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16 17 18 19
Sectional Differences Road to Civil War The Civil War Reconstruction
1820–1860 1850–1860 1861–1865 1865–1877

History The Last Salute


ART by Don Troiani, 1988

Present-day painter Don Troiani shows the

South surrendering at the end of the Civil War.
 CIVIL WAR Generals from the North and South salute one
OIL LAMP another at the beginning of the ceremony.
Why It’s Important
In the mid-1800s, differences between the North and
the South grew so strong that compromise no longer
seemed possible. Tragically, Americans turned to civil
war to settle their disagreements. The long and bloody
war resulted in defeat for the South and victory for
the Union.

To learn more about the Civil War, view the

Historic America: Electronic Field Trips
Side 1, Chapter 8 video lesson:
• Gettysburg  THE LIBERATOR

★ Economic Development
★ Influence of Technology
★ Conflict and Cooperation
★ Civil Rights and Liberties

Key Events
★ Compromise of 1850
★ Southern secession
★ Emancipation Proclamation
★ General Lee surrenders to General Grant
★ Passage of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth,
and Fifteenth Amendments
★ Election of 1876

PRIMARY SOURCES See pages 760–761 for the primary
source readings to accompany Unit 6.

Create a
the Civil scrapbo
War perio ok for
history. d of
Use you
original r own
photoco wings and
pies of m
tures, an aps, pic-
tions fro other illustra-
m library
Arrange sources
yo .
around d ur collection
and writ ferent subjects
e a shor
nation o t
f each s expla-


A Morse Code Message

Armies in the Civil War made use of the newest communication
system—the telegraph. Samuel Morse sent the first long distance
message in 1844, using a code of short and long electrical signals.
Telegraph operators over the world began using this code to send
messages. Make your own simple telegraph sender using a battery-
powered circuit and try sending a message in Morse code.

Believe It

NOT! The fastest speed recorded for a

hand-key transmission of Morse code is 175 symbols a
minute. A member of the United States Army Signal
corps accomplished this feat in 1942.


■ size D battery
■ tape
■ 2 feet of insulated wire, cut into 3 pieces
■ paper clips
■ thumbtacks
■ flashlight-sized light bulb and holder
■ piece of thick cardboard or soft wood about 1 foot
■ copy of the Morse code

506 UNIT 6 Rift and Reunion: 1820–1877

What To Do
A. Trap the end of one piece of wire under
a thumbtack and tape the other end to
one terminal of the battery.
B. Connect another piece of wire to
the other battery terminal
and the light bulb holder.
C. Connect a third
piece of wire to the
light bulb holder
and a second tack
about 1 inch from
the first one.
D. Trap a paper clip
under the first
thumbtack and
bend the end up at
an angle. The paper
clip will act as a telegraph key. Tap the bent paper clip down on the second
thumbtack and observe what happens.
E. Try tapping the paper clip to the thumbtack in short and long connections as
shown on the dots and dashes of the Morse code.

b Activity
Report ed
he n yo u touch
ed w ack
W h at happen o the thumbt
1. er clip t
the pap ? a
in Step
f icu lt to send
or dif per
. W a s it easy e with your pa
2 essag
coded m in why. you
clip? Ex
io n s How do
clus ph
ing Con telegra
3. Draw he use of the e outcome
think t ve affected th
might h il War?
Find out more about Samuel Morse and
his telegraph and its success as a commu-
nication system. Create a chart showing
the advantages and disadvantages of using
the telegraph compared to modern com-
munication systems such as the telephone.

UNIT 6 Rift and Reunion: 1820–1877 507


Sectional Differences
Focus  JOHN DEERE’S PLOW, 1838
By the 1850s the North and South
had developed distinctly different ways
of life. By 1860 cities had multiplied, and the North had developed a
manufacturing economy that rivaled industrial Europe. The South
experienced remarkable growth, too, but in agriculture instead of
manufacturing. Southerners increased cotton production dramatically
and spread their plantations to the south and west.

Concepts to Understand
★ Why economic development of the North and South differed
★ How economics affected the individual and family life
Journal Note
soci- Read to Discover . . .
How did the
onomies of ★ how inventions changed the economy in the North.
eties and ec
nd South ★ why Northern immigrants experienced poor working conditions.
the North a
the differ- ★ why the cotton gin
differ? List
u read the contributed to increased
ences as yo
slavery in the South.
★ how Southern society
was structured.
Chapter Overview
Visit the American History: The Early Years to
1877 Web site at ey.glencoe.com and click on
Chapter 16—Chapter Overviews to preview
chapter information.

1831 Nat Turner leads a slave revolt

1820 Missouri Compromise creates 1837 The Panic of 1837 brings economic
United States balance between slave and free hard times
states 1837 John Deere invents the steel plow
1820–1829 1830–1839
1821 Peru wins independence from 1837 Princess Victoria becomes queen
Spain of Great Britain and Ireland

508 UNIT 6 Rift and Reunion: 1820–1877

History Where Cotton Is King

ART by Konstantin Rodko, 1908

This painting demonstrates a style of art known as “folk

art.” Folk art tries to depict the lives and surroundings
of common people.


1844 Samuel Morse sends first long

distance telegraph message
1846 Elias Howe patents his sewing
machine 1854 Nativists form the American party
1840–1849 1850–1859
1840 Union Act unites Upper and
Lower Canada
1840 World Anti-Slavery Convention
held in London

CHAPTER 16 Sectional Differences: 1820–1860 509


The Changing North

Main Idea Read to Learn . . .
Improvements in communication ★ what advances in transportation and
and transportation helped the North communications occurred between
become a bustling, prosperous region. 1820 and 1860.
★ what inventions changed farming
and other kinds of work in the
Reading Strategy United States.
Organizing Information As you read
about changes in the North, use a diagram Terms to Know
like the one shown here to list the advances ★ clipper
made in the field of transportation. ★ telegraph
★ seamstress
Transportation ★ patent
★ royalty


O n July 28, 1855, the captain of the

Henry Clay navigated down the Hudson
★ River Transportation
Before steamboats Americans had
River. The steamboat’s passengers depended on flatboats to carry passengers
strolled on deck or sampled food in the and goods downriver. Flatboats amounted
luxurious dining room. Then the captain to little more than hastily assembled rafts
spotted the steamer Armenia. With grim moved along by the current. Going
determination he ordered his crew to upstream required poles, sails, and plenty
stoke the boiler. When the captain of the of time and labor. Once most travelers
Armenia saw the Henry Clay, he too reached their destination, they tore apart
demanded more fuel. The race was on! their flatboats and used the timber for
Passengers on both boats shouted with shelter or fuel. In New Orleans at the
excitement, but their excitement soon mouth of the Mississippi River, builders
turned to panic. The Henry Clay caught eagerly bought up flatboats and used
fire, and its passengers scrambled for their them as lumber for houses and sidewalks.
lives. By the end of the day, 90 people had In 1787 American John Fitch built a
drowned or burned to death. steam-powered boat that could move

510 UNIT 6 Rift and Reunion: 1820–1877

against the current. Unfortunately it Clipper Ships
proved impractical for carrying goods
In 1841 Virginian John Griffiths
and passengers. Not until Robert Fulton
designed a new kind of ship. He claimed
developed the Clermont did steamboats
that its knifelike bow would slice through
begin to take over American waterways.
the water and its extra sails would catch
In 1807 Fulton launched the Clermont
every gust of wind. Two New York mer-
on the Hudson River. Scoffers called it
chants had the ship built and named it the
Fulton’s Folly and a “floating sawmill
caught on fire.” But it went upstream
The Rainbow was launched in 1845. It
from New York City to Albany in 32 hours
traveled to and from China in the time it
and proved that a steamboat could carry
took a packet to sail one way. Merchants
goods and passengers long distances.
sold the tea that the Rainbow carried for
From then on New Yorkers traveled
twice what the ship cost to build. Pleased
upstream and down with equal ease.
by the ship’s success, the merchants
Steam travel also flourished on the
ordered a similar ship called the Sea Witch.
Mississippi River and its tributaries.
The Sea Witch measured 170 feet (52 m)
Other inventors adapted Fulton’s design
long, and its main mast rose 14 stories. It
for these fast, shallow western rivers.
made good time on its first and second
Henry M. Shreve built a shallow-hulled
voyages. On its third voyage, the Sea
riverboat that one observer claimed
Witch set a record that no sailing ship the
“could float on a heavy dew.” Oliver
same size has ever broken. In 1849 it com-
Evans of Delaware added a high-pres-
pleted the passage from China to New
sure engine. It was lighter and cheaper
York in 74 days and 14 hours.
than the low-pressure engine on the Cler-
In American slang of the 1800s a good
mont. Despite the hazards, steamboats
clip meant “a fast pace.” Therefore,
linked Western waterways with the
Americans called sailing ships like the
Southern and Eastern Coasts and helped
Rainbow and Sea Witch clippers. In 1849
unite the nation.
clipper ships began running between
New York and San Francisco as well as to
China. In 1851 Donald McKay, builder of
★ Ocean Travel
In 1842 China opened several major
ports to Western nations. American mer-
chants sent trading ships to acquire Chi-
nese goods such as silk, cinnamon, and
firecrackers. They especially wanted Chi-
nese tea. Because the freshest tea fetched
the highest prices, merchants with the
fastest ships made the largest profits.
Oceangoing steamers already traveled
to Europe. No steamship, however, could
carry enough coal to keep going around
the tip of Africa and on to East Asia. Swift
sailing ships called packets made the trip
from China to the United States in six STEAMBOATS ON THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER Steam-
months—long enough for delicate teas to Picturing powered boats became a common sight on
spoil. Tea merchants demanded even H istory the Mississippi River in the mid-1800s. Who
faster sailing ships. improved the steamboat built by John Fitch?

CHAPTER 16 Sectional Differences: 1820–1860 511

the fastest clipper ships, launched the Fly- Charleston and Hamburg railroad line in
ing Cloud, which set a new record by sail- South Carolina in 1831. Other railroads
ing from New York to California in less began to operate almost simultaneously.
than 90 days. Not only did the railroads offer speedy
The era of the clipper ships lasted only transportation, they could be built quickly
about 20 years. In the mid-1850s Califor- as well. By 1840 the United States boasted
nia started producing its own goods and more than 400 railroad companies and
depended less and less on trade with the more miles of rails than all of Europe. By
East Coast. As the shipping business to 1860 the total miles covered by American
San Francisco slowed down, traders railroads numbered 30,000 (48,270 km)—
demanded fewer clippers. enough to cross the country 10 times.
In 1869 the Suez Canal connected the Despite technological advances, pas-
Mediterranean and Red Seas for the first sengers found train travel troublesome
time. The canal made the voyage between and dangerous. Schedules changed with-
New York and China 4,000 miles (6,436 km) out notice. The cars were stuffy and sooty.
shorter. Too narrow and shallow for most Cinders even set fire to passengers’
sailing ships, the canal was well suited for clothes. Accidents occurred on a regular
oceangoing steamships. Thus, steamships basis because of fast speeds or faulty con-
soon replaced clippers on the trade routes. struction. Yet Americans continued to
board trains at every stop. As engineers
developed better rails and engines, rail-
★ American Railroads roads became the most important means
of transportation. By the 1850s Americans
The reign of the riverboat proved demanded a coast-to-coast railroad.
almost as short-lived as the rule of the
clipper. Steamboats traveled fast, but
trains went faster. In two or three days, a
train covered the same distance that it ★ Faster Communications
took a steamboat one week to cover. In Americans proved as inventive with
addition, railroads could go almost any- communications as with transportation.
where while boats had to follow the In 1832 talk of discoveries in Europe
waterways. As a result, many travelers inspired American painter Samuel F.B.
opted to ride the rails rather than the Morse. European scientists had proven
riverboats. that wires could transmit electricity.
The first successful use of the steam loco- Morse reasoned that electricity might be
motive in the United States occurred on the used to carry long-distance messages
along the wires. He also concluded that if
electricity could travel along a wire “ten
Footnotes to History miles without stopping, I can make it go
around the globe.”
Machine Versus Horse Some people
once laughed at trains. Many believed that
horse-drawn carriages were safer and Morse Invents the Telegraph
faster. A huge crowd watched in Baltimore
as a steam-powered engine, the Tom
Morse spent the next three years work-
Thumb, raced a horse-drawn carriage. ing on the telegraph, a device used to
Although the horse at first struggled to send messages across a wire. He and
keep up, the Tom Thumb suddenly broke Alfred Vail developed the dot-dash com-
down. The defeat of Tom Thumb, however, munication system. Later this system
did not mean the end of the steam engine. became known as Morse code.

512 UNIT 6 Rift and Reunion: 1820–1877

Major Railroads, 1860
90° W 80° W 70° W

Ontario Albany Boston
La Crosse Michigan Buffalo RAL
Detroit ORK
Madison Lake Y 40° N


New York

Chicago Toledo Philadelphia

uri R.


St. Joseph Quincy Baltimore


O hi o R

P ENNSCincinnati
Kansas Lynchburg Washington, D.C.
City St. Louis Richmond
ippi R


Atlanta Charleston
Vicksburg Jackson
Savannah 30° N

New Orleans OCEAN


Gulf of Mexico Main lines

Secondary lines
0 200 400 miles

0 200 400 kilometers

Location Shippers could send large quantities of goods faster over railroads
than they could over earlier canal, river, and wagon routes. To what western-
most city did the railroads extend by 1860?

Not until 1843, however, did Congress Telegraph messages soon became com-
fund an experimental telegraph line monplace. By 1846 more than 5,000 miles
between Washington, D.C., and Balti- (8,045 km) of telegraph wire were strung,
more. On May 24, 1844, Morse demon- and 3,000 more miles (4,827 km) were
strated the telegraph by sending the first under construction. As a result, people in
message: “What hath God wrought!” A remote country towns and big cities such
few seconds later the operator in Balti- as Boston, New York, and Washington
more tapped back the same message. received news the day that it happened.

CHAPTER 16 Sectional Differences: 1820–1860 513

Linking Past and Present

Experts today disagree over
where baseball was invented. The Old Ball
The idea for baseball originat- Game
ed either in England, in a “How many bases?”
game called rounders, or in “Where’s second?” “How
the United States when it was far to third?” These base-
created by Abner Doubleday. ball questions had no set Now
answers in the early 1800s. The
game’s rules varied from town to
Modern Baseball
town. Fields came in all sizes, Players still follow many of
and teams had no set number of Cartwright’s rules. Other rules
players. have been added through the
In 1845 Alexander Cartwright years. Since Cartwright’s day
founded the Knickerbocker the number of innings, pitching
Base Ball Club of New York and distance, procedures for making
drew up a set of rules for his outs, and rules for strikes and
team. His rules quickly caught walks have changed. All base-
on, and soon teams everywhere ball teams today play by the
were playing organized base- same set of rules—no matter
ball. who they are or where they play.



Newspaper reporters used the telegraph Industry in the North grew rapidly. The
to report events of the Mexican War to the use of steam power instead of water-
American public. As one enthusiast power to run factories allowed factory
noted, “We have every morning news owners to build almost anywhere, instead
from all parts of the Union.” of only near rivers. New machines pro-
duced more goods for less money. Rail-
roads brought raw goods to factories and
★ The Northern linked the factories to distant towns.

Economy Expands
New Ways to Farm
From 1840 to 1860 rapid growth became
the dominant characteristic of the North- At first American farming changed lit-
ern economy. The growth was largely due tle. After the Industrial Revolution
to new methods of farming, inventions, reached America, however, inventors
and the expanding transportation system. created ways to produce more crops
with less work. For example, since the
1700s farmers had been using heavy iron
HISTORY plows. In 1837 Vermont blacksmith John
Deere fashioned a lightweight plow
Student Web Activity
Visit the American History: The Early Years to 1877 from polished steel. It sliced through the
Web site at ey.glencoe.com and click on Chapter 16— soil more cleanly than an iron plow and
Student Web Activities for an activity on the telegraph. even “sang,” or vibrated, as it tilled the

514 UNIT 6 Rift and Reunion: 1820–1877

Another invention allowed farmers to More than 10 years later, Elias Howe
produce more because it helped them work of Massachusetts produced a similar
faster. Farmers had been cutting grain with machine. Howe filed a patent in 1846 and
scythes since ancient times. In July 1831, went to England to market his invention.
Virginian Cyrus McCormick demonstrated When he returned to the United States,
what observers called “a right smart curi- Isaac Singer had already produced and
ous” machine. McCormick’s reaper har- sold a version of Howe’s machine. Howe
vested 14 times more grain than 2 men with took Singer to court and won a royalty, or
scythes could cut in the same amount of payment, for every sewing machine built
time. in the United States.
Later Singer struck a deal with Howe
and two other inventors who had
Ingenious Inventions improved Howe’s invention. They agreed
As the century unfolded, inventors to combine their innovations in one
came up with innovation after innova- machine, mass-produce it, and share the
tion—the safety pin, barbed wire, and the profits.
revolver were just some of the marvelous
new inventions. Others found ways to
improve existing products. These im- Out of the Home, Into the Factory
proved products, such as stoves, butter As Hunt had feared, the sewing machine
churns, screws, nails, sulfur matches, and proved disastrous for seamstresses. A
rubber, became just as impressive as the worker using a sewing machine produced
new inventions. dozens of shirts in the time it took a seam-
In the early 1830s, New Yorker Walter stress to sew a few seams by hand. The cost
Hunt, inventor of the safety pin, developed of clothing dropped. Many seamstresses
the first machine to sew interlocking stitch- had to find new ways to earn a living.
es. Hunt feared, though, that his invention The sewing machine helped factory
would take work away from seamstresses, workers turn out many garments quickly.
or women who sewed for a living. So he Cheap ready-made clothing became
abandoned the sewing machine without widely available for the first time. The
getting a patent—the exclusive right to sewing machine became another inven-
use, make, or sell the invention. tion that changed life in the North.

★ Section Assessment★
Checking for Understanding 5. Summarizing Re-create the chart shown
1. Define clipper, telegraph, seamstress, patent, here, and list how each device helped
royalty. improve production.
2. How did steamboats improve river travel? McCormick Reaper
3. Why did American merchants trading in Sewing Machine
East Asia use clipper ships instead of packets
and steamers?
Critical Thinking
6. Math Research the number of acres of
4. Determining Cause and Effect How did
grain harvested in the United States before
the sewing machine affect families?
and after the invention of the reaper. Illus-
trate your findings on a chart or graph.

CHAPTER 16 Sectional Differences: 1820–1860 515


Life in the North

Main Idea Read to Learn . . .
Life in the industrial North was ★ what conditions existed in Northern
hard for many workers as they toiled factories during the mid-1800s.
long hours for low pay in dangerous ★ how workers responded to those
factories. conditions.
★ how increased immigration affected life
Reading Strategy in the North.

Organizing Information As you read Terms to Know

about life in the North, use a diagram
like the one shown here to describe the ★ labor union
conditions many Northern factory work- ★ strike
ers faced and how they responded to ★ immigrant
those conditions. ★ assimilate
Conditions Response ★ nativist
Northern ★ discrimination
Factory Workers


I n January 1860 workers went about

their jobs at the Pemberton textile mill in
★ Working Conditions
Lawrence, Massachusetts. Factory work Before 1860
was often unhealthful as well as danger- The Pemberton Mill typified many
ous. Cotton lint flew in workers’ eyes. The Northern factories in the mid-1800s. Work-
drone of machinery filled their ears. No ers flocked to factories for jobs, despite
one saw or heard the telltale signs of a low pay and hazardous working condi-
tragedy about to happen. tions. Factory owners cared little about
Suddenly the Pemberton Mill col- workers’ safety or welfare. Factory own-
lapsed, trapping 900 people inside. ers, though, had not always been like this.
Alarms rang throughout the city. The peo-
ple of Lawrence rushed to dig through the
rubble in a frantic search for survivors. Conditions in Early Textile Mills
The accident killed 88 mill workers and The first factories and mills in the nation
severely injured 116, most of whom later opened in New England. The region pro-
died. vided plenty of streams to run machinery.

516 UNIT 6 Rift and Reunion: 1820–1877

It also provided big-city markets where workers to operate more machines at a
manufacturers could sell their goods. faster pace. As a result, many exhausted or
Factory owners liked to hire young hurried workers caught their hair or fingers
women. Women would work for lower in the machinery.
wages than men because the women
planned to work only until they married.
Then they would stay home, raise chil- ★ Workers Organize
dren, and manage their households.
To attract women workers, owners Workers began to resist poor working
offered clean, supervised boardinghouses. conditions. During the mid-1800s, work-
They even allowed free time for reading, ers started to organize labor unions, or
gardening, or attending lectures. Women organizations that try to improve the
worked 12 to 15 hours a day—about the working conditions and wages of their
same amount of time they had spent on members. Then the Panic of 1837 caused
housework or farming. Factory work some businesses to close and made jobs
seemed easier, however, and workers had scarce. Workers wanted to hang on to
Sundays off. their jobs no matter how harsh the condi-
tions. As a result, labor unions made little
progress for more than 10 years.
Conditions Decline In the 1850s labor unions reemerged,
At one time employers knew all their mostly among skilled workers such as
workers by their first names. Then printers, stonecutters, and blacksmiths.
employers felt some responsibility for These unions of skilled workers became
their workers’ welfare. As the demand for known as trade societies. They wanted to
goods increased, factories multiplied. The protect their high wages. Many also
mushrooming factories of the early to demanded a 10-hour day.
mid-1800s employed thousands of work- Unskilled factory workers soon began
ers. Bosses cared less and less about the to organize and demand higher wages
workers’ well-being. New factory owners and shorter working hours. To achieve
built shabby housing near the noise and
dirt of the factory. Factory managers cut
wages and extended working hours.
In 1851 most workers received between
$4 and $6 a week. Yet the average family
of 5 needed at least $10.37 a week for rent,
food, fuel, and clothing. This amount
allowed for no luxuries and no money to
pay medical bills.
Just to make ends meet, many children
also had to work. In 1832 children made
up about one-third of the nation’s factory
workers. They worked 12-hour days for 6
days a week. Often they made as little as
11 cents a day. Many suffered crippling or
fatal accidents while on the job.
Profits alone motivated the owners of the  CHILD LABOR Children working in factories
new factories. Workers suffered as a result. Picturing
faced horrible conditions while trying to help
Most factories were poorly lit and not well H istory their families. How many hours a day did
ventilated. In addition, employers expected children work?

CHAPTER 16 Sectional Differences: 1820–1860 517

Massachusetts, marching and carrying
banners. The women’s banners pro-
claimed “American ladies will not be
slaves” and “Give us a fair compensation
and we will labor cheerfully.” After sever-
al weeks, the strikers finally won higher
wages. But the factory owners refused to
recognize the union.
Some unions did make gains during the
late 1840s and 1850s. In response to union
demands, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts,
New Hampshire, and other states legislat-
ed 10-hour workdays. They also required
schooling for children to prevent them
from working long hours. In 1842 a Massa-
chusetts court declared that workers even
had a legal right to strike. This acceptance
of labor unions, though, had force only in
Massachusetts. Many years went by before
unions made a nationwide impact.

★ Workers From
 ARRIVAL OF IMMIGRANTS Immigration in the Across the Ocean
1800s dramatically increased the population of
H istory Most of the workers at the Pemberton
the United States. Why did employers hire
Mill had been Irish immigrants. An
immigrant is a person who comes to a
country with the intention of living there
permanently. Millions of Europeans had
these goals, some unions called strikes. A
come to the United States during the first
strike means that workers refuse to do
half of the 1800s. The nation’s industrial
their jobs until employers meet their
growth required a large labor supply.
demands. Most early strikes failed.
Employers discovered that immigrants
Because strikes were illegal, strikers faced
would work long hours for low wages
fines and jail sentences.
with few complaints.

Women Workers Organize

Women workers faced special chal- Immigration Between
lenges. They earned less money than men 1830 and 1860
and most union leaders would not allow In the 1830s nearly 600,000 immigrants
women to join. In 1824 the first women’s entered the United States. For the next 2
strike occurred. In 1833 a union for female decades, the tide of immigration rose
factory workers formed. sharply. As a result, about 4.2 million
In 1860 Massachusetts shoemakers immigrants arrived between 1840 and
went on strike for higher wages. One 1860. By 1860 one out of every eight
thousand women joined 5,000 men and Americans had been born elsewhere.
paraded through a snowstorm in Lynn, Most came from Europe. One European

518 UNIT 6 Rift and Reunion: 1820–1877

mayor could not resist commenting on the workers in New England mills had come
phenomenon to an American visitor: “I from foreign countries. Most of these
welcome you in the name of our city’s workers were Irish.
4,000 people, 3,000 of whom are now in
your country.”
Immigrants and the American Way
Over time immigrants assimilated, or
German Immigrants adopted the manners and language of their
Why did Europeans leave their native new country. They also made contributions
countries? In 1848 German academics and to American society. Germans taught
skilled workers led a movement to unite Americans horticulture, or the science of
38 states into one nation. When their rev- growing fruits, vegetables, and flowers.
olution failed, they fled to avoid harm The Irish furnished leaders for the labor
from government authorities. Thousands movement. Irish American Terence Pow-
came to the United States. Soon after, derly headed a labor union called the
many German peasants followed them Knights of Labor in 1879. And Irish-born
across the ocean. Mary Harris—better known as Mother
In all about 1.3 million Germans immi- Jones—led a campaign to end child labor
grated to the United States before 1860. in 1903.
Many stayed in New York City, where they America had become a nation of immi-
had entered the country, while others con- grants. As author Herman Melville noted:
tinued inland. There they settled on farms
near the Ohio River and Great Lakes.

Irish Immigrants
“ Our blood is as the flood of
the Amazon, made up of a
thousand noble currents all
pouring into one. We are
An even larger group—about 40 per- not a nation, so much as a

cent of all the immigrants—came from world.
Ireland. In the 1800s poor Irish farmers
depended on potatoes for food. Between
1845 and 1854, a disastrous blight, or dis-
ease, ruined several potato crops. By 1855 ★ Immigrants Face
1 million peasants had died from
famine— severe food shortages—or sick-
ness. Rather than starve, many survivors Some native-born Americans distrusted
chose to leave. One and a half million anyone different from themselves. They
Irish sold their belongings and bought did not welcome the immigrants. They
passage to the United States. resented and feared their different lan-
Once in the United States, most Irish guages, customs, and religions. These
immigrants settled in or near eastern Americans especially mistrusted Catholics,
cities such as Boston and New York. They many of whom were Irish and German
lived in crowded, unhealthy conditions immigrants. Americans who felt this way
and took whatever jobs they could find. became known as nativists.
The immigrants supplied much of the Nativists wanted to discourage immi-
unskilled labor needed to build the grants from coming to the United States.
North’s growing industries. The men They also wanted to stop those already
mined coal, dug canals, and built rail- here from becoming citizens or participat-
roads. The women worked as servants ing in politics. Some nativists proposed
and in factories. By 1852 half the factory that immigrants wait 21 years to qualify

CHAPTER 16 Sectional Differences: 1820–1860 519

for citizenship. Others demanded laws though, all Northern and New England
barring Catholics and immigrants from states had passed emancipation laws to
public office. abolish slavery. Thousands of African
Americans lived in the North.
Although they had been freed, many
Know-Nothing Party African Americans faced discrimination in
To get what they wanted, nativists the northern states. Discrimination occurs
formed a new political party, the Ameri- when certain groups of people are not treat-
can party. Their critics called it the Know- ed fairly.
Nothing party because members always In no state could an African American
responded “I know nothing” when asked serve on a jury or be elected to Congress.
about the organization’s secret activities. In most areas, African Americans could
The party became so powerful that in 1856 not ride in the same carriage or work in
Know-Nothing candidates won 48 seats the same building with a white person.
in Congress. Soon after, though, the party Good jobs were seldom open to them.
collapsed. African Americans most often faced com-
In spite of hardships, immigrants con- plete social and economic separation from
tinued to flock to the United States and whites.
participate in American democracy. Once Despite the overwhelming obstacles
the Irish gained the vote, they quickly they faced, some free African Americans
learned to use it for their benefit. They established successful careers. James
organized political machines in big cities Forten, a leading abolitionist speaker,
such as Boston and New York to help elect began his career as a sailmaker and
their candidates. In 1880, for instance, became wealthy as the owner of a
Irish voters elected William R. Grace as Philadelphia sail factory. Frederick Dou-
the first Irish Catholic mayor of New York glass and Harriet Tubman became pow-
City. erful and influential Northerners while
fighting against slavery.
Although denied voting rights, African
★ African Americans Americans fought bravely in every Amer-
ican war, published their own newspa-
in the North pers, and founded their own churches.
Slavery had once been legal in the Many also contributed time and money
North. By the early decades of the 1800s, to the antislavery movement.

★ Section Assessment★
Checking for Understanding 4. Identifying Effects Re-create the diagram
1. Define labor union, strike, immigrant, assim- shown here, and list the effects immigration
ilate, nativist, discrimination. had on the North.
2. How did bosses treat factory workers in the
Effect Effect Effect Effect
Critical Thinking
3. Making Predictions What do you think INTERDISCIPLINARY ACTIVITY
Irish immigrants might have said to other
Americans who wanted immigrants to wait 5. The Arts Imagine you are a journalist
21 years to become citizens? reporting on the collapse of the Pember-
ton Mill. Record your report on tape.

520 UNIT 6 Rift and Reunion: 1820–1877


The Cotton Kingdom

Main Idea Read to Learn . . .
The South was mostly a rural region ★ how the North and South differed
whose economy was based on agri- before 1860.
culture rather than industry. ★ what effect the cotton gin had on the
lives of Southerners.
Reading Strategy
Terms to Know
Classifying Information As you read
about the South’s economy, use a chart like ★ yeomanry
the one shown here to describe characteris- ★ cotton gin
tics of the South.


P lantation mistress Louisa McCord and

her two daughters eagerly rifled through
became increasingly urban and industri-
alized. Meanwhile, the South remained
the trunk that had just arrived from largely agricultural with few large cities.
Philadelphia. It contained the newest As a result, the South had to purchase
styles of dresses. most of its manufactured goods from the
Soon after, Louisa wrote to thank her North.
sister Mary Middleton who had sent the
trunk. Without Mary’s gifts from the
North, Louisa admitted, she felt “sadly Southern Conservatism
behind hand in my fashions and am often While Northerners bragged about their
tempted to turn quaker—just because go-ahead spirit, Southerners prided them-
their fashions I believe never change.” selves on their love of tradition. Life in the
South moved at a leisurely pace. One
Alabama politician summed up the South-
★ The Southern Economy erners’ point of view this way:

Life in Louisa McCord’s South differed

greatly from life in Mary Middleton’s
North. Between 1820 and 1860, the North “ We want no manufactures;
we desire no trading, no
mechanical or manufacturing

CHAPTER 16 Sectional Differences: 1820–1860 521

classes. As long as we have
our rice, our sugar, our
tobacco and our cotton, we
can command wealth to
“ In Ohio the spinning-
wheel and hand-loom are
curiosities, and homespun
would be a conspicuous

purchase all we want.
and noticeable material
of clothing, [but] half
This outlook encouraged the growth of the white population of
plantations but prevented the growth of Mississippi still dress in
cities. The South had 7 cities with popula- homespun, and at every
tions of more than 8,000 in 1820. By 1850 second house the wheel
just 12 cities had more than 10,000 people. and the loom are found

Only New Orleans, with 150,000 people, in operation.
compared to Northern cities in size.
Smaller communities proved just as rare. When Olmstead referred to the white
One British visitor to the South in 1856 population, he meant the yeomanry, or
noted that “towns and villages are few families on small Southern farms. Planta-
and far between.” tion owners wore factory-made cloth
from England and, increasingly, from the
Southern Manufacturing Some Southerners willingly tried man-
Before 1860 Southerners still produced ufacturing. They built a few factories in
much of their cloth and clothing at home. the South during the 1850s. These facto-
During the 1850s traveler Frederick Law ries made mostly flour, tobacco products,
Olmstead noted: and cotton cloth. They never produced as

 VIEW OF ROME, GEORGIA Unlike industrial cities in the North, Southern towns
depended mostly on agriculture to support their economies. What did South-
H istory ern factories produce in the 1850s?

522 UNIT 6 Rift and Reunion: 1820–1877

Agricultural and Non-Agricultural Workers,

1840 1850

15% 16%
16% 20% 64% agriculture was the
69% basic economic
activity throughout
the 1800s,
1860 1870 made steady
gains. By about
how much did the
18% 21%
percentage of
53% workers in
23% 59% 26% manufacturing
increase between
1840 and 1870?
Source: Historical Statistics of
Agricultural Manufacturing Other the United States.

much as similar Northern factories. The ★ The Cotton Gin

South remained a land of small farms and
large plantations. In 1851 one Alabama In colonial times rice, indigo, and
newspaper sized up the situation this tobacco made up the South’s main crops.
way: After the American Revolution, demand
for these crops decreased. European mills,

“ We purchase all our

luxuries and necessities
from the North. Our slaves
are clothed with Northern
however, wanted Southern cotton. But
cotton took time and labor to produce. A
worker spent a full day removing seeds
from just one pound of cotton. The entire
manufactured goods, . . . South produced only 1.5 million pounds
work with Northern hoes, (681,000 kg) of cotton in 1790. At this rate
plows, and other imple- cotton planters could not turn a profit.
ments. The slaveholder
The demand for cotton increased in
dresses in Northern goods,
Great Britain and the northern United
rides in a Northern saddle,
sports his Northern carriage, States as a result of the Industrial Revolu-
reads Northern books. In tion. As textile mills produced cheaper
Northern vessels his prod- goods faster, they needed more cotton. To
ucts are carried to market, provide more cotton, the South required a
his cotton is ginned with faster way of removing the seeds.
Northern gins, his sugar
is crushed and preserved
with Northern machinery,
Eli Whitney Invents Cotton Gin
his rivers are navigated by In 1793 a Yale graduate named Eli

Northern steamboats. Whitney visited Catherine Greene at

CHAPTER 16 Sectional Differences: 1820–1860 523

using a cotton gin could process 50
pounds of cotton, rather than 1 pound,
per day. If a worker operated the cotton
gin by waterpower, production increased
to 1,000 pounds per day.
Within 10 years cotton became the
South’s most important crop. In 1820
planters produced about 335,000 bales of
cotton. By 1850 planters produced more
than 2 million bales. In 1860 cotton made
up 57 percent of all exports from the Unit-
ed States.
People began to say that cotton was
king in the South. Cotton became the
 THE COTTON GIN AT WORK The invention of
Picturing South’s biggest cash crop and the chief
the cotton gin increased the production of cot-
H istory export of the United States.
ton in the South, producing a need for more
labor. How did Southern planters increase To keep up with the increasing demand
their labor supply? for cotton, planters needed more land.
Cotton plantations spread to the west and
Mulberry Grove—a plantation in Georgia. south throughout the so-called black belt,
Whitney came to Georgia to be a tutor on known for its rich black soil. Cotton plan-
a plantation. tations sprang up in southern Tennessee,
Impressed by Whitney’s ingenuity, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and
Greene and her manager, Phineas Miller, Texas.
asked him to build a device to remove the The invention of the cotton gin made a
seeds from cotton pods. Whitney devel- tremendous impact on the nation. It hap-
oped a revolving cylinder with wooden pened just as Northerners started to build
teeth projecting through thin slots. As the textile mills. The factories created demand
cylinder turned, the teeth were supposed for cotton and the cotton gin allowed the
to pull cotton fibers through the slots and South to meet that demand.
leave the seeds behind. Northerners profited from the cotton
When Whitney tried out his invention, boom, too. The South shipped much of its
it failed to work. Greene suggested that he raw cotton to the North. There Northern-
use wire teeth instead of wooden ones. ers used it to manufacture cloth and often
The wire did the trick. sold the cloth back to the South. This
Whitney called the machine the cotton exchange helped fuel industrial growth in
gin, “gin” being short for engine. Greene New England.
gave him the money to produce more cot-
ton gins, but neither Whitney nor Greene
Slavery Revived
made much profit. Others simply observed
how the machine worked and built their Different relationships between work-
own gins. By the time Whitney took out a ers and owners characterized the North-
patent in 1794, planters across the South ern and Southern economies. In the South
already had copies of his invention. enslaved African Americans made up
most of the labor supply.
Before the Industrial Revolution, some
Cotton Is King Southern planters had profited greatly
Although a simple machine, the cotton from slave labor. At that time rice, indi-
gin produced large results. A worker go, and tobacco crops brought great

524 UNIT 6 Rift and Reunion: 1820–1877

Cotton Production in America, 1790-1850

Millions of bales grown 3

Cotton was one of

2 the leading
products in the
early years of
America. About
1 how many bales
of cotton were
produced in
1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850
Source: Historical Statistics of
Year the United States.

profits. When demand for these crops Sometimes they even kidnapped free
decreased, demand for slave labor also African Americans in the North and sold
decreased. them into slavery. Slave traders made
With Eli Whitney’s invention of the cot- tremendous profits. A typical dealer in
ton gin, slave labor became profitable Memphis earned $96,000 in a year. A
again throughout the South. As a result of slave trading company took in more than
the ever-larger cotton crops, the demand $500,000 per partner. These figures reflect
for slave labor increased. The United the large investment Southern slavehold-
States had banned the slave trade with ers made in enslaved persons. The South-
Africa in 1808. When cotton production ern plantation owners had no intention of
rose, the demand for enslaved persons freeing what they considered their most
outstripped the supply, and the prices for valuable pieces of property.
the enslaved spiraled. In 1790 a field hand Between 1790 and 1850, the number of
cost between $300 and $350. By 1860 the Southern slaves increased from 500,000
average cost was $1,500. to more than 3 million. By 1860 slaves in
Slave traders began to smuggle the South numbered 4 million.
enslaved people from the West Indies.

★ Section Assessment★
Checking for Understanding the cotton gin had on the institution of
1. Define yeomanry, cotton gin. slavery.
Cause Effect
2. How did the North and South differ between
Cotton Gin
1830 and 1860?
3. Why did Southerners say cotton was king?
Critical Thinking
4. Determining Cause and Effect Re-create the 5. The Arts Use copies of pictures showing
diagram shown here, and explain the effect life in the North and South between 1830
and 1860 to make contrasting posters.

CHAPTER 16 Sectional Differences: 1820–1860 525





When Israel was in Egypt’s land: with the next line. During religious services,
Let my people go, the whole congregation clapped their hands
Oppressed so hard they could not stand to the rhythm of the music.
Let my people go. The words and melodies of spirituals dif-
—from “Go Down, Moses” fered, but the emotions they expressed stayed
constant. Enslaved men and women poured
Enslaved African Americans often sang their hope for a better life after death and their
spirituals, or religious folk songs such as “Go longing for freedom into almost every song.
Down, Moses.” Filled with strong emotions,
spirituals were based on stories and charac-
Making the Arts Connection
ters from the Bible. Old Testament accounts
of Hebrews in captivity especially appealed 1. What is a spiritual?
to enslaved African Americans. 2. What emotions do spirituals express?
Often enslaved African Americans created 3. Why do you think enslaved African
spirituals while working in the fields. No sin- Americans especially liked the Old
gle person made up a song. One worker Testament stories of Hebrews in
introduced a few words or a melody, then captivity?
another would change or add to them.
Singing spirituals became a group effort. ACTIVITY
One worker sang a verse, and the rest of the
workers sang the chorus. Or one person 4. Find a recording of spirituals at the
called out a line, and the others responded library and listen to the words and


Life in the South

Main Idea Read to Learn . . .
Wealthy plantation owners ruled ★ what classes made up Southern society.
over much of Southern society, while ★ how African Americans lived in
enslaved Africans lived hard lives. the South.

Reading Strategy Terms to Know

Organizing Information As you read ★ overseer
about life in the South, ★ slave codes
use a diagram such as ★ extended family
the one shown here to
list the South’s social
classes from highest to lowest. Lowest


A crowd gathered in the bright

Savannah sunshine. A man with a loud
★ Southern Class
voice was asking for bids. On a platform
stood an enslaved African American, his The presence of slavery affected all
head held high. Fear and grief clouded his aspects of Southern life. Yet only about one-
face because he had been forced to leave fourth of all white Southern families held
his wife and children. Within minutes, the slaves. Most of these held 20 slaves or
man had a new owner. Afterward he fewer. Just a few plantations were large
wrote this letter to his family: enough to have hundreds of enslaved per-
sons living and working there. Most South-

“ My Dear wife I [write] . . .

with much regret to inform
you that I am Sold to a man
by the name of Peterson. . . .
erners, even those who were not
slaveholders, respected large slaveholders
and admired their way of life. Because of
their great wealth slaveholders greatly
Give my love to my father influenced Southern politics, society, and
& mother and tell them
good Bye for me. And if we
Shall not meet in this world
I hope to meet in heaven.
The Planters
My Dear wife for you and The owners of large plantations held
my Children my pen cannot the highest positions in Southern society.
Express the [grief] I feel to Southerners considered land and slaves as

be parted from you all. badges of wealth and prestige. The more

CHAPTER 16 Sectional Differences: 1820–1860 527

land and slaves Southerners acquired, the for a house-raising, which according to
higher their standing rose. Wealthy one historian seemed “more like a good
planters cultivated the best land and natured social gathering than . . . hard
enslaved 20 or more people. work.” The women of the community
A visit to a grand Southern plantation always prepared food to serve the work-
before 1860 left a memorable impression. ers. After the work was finished, a square
A long, stately drive wound past a series dance usually followed.
of small buildings. These included the sta-
ble, the cotton gin shed, a corn mill, a
church, a school, a blacksmith shop, and
Poor Whites
the slaves’ quarters. At the end of the Poor whites stood at the bottom of
drive stood what the slaves called “the big white society in the South. Poor whites
house”—generally a white-columned made up a small percentage of the South-
mansion. Magnolia trees and other plants ern population. Most lived in the moun-
dotted the carefully tended grounds tains and pine woods, areas some called
around the big house. the “land of do without.” They rented
Plantation owners included both men their land, often paying the rent with part
and women, but most plantations had of their crops.
male owners. Each day the plantation Farmers had forced poor whites off fer-
owner either gave instructions to the tile land into the rugged frontier area of the
overseer or personally directed the slaves. South. For food they hunted, trapped, and
The overseer supervised the slaves at grew peas, corn, beans, cabbage, sweet
work. The plantation owner made deci- potatoes, and other vegetables. Many poor
sions about planting and harvesting the whites barely kept their families from
crops. Plantation owners often participat- starving. Yet they enjoyed rights denied to
ed in politics and promoted laws that enslaved and free African Americans.
upheld slavery.
The planter’s wife managed the house- Free African Americans
hold. She usually sewed, supervised the
house servants, cared for the sick, and Free African Americans occupied a
often educated her young children. The position in Southern society lower than
mistress also entertained and attended poor whites. About 200,000 free African
parties at nearby plantations. Americans lived in the South around
1850. Most of them were runaway slaves
or were descended from slaves freed dur-
The Yeomanry ing and after the American Revolution.
The yeomanry ranked just below the Others bought their freedom. Free
planters in Southern society. This class of African Americans, in both the North and
farmers and ranchers made up a large South, suffered harsh treatment at the
part of the South’s population. They usu- hands of whites.
ally owned hundreds, rather than thou- Many laws restricted African Ameri-
sands, of acres and held between 5 and 20 cans’ freedom. In the South they had to
slaves. Some held no slaves at all. Instead, register, wear special badges, pay special
they worked their farms themselves or taxes, and live in separate areas from
had hired hands to help. whites. By the 1850s some Southern states
The yeomanry enjoyed the company had passed laws that ordered African
of their neighbors. They gathered for Americans to leave or be re-enslaved.
logrolling, corn shucking, and wood burn- Even without such laws, free African
ing. On occasion they even came together Americans did not feel secure. Many

528 UNIT 6 Rift and Reunion: 1820–1877

feared being kidnapped and sold into produced evidence that Northup was a
slavery just as Solomon Northup was. free man, and his slaveholder released
him. Northup wrote Twelve Years a Slave, a
book about his ordeal. The book gave
Biography ★★★★
Northerners a firsthand look at the slave
Solomon Northup Writes system and became a best-seller. ★★★
Twelve Years a Slave
Solomon Northup’s parents had been ★ The Life of
slaves in the North. They became free
when their slaveholder died. After being an Enslaved Person
freed, they moved to Minerva, New York, Many enslaved persons worked in
where Northup was born in 1808. the big house or the plantation owner’s
Later Northup lived in Glens Falls, stables. Some became skilled carpenters
New York, with his wife and three chil- or blacksmiths. Those with skills some-
dren. Northup worked on the Champlain times worked in a nearby city. All or most
Canal as a lumber contractor and saved of their wages went to the slaveholder.
enough money to buy a farm. Northup Most enslaved persons, however,
considered his life “happy and prosper- labored in the fields tending tobacco, cut-
ous.” Then the Northups moved to ting sugarcane, or picking cotton. The
Saratoga Springs, New York, in 1834. overseer punished the field hands when
Seven years later events took a disas- he wanted them to work harder. Most
trous turn. Two white stage performers were punished with a lash, which was
hired Northup to play the fiddle in their usually made of rawhide or cowhide.
act. They went to Albany and then New
York City. Then they persuaded Northup  AFRICAN AMERICAN BLACKSMITH
to go with them to Washington, D.C. Once
there they drugged Northup and sold him
into slavery.
Northup awoke alone in a dark cellar.
After several hours two strangers ap-
peared. Northup later learned that one of
them was slave dealer James Burch. Burch
claimed that he had just purchased
Northup. Northup insisted that he was free
and could not be sold. For this Burch beat
him severely. The slave dealer threatened to
kill Northup if he said such a thing again.
Burch shipped Northup from Wash-
ington to New Orleans, where planter
William Ford bought him. Ford proved a
kind master, but he experienced finan-
cial hard times and had to sell Northup
after less than a year. This time Northup
found himself in the hands of a cruel
After 12 years in captivity, Northup
managed to send a letter to the white
family that had held his parents. They

CHAPTER 16 Sectional Differences: 1820–1860 529

Even young children had to work.
Enslaved girls as young as four or five
helped with child care and other chores. If
children did their tasks incorrectly, over-
seers punished them.
Some slaveholders provided food,
clothing, and decent housing for enslaved
people. Others gave their workers little to
eat and shacks to live in. Josiah Henson
described his slave quarters this way:

“ We lodged in long huts,

and on the bare ground. . . .
In a single room were
huddled . . . ten or a dozen
persons, men, women,
and children. . . . Our beds
were collections of straw
and old rags, . . . The wind
Picturing whistled and the rain and
bers provided strength and security for one
H istory snow blew through the
another. Why did Southern law not recognize
cracks, and the damp earth
slave marriages as permanent?
soaked in the moisture
till the floor was miry
as a pig-sty.

Despite the severe limitations placed
on them, many enslaved African Ameri-
cans made valuable contributions to the
United States. Henry Blair, for example, Slave Codes
patented two corn harvesters. Benjamin Across the South legislatures passed
Montgomery invented a boat propeller. laws called slave codes, to control
enslaved people. Slave codes denied
slaves basic human rights. For instance,
The Treatment of Slaves
an enslaved person had no standing in a
In Twelve Years a Slave, Northup court of law and could not testify against
described the life of a field hand on a a white person. Enslaved people could
Southern plantation: not own property or strike a white person,
even in self-defense.

“ The hands are required

to be in the cotton fields
as soon as it is light in
the morning, and, with
In addition, enslaved people could not
leave their plantations without permission.
They could not own guns. They could not
exception of ten or fifteen hire themselves out or buy and sell goods.
minutes, which is given The law barred them from assembling
them at noon to swallow unless a white person was present. In most
their allowance of cold Southern states, teaching an African Amer-
bacon, they are not permit- ican to read or write was against the law.
ted to be a moment idle
until it is too dark to see,
and when the moon is full,
The Auction Block
they often times labor till All enslaved persons dreaded being

the middle of night. sold because their new masters might be

530 UNIT 6 Rift and Reunion: 1820–1877

crueler than the last. They also shuddered African cultures used these folktales to
at the thought of a slave auction. One for- pass on their history. They also passed on
mer slave described such an auction this skills, such as dancing, playing music,
way: and using herbs as medicine.
On Sundays several families gathered

“ They would stand the

slaves up on the block and
talk about what a fine-
looking specimen . . . they
for worship. When planters introduced
enslaved persons to Christianity, African
Americans adapted what they heard to
fit their needs. They identified with the
was, tell how healthy they
Bible’s message of hope for the down-
was, look in their mouth
trodden and despised. Many spirituals
and examine their teeth just
like they was a horse, and expressed a message of salvation like this
talk about the kind of work one:
they would be fit for and

” “
could do. Didn’t my Lord deliver
This treatment humiliated the persons Deliver Daniel,
being sold. Worse, however, was the Deliver Daniel,
Didn’t my Lord deliver
anguish families went through when dif-
ferent buyers separated them. For some

And why not every man?
the grief proved unbearable. Solomon
Northup met a young mother named African Americans often resisted the
Eliza at a slave auction. Later her two slaveholders. Some ran away, but others
young children were taken from her on used more subtle methods. One Northern-
the auction block. After years of mourn- er saw women workers in the field raise
ing, the tormented woman died. their hoes and stop working after the over-
seer passed. They did not lower the hoes
Families, Religion, and Resistance again until the overseer turned around.
Some enslaved African Americans learned
Southern law did not recognize slave
marriages as permanent because hus-
bands and wives were separated so often.
Preachers who presided at slave mar-
riages even changed the wedding vows to
“until death or distance do you part.” In
some places slaveholders forbade
enslaved persons to call one another
“mother,” “father,” or “sister.” Some
slaveholders tried to erase all family feel-
ing among slaves.
Nevertheless, enslaved persons clung
to their families as long as possible.
Grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins
stuck together. This extended family pro-
vided strength, pride, and love. The
women in a family gathered to do laun-  NAT TURNER’S REVOLT Nat Turner tried to
dry, make quilts, and share stories about
lead African slaves to freedom by revolting
their day. Fathers and mothers taught H istory against slavery. What was one result of
their children stories and songs. Many Turner’s revolt?

CHAPTER 16 Sectional Differences: 1820–1860 531

to read and write even though doing so Turner, a popular religious leader among
violated the law. They referred to this as his fellow slaves, believed that God had
“stealing” learning. A house servant might chosen him to lead his people to freedom.
“accidentally” break a mistress’s favorite On August 21, 1831, Turner and his
vase. Others pretended not to hear the followers killed his master and his fami-
master’s orders. They alluded to their pas- ly. Others joined Turner and, for 24
sive resistance when they sang, “Got one hours, murdered family after family
mind for the boss to see; Got another mind until about 60 whites were dead. State
for what I know is me.” and federal troops hunted the country-
side for Turner, killing more than 100
Armed Resistance African Americans in the process. After
4 days they managed to find and arrest
African Americans rarely took up arms most of the rebels. The authorities did
against whites. Slave codes ensured that not capture and execute Turner, though,
African Americans seldom obtained guns. for another 6 weeks. As a result of Turn-
Because the well-armed whites worked er’s revolt, Southerners imposed even
hard to prevent them, revolts had almost stricter slave codes to discourage further
no chance of success. Some defiant rebellion.
African Americans, however, revolted Some abolitionists disapproved of
and terrorized Southern whites. Turner’s uprising. They feared it set back
Denmark Vesey, an enslaved African efforts to end slavery. But one Southerner
American, won money in a street lottery put their misgivings to rest:
and bought his freedom. Afterward he

lived in Charleston, South Carolina, and
If your course was wholly
worked as a carpenter.
different—If you distilled
In the summer of 1822, Vesey organized sweet nectar from your lips
a revolt. Before the uprising took place, and discoursed sweetest
however, the authorities discovered his music. . . . [D]o you imagine
plan. They executed Vesey and 35 other you could prevail on us to
African Americans. give up a thousand millions
Nine years later an African American of dollars in the value of

named Nat Turner led a revolt in Virginia. our slaves?

★ Section Assessment★
Checking for Understanding 3. Summarizing Re-create the diagram shown
1. Define overseer, slave codes, extended here, and list the ways in which enslaved
family. African Americans resisted slavery.

Critical Thinking Forms of

2. Drawing Conclusions Few Southerners were Resistance

in a position to maintain plantations with

large numbers of slaves. Why do you think
this small group was able to dominate the INTERDISCIPLINARY ACTIVITY
political, economic, and social life of the 4. The Arts Draw scenes that illustrate dif-
ferences between planters and enslaved
people in the 1800s.

532 UNIT 6 Rift and Reunion: 1820–1877

Social Studies Skills

Interpreting a Circle Graph

Interpreting a Circle Graph To interpret the graph, compare the sec-
tions. The graph shows that sports are the
Suppose you find a circle graph in the
most popular activities.
local newspaper about students’ favorite
When two circle graphs appear together,
school activities. What does the graph mean?
read their titles and labels. Then compare the
graphs for similarities and differences.
Learning the Skill
Circle graphs are used to compare parts Practicing the Skill
of a whole. The whole circle stands for the
Use these graphs to answer the follow-
entire amount of something. The sections ing questions.
stand for the parts that make up the whole.
In the graph below, the circle stands for Populations of the North
all the city’s students, or 100 percent. Each and South in 1860
section of the circle stands for a percentage, North South
or part, of the students. The labels tell you
2% African American
that 50 percent of the students prefer sports,
12.5 percent prefer music, and so on. The
percentages in a circle graph always add up
37% African
to 100 percent. American

98% white 63% white

Students' Favorite
School Activities
1. What do the two graphs represent?
2. What percentage of the population in
11% the North was white in 1860?
3. Where did African Americans make
12.5% up over one-third of the population?
50% 4. What can you conclude from the
graphs about the total population of
26.5% the North and South?

Glencoe’s Skillbuilder Interactive

Workbook, Level 1 provides in-
struction and practice in key social
Students who Students who studies skills.
prefer sports prefer music
Students who
Students who
prefer chess prefer theater APPLYING THE SKILL
5. Find a circle graph related to the
economy in a newspaper or magazine.
Compare its sections, and then draw a
conclusion about the economy.

Reviewing Facts
HISTORY 1. List the hardships Northern factory workers
Self-Check Quiz 2. Name five inventors from the North.
Visit the American History: The Early Years to
1877 Web site at ey.glencoe.com and click on
Chapter 16—Self-Check Quizzes to prepare for
the chapter test.
Critical Thinking
1. Comparing and Contrasting Point out simi-
larities and differences in the lives of Northern
workers and Southern yeomanry.
Using Key Vocabulary 2. Making Predictions How do you think
Southerners in the mid-1800s would have
Use the listed vocabulary words to complete
reacted if Northerners threatened the cotton
the following sentences. industry and slavery?

cotton gin slave codes

History and Geography
1. The _________ made it possible for the South to Products of the South
meet the North’s growing demand for cotton. Study the map symbols on the maps below
2. _________ barred enslaved African Americans and then answer the following questions.
from learning how to read and write in most
1. Location Where was sugarcane grown in
Southern states.

Southern Crops in 1820 Southern Crops in 1860

Rice Cotton (45 bales or fewer

Sugarcane per square mile)
0 150 300 miles
Tobacco Cotton (46 bales or more
0 150 300 kilometers per square mile)

534 UNIT 6 Rift and Reunion: 1820–1877

2. Movement Which Southern crop on the
map failed to move south or west between Urban and Rural Populations
1820 and 1860? of the United States
1830 Urban 1860
Understanding Concepts Urban
Economic Development
1. What did Southerners mean by cotton was
king? Rural Rural
91% 80%
The Individual and Family Life
2. Why were enslaved families torn apart?
3. Comparing Re-create the diagram shown
here, and list the positive and negative
effects of industrialization on the daily lives Technology Activity
of Northerners. Using a Word Processor
Industrialization’s Effects Choose a region in the United States far from
your hometown. Use the Internet and other

library resources to find out more about the


region, including its industry,


culture, and customs. Write a brief 30


report explaining the ways in which 20


the region differs from the one 0

in which you live. Share

Cooperative Interdisciplinary Activity: your report with the
Learning class.
Pass around a sheet of paper on which each
member of your group writes a clue to the identi-
ty of an inventor or invention discussed in the
chapter. For example, a clue might read: “I built a
History Yo
shallow-hulled riverboat.” After each member ur Journa
has written a clue, join another group to exchange
Write a
clues and answers. between conversation
and Nor Southerner
Practicing Skills on a tra
in in the o meet
1800s. mid-
Interpreting a Circle Graph Have th
em talk
about th
Study the circle graphs on this page. Then between differences
answer the following questions. the note eir lives. Use
1. In which year did more than 90 percent of all s
journal in from your
Americans live in rural areas? the scrip
2. How large was urban population each year?
3. What change in the American population do
the two graphs show?

CHAPTER 16 Sectional Differences: 1820–1860 535

Cultural Kaleidoscope

Music in Country Barn Dance
America No country barn dance was complete without a
violin, better known then as a “fiddle.” Specta-
tors helped out by singing and clapping while
M usic became part of the
the fiddler fiddled and the dancers danced.
American way of life in the
mid-1800s. Often, neighbors
gathered to sing, play musi-
cal instruments, or dance for
the evening’s entertainment.

The Popular Violin
From fashionable parlor to rustic
frontier, Americans all across the
continent enjoyed
violin music.

Rise and Shine!
Civil War musi-
cians became
not always popular—
members of their mili-
tary units. The harsh
blare of the bugle
told soldiers when to
advance or retreat in
battle, when to awak-
en, and even when to
eat. One poem “honor-
ing” buglers complained:
No matter, be it rain or snow,
That bugler still is bound to blow.


Strings Across the 
Country African American Spirituals
Stringed instruments Enslaved African Americans created and sang spirituals, or
were popular with inspirational songs with religious themes. Many spirituals point-
people around the ed the way to freedom. For example, “I am Bound for the Land
country. Western of Canaan” told of going North. Groups such as the
travelers liked the Fisk Jubilee Singers helped to popu-
banjo because it was larize spirituals in the
light and easy to late 1800s.
carry along rugged
wagon trails. At the
same time, the
mountain dulcimer
was a favorite in
the Appalachian
region of the United

Singing for Fun
Americans often joined
in singing around the piano.
Some songs, like Dixie in the
South, expressed loyalty to a
cause. Others, like “Oh! Susanna,”
told a story.

Guitars in the Southwest
Spanish priests played guitars in
the Southwest as early as the
1500s. By the mid-1800s, ranchers
and cowboys strummed guitars
throughout the West. They often
sang along to amuse themselves
and to help calm restless cattle.