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Fungus

A Fungus is an eukaryotic organism


that digests its food externally and absorbs
the nutrient molecules into its cells. Fungi
are the primary decomposers of dead
organic matter in most terrestrial (
) ecosystems.
Besides that, fungi are used extensively
by humans: yeasts are responsible for
fermentation of beer and bread,
and mushroom farming and gathering is a
large industry in many countries.
Fungus
cells
have cells
wall that
contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of
plants, which contain cellulose. These and
other differences show that the fungi form a
single group of related organisms,
named the Eumycets (true fungi), that
share
a common
ancestor
(a monophyletic group).
Fungi
may
be
single-celled
or
multicellular.
Multicellular
fungi
are
composed of networks of long hollow
tubes called hyphae. The hyphae often
aggregate in a dense network known as
mycelium. The mycelium grows through
the medium on which the fungus feeds.

Because fungi are embedded in the medium


in which they grow, are often not visible by
naked eye.

Chitin in Fungi

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi

Domain: Eukaryota
Phylum: Basidiomycota
Species: Amanita Muscaria

Yeast
Yeasts and other unicellular fungi can
reproduce by budding, or pinching of
a new cell.
Many multicellular species
produce variety of different asexual spores
that are easily dispersed and resistant to
harsh environmental conditions. When the
conditions are right, these spores will
germinate and colonize new habitats.
The ecological function and biodiversity
of yeasts are relatively unknown compared
to those of other microorganisms. Besides
that, yeasts, have been found living in
betweens peoples toes as part of their skin
flora. Yeasts are also present in the gut flora
of mammals and some insects and even
deep-see environments host an array of
yeasts.
Yeast source of energy comes from
glucose. In the presence of oxygen, it

carries out cellular respiration to break down


glucose, forming carbon dioxide and water.
In the absence of oxygen, glucose in broken
down into carbon dioxide and alcohol. The
process in which alcohol is produced from
the breakdown of glucose by yeast is known
as fermentation. Carbon dioxide produced
during this process can be used for making
cake and bread. Wine can be prepared from
the fermentation of fruit juice, wheat or rice
grains.

Penicillium
Penicillium grows mostly on fruits such
as lemons.
Its hyphae consist of
Septa(cross walls sing: septum).
Its
conidrophore branches with the tips of
conidium can be spread by wind to suitable
substrate of food. Penicilin is an antibiotic
that can be extracted from the fungus
Penicillium notatum and can be used to
inhibit the growth of bacteria.

Besides that, penicillium species are


present in the air and dust of indoor
environments, such as homes and public
buildings. The fungus can be readily
transported from the outdoors, and grow
indoors
using
building
material
or
accumulated soil to obtained nutrients for
growth. Penicillum growth can still occur
indoors even if the relative humidity is low,
as long as there is sufficient moisture
available an o given surface.

Penicillium

Scientific Classification
Kingdom : Fungi
Division : Ascomyeota
Class
: Eurotiomycetes
Order : Eurotiales
Family
: Trichocomacea
Genue : Penicillium

Mould
When food, leather or wood are placed in
dark and moist surroundings, mould will
grow on it. Mould is formed from a network
of filaments known as hyhae. Some hyphae
grow upwards and the tips of the hyphae
enlarge to form a spherical structure known
as the sporangium.
Each sporangium
consists of numerous spores. Some of the
hyphae penetrate into the substrate to get
nutrients.

Rhizopus (bread mould)


Rhizopus grows on moist bread. When it
matures, the sporangium becomes black in
colour and bursts open. When the spores
are dispersed on the other parts of the moist
bread the new hyphae will grow. This action
when repeated an cause the whole piece of
bread to be covered with mould. Besides,
spores can also be dispersed by wind.

Penicillium
Chrysogenum

Scientific Classification
Kingdom : Fungi
Division : Ascomyeota
Class
: Eurotiomycetes
Order : Eurotiales
Family
: Trichocomacea
Genue : Penicillium
Species : P. chrysogenum

Rhizopus

Scientific Classification
Kingdom

: Fungi

Order

: Mucorales

Family

Genus

: Rhizopus

Mucoraceae
Species

: R.stolonifer