saad. while the character do laundry. For this. faces a series of problems: the lack of an employee. both giving a satisfying sense of omnipotence. his screen surrogate. p. fitting the definition of Bordwell. From the beginning. understand and accept the nature of Gabriela. p. transferring it behind the screen to neutralise the extradiegetic tendencies represented by woman as spectacle. Then she is shown completely naked while combing the hair. for example.11) For the female characters. identification happens with Nacib's character. a Italo-syrian immigrant conservative-minded and Vesúvio bar owner. which is not common and only justified by the intention to eroticize. Nacib and consequently the spectator meet and observe Gabriela sleeping half naked twice. David. 7 BORDWELL. This is made possible through the processes set in motion by structuring the film around a main controlling figure with whom the spectator can identify.

Visual Pleasure And Narrative Cinema. At that time. when she looks at her ex-husband through a half-open window and in the church. In the early scenes. 10. voyeurism is reinforced by the private character of the action shown. she has some autonomy. the gun is pointed at the lover in a scene laden with symbolism: Gabriela is also the target of all men and. This happens again at the end of the film. two other scenes stand out because of their symbolism. The other scene is the arrival of Gabriela in the Vesúvio bar. In fact she will betray her husband. who's crouched waiting for the joke. In these moments there is no identification on the part of the spectator. role only to Gabriela. allowing the spectator also find out what's going on through the subjective camera. a group of boys keeps staring at the ass of Gabriela. Man is reluctant to gaze at his exhibitionist like”8. 16. Back to strategies of fetishization. only Gabriela is naked. represents a threat to the peace of Nacib. including in the gaze. From a 8 MULVEY. injuring his honor and destabilizing him psychologically. realizes that this is the arrival of Gabriela. when all men interrupt a discussion and turn to her without Nacib knows what's going on because he is crouched behind the counter. the camera assumes her gaze toward Nacib. is not reduced to the erotic object. or being overwhelmed or ridiculed. during sex. p. Thus. London. Nacib. Screen. When he gets up. In fact. 1975. the male characters are shifted their position of power. Even so.In the repeated scenes of sex. 9 . in a reference almost premonitory. her “beautiful sir". Laura. the male figure cannot bear the burden of sexual objectification. and as soon as there is no embarrassment in front of a similar body. Although Gabriela plays a mostly submissive role. It is remarkable that in both situations. later. when Tonico Bastos is caught in bed with Gabriela being forced to run naked through the city. in the film the male body appears naked on two occasions: in the scenes showing the involvement of Glória with professor Josué and. The silence of the voices and the sound of bottles falling denounce a situation of danger which leads Nacib to get a pistol slowly to defend himself. it is interesting to note that. Here. In the first. for a brief moment. Mulvey explains that “according to the principles of the ruling ideology and the psychical structures that back it up. target audience identification. vol. while Nacib is always dressed. The change of music underscores the difference between the intention of the fetishist boys and Gabriela's innocence that will be analyzed later.

p. however. ideological. and language. p. the only women who attend deliberately "male environments" are prostitutes of the Bataclan. (Rich. asserting control and subjecting the guilty person through punishment or forgiveness”9. and in which the female is everywhere subsumed under the male. like a child or an indian.narrative perspective. direct pressure. This construction will be better studied next. 12 10 . childish and innocent Gabriela One of the most obvious components of the film is the depiction of the social structure of northeastern Brazil in the first half of the 20th century. This society is based on two pillars: the political-economic power concentration in the hands of the colonels and the strength of the Patriarchy. Because of this disruption to the patriarchal order. although the guilt of Gabriela is evident in the eyes of the Patriarchate. the forgiveness is not. In the end.by force. The Patriarchy and a wild. or through ritual. This is a suggestion about the restriction of women to the family atmosphere: in the scenes that take place in the Vesúvio bar. Although interdependent. Gabriela is blamed in the eyes of the whole society of Ilhéus and the spectator.2. 4. Throughout the story. For this reason. customs. etiquette. here we are interested in the second. education. and the division of labor. Gabriela doesn't obey her husband first sneaking around to go to the circus and then getting involved with Tonico Bastos. only men gather to discuss while their wives and daughters are at home. This forgiveness is linked to the construction of the character as someone innocent and not yet civilized. when married. law. When Gabriela begins to frequent the bar and is exposed 9 Idem. she is forgiven by Nacib in a dynamic full of sadism. This marginalization threats the only three important female characters: Gabriela. being punished with the separation and being kicked out of the house. Here it is worth mentioning that. As describes Mulvey: “pleasure lies in ascertaining guilt (immediately associated with castration). they are placed on the margins of society.58) In the film. 1984. so defined by Adrienne Rich: Patriarchy is the power of the fathers: a familial-social. Gerusa and Glória. the strength of this system can be traced by the absence of female characters of the social life of the city. determine what part women shall or shall not play. political system in which men .

Gabriela betrayed her husband not with intention to transgress the patriarchy. Gabriela reacts with passivity to the abuses of her husband. for example. but she is not deleted. Gabriela is outside the moral. as has been said. Gerusa. as a lover. The relationship of the main couple is a microcosm of this wider social scene. in her response to the proposal of Nacib: "marry for what. for example. seven years after the period in which the story takes place (1925). Glória. She is partially punished. Anyway. to go to the bar. she has some autonomy and betrays him. as 11 . by the reification of the woman in the scene where the candidate offers a gift to his supporters: a new dancer in the region. since the dating is so forbidden. which explores all possible paths of a woman in this society. This is clear. She doesn't know the Patriarchy and it won't change. it is interesting to note that even the Mundinho’s group.to other men. still as boss. However. So. being excluded. who also violate social law intentionally to betray "her colonel" with professor Josué. restricted to two groups formed exclusively by men. At the beginning. Later. he keeps Gabriela as his housekeeper and decides even more about her habits: she is forbidden to go out. returning to her role as a daughter. Colonel Ramiro Bastos. her fault is offset by a series of events that suggest innocence and incomprehension of the patriarchal logic. when she betrays Nacib. just sits in the window and never leaves the house to keep up appearances. she tricks the system avoiding the punishment. start to go out hidden to date the engineer Romulo. The conscious transgression is soon ended by the intervention of his father. in Brazil. Without having that clear. It's not enough to surprise because. more progressive. Later. Nacib evolves as Patriarch on innocuous attempt to enter his wife in patriarchal logic. This is clear. Nacib gives orders to Gabriela about housework. sir?" or in the symbolism of the scene in which she liberates the bird that her husband gave her as a gift. she is punished with the annulment of the marriage and the expulsion. which should be her clothes etc. she breaks the system. but. women only earn the right to vote in 1932. This oppression is reinforced by the political dispute. or because it's an immoral person. Finally as a husband. and therefore amoral. she starts disturbing the patriarchal regulations. is inserted into a sexist logic. Nacib says where she cans go. he takes the unilateral decision to marry. for the spectator. initially presented locked at home. From first to last. His progressivism is limited to notions of economy and justice. there is a growing range of awareness and empowerment and a descending scale of punishment.

she followed the technique of kempo. the "Happy End". In addition. Its principal authors were Castro Alves and José de Alencar. portrayed as a national hero. happy to have found a new owner. Later. Sonia imitates the movements of a dog. the theme song of the film: "I was born this way/ I grew up like that/ I'm like that/ I'm always going to be that way/ Gabriela. that was made famous in the voice of Gal Costa. The innocence of heroin has important implications on the outcome of the film: it is only because of this feature that she is forgiven by Nacib and received back in his home as a mistress. In order to strengthen this innocence. she mimics the agility 10 Modinha para Gabriela is a song composed by Dorival Caymmi. but also because he finally accepted his "indomitable nature". The first characteristic is present early in the film. in the sense of Rousseau’s myth (the human being in its natural state. In fact. built throughout the film and. always Gabriela". her little vocabulary. when Nacib finds Gabriela in the "slave market". therefore. do not feel angry when she betrays her husband – and him while part identified. Nacib do that not only because he miss Gabriela. sometimes. in 1975. which lasted until 1888 in Brazil. uncontaminated by society) so common in the “indianist novels”11 of Brazilian literature. In the words of the journalist Paulo Moreira Leite in Veja magazine.suggested by the lyrics of Modinha para Gabriela10. 11 Indianist novel was an important aspect of Romanticism in Brazil during the 19th century. He is subtly convinced by Gabriela’s personality. Gabriela is also represented as savage and childish. as the actress Sonia Braga reported to the press at the time of the film. one of the features still today attributed to indians in Brazil is just the innocence. in a clear reference to the “noble savage”. 12 . Gabriela soon takes a not civilized image. soon after being hired. Deterred by the innocence of Gabriela. Presented with his face completely covered in mud. in whose works the Indian was idealized and. while climbing a wall. identified with Nacib. It is worth to note that this forgiveness has the consent of the spectator. out of the Patriarchate. "when Gabriela follows Nacib. the repetition of words and the few speeches fuse with her serenity. who watches the movie feels sorry for her and hope for a happy outcome. inherited name directly from the slave period. At the same time. in the style of a tribal paint. a martial art whose movements are inspired by animals.

p. A mulher do Brasil. 1984. In this way. faced with the negative response. But. in the development of her relationship with Tonico Bastos. In fact. insists so childish. Discovered by Nacib. both filled with ellipses and unresolved endings in the film. Both are extra-diegetic interactions that involve the spectator offering him different types of pleasure. 84 13 RICH. she like the circus and don't like to wear shoes. this omnipresence of patriarchy reinforces the idealized nature of Gabriela. which strengthened her wild way. 1983. In the film. When she wants something or she's bored.of a cat”12. we only know her name. Gabriela plays literally on the street with other children. 5. Gabriela goes to Nacib with the insistence of a child who goes to the father. In the book. All this becomes even more clear by the lack of information about Gabriela in the film. Veja. and that she cooks very well. Conclusion To conclude it is possible to say that the film Gabriela. Of Woman Born: Motherhood as Experience and Institution. as explained by Adrienne Rich. the character seemed literally with an animal. Paulo Moreira. Bruno Barreto reinforces patriarchal logic of our society through the organization of the gaze and the resulting processes of identification and voyeurism. for example. This is the case of the scene in which she asks her husband to go to the circus and. 12 LEITE. the traits of his personality are suggested poetically and there is an emphasis on Gabriela’s autonomy. and expressed with local variations which obscure its universality”13. So. the childishness is suggested incessantly throughout the movie. a character impossible in the real world. the Patriarchy was quite widespread. London. In this sense. p. Adrienne. a clear difference between the romance Gabriela Cravo e Canela and its adaptation for the cinema is the hyper fetishised representation of women. On the other hand. that she came from the hinterland like a migrant.58 13 . Virago. São Paulo. The book also gives more space to the political context of Ilhéus in the 1920’s and to secondary stories. “the power of the fathers is universal. the character is presented passively. eroticized and reificated through a profusion of nudity and sex scenes. even among the retreatants of the time.

In addition. 1986. New York. pp 491-504 14 . Virago. Visual Pleasure And Narrative Cinema. pp 6-18 RICH. London. it is important to note that the representation of Brazilian women as beautiful. Adrienne. pp 17-34 MULVEY. it is possible to say that the simple fact of being ideally out of it may result in public an estrangement to a logic so deeply ingrained in the social unconscious. Anneke. in Italy and other European markets. but that is still a consensus in many parts of the world today. London. the movie preserves this attempt to awaken a critical eye. Cook. 16. London. Ed. Laura.On the other hand. the film has similarities to the book as the criticism to the most repulsive aspects of patriarchal logic. 1975. as the physical violence of the man against the woman. In some ways. Apparatus. innocent and good housewife in Gabriela and other films of the years 1980 helped to define a stereotype absolutely wrong. Screen. edition. Of Woman Born: Motherhood as Experience and Institution. 2007. vol. In this sense. Columbia University Press. like any adaptation. David. 1984 SMELIK. naturally sexy. 6. although Gabriela does not transgress consciously the Patriarchy. Feminist Film Theory in The Cinema Book. Classical Hollywood Cinema: Narrational Principles and Procedures in Narrative. 3rd rev. Therefore. it should be noted a contradiction between the inherent critical dimension of the story and a Barreto’s effort to attract the audience by a device generator of pleasure that reinforces inequality and gender oppression. more like an inheritance of the book than as a narrative strategy. References BORDWELL. Finally. British Film Institute. Ideology: a Film Theory Reader. Barreto's film had an important role because circulated successfully in United States. wild. Pam.

p. United Artists. Florianópolis. Paulo Moreira. 2016 AMADO. 102 min. Available in: http://www. Fem.com. Luciana Rosar Fornazari. Estud. "A mulher do Brasil".18 no. 759. Access: 03 jan. 1983. São Paulo.imdb. vol. Gabriela. São Paulo: Abril. Directed by Bruno Barreto. Jorge.GABRIELA. 1983 15 . 2010 LEITE. Color.1. n. 23 mar. Veja. The Internet Movie Database. From Gabriela to Juma: female erotic images on brazilian soap operas in Rev. cravo e canela. 1959 KLANOVICZ. 84-90. Brazil/ Italy/ US: Sultanan. Martins Editora.

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