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b dx]zrGb| /]UdL n]Sr/, 2003

lqz"n / bf]h{]
g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

xs{ u'?

;f];n ;fOG; axfMf/f 24-26 clk|n 2003 df sf7df8f}dF f cfof]lht ;Dd]ng


b Ph]G8f ck\m 6fG;kmd];{ gM OGSn'hg Og g]kfnL 8]df]jm]| ;L df k|:t't

dfgjclwsf/sf] pNn\3g cfGtl/s / cGt/f{li6o ljTof;sf]


cjZoDefjL sf/s tj xf] . ;+;f/df b]vf k/]sf zlQmzfnL
k[ystfjfbL cfGbf]ngnfO{ pk]Iffn] ;3fp k'ofPsf] 5.
Jofkf/b]lv ;~rf/;Ddsf If]qdf ljZjJofkL -aflxl/of_
zlQmxn] /fli6o ;fj{ef}d;Qf Ifo u/fpg'sf ;fy}
lj/f]wfef; kdf ;f]sf] k[ystfjfbL k|jl[ QnfO{
6]jf lbPsf] 5 M km/s wf/0ff /fVg] clwsf/,
b'Mvsf] s'/f, ljefhgsf] ;\3if{
x'g uPsf] 5.
g]N;g d08]nf

;f];n ;fOG; axfM

cg'jfbM lzjdfof d}gfnL


k|yd ;+:s/0f M ;g\

2003

k|sfzs
;f];n ;fOG; axfM
lxdfn P;f]l;P;g
kf6g9f]sf, kf]=a=g+= !^^, nlntk'/, g]kfn.
kmf]gM 5542544/5548142 ofS;M 5541196
Od]nM baha@himalassociation.org
j]a;fO6M www.himalassociation.org/baha
ISBN 99933 43 45 5

-s_ p7fg
j}rfl/s GnfO{ k|efljt ug{ zlQmlrXgx k|of]u ul/G5. pbfx/0fsf
nflu k/fk"j{sfndf b'D;Lsf] sfF8fnfO{ b}jLaf0fsf kdf lnOGYof].
hghfltsf k'/t] n] clxn] klg To;nfO{ pkof]u u5{g\ . cflbd zdg
wfdLsf] dGqnfO{ j|mdzM tflGqs ljlw / ;"qfTds bz{gsf] kl/isf/n]
lj:yflkt ub}{ uP. oxL j|mddf tflGqs k'mjf{ dxfofgL bf]h]{ cyf{t\ ah|df
kfGt/ x'g uof]. lqz"nsf] ;DaGw lxdfnosf dxfb]j;Fu 5. lxGb"xn]
dxfb]jnfO{ lqb]jdWo]sf Ps dfg]sfn] pgL kSs} klg zlQmzfnL zq' lyP
xf]nf . pgnfO{ lxGb"xn] lzjsf] k lbP klg tflGqs k/Dk/fdf pgL
e}/jsf kdf kfOG5g\. lqz"n / bf]h{] b'j} lxdfnL ;Dkbf x'gfn] lognfO{
Pscsf{sf lj/f]wLsf kdf lng' kb}{g. tyfslyt P3f/f}F ztfAbLdf
z\s/frfo{sf] cfqmd0fkl5 klg g]kfnsf] d'6' sf7df8f}dF f wfld{s ;lxi0f'tf
lyof]. t/ kl5 g]kfn cfPsf ljh]tfxn] cfgf] efiff, ;+:s[lt / wd{
nfb\g] ;+:sf/af6 To:tf] ;lxi0f'tf Wj:t kf/].
clwsf+z /fHox Pp6f s]Gb|laGb'af6 jl/kl/ ljsf; x'G5g\/ ;Ldf
lj:tf/ cleofg tyf zlQmsf cfwf/df k}mlnFb} hfG5g\. g]kfnsf ;DaGwdf
klg oxL s'/f nfu" x'G5.1 c7f/f}F ztfAbLsf] dWolt/ uf]/vf /fHon] ;'?
u/]sf] ;Ldf lj:tf/ cleofgsf] kmn:jk g]kfnsf] lgdf{0f ePsf] xf].
uf]/vfnL zf;sxf/f /fhg}lts kn] PsLs/0f ul/Psf] g]kfndf ljljw
ef}uf]lns / ;f+:s[lts k|bz
] x ;d]l6Psf lyP. g]kfnsf] ef}uf]lns kl/lw
ss];O{ / d+uf]nO{ hfltsf dflg;xsf] hDsfe]6 ePsf] ynf] x'gfn]
cfcfg} vfnsf ;fdflhs ljz]iftf lyP. ljh]tfx ss];O{ hflt,
ef/f]kn] L efifL / lxGb" j0ff{>ddf juL{st[ lyP. cflbjf;L d+uf]nO{x
cfcfg} ynf] ePsf, ef]6ad]n{ L efiff af]Ng] ;dtfd"ns hghflt lyP.
g]kfn /fHosf] :yfkgf kxf8sf] d'Vo e"efudf lxdfnL / t/fO{ Onfsfx
ufe]/ ag]sf] xf].2 /fHosf] d"n wd{ lxGb" tyf /fli6o efiff uf]vf{nL
1
2

lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

u'?,
a3{6,

1989,

kf=

134

1984

lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

-g]kfnL_ x'g uof]. lxGb"s/0fsf] cleofgdf hghflt e"ldsf] cltqmd0f


ul/of] . pgLxnfO{ hftdf ljefhg ul/of]. o;k|sf/, g]kfnsf] /fli6o
klxrfg kj{t] lxGb" clehft ;d"x / ltgsf] dft[efiffsf cfwf/df :yflkt
ul/of].

-v_ Psflwsf/jfbL /fHoJoj:yf


lxGb':tfgdf P3f/f}F ztfAbLdf d';ndfgsf] cfqmd0f ;'? ePkl5 To;sf]
k|ltlqmof:jk g]kfnsf kxf8df lxGb"xsf] k|efj km}ng yfNof]. sf7df8f}F
pkTosfdf hol:ylt dNn (1382-1395) n] g]jf/ ;dfhdf hft k|yf nfu"
u/]. /fd zfx (1605-1633) n] oxL 9fFrfnfO{ df]6fdf]6L kdf cg';/0f
ub}{ uf]/vfdf nfu" u/]. kfNkfb]lv ljhok'/;Ddsf ;]g zf;sxn]
cfk"mnfO{ lxGb"klt 3f]if0ff u/]. ef/tdf al9/x]sf] d';ndfg rk]6faf6
aRgsf nflu wd{tGqfTds zf;g k4lttkm{sf] 'sfp a9\of] . t/ ef/tdf
d'unxsf] ktgkl5 O;fO{wdL{ c\uh] zf;g ;'? eof]. o:tf] P]ltxfl;s
afWotfjz, klxn] d';ndfg / To;kl5 O;fO{ wd{sf lj?4df lxGb" ;+;f/
agfpg] p2]Zon] g]kfnsf] zf;gdf a|fXd0f s/tfn] k|wfgtf kfof].
k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxn] sf7df8f}F pkTosf lht]kl5 ;j{ky| d kf6gsf Sofk'lrg
kfb/LxnfO{ b]z lgsfnf u/] / g]kfnnfO{ c;nL lxGb':tfg egL
kl/sNkgf u/]. kl/0ffd:jk lxGb"s/0f g]kfn /fHosf] d"ndGq tyf
p2]Zo x'g uof].3
;g\ 1854 df g]kfnsf lxGb"s/0f ePsf s]xL efuxdf nfdf] ;dob]lv
k|rngdf /lxcfPsf ;fdflhs ;+:sf/nfO{ lnlka4 sfg'gsf kdf d'ns
' L
P]g hf/L ul/of]. o; P]gsf] j}lbs hft9fFrf j0f{Joj:yfeGbf s]xL km/s
lyof]. hghfltnfO{ z'4 tyf cz'4 hftsf aLrdf /fv]/ g]kfnL
;dfhnfO{ tLg d'Vo ju{df ljefhg ul/of]. tL ju{nfO{ klg lgDg kfFr
dof{bf>]0fLcg';f/ /flvof]M4
(1) tfufwf/L
(2) gdfl;g] dtjfnL
3
4

u'?, 1987
xf]km/, 1978, kf=

45

lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

dfl;g] dtjfnL
(4) 5f]Ol56f] xfNg gkg]{ c5"t
(5) 5f]Ol56f] xfNg kg]{ c5"t cyf{t\ df h' lk+
(3)

;f] Joj:yfcg';f/ afx'g, 5]qL / 7s'/Lh:tf kj{t] zf;s hftxnfO{


7fn' :yflkt uof]. t/fO{sf a|fXd0fxnfO{ tfufwf/L ju{df /flvPsf] eP
tfklg 5]qL / g]jf/ a|fXd0feGbf tNnf] :t/df /flvof]. g]jf/ a|fXd0fnfO{
5]qLeGbf tNnf] :t/df /flvof]. cl3b]lv uf]/vf /fHosf] ;xof]uL /x]sf
du/ / u'?xsf ;fy} ;g\ 1825 df afx'g rnfpg nfndf]x/ kfPsf
;'gj' f/nfO{ bf];f| ] >]0fL (2) df /flvof]. uf]/vfnL zf;gcGtu{t kl5
cfPsf hghfltx /fO{ / lnDa"sf ;DaGwdf o; dof{bfqmddf s]xL pNn]v
5}g. ;LdfGt Onfsfsf ef]6,] yf, cNk;\Vos hghflt tyf d'Qm
bf;sf ;Gtfg 3tL{x t];f| ] >]0fL (3) df /flvP. klxnf]bl] v t];f| ;] Ddsf
hftnfO{ 5"t / rf}yf] / kfFrf}F >]0fLsf hftnfO{ c5"t dflgPsf] lyof].
c5"tdWo]df klg 5f]Ol56f] xfNg gkg]{ / 5f]Ol56f] xfNg kg]{ egL ljefhg
ul/of]. rf}yf] >]0fL (4) df pNn]v ul/Psf 5j6f c5"t hftdf rf/
g]jf/sf pk;d"x, d';ndfg / Dn]R5 -s'O/]_ lyP. ;a}eGbf tNnf] >]0fL
(5) df kj{t] sd;]n hftx / b'O{ g]jf/ pk;d"xsf tNnf hft /flvPsf
lyP . o; d'ns
' L P]g n] dw];L hftxsf] JofVof u/]sf] 5}g. JolQmsf
hftsf cfwf/df Pp6} ck/fwdf klg km/skm/s ;hfo lbg] Joj:yf o;
d'ns
' L P]g df ul/Psf] lyof].
d'ns
' L P]g 3f]if0ff ePsf] gAa] jif{kl5 o;sf] c5"t;DaGwL Joj:yfdf
s]xL ;+zf]wg ul/of]. g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg 1990 n] /fHon] wd{, j0f{, ln\u,
hfthflt / ljZjf;sf cfwf/df gful/sxnfO{ e]befj ug]{ 5}g eGg] s'/f
pNn]v ub}{ ;dfgtfsf] xssf] k|Tofe"lt u/]sf] 5 -wf/f 11.3_. t/ ;g\
1992 df ;+zf]wg ul/Psf] d'ns
' L P]gsf] Pp6f wf/fn] wfld{s :ynxdf
ul/g] k/Dk/fut k|rngxnfO{ dflgg] 5}g eGg] s'/f pNn]v u/]/ pk/f]Qm
;+j}wflgs clwsf/nfO{ s'l07t u/]sf] 5. csf]{ zAbdf, k/Dk/fsf
cfwf/df c5"tsf kdf juL{s/0f ul/Psf hftsfnfO{ dlGb/ / kljq:yndf
k|jz
] ug{] clwsf/ sfod ePg. o;k|sf/sf k/Dk/fut k|rngnfO{
:jLsf/ ug'{ eg]sf] hghflt / blntnfO{ lt/:sf/ ug{' / cGo If]qdf klg
lje]b sfod /fVg' xf]. o;/L ljZjsf] Pp6}dfq lxGb' clw/fHodf
lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

;fdflhs lje]b / 5f]Ol56f] b}lgs cg'ejsf] jf:tljstf /lxcfPsf] 5.


s'g} klg b]zsf] jt{dfg :jknfO{ Oltxf;n] lgb]l{ zt u/]sf] x'G5.
dWosfnb]lv otfsf] g]kfnnfO{ x]g{] xf] eg] o;sf tLgcf]6f :jkx b]Vg
;lsG5M (1) sf7df8f}F pkTosfsf] k'/ftg g]kfn, (2) ;tnh / l6:6f
gbLaLr km}lnPsf] ;fd|fHojfbL g]kfn / (3) d]rL / dxfsfnL gbLaLr /x]sf]
;fdGtL g]kfn.5 g]kfn w]/} nfdf] ;dob]lv :jfwLg /lxcfPsf] /fHo eP
klg c;Dd /fi6sf kdf ljsl;t x'g ;s]sf] 5}g. g]kfn b]z
ef}uf]lns kn] dfq PsLs[t ePsf] 5 ;fdflhs / cfly{s kn] xf]Og.
/fli6o PsLs/0fsf] ;fdflhs 9fFrf clxn];Dd klg lxGb"jfbL 5 h'g b]zsf]
husf kdf /x]sf ax';\Vos hghfltsf] 9fFrf;Fu k6Ss} d]n vFfb}g.
/fHon] ckgfPsf lje]bsf/L gLltn] ubf{ ax'rlr{t lbJof]kb]zdf pNn]v
ePsf rf/ hftnfO{ k"mn / 5QL; j0f{nfO{ f/ 7flgPsf] 5.
g]kfnL ;dfhnfO{ ;Ldfkfl/sf] ;dfh;Fu t'ngf ug]{ xf] eg] d'ns
' L
P]gsf] k/Dk/fut hSs8af/] :ki6 x'G5. klZrd g]kfnsf 8'd -blnt_
dfly clxn] klg Ps ztfAbLcl3 s'dfpF / u8jfnsf 8'ddfly ul/g] h:tf]
zf]if0f sfod} kfOG5. of] ljutsf] lxGb" g]kfnsf] cjz]if xf] eg] d]rL
gbL k"j{ x]/d] f eljiosf] g]kfnL ;dfhsf] k|fk b]Vg ;lsG5. g]kfndf
d'ns
' L P]g sf kl08tx k/Dk/fut sd{sf08 / rfs8Ldf Jo:t /x] eg]
l;lSsd / bfhL{lnsf g]kfnLefifLxn] g]kfnL Oltxf;, ;flxTo, snf /
/fhgLltnfO{ kl/eflift ug]{ sfddf dfu{bz{g lbP. g]kfnL /fhgLltdf
tfufwf/Lxsf] Psflwsf/ oyfjt\ 5 eg] d'ns
' L P]g af6 :jtGq l;lSsd
/ bfhL{lndf ;a} hfthfltx ;dfgtfsf cfwf/df v'nf k|lt:kwf{ ub{5g\.

-u_ ljljwtfsf] c8fg


c7f/f}F ztfAbLsf] pQ/f4{bl] v g]kfnsf] /fHozlQmnfO{ ;'b9[ / s]lGb|st[
ug{sf nflu hghfltsf] klxrfgnfO{ gfd]6 ub}{ lxGb"s/0fsf cf8df zf;g
;~rfng ug]{ gLlt c\uLsf/ ul/of]. o:tf] wd{;fk]If /fHogLlt zfxb]lv
/f0ff zf;gsfndf j|mdzM s/ x'bF } uof]. klxnf] k|hftflGqs bzs

/fhg}lts czflGtsf] a]nf ePsfn] ;fdflhs d'2fx cf]n] df


k/]. tyflk, oxL cjlwdf ePsf] /fli6o hgu0fgf 1952/54 df k|ydk6s
wd{ / efiffsf cfwf/df tYof\s phfu/ eof]. -g]kfndf hgu0fgf ug]{
rng O= 1911 b]lv g} ;'? ePsf] eP tfklg ;fdflhs;f+:s[lts kIfnfO{
hgu0fgfdf a]jf:tf ul/GYof]._ k~rfotL zf;gsf a]nf (1960-1990) Ps
ljlzi6 hftLo ;+:s[ltdf cGo ;d"xnfO{ ljnLg ub}{ /fli6o Pstf sfod
ug]{ gLlt cg';/0f ul/Psf] lyof]. kj{t] pRr hftxsf] >]i7tf sfod
ug{sf nflu g]kfnL efiff / lxGb" wd{sf] cflwkTo sfod ul/of]. ;g\
1990 df k|hftGqsf] k'g:yf{kgf kl5 ag]sf] g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfgn] /fHonfO{
ax'hftLo / ax'eflifs /fi6sf kdf t :jLsf/ uof] t/ lxGb'
clw/fHosf] cfj/0f eg] sfod} /fVof]. Ps hgf ljZn]ifsn] g]kfnsf]
;fdflhs :jk lgdf{0fsf r/0fnfO{ -s_ zfx tyf /f0ff zf;gsfnsf]
;fd|fHojfbL :jk, -v_ k~rfotsfnsf] /fi6jfbL :jk / -u_ ;g\ 1990
kl5sf] cNk;\Vos hfthfltxsf] 6fnf]hf]8fO (patchwork) u/L tLg
r/0fdf ljefhg u/]sf 5g\.6 k|hftGqdf ax'dtsf] sb/ x'G5. To;}n]
hg;\Vofsf] ;\VofTds kl/df0fsf] dxj x'G5. ;g\ 1991 eGbf cl3sf
/fli6o hgu0fgfdf hfthfltsf cfwf/df tYof\s lnOPsf] lyPg. ;g\
1991 sf] hgu0fgfaf6 k|fKt hfthflt, efiff / wd{;DaGwL tYof\sn]
s] s'/f b]vfPsf] 5 eg] b'O{ ztfAbLeGbf a9L ;dob]lv /fHoJoj:yfn]
Pp6f ;+:s[lt, Pp6f wd{ / Pp6f efiffnfO{ dfq dfGotf lbFb} cfP klg
g]kfnsf] ;f+:s[lts ljljwtfnfO{ layf]Ng ;s]sf] 5}g. ;g\ 1991 / 2001
sf] aLrsf] ;fdflhs tYof\sn] t cfgf] hftLo klxrfg sfod ug]{
lbzfdf hfu?stf;fy} ;r]ttf cfPsf] b]vfpF5.
hfthflt M ;g\ 1991 sf] hgu0fgfkl5 hfthflt ;d"xxsf] ;\Vof
bf]Aa/ ePsf] 5 -tflnsf 1_. ;g\ 2001 sf] hgu0fgfdf pNn]v ePsf
gofF hft ;a} t/fO{sf 5g\. t/fO{sf G8} Psrf}yfO hg;\Vof log} gofF
hftsf /x]sf 5g\. gofF klxrfg ePsf hfltxrflxF kxf8 tyf t/fO{ b'j}
k|bz
] sf 5g\. oL gofF hfthfltsf dflg;xsf] ;\Vof g]kfnsf] s'n
hg;\Vofsf] 6 k|ltzt x'g cfpF5. o;k|sf/, g]kfndf 57.5 k|ltzt hft
;d"xsf, 36.4 k|ltzt hflt ;d"xsf / 6.2 k|ltzt cGo ;d"xsf 5g\ .7
(1951-1960)

6
5

u'?,

2001,

kf=

197-198

lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

kfkmrfg]s
{ f, 1997
u'?, 2002 ;L

lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

s'n hg;\VofdWo] kj{t] d"nsf hft ;d"xx 38 k|ltzt 5g\ eg] kj{t]
hfltsf 26.6 k|ltzt 5g\. t/fO{ d"nsf hft ;d"xsf dflg;x 19.5
k|ltzt tyf hflt ;d"xsf 7.9 k|ltzt 5g\.
tflnsf

1:

;d"x
s= hft
1. kj{t]
2. dw];L
v= hflt
3. lxdfnL
4. kj{t]
5. leqL dw]z
6. dw];L
u= cGo*
7. s'n
* r'/f}6,]

hg;\Vofsf] ;fdflhs agf]6


hfthflt

hg;\Vof

2001

k|ltzt

gofF ;d"xsf]
dfqf -_

1991

2001

j[l4

31

53

22

13,070,480

57.5

8,638,797

38.0-

22

44

22

4,431,683

19.5

25

44

19

8,267,293

36.4

190,107

0.8

1.7

11

20

6,038,530

26.6

2.8

251,117

1.1

12

1,787,539

7.9

6.0

1,399,161

6.2

56

97

41

22,736,934

100.0

6.0

b]zsf] jt{dfg hg;\VofnfO{ ;fdflhs ;d"xsf] d"n ynf]sf cfwf/df


;d]t x]g{ ;lsG5. klxnf] xf], ltgLxsf] kj{t] / dw];LaLrsf] cg'kftM
hg;\Vof -k|ltzt_
65.4
1.8
100.0

lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

k|ltzt
38.0
33.0
22.0
4.6
1.8
100.0

ljleGg hfthfltsf] hg;\Vofdf 7"nf] cGt/ 5. s';0' 8fsf] hg;\Vof


dfq 5 eg] ;a}eGbf a9L hg;\Vof ePsf] 5]qL ;d"xdf 36 nfv
-tflnsf 2_. 10 nfveGbf a9L hg;\Vof ePsf 5cf]6f ;d"xx 5g\
h;dWo] rf/cf]6f hghflt ;d"xdf kb{5g\ -tflnsf 2_. kfFr ;d"xxsf]
hg;\Vof 5 nfvb]lv 10 nfvaLrdf 5. b'O{ bh{g ;d"xxsf] hg;\Vof
10 xhf/b]lv 50 xhf/;Dd 5. c 22 cf]6f ;d"xxsf] hg;\Vof Ps
xhf/b]lv 10 xhf/ 5. aL;cf]6f ;d"xxsf] hg;\Vof 1 nfvb]lv 5
nfv 5. rf/cf]6f ;d"x, ;a} hfltsf] hg;\Vof Ps xhf/eGbf sd 5.
164

tflnsf 2M hfthfltsf] hg;\Vof ju{,


hg;\Vof
eGbf a9L

hft

hflt

500,000-1,000,000

100,000-500,000

2001

cGo

s'n

17

20

50,000-100,000

10

16

10,000-50,000

13

11

24

1,000-10,000

13

22

50

$#

97

32.8

s'n hg;\VofdWo] G8} b'Ol{ txfO kj{t] d"nsf 5g\ eg] PsltxfO
dw];L d"nsf. lxdfn / leqL dw]z d"nsf] hg;\Vof cNk;\Vofdf /x]sf]
5/ pgLx kfvf k/]sf 5g\. g]kfn b]zsf] p7fg sf7df8f}F pkTosfaf6
eof]. oxfFsf /}yfg] g]jf/xn] cGo k|bz
] sf dflg;xnfO{ cfg} vfnsf]
6

juL{s/0f
v}F -v;_
d:of{ -dw];L_
;}F -ef]6_]
g]jf -g]jf/_
gv'ns
] f ;d"x
hDdf

24.6

a\ufnL, d'l:nd / l;v;d]t

ef}uf]lns If]q
kj{t -kxf8_
dw]z -leqL dw]z, dw]z_
ynf] gv'ns
] f
s'n

gfdfs/0f u/]sf 5g\ M d+uf]nO{ d"nsfnfO{ ;},F ss];O{ d"nsfnfO{ v}F /


dw]zsfnfO{ d:of{ eGg] rng 5. /f]rs kIf s] 5 eg] g]jf/L ;+:s[lt
cfkm}F rflxF ;},F ;fdflhs hudfly d:of{ d"nsf zf;sxn], v}F hft k|yf
yf]k/]sf] ldl>t pkh xf]. g]jf/xsf] juL{s/0fcg';f/ cfhsf] g]kfnsf]
hg;\Vof lgDgfg';f/ 5M

1,000,000

1,000

eGbf sd
hDdf

lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

efiffM /fli6o hgu0fgf 1952/54 df g]kfndf 53 cf]6f efiffeflifsfsf]


u0fgf ul/Psf] lyof]. kl5Nnf hgu0fgfxdf g]kfnL efiffsf] k|eT' j
b]vfpgsf nflu yf]/} efiff b]vfOof]. ;g\ 1961 df efiffxsf] ;\Vof
cl3Nnf] bzssf 43 sf t'ngfdf 36]/ 36 ePsf] b]vfOof] eg] 1971 sf]
hgu0fgfdf of] ;\Vof 17 dfq b]vfOof]. ;g\ 1981 sf] hgu0fgfdf 18
cf]6f efiffsf] pNn]v lyof]. 1991 df efiffeflifsfsf] ;\Vof 31
ePsf]df 2001 df of] ;\Vof a9]/ 92 ePsf] 5. 2001 sf] hgu0fgfdf
yk 22 cf]6f /fO{, 17 cf]6f hghflt / 12 cf]6f cGo efiffeflifsf
ePsf] nut 5. o:tf] tYofaf6 g]kfn ;fFRr} g} clt w]/} efiffefifLsf]
;d:yn k|dfl0ft ePsf] 5. 1991 / 2001 aLrsf] bzsdf efiff
kl/jf/sf cfwf/df hg;\Vofdf 36La9L ePsf] 5. ltAatLad]n{ L dft[efiff
ePsf] hg;\Vof PsltxfO a9]sf] 5 eg] ef/f]k]nL dft[efiff ePsf]
hg;\Vof 21.6 k|ltztdfq a9]sf] 5 -tflnsf 3_. g]kfnL dft[efiff
ePsf] hg;\Vof 18.8 k|ltztdfq a9f] . kl/0ffd:jk g]kfnL efiff
af]Ng]xsf] hg;\Vof 1991 df ax'dt -50.3_ /x]sf]df ;g\ 2001 df /]/
cNk;\Vof (48.6) df x'g k'Uof]. csf]{lt/, b|flal8og efiff af]Ng]
hg;\Vof -fFu8_ 88.6 k|ltztn] a9]sf] b]lvG5/ ;f] ck|jf;gsf
sf/0fn] x'g ;S5 -tflnsf 3_.
tflnsf
kl/jf/
!= ef/f]k]nL
g]kfnL
@= ltAatLad]{nL
#= d'08f
$= b|flal8og
cGogv'ns
] f
s'n

3:

efiff kl/jf/sf cfwf/df hg;\Vof 36a9


-k|ltztdf_

1991

2001

kl/jt{g

80

79.1

21.6

50.3

48.6

18.8

17.0

18.4

33.4

0.2

0.2

20.8

0.1

0.1

88.6

2.8

2.2

-2.8

100.0

100.0

23.0

efiff hg;\Vof kl/jt{gsf] dxjk"0f{ kIf hghflt ;d"xxdf cfgf]


dft[efiff af]Ng]xsf] ;\Vofdf j[l4 xf]. ;g\ 1991 / 2001 sf
8

lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

hgu0fgfdf pknAw hghflt tyf df[tefiffsf] hg;\Vofsf] tYof\s


t'ngf ubf{ tL 19 ;d"xxdWo] 4 ;d"xdf dfq cfgf] dft[efiff af]Ng]sf]
cg'kft 36]sf] 5. o:tf ;d"xdf lwdfn, /fO{ls/fFtL, ef]6] ;]kf{ /
ysfnL k5{g\ -tflnsf 4_. ;g\ 2001 sf] hgu0fgfcg';f/ 8 cf]6f
hghflt ;d"xdf cfgf] dft[efiff af]Ng]sf] cg'kft 70 k|ltzteGbf a9L
5. hftLo hg;\VofeGbf cfgf] dft[efiff af]Ng] ;\Vof a9L b]lvPsf
/fhj+zL / /fhL ckjfbsf kdf b]lvPsf 5g\. s'dfnxdf ;fx} yf]/n} ]
dfq cfgf] dft[efiff af]N5g\.
tflnsf

4:

hghflt ;d"x
1. /fhj+zL
2. /fhL
3. lnDa"
4. lh/]n
5. tfdf
6. lwdfn*
7. yf
8. wfdL
9. /fO{ls/fFtL*
10. ef]6];]kf{*

cfgf] dft[efiff af]Ng] hghfltsf] hg;\Vof cg'kft


-k|ltztdf_

1991

2001

104.1

135.2

90.4

100.0

64.0

92.9

86.5

92.5

88.8

92.0

89.5

88.6

83.2

86.8

75.4

82.6

83.6

75.3

99.1

77.6

hghflt ;d"x
r]kf
12. b/}
13. g]jf/
14. u'?
15. bg'jf/
16. ysfnL*
17. du/
18. dfL
19. s'dfn
11.

1991

2001

68.5

70.5

60.0

68.5

66.2

66.3

50.7

62.4

46.7

59.8

51.8

49.6

32.1

47.7

20.6

30.1

1.8

6.6

wd{M ;g\ 1952/54 sf] hgu0fgfdf lxGb", af}4 / O:nfd tLg wfld{s
;d"xnfO{ dfq dfGotf lbPsf] lyof]. ;f] u0fgfdf s'n hg;\Vofsf] 88.9
k|ltzt lxGb" ePsf] tYof\s 5. ;g\ 1961 sf] hgu0fgfdf O;fO{ tyf
h}g wd{ dfGg]xsf] tYof\s pNn]v ul/of] eg] ;g\ 1991 sf] hgu0fgfdf
ls/fFtL / l;v wd{fjnDaLsf] tYof\s pNn]v 5. axfO{ wd{sf] pNn]v
;g\ 2001 sf] hgu0fgfdf dfq ul/of]-tflnsf 5_. ;g\ 1991-2001 sf
hgu0fgfdf wd{sf cfwf/df hg;\Vof s]xL 36a9 ePsf] 5. ;g\ 2001
df h}g / l;v wdf{jnDaLxsf] hg;\Vof 36]sf] 5. /fli6o wd{sf
kdf /x]sf] lxGb" wd{ dfGg]sf] hg;\Vof 14.6 k|ltztn] dfq j[l4 ePsf]
5. o;sf] ljk/Lt O:nfd wdf{jnDaL 46 k|ltzt, af}4 wdf{jnDaLx
lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

k|ltzt, ls/fFtLx 157 k|ltzt, O;fO{ wdf{jnDaLx 226 k|ltztn]


a9]sf 5g\. O;fO{ wd{df gf6sLo j[l4 x'gfsf] d"n sf/0f wd{ kl/jt{g
xf]. af}4 wdf{jnDaL / ls/fFtLxn] lxGb" wd{ Tofu]/ cfgf] wd{
cFufn]sfn] pgLxsf] hg;\Vof clws j[l4 ePsf] xf]. o;sf] ljk/Lt
l;v / h}g wdf{jnDaLxn] cfgf] wd{ lxGb" wd{ n]vfPsfn] pgLxsf]
;\Vof 36]sf] x'g ;S5. c klg 5 nfveGbf a9L hghfltxn] lxGb"
n]vfPsf] b]lvG5.

69.7

tflnsf
wd{
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

lxGb"
af}4
d'l:nd
O;fO{
h}g
ls/fFtL -d'Gw'd_
l;v
axfO{
cGogv'ns
] f]
s'n

5:

wd{sf cfwf/df hg;\Vof kl/jt{g

tflnsf

-k|ltztdf_

hgu0fgfdf k|ydk6s
pNn]v ePsf] ldlt

1991

2001

kl/jt{g

1952/54

86.5

80.6

14.6

1952/54

7.8

10.7

69.7

1952/54

3.5

4.2

46.0

1961

0.2

0.5

226.0

1961

0.0

0.0

-45.7

1991

1.7

3.6

157.0

1991

0.1

0.0

-36.6

2001

0.0

0.0

0.4

402.7

100.0

100.0

23.0

hfthflt ;d"xxsf] hg;\Vofdf ePsf] j[l4 / k/Dk/fut wd{sf


cfwf/df pgLxsf] hg;\Vof t'ngf ug]{ xf] eg] hghfltxdf ;f+:s[lts
hfu?stf cfPsf] :ki6 x'G5. ;g\ 1991 b]lv 2001 sf] hgu0fgfdf hft
;d"xsf] hg;\Vof 25.2 k|ltztn] j[l4 ePsf] 5 -tflnsf 6_. csf]l{ t/,
cfk"mnfO{ lxGb" wdf{jnDaL bfaL ug]{ dflg;xsf] hg;\Vofdf 14.6
k|ltztdfq j[l4 ePsf] 5. O:nfd wd{sf] hg;\Vof 46 k|ltzt a9]sf]
5 eg] ;f] ;fdflhs ;d"x 49 k|ltztn] a9]sf] 5. o;sf] ljk/Lt,
k/Dk/fut kn] af}4 wd{ dfGg] hghflt ;d"xxsf] hg;\Vof 24.9
k|ltzn] a9]sf] 5 eg] af}4 wdf{jnDaLsf] hg;\Vof 69.7 k|ltztn] j[l4
ePsf] 5. df}lns ls/fFt wd{ hgfpg] ;d"xxsf] hg;\Vof j[l4 c
10

a9L ePsf] 5. 1991 / 2001 sf aLrdf ls/fFtLxsf] hg;\Vofdf 28


k|ltzt j[l4 ePsf] 5 eg] ls/fFt -d'Gw'd_ wdf{jnDaLsf] hg;\Vof 157
k|ltzt a9]sf] 5. ls/fFtLnfO{ wd{sf kdf ;j{ky| d ;g\ 1991 df
klxrfg ul/Psf] lyof]. To; a]nf ls/fFt wd{ dfGg] ls/fFtL hg;\VofdWo]
36 k|ltzt /x]sf]df 2001 df 73.9 k|ltzt k'us
] f] 5. ut bzssf]
hg;\Vof tYof\sn] dflg;x hfltotf, wd{ / efiffsf cfwf/df cfgf]
klxrfg sfod ug{ ;r]t ePsf] k|:6 b]lvG5.

lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

6:

hfthflt / wd{sf cfwf/df hg;\Vof kl/jt{g,


;g\ 1991-2001

hfthflt / ju{
s= hft
lxGb"

;DalGwt hfthflt ;d"x


kxf8 -9_ dw]z 41 hftx
lxGb" wdf{jnDaL dfGg]

v= hflt

ef]6,] AofF;L, u'?, x]Ndf], g]jf/


-60 k|ltzt_, ;]kf{, tfdf, jfn'
af}4 wdf{jnDaL dfGg]]

af}4
u= d';ndfg
O:nfd

d'l:nd, r'/f}6]
O:nfd wdfjnDaL dfGg]

3= ls/fFtL
-d'Gw'd_

lnDa", /fO{, ;'gj' f/, ofvf


d'Gw'dk/Dk/f dfGg]

j[l4 k|ltzt
25.2
14.6

24.9
69.7
49.0
46.0
28.1
157.0

-3_ tLg h'wf ;d"xx?


/fHosf] kIfkftL Psflwsf/L gLltsf sf/0f d'Vo kn] tLgcf]6f k|dv
'
;fdflhs ;d"xx kfvf nufOPsf 5g\. logLxdWo] ;+:s[ltsf cfwf/df
hghflt, hftsf cfwf/df blnt / ef}uf]lns cjl:yltsf cfwf/df dw];L
kb{5g\. hftLo cfGbf]ngsf] If]q klxrfg ug{ tyf eljiodf :jfoQ
zf;gsf] If]qsf] gSzf\sg ug{sf nflu logLxsf] hg;\Vofsf] ljt/0fsf]
9fFrf klxrfg ug'{ h?/L x'G5. t/fO{ k|bz
] dw];L cfGbf]ngsf] s]Gb|laGb'
ePsf] :jfefljs 5. ToxfF kxf8af6 a;fOF ;/]sf sl/a 30 nfv;d]t
u/L Ps s/f]8eGbf a9L dflg;x a;f]af; ub{5g\. d'Vo kdf dw];L
lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

11

d"nsf hghflt / hft ;d"xx t/fO{df s]lGb|t 5g\. hghflt /


blntxsf] ljt/0f x]bf{ hghfltx k"jL{ efudf cTolws ;\Vofdf /x]sf]
b]lvG5 eg] blntx klZrddf a9L kfOG5 -tflnsf 7_ . k"j{ / pQ/af6
cfPsf d+uf]nO{ hghflt ;d"xx g]kfnsf] k"jL{ / pQ/L efudf a9L 5g\
eg] blIf0f / klZrdaf6 a;fOF ;/]/ cfPsf hft ;d"xx klZrd /
blIf0fdf a9L 5g\. hg;\Vof ljt/0fsf] of] 9fFrf pgLxsf] cfudg
laGb'sf] 9fFrf;Fu d]n vfG5. g]kfnsf] k"jd{ f kg{] ef/tsf] c?0ff~rn
k|bz
] df cg';l" rt cflbjf;L -hghflt_ sf] ;\Vof s'n hg;\Vofsf] 63.7
5. csf{lt/ g]kfnsf] klZrddf kg{] lxdfrn k|bz
] df hghfltsf] ;\Vof
8
4.2 k|ltztdfq 5. o;sf] 7Ls ljk/Lt c?0ff~rndf blntsf] ;\Vof
s'n hg;\Vofsf] 0.5 k|ltztdfq} 5 eg] lxdfrn k|bz
] df pgLx 25.3
k|ltzt 5g\. o;}cg';f/ g]kfndf klg blnt / hghfltxsf] cg'kft
dw]zcg';f/ km/s kfOG5. -gS;f s / v_
1991-2001 sf] bzsdf hghfltsf] ;\Vof 64 nfvaf6 j[l4 eP/ 84
nfv k'us
] f] 5. cyf{t\ pgLxsf] ;\Vof 30.8 k|ltztn] a9]sf] 5. of]
j[l4 b]zsf] hg;\Vof j[l4b/ 23 k|ltzteGbf a9L 5. hghfltsf] s'n
hg;\VofnfO{ x]g{] xf] eg] kxf8L If]q tyf leqL dw]zdf hg;\Vofsf]
cg'kft klZrdaf6 k"jl{ t/ a9L 5. klZrd lxdfnL If]qdf hghfltsf]
cg'kft ;a}eGbf Go"g -3.8 k|ltzt_ /x]sf] 5 eg] dWo lxdfnL If]qdf of]
cg'kft 93.2 k|ltzt /x]sf] 5. 11 cf]6f ef}uf]lns If]qxdWo] 5 cf]6f
If]qdf hghfltxsf] afx'Notf 5 -tflnsf 7_.
;g\ 1991 df blntxsf] hg;\Vof 22 nfv ePsf]df of] ;\Vof j[l4
eP/ ;g\ 2001 df 25 nfv ePsf] 5. o; cjlwdf pgLxsf]
hg;\Vof 13.8 k|ltztn] dfq a9]sf] 5. ;a}eGbf w]/} ;\Vofdf /x]sf
blnt hft sfdLxsf] ;\Vof 7.1 k|ltztn] 36]sf] 5/ o;f] ePsf]
pgLxn] hft kl/jt{g u/]sfn] xf]. blnt cfGbf]ngsf/Lxn] blntxsf]
;\Vof w]/} a9L 5 eGg] bfaL u/] tfklg pgLx s'n hg;\Vofsf] 13.6
k|ltztdfq 5g\. 1991 df pgLxsf] ;\Vof s'n hg;\Vofsf] 14.5
k|ltzt lyof]. rf]vfd]nf9 sf] lgDg egfOn] blntxsf b'O{ d"n ;d:ofxnfO{
:ki6 ub{5M
8
9

u'?, 2002 P, tflnsf


h]ln6, 1992

12

tflnsf

7:

hghflt, 2001
hDdfsf]
k|b]zsf]
k|b]zut
hg;\Vofdf

hghflt cg'kft

ef}uf]lns k|bz
]
-lhNnfsf] ;\Vof_
s lxdfn (15)
!= klZrd (8)
@= dWo -3_
#= k"j{ -4_
v kxf8 (36)
$= klZrd (10)
%= dWo (13)
^= sf7df8f}F pkTosf
&= k"j{ (10)
u leqL dw]z (6)
*= klZrd (2)
(= dWo (2)
!)= k"j{ (2)
3 dw]z (18)
!!= klZrd (4)
!@= dWo (3)
!#= k"j{ (18)
g]kfn (75)

hghflt / blnt hg;\Vof ljt/0f

5.2

(3)

blnt, 2001
hDdfsf]
k|b]zsf]
k|b]zut hg;\Vofdf

blnt cg'kft

31.4

5.2

11.6

0.3

3.8

3.6

16.3

0.6

93.2

0.1

4.3

4.2

58.2

1.4

7.2

48.1

47.7

46.2

16.0

3.4

16.2

24.1

38.5

17.9

44.1

16.0

14.9

10.9

56.0

0.9

2.1

15.8

59.3

5.3

7.1

12.4

47.9

7.4

11.5

3.4

38.5

3.8

17.5

5.1

49.3

1.7

6.8

3.9

58.8

1.8

10.9

34.3

28.0

41.3

13.9

8.7

41.4

5.5

11.7

6.1

29.6

8.4

16.9

19.4

24.7

27.3

13.6

100.0

37.0

100.0

14.5

ltdLn] dnfO{ of] h'gL lbg' lyof] eg]


lsg dnfO{ o:tf] h'gLdf hGd <
ltdLn] dnfO{ hGdg TofUof}M ltdL clt lgb{oL eof}.
ltdL sxfF lyof} d hGdg] a]nf <
ltdLn] s;nfO{ ;3fof} To; a]nf <
rf]vf* laGtL u5{M x] k|e,' x] s]zj, dnfO{ gTofu.

 klxnf], s]zj k|e' lxGb" s[i0f eujfg\sf] csf]{ gfpF x'gfn] ;f]
k'sf/faf6 blntx clt efUojfbL ePsf] b]vfpF5. ltg} b]jtfxsf
* rf]vf]dn
] f Pp6f ef/tLo blnt JolQmsf] gfpF.

lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

13

cfzLjf{bsf cfwf/df 7"nf hftsf] /hfOF x'gfn] o:tf] k|fy{gf Joy{ 5.


bf];f| ,] pQm laGtL p4[t ul/Psf] k':tssf] zLif{s g} c5"taf6 blnt eGg]
/x]sf] 5. cyf{t,\ c5"t zAb xf]Rofpg] tyf u}/sfg'gL x'gfn] t6:y t/
zf]lift hgfpg] blnt zAbaf6 kb:yfkgf ePsf] 5.
;g\ 1991 sf] hgu0fgfcg';f/ s'n blntsf] hg;\Vof kxf8df 46.2
k|ltzt, 41.3 k|ltzt t/fO{df, 7.4 k|ltzt leqL dw]zdf / 5.2 k|ltzt
lxdfnL e]udf 5g\. k|fb]lzs ljt/0fsf lx;fan] klZrddf blntxsf]
hg;\Vofsf] cg'kftdf ;a}eGbf a9L b]lvG5 -tflnsf 7_ . klZrd lxdfnL
If]q / klZrd leqL dw]zdf pgLx s'n hg;\Vofsf] 16 k|ltzt 5g\ eg]
klZrd kxf8df pgLx s'n hg;\Vofsf] ;a}eGbf a9L 38.5 k|ltzt
5g\. k"jL{ lxdfn / kxf8 e]udf pgLx 7.5 k|ltzteGbf sd 5g\ eg]
sf7df8f}F pkTosfdf g]jf/ blntx gulgPsfn] @=! k|ltztdfq 5g\.
hghflt, blnt / dw];L ;d"xx 7"nf hftxaf6 zfl;t /xFb} cfPsf
5g\. t/ pgLxaLr g} hftLo cf} If]qLo lje]bsf] lg/Gt/tfsf] sf/0f
pgLxsf] cfGbf]ngdf c tfnd]n x'g ;s]sf] 5}g. g]kfn hghflt
dxf;\3df 48 hghflt ;d"xx cfa4 eP klg tLdWo] kxf8 / dw]zsf
hghfltsf] ;d:ofdf w]/} leGgtf 5. blntxsf xsdf klg oxL s'/f
nfu" x'G5. kxf8] blntxsf] efiff / ;+:s[lt ;Qfwf/Lju{;uF ldN5.
dw];L d"nsf ;DaGwdf, ToxfFsf hfthfltaLr cGt/sf ;fy} efiff, wd{
/ ;f+:s[lts lje]b tuf/f] /x]sf] 5. o:tf cgd]n kf6fxsf afah'b
/fHof/f kfvf nufOPsf ;d"xsf gftfn] ltgLxaLr w]/} ljifodf ;fd"lxs
:jfy{ /x]sf] kfOG5. pgLxn] p7fOcfPsf ;ff ljifox x'g\ /fhg}lts
:jfoQtf, ;fdflhs ;dfgtf / cfly{s cj;/. ;xeflutf k|hftGqsf]
dflysf k|efj d'2fx lnP/ PsLs[t kxnsbdL ul/Pdf tL tLg pk]lIft
;d"xx Pp6f ;an zlQmsf kdf :yflkt x'g5] g\.

sAhf, rt'ofO / s"6gLltsf cfwf/df ePsf] lyof]. Oltxf;nfO{ sf]fpg]


xf] eg] ljleGg hghflt ;d"xxsf] lj/f]w, ;+3if{ / ljb|fx] sf s}og
36gfx e]l6G5g\.10 ;+of]ujz, sLlt{k/' sf g]jf/xsf] axfb'/Lk"0f{ k|lt/f]wnfO{
Ps hgf ljb]zL k|ToIfbzL{n] pNn]v u/]sf] kfOG5. hghfltxn] ;~rfng
u/]sf cGo ;\3if{x lnlka4 gx'gfn] nf]s;+:d/0fdf e/ kg]{ afWotf 5.
s]xL yf]/d} fq ;Dgfsf cfwf/df AoFT' ofpg ;lsG5 . c7f/f}F ztfAbLsf]
cGTolt/ lnDa" / tfdf ljb|fx] ePsf] lyof] -tflnsf 8_. haxfb'/sf]
zf;gsfndf u08sL k|bz
] sf u'? / du/sf ;fy} k"jL{ kxf8sf /fO{ /
lnDa"xn] ljb|fx] u/]sf lyP. aL;f}F ztfAbLsf] k"jf{4df a'4sf] hGde"ld
g]kfndf af}4 leIf'xnfO{ nlIft u/]/ wfld{s bdg ul/Psf] lyof]. /f0ff
zf;gsf] lj?4df ;g\ 1950/51 ;~rfng ul/Psf] /fhgLlts cfGbf]ngdf
ls/fFt / tfdfxn] klg cfgf] clwsf/sf nflu ljb|fx] u/]sf lyP.
lnDa"xsf] e"lddflysf] k/Dk/fut clwsf/sf] cGTo ub}{ ;g\ 1964 df
tflnsf
jif{
1770
1778
1793
1808
1858
1867
1870
1875
1876
1925
1937
1950

jr{:jsf nflu ;\3if{

1951
1964

Oltxf; eg]sf] hlxNo} klg ljh]tfxsf] ufyf xf] / x?jfxl;t b'Mvb


:d/0fdfq /xG5. cfw'lgs g]kfnsf] Oltxf; klg zf;sx / pgLxsf]
j}wtfsf] syf xf]. lj:tfl/t g]kfnsf] :yfkgf ;Ldf lj:tf/, cfqmds
14

lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

8:

hghftLo;f+:s[lts 36gfx

36gf
lnDa" ljb|fx] / lgisf;g
lnDa" efiffsf] bdg
d'dL{ -tfdf_ ljb|fx]
vDa" -/fO{_ ljb|fx]
u'? -;'sb]j_ ljb|fx]
b;}F alxisf/ -b'O{ /fO{nfO{ d[To'b08_
lnDa" efiffsf] bdg
du/ -nvg_ ljb|fx]
u'? -;'klt_ ljb|fx]
l5l/ gf]j{' nfdf / rf/ nfdfnfO{ b]z lgsfnf
leIf'xnfO{ b]z lgsfnf -cd[tfgGb;lxt_
ls/fFtL ljb|fx]
tfdf -ls;fg_ ljb|fx]
ls/fFtf/f lsk6 pGd"ngsf] lj/f]w

If]q
c?0f k"j{
c?0f k"j{
g'jfsf]6
ef]hk'/
ndh'
wgs'6f
c?0f k"j{
uf]vf{
uf]vf{
kf6g
sf7df8f}F
k"j{ kxf8
g'jfsf]6
k"j{ kxf8

;|ft] M xs{ u'?, /fli6otf / hghflt, d]/L 8];g] -;=_ g]kfnsf ;Gbe{df ;fdflhscfly{s/fhg}lts
cjwf/0fx, lxdfn lstfa, @))#.
10

erg,

2000,

kf=

140

lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

15

lsk6 k|yf vf/]h ePkl5 k"jL{ kxf8df tLj| lj/f]wsf] nx/ rNof].
g]kfnsf] /fhsLo wd{ c} klg dflg; hGdsf cfwf/df prgLr x'g]
lxGb" dfGotfsf] hft k|yfdf cfwfl/t 5. g]kfnnfO{ lxGb" /fHo egL
ul/Psf] 3f]if0ff u}/lxGb" hghflt / lxGb" blntxnfO{ pk]Iffsf] d"n :qf]t
xf] lsgeg] o:tf] cjwf/0ffn] hghflt / blntnfO{ ;LdfGt kfb{5.
To;}sf/0f hghfltx ;f+:s[lts cfwf/df lje]b ul/Psf 5g\ eg] blntx
;+:sf/sf cfwf/df ckx]lnt 5g\. o:tf] s[lqd lje]b 1990 sf] g]kfnsf]
;+ljwfgsf] wf/f 11 (3) df pNn]lvt ;dfgtfsf] xssf] ljk/Lt 5.
g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfgdf s]xL o:tf wf/fx 5g\ h'g efiffut ;dfgtfsf lj?4
5g\. wf/f 6 (2) df b]jgfu/L lnlkdf n]lvPsf] g]kfnL efiff /fi6efiff
x'g5] / ;/sf/L efiff x'g5] elgPsf] 5. g]kfndf af]lng] c efiffxnfO{
g]kfnsf] /fli6o efiff sf kdf pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 / ;/sf/L
sfdsfhsf nflu lgif]w ul/Psf] 5. d}lynL tyf g]jf/L efiffnfO{ ;g\
1998 df :yfgLo ;/sf/L sfdsfhsf] nflu k|of]u ug{ k|of; ubf{ ;jf]R
{r
11
cbfntn] o;nfO{ cj}wflgs 3f]if0ff uof]. wf/f 18 (2) n] hghfltsf
dft[efiffdf k|fylds tx;Dd dfq lzIff lbg kfpg] s'/f tf]ss
] f] 5.
csf{lt/, s'g} klg g]kfnLsf] dft[efiff gePsf] ;+:s[t efiffnfO{ eg] /fHon]
;a} txsf] lzIffdf e/0fkf]if0f ul//x]sf] 5.
o:tf] wfld{s / eflifs Psflwsf/sf sf/0f ;/sf/L hflu/ / zlQm
;+/rgfdf pRr hftsf lxGb"xsf] xfnLd'xfnL /lxcfPsf] 5. hftut
>]i7tf tyf ;fIf/tf / cfly{s ;d[l4sf aLrdf ;x;DaGw 5 eGg] s'/f
pknAw tYof\sxn] k'li6 ub{5g\.12 cyjf, hft:t/ hlt Go"g x'G5
lg/If/tf / ul/aL Tolt g} a9L x'G5. pRr hft ;d"xdf k|f9} ;fIf/tf
b/ 42 b]lv 58 k|ltzt /x]sf] 5 -tflnsf 9_. ;f] b/ kj{t] hghfltxdf
35.2 k|ltzt / blntju{df 23.8 k|ltzt 5. 1991 sf] hgu0fgfcg';f/
pRr lzIff k|fKt ug]{ dflg;xdWo] 88.8 k|ltzt pRr hftsf, 6.2
k|ltzt hghflt ;d"xsf / 3.1 k|ltzt blntx lyP. ;fIf/tf tyf
lzIffsf] :t/ pRr ePsf ;fdflhs ;d"xsf] k|ltJolQm cfo klg ceGbf
a9L 5. pRr hft afx'g / 5]qLsf] k|ltJolQm cfo /fli6o ;/b/ ?=
11
12

dxh{g, 2000
u'?, 2003 P, tflnsf

16

lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

eGbf a9L 5. kxf8] hghfltxsf] k|ltJolQm cfo ? 6,603 5


eg] blntxsf] ?= 4,940 dfq /x]sf] 5. o;} u/L ;fdflhs :t/ tn
ePsf ;d"x ul/aLsf] /]vfd'lg al9/x]sf] s'/f klg tYof\sn] b]vfPsf
5g\. ;/sf/L tYof\sn] g]kfnsf 42.6 k|ltzt kl/jf/ ul/aLsf] /]vfd'lg
/x]sf] b]vfPsf] 5. ;x/L If]qdf s]lGb|t g]jf/df 25 k|ltzt kl/jf/dfq
ul/aLsf] /]vfd'lg /x]sf 5g\. pRr hftsfxdf 34 b]lv 50 k|ltzt
kl/jf/ ul/aLsf] /]vfd'lg /x]sf 5g\ eg] kxf8] d"nsf hghfltdf ul/aLsf]
/]vfd'lg x'g] kl/jf/sf] dfqf 45 b]lv 71 k|ltzt 5. blnt hftsf 65
b]lv 68 k|ltzt kl/jf/ ul/aLsf] /]vfd'lg kb{5.
7,673

tflnsf

9:

;fIf/tf / cfo,

;fdflhs ;d"x

1996

;fIf/tf b/
-k|ltzt_

k|ltJolQm cfo
-?=df_

58.0

9,921

42.0

7,744

s hft ;d"x
kj{t] afx'g
kj{t] 5]qL
dw];L hft
blnt hft

27.5

6,911

23.8

4,940

v efiff ;d"x
g]jf/

54.8

11,953

u kxf8L hflt
u'?, lnDa", du/, /fO{, ;]kf{

35.2

6,603

3 wfld{s ;d"x
d';ndfg

22.1

6,336

27.6

7,312

36.7

7,673

cGo
g]kfn
;|ft] M

CBS, 1996; ljZj Aof, 1997 P


NESAC af6 lnOPsf], g]kfnM dfgj ljsf;

k|ltj]bg, 1998, Pg]S;

lzIff / ;fwgdfly pRr hftsf] Psflwsf/ ePsfn] k|zf;g /


/fhgLltdf klg pgLxs} ks8 alnof] /x]sf] 5. ;Qfwf/Lxsf] ;fdflhs
;+/rgfdf ;g\ 1854 b]lvotf vf; kl/jt{g ePsf] 5}g -tflnsf 10_.
lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

17

o;sf] pN6f], lghfdtL ;]jfdf pRr hfltsf] Psflwsf/ c a9\b} uPsf]


b]lvG5. cfly{s jif{ 1996/97 b]lv 1997/98 df clws[tsf] kbdf lgj]bg
lbg]xdf 82.9 k|ltzt afx'g5]qL lyP eg] kj{t] d"nsf hghfltx 3.7
k|ltztdfq lyP. clws[t kbdf ;kmn x'gx] df 83.1 k|ltzt afx'g5]qL
lyP eg] 3.4 k|ltzt hghfltx lyP.13 o:tf] c;Gt'ng lghfdtL ;]jfsf]
xfnsf] k|jl[ Qn] c :ki6 kf5{. ;g\ 1983/84 df ;/sf/L kbdf clws[t
x'gx] df 69.3 k|ltzt pRr hftsf lyP eg] 3.0 k|ltzt hghflt lyP.
t/, ;g\ 2000/2001 df clws[t kbdf 5flgPsf JolQmxdf 87.0 k|ltzt
pRr hftsf / 0.5 k|ltzt hghfltsf lyP. o;k|sf/ hghflt ;d"x /
blntx zf;g;Qfdf ;xefuL x'gaf6 jl~rt 5g\.
tflnsf

10:

;Qfwf/L ju{sf] ;+/rgf

;fdflhs ;d"x
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

pRr hft
pRr hft
pRr hft
hflt
blnt hft
cGo -hft
s'n

1854s

;\Vof

-kj{t_]
-g]jf/_
-dw]z_
gv'ns
] f]_

k|ltzt

!(((v
;\Vof k|ltzt

166

78.3

763

66.2

32

15.9

152

13.1

0.9

138

11.9

2.8

97

8.4

0.3

2.8

212

100.0

1,158

100.0

/fhgLlts Joj:yfdf kl/jt{g x'gl] alQs} ;fdflhs dfGotf km]l/G5 eGg]


5}g. g]kfndf 1990 df k'gM:yflkt k|hftflGqs /fhg}lts Joj:yf k/Dk/fut
;fdGtL wf/0ffaf6 hsl8Psf] 5. xfn b]zdf b]vf k/]sf] hghflt
cfGbf]ng :yflkt k|eT' jjfbL 9fFrfsf lj?4 nlIft 5. o:tf cfGbf]ngn]
efiff, wd{, hftLo / If]qLo lje]blj?4 cleofgnfO{ ;l7t ul//x]sf] 5.
t/ ;Qfwf/Lju{x k'/fg} ;fdflhs ;+/rgfdf cl8u 5g\. g]kfnsf]
u'?,

18

2002

aL, kf=

tflnsf

5.

;afn
wd{lg/k]If /fi6
eflifs clwsf/
cf/If0f
hftLo ;ef
:jfoQtf

6.

cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/

1.
2.
3.

s= 22 l8;]Da/ 1854 sf] d'n'sL P]g cg';f/


v= uf]ljGb Gof}kfg], 2000, k]h 82

13

;+ljwfg 1990 n] k"0f{ JolQmut :jtGqtf k|bfg ubf{ub{} klg /fHonfO{


lxGb" clw/fHo 3f]if0ff ug{' ljutsf] k|eT' jjfbL k|jl[ QnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg
vf]Hg' xf]. c eGg] xf] eg], ;+:s[t efiffnfO{ dfWolds :s'ndf clgjfo{
u/fpg] sf\u;]| ;/sf/sf] lg0f{o / ;+:s[t efiffdf ;dfrf/ k|;f/0f ug]{
sDo'lg:6 ;/sf/sf] lg0f{on] g]kfndf gofF a|fXd0fjfbsf] pbo ePsf]
s'/fsf] k'li6 ub{5. /fhg}lts bnxdf pRr hfltsf] ks8n] ubf{ o;f]
ePsf] xf]. ;+ljwfgsf] lgb]z
{ s l;4fGtsf] wf/f 27 (10) df pk]lIftju{nfO{
;dfj]z ug{] p2]Zon] /flvPsf cf/If0fsf k|fjwfgnfO{ ;a} bnn] :jLsf/
u/]sf eP klg ;/sf/df a;]sf a]nf s'g} klg bnn] tL k|fjwfg
sfof{Gjogdf NofPgg\. 1990 ;fnb]lv ;a}eGbf nfdf] ;do;Dd ;/sf/df
a;]sf] g]kfnL sf\u;]| n] ;fdflhs ;dfgtfsf af/]df ;a}eGbf k'/ftgjfbL
wf/0ff /fv]sf] kfOG5 -tflnsf 11_. o; ;DaGwdf jfdkGyL kf6L+x{ hlt
k|ultzLn b]lvP tfklg pgLxdWo] g]skf -Pdfn]_ dfq Tof] klg yf]/}
;dosf nflu ;Qfdf /Xof]. To;}n] pgLxsf egfO 3f]if0ffkqdf dfq
;Lldt /x]sf 5g\.

4.

lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

hghflt ;afn tyf bnut wf/0ff


g]sf /fk|kf ;b\efjgf Pdfn]

If]qLo

dfn]

dfcf]jfbL

hftLo
If]qLo

;|ft] M xs{ u'?, /fli6otf / hghflt, d]/L 8];g] -;=_ g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df ;fdflhscfly{s/fhg}lts
cjwf/0fx, lxdfn lstfa, 2003.

g]skf -dfcf]jfbL_ n] kLl8tju{sf kdf /x]sf hghflt / blntxnfO{


kmsfpg'sf k5fl8 p;sf] lglxt :jfy{ 5.14 pgLxn] hghflt / blntx
14

11:

u'?,

2003

aL, kf=

11

lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

19

ul/a ePsfn] w]/} hftLo / If]qLo d'lQm df]rf{xnfO{ kl/rfng u/]sf


5g\. hftLo d'lQm df]rf{xdf ls/fFt, du/ft, g]jf/ tfd;fln, td'jfg,
blnt cflb k5{g\ eg] If]qLo d'lQm df]rf{x ;]tLdxfsfnL, e]/Ls0ff{nL /
dw]z x'g\ . dfcf]jfbL cfGbf]ngn] hghflt / blntxnfO{ /fhg}lts
k|lj|mofdf pNn]vgLo ;xeflutfsf] cj;/ k|bfg u/]sf] 5.

-r_ a}7fg
/fli6o PsLs/0f eg]sf] cf1fkfng / Ps?ktfdfq xf]Og, o;n] Pp6f
l;\uf] /fi6kl| tsf] lgi7f / Pstf bzf{p5F . To;}n] /fi6lgdf{0f;DaGwL
b"/bzL{ nIo /fli6otfaf/] /fhg}lts cjwf/0ff ax;df cfwf/e"t (primordialist)
/ sfls{o (intrumentalist) j}rfl/s wf/df 7"nf] cGt/ b]lvG5.15 klxnf]
kIf, h;nfO{ ;f/tlTj (essentialist) klg elgG5, sf cg';f/ hftLo
klxrfg / o;sf kl/rfos k|jl[ Q w]/} ;do cl8u /xG5. bf];f| ] kIf,
h;nfO{ cfw'lgstf (modernism) klg elgG5, sf cg';f/ hftLo klxrfg
cu'jfxaf6 cfly{s jf /fhg}lts cj;/sf nflu ;[lht ul/Psf] x'G5.
oL b'O{ wf/0ffaLr Psbd :ki6 nId0f/]vf x'gk' 5{ eGg] cfjZos 5}g.
hftLo klxrfg jf jr{:j /fhg}lts :jfy{lagf klg sfod /xg ;S5
;d"xsf] Pstf cyjf ;f]lts hdftsf nflu.16 hfltotf / /fli6otfaf/]sf]
cWoog /fhg}lts kn] clek|l] /t ;f+:s[lts kl/jt{g;Fu ;DalGwt x'gfn],
tL k|tLsx k|frLg x'g\ jf cfw'lgs eGg] s'/f uf}0f xf]. j:t'tM o:tf]
;f]rfO hghflt ;d"xleqsf ljlzi6 / lj/f]wLxn] ;d"xsf] ;f+:s[lts
b[li6sf]0f klxrfg ug],{ To;df gofF d"No / cy{ hf]8g\ ,] cfgf] :jfy{ /Iff
ug{] / c ;d"x;Fu k|lt:kwf{ ug{] sfdsf nflu ltgLxnfO{ k|tLssf] kdf
k|of]u ug]{ tyf ;d"xnfO{ kl/rfng ug{] tl/sfsf af/]df /flvG5.17
t/ hghfltsf] klxrfgeGbf Jofks /fi6lgdf{0fsf] s'/f x]g]{ xf] eg]
sfls{o wf/0ffn] ljz]if dxj /fVb5. /fi6lgdf{0fsf nflu cl:tTjxsf
ljleGg tx kl/rfngdf ljz]if Wofg lbg''kb{5 h;sf nflu /fHon]
15
16
17

u]ng/, 1977
cf]dg] , 1994
a|f;, 1991, kf=

20

dxjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]Ng ;Sb5. JolQmdf /fli6otfsf] efjgf hufpg of]


cfjZos 5 ls /fi6sf] clttsf af/]df lgld{t syf ;fdfGo kdf
ljZjf; ug{] vfnsf] x'g'k5{, P]ltxfl;s kn] ;fFrf] geP klg.18
/fi6lgdf{0fsf nflu k/:k/ lj/f]wL ;d"xxaLrsf] G Joj:yfkg klg
cfjZos x'G5, h'g lg/\sz
' Joj:yfdf lj/f]wL ;d"xsf] bdg tyf
k|hftflGqs Joj:yfdf jftf{f/f ;N6fOG5. g]kfndf hftLo efjgf gf}nf]
cg'el" t xf]Og, ;'if'Kt /x]sf] efjgfsf] cleJolQm ePsf] xf]. zfx tyf
/f0ff zf;gdf bdg ul/Psf tyf k~rfotL zf;gdf bafOPsf hftLo
klxrfgn] clxn]sf] cg]stfd'vL gLlt lnPsf] k|hftflGqs k4ltdf k|:6
bafasf] k lnPsf] 5. o;f] x'gdf kl/jlt{t /fhg}lts kl/l:ylt g}
lg0ff{os sf/s xf].
clxn]sf] g]kfndf b]vf k/]sf ;fdflhs ;hLjtf cl3sf zf;gsfndf
ePsf bdgxsf] kl/0flt xf]. clxn] efiff, hfltotf, wd{ / If]qLo
lgi7fdf cfwfl/t cfGbf]ngsf/L ;d"xxn] Psflwsf/jfbL ;fdflhs ;+/rgfdfly
k|Zg p7fPsf 5g\. pk]lIft ;fdflhs ;d"xsf dfuk|lt Wofg glbO{ gx'g]
tLg d'Vo o'lQm;\ut sf/0fx 5g\. klxnf], pk]lIft /xg' hghflt /
blntxsf] dfq} ;d:of xf]Og. of] Pp6f /fli6o ;d:of xf] lsgeg] s'n
hg;\Vofsf] cfwf efu cf]u6\g] lognfO{ g;d]6b\ f, /fHosf] cGtlg{lxt
zlQmdf Ifo x'G5. bf];f| ,] hGdhft ;fdflhs c;dfgtf sfod /fv]/
k|hftflGqs d"NodfGotf / df}lns clwsf/sf] ;Ddfgsf] cfzf ug'{ Joy{
xf]. t];f| ,] ljsf;nfO{ o:tf pk]lIftju{tk{m nlIft ubf{, ul/aL lgjf/0fnfO{
k|ToIf ;3fp k'Ub5 lsgeg] pk]lIftx clwsf+z ul/a 5g\.
pk]lIftju{sf] pTyfgsf pkfox pgLxsf] ;d:ofcg';f/ km/skm/s
x'g ;S5 -tflnsf 12_. hghfltn] ef]us
] f ;d:of eg]sf wfld{s /
eflifs c;dfgtf, uf}0f /fhg}lts k|ltlglwTj / :jfoQtf cefj x'g\ eg]
blntxsf] ;d:of ;fdflhs zf]]if0f / cfly{s bl/b|tf xf]. o:t},
dw];Lxn] kj{t] bdg, eflifs cjx]ngf / gful/stf ;d:of ef]lu/x]sf
5g\. ;/sf/f/f ;~rflnt sfo{qmdxn] ;d:ofxsf] ;+/rgfTds ;dfwfg
gu/]sfn] clxn];Ddsf tL k|oTgxsf] k|efj uf}0f /x]sf] 5. o:tf
;dfwfgxdWo] s]xL ;fdflhs ;dfgtfaf/] ;+ljwfgdf Joj:yf, ;f+:s[lts
18

75

lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

tfld/,

1995

lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

21

tflnsf
;fdflhs ;d"x
hghflt

;d:of ;'wf/sf kIfx

12:

;d:ofx
;f+:s[lts
1. wfld{s lje]b
2. eflifs lje]b

2.

3.

/fhg}lts
5. sd k|ltlglwTj
6. x}sdjfbL zf;g

5.

4.

6.

;f+:s[lts
1. eflifs lje]b

1.

cfly{s
2. hflu/df kIfkft

2.

/fhg}lts
3. kj{ts
] f] jr{:j
4. gful/stf ;d:of
blnt

1.

cfly{s
sd ;fIf/tf
4. a]/f]huf/L
3.

dw];L

;'wf/x

;fdflhs
1. hftLo lje]b
cfly{s
Go"g ;fIf/tf
3. a]/f]huf/L
4. ;'s'Daf;L
2.

/fhg}lts
uf}0f k|ltlglwTj

5.

wd{lg/k]If /fi6
hghfltsf efiffxnfO{
;/sf/L efiffsf] dfGotf
lzIffdf k|fyldstf
cf/If0f
;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj
hftLo :jfoQtf
t/fO{sf efiffxnfO{ ;/sf/L
dfGotf
;]gfdf egf{

4.

If]qLo :jfoQtf
/}yfg] / cfk|jf;Lsf] klxrfg

1.

wd{lg/k]If /fHo

3.

2.
3.
4.

5.

lgMz'Ns lzIff
cf/If0fsf] Joj:yf
j}slNks hLljsf]kfh{gsf
pkfo
hftut lgjf{rg

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wd{lg/k]If /fi6 agfPdf hghfltxdflysf] ;f+:s[lts k|eT' j / blntdflysf]
lje]bsf] ;d:of ;dfwfg x'g5] . cGo efiffnfO{ klg ;/sf/L efiffsf]
dfGotf lbPdf dfWod efiffsf kdf :yflkt g]kfnL efiffsf] Jofkstfdf
vt/f b]lvGg. oxfFg/] hfPd tf]/] af]bs
] f] egfO pNn]vgLo 5, ha;Dd
b]zsf s]xL dflg;x lzIff cfh{g ug]{ ;a} k|fljlws ;'ljwfx pkef]u
ub{5g\ t/ clwsf+zn] cIf/;d]t lrGg] cj;/ kfPsf x'bF g} g\, To; b]zdf
;fdflhs zflGt eg]sf] kmut d[ut[i0ff xf].19 a]/f]uhf/Lsf] ;d:of
;dfwfgsf nflu lk5l8Psf ;d'bfoxnfO{ ;fj{hlgs If]qdf cf/If0fsf]
Joj:yf x'gk' 5{. /fhg}lts If]qdf hghfltsf] ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTjsf]
cfjZostf 5 eg] blntxnfO{ pgLxdWo]af6 lgjf{lrt u/fpg ;lsG5
clxn] h:tf] dgf]gogaf6 xf]Og. If]qLo :jfoQtfn] k|bz
] cg';f/ ax';\Vofdf
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agfpF5.
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geP;Dd To:tf clwsf/ sfutdf dfq ;Lldt /xG5g\. lzIff / lghfdtL
If]qdf pRr hftsf] Psflwsf/ /x]sf] cj:yfdf k|lt:kwf{df cfpg g;Sg]
blnt / hghfltsf nflu cj;/sf] ;dfgtfsf] s'g} cy{ /xFb}g.
pgLxnfO{ Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{sf nflu lzIff / cfly{s cj;/sf nflu
;sf/fTds lje]bsf] gLlt rflxPsf] 5. ;fIf/tf b/n] z}lIfs sfo{qmdsf
nflu nlIft ;d"x klxrfg ug{ 7f]; cfwf/ pknAw u/fpF5. /f]huf/Lsf
nflu pk]lIft ;d"xxnfO{ cf/If0fsf ;fy} ;Lk clej[l4 ug]{ / e"ldxLgxnfO{
hUuf lbg] sfo{qmd x'gk' b{5.
/fhg}lts cleJolQmx hftLo x'g\ jf cGo, ;Qf;\qmflGtsf a]nf
Hofb} ;lqmo x'G5g\ . k|hftflGqs jftfj/0fdf clxn]sf] g]kfnn] 7Ls oxL
s'/fsf] cg'ej ul//x]sf] 5. clxn];Dd p7fOPsf hftLo tyf If]lqotf;DaGwL
dfuxdf k|rlnt Joj:yfcGtu{t ;fwgsf] pkof]u ug{ kfpg] jftfj/0f
eb| vfnsf dfq 5g\. ljutsf tLgcf]6f cfdr'gfjn] klg hgtfn]
d"nwf/sf] /fhgLltnfO{ ;dy{g hgfPsf] s'/f b]vfPsf] 5. t/ zf;sju{n]
;fdflhs Gofo / /fhg}lts ;dfgtfsf nflu pk]lIft ;d"xxn] p7fPsf
19

22

lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

6fpg;]G8,

1972,

kf=

97

lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

23

20

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24

1996,

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2001

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] eG5, csf]t{ k{m
;f+:s[lts cr]tgn] ;Gb]z lbG5 ls ;f] ztfAbL hftLo bafa /
/fli6otf hfu/0fsf] ztfAbL x'g5
] . t/ ljj]s / sNkgfn] xfdLnfO{
eG5 ;dfwfg Tof] laGb' xf] hxfF PsLs/0f / k[ystfsf dfuxnfO{
;Gt'lnt ug{ ;lsG5 / Tof] ;\3Lo zf;g xf].
sfnf{] o'Gt]

lrq sM hghflt hg;\Vofsf] cg'kft,

j}wflgs dfuxnfO{ k"/f gug]{ xf] eg] pgLx cfqmds / c ljb|fx] fTds
klg x'g ;S5g\ / cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/sf] gf/f p7\g] ;Defjgf klg
x'G5. g]kfnn] clxn] cg]stfdf cfwfl/t /fli6otfsf] cjwf/0ff cufl8
;fg{' k/]sf] 5 h;n] /fli6o Pstf clej[l4 ub{5.
d}n] o; n]vsf] yfngL clk|msL g]tf g]N;g d08]nfsf] egfOaf6 u/]sf]
lyPF. ca o;sf] cGTorflxF Ps hgf gfd'b Nofl6gcd]l/sL ;flxTosf/sf]
egfOaf6 u5{M' 20

105

lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

25

1991

lrq vM blnt hg;\Vof,

;Gbe{;fdu|L

k|ltztdf

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sf7df8f}MF wdf]b{ o ;ef, h'nfO{ .

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/fli6o / hghflt . g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df ;fdflhscfly{s/fhg}lts cjwf/0ffx,


26

lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z

27

d]/L 8];gf/f ;Dkflbt . sf7df8f}MF lxdfn lstfaf/f k|sfzf]Gd'v .


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28

lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;fdflhs kl/j]z