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Cell

Virus
Acellular

Bacteria
Cellular

Fungi
Cellular

Parasite
Cellular

Diameter

0.02-0.2 m

0.2-2 m

3-10 m

10-15 m

Nucleic Acid

DNA or RNA

DNA & RNA

DNA & RNA

DNA & RNA

Type of
Nucleus
Ribosome

Absent

Prokaryotic

Eukaryotic

Eukaryotic

Absent

70s

80s

80s

Mitochondria

Absent

Absent

Present

Present

Nature of
Outer Surface

Protein Capsid
and Envelope

Rigid Cell Wall


with Chitin

Flexible
Membrane

Motility

Non-motile

Rigid Cell Wall


with
Peptidoglycan
Non-motile or
Motile
Binary Fission

Non-motile

Non-motile or
Motile
Mitosis

Not by Binary
Fission
Dela Cruz, Renee Hope S.

Replication

Budding or
Mitosis

MT 3-A

** s in 70s, 80s Svedberg; the Sedimentation rate of the organism

Prokaryotes
Contains only 1 chromosome
Lacks Nuclear Membrane
Lacks Mitotic Apparatus
Eukaryotes
Contains more than 1 chromosome
Have a Nuclear Membrane
Have a Mitotic Apparatus

Bacteria - Unicellular organism; prokaryotes

Parasite
Unicellular (Trophozoite and Cyst)
Multicellular (Tapeworm and Adult Ascaris)
Motility:
Non Motile or Motile Flagella Whip-like
Cilia Eyelashes
Pseudopod False Feet

Fungi Eukaryotes; Non-motile yeast/molds


Virus - Smallest microorganism. DNA or RNA

Taxonomy - Arrangement according to category


Genotype
Genes. Unobservable. Enzyme
Phenotype
Physical. Observable. Gram Stain

FAMILY - Clan name - Micrococcaceae


GENUS - Surname - Staphylococcus
SPECIE - First name - aureus

Epithet proper reporting Example: Staphylococcus aureus epithet

SHAPE AND SIZE


Cocci Round
Bacilli Rod
Cocobacilli Elongated but round at the ends
Spirochete Spirals

SIZE (Bacteria)
Biggest - Bacillus anthracis
Smallest Mycoplasma

SIZE (Viruses)
Biggest - Pox Virus
Smallest Polio Virus

Arrangement
In Clusters Staphylococcus aureus
In Chains Streptococcus pneumoniae
Kidney Shape Neisseria gonorrhoea
In Rods with Square ends Bacillus
In Rods with Round ends Salmonella
Club-shape Corynebacterium
Fusiform Fusobacterium
Comma-shape Vibrio
Relaxed coiled Borrelia
Tightly coiled Treponema

PARTS OF THE CELL WALL


Outer most part of the bacteria
All bacteria have a cell wall except Mycoplasma
It is composed of Peptidoglycan ( Peptides and Polysaccharides)

GRAM POSITIVE
GRAM NEGATIVE
PEPTIDOGLYCAN
Thicker (+)
Thinner (-)
TECHOIC ACID
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Present (+)
Absent (-)
LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE
Absent (+)
Present
PHOSPHOLIPID
Absent (+)
Present (-)
LIPOPROTEIN
Absent (+)
Present (-)
IMPORTANT PROPERTIES OF CELL WALL
Gram Negative contains ENDOTOXINS (Lipopolysaccharide)
Porin
Pores
Facilitates the transfer of different substances (including drugs) Hydrophobic molecule
Acid Fast Cell Wall
Inability to be gram stained
Mycobacterium and Nocardia
Weak gram positive and refuse to be decolorized by acid-alcohol Stained by CarbolFuchsin
Cell Wall has Mycolic Acid (Increased in Lipids)
Present in 60% of Acid Fast Cell wall
Polysaccharides and Protein are acting as ANTIGEN
Periplasmic Space
The space in between of the cell wall and cell membrane
Peptidoglycan
Compose of peptide and sugar
Shape and support
Interwoven network within the cell wall
NAM N-acetylmuramic Acid
NAG N-acetylglucosamine Acid
Penicillin, Vancomycin, Cephalosporin
inhibits Cell Wall Synthesis
Used in Gram Positive Bacteria
Lysozyme
Present in saliva, tears, and mucus
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For natural resistances


It cleaves peptidoglycan by breaking glycosyl bonds
Lipopolysaccharides
Endototoxin
For Gram Negative
Causes fever and shock to the patient
Core of Lipid A To cause toxic effect
Core polysaccharides (5 sugars) the link through Ketodeoxyoctulanate (KDO) Outer
Polysaccharide somatic antigen
All bacteria have 25sugars except Neisseria (lippooligosaccharide)
Teichoic Acid
Fiber commonly seen among gram positive bacteria
Composed of:
Ribitol Phosphate
Glycerol Phophate
Lipoteichoic acid
Glycerol phosphate linked in lipids
Gram positive produce SHOCK
Cytoplasmic Membrane
Facilitate active transport
Create osmotic barriers
Energy generations by oxidation phosphorylation
Synthesize the precursor of cell wall
Produce toxin and different enzyme
Cytoplasm
Composed of Amorphous matrix and Inner Nucleiod
Inner Nucleiod
Resemble to nucleus
No nuclear membrane
Carries only DNA
Ribosome, metabolites, granules

Ribosome
Site of Protein Synthesis
Granules
To store nutrients
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Compose of glycogen and lipids


Identification of bacteria
Metachromatic Granules Corynebacterium diptheriae
Nucleoid (DNA)
No histone, introns, nuclear membrane, mitotic spindle, nucleolus
Histone and Introns Sequencing of DNA
Plasmids
Double-stranded circular DNA strands
Both Gram positive and negative have
Types:
Transmissible
Non-Transmissible
Large in size
For conjugation
Transmit
Small in size

Bacteriocins
Product of plasmid
Lethal to other bacteria
E. coli produce colicins
P. aeruginosa - produce pyocine
Transposons
A piece of DNA is move from one place to another
JUMPING GENES

STRUCTURE OUTSIDE OF CELL WALL


Capsule - Gelatinous layer that covers the whole bacteria
Nutrient Agar (NA)
Positive - Smooth and Glistening. Produce smooth colonies

Negative - Dry and Rough. Produce rough colonies


- Appearance in gram stain is HALO
- Compose of Polysaccharides except Bacillus anthracis (D-glutamic acid Non amino acid)

IMPORTANCE OF CAPSULE:
Virulence Pathogenic
Specific Identification
Quelling Reaction Swelling Phenimenon
Adherence to the Mucosal Tissue
Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccination
Flagella
- Whip-like structure
Propels towards the nutrients
Bacteria causing UTI:
E.coli and Proteus Urethra to Gall Bladder
Chemotaxis movement of bacteria towards to possible nutrient parts: Filament, Hook, and
Basal Body
LOCATION OF FLAGELLA:
Lophotrichous one side
Atrichous none
Amphitrichous both side
Peritrichous - around the cell
Monotrichous one strand
GENERAL RULE:
All cocci are non-motile
All bacilli are motile/ non-motile
Spirochetes- Axial Filament - Flagellum-like structure
Fimbrae - Aids in Attachment
Pili/Pili Conjuncion/ Pili Conjungation
Shorter than a flagella
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Non-motile
Contain Protein pilin
Commonly found in Gram Negative microorganism
Glycocalyx ( Slime layer)
Inhibits phagocytosis
P. aeruginosa
Bacterial Spores
Not for reproduction
Moist and Nutrients Rods of Gram positive
Two Spore-forming Bacteria
Bacillus b. Clostriduim

STAINING - process of coloring the microorganism


Types:
Simple uses one dye
Example: Methylene Blue Metachromatic Granules
Differential uses two or more dyes as a coloring agent
Example: AFB Acid Fast Bacilli Mycolic Acid

RULES IN STAINING:
All cocci are gram positive except Neisseria, Moraxella, and Veillonella. All bacilli are
gram negative except Mycobacterium, Corynebcterium, Bacillus, Clostridium,
Erisipelothrix, Listeria, Lactobacillus All spirochetes are gram negative
Fungi or yeast are gram positive
Hans Gram Introduce the Gram Stain
Gram Staining
Crystal Violet Primary Stain Gram Positive Purple
Grams Iodine Mordant Gram Negative Pink or Red
Acetone Alcohol Decolorizer
Safrain Counter Stain

CONTROL: Epithelial Cells, RBC, WBC - Pink Gram (+) - S. aurues


Gram (-) - E. coli

Acid Fast bacilli (AFB)


For Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Cystoisospora belli, Rhodococcus, and Streptomyces
Carbol-Fuchsin Primary Stain AFB (+) Red
Heat Mordant AFB (-) Blue
Acid Alcohol Decolorizer
Methylene Blue Counter Stain
Auramine Rhodamine
AFB (Yellow or Orange in Fluorescent Microscope)
Acridic Orange
Gram Positive and Negative ( Dead or Alive)
Commonly u373sed in Blood Culture
Calcofluor White
Cell Wall of Fungi (Chitin)
(+) Blue-white
Lactophenol Cotton Blue
For Fungi
India Ink
(-) stain (capsular, yeast, Cryptococcus)

BACTERIAL GROWTH REQUIREMENT


Physical Requirements

Temperature
Mesophiles Near the Body Temperature ( 20C - 37 C) Psychrophiles Cold-loving
(10C - 20C)
Thermophiles - Heat-loving (50C - 60C)
pH
Acidophiles - Acid (2.5)
Alkalinophiles Base (8.5 )
Halophiles - grows best in salty environment
Most Pathogens - 7.0-7.5 (humans)
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Chemical Requirements
Carbon 50% of dry weight
Structural backbone of all living organism
Essential for Cellular Constituents
Nitrogen - 14 % of dry weight ; Protein Synthesis
Energy - Cellular Function; ATP
Metal and Ions - Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Chloride
Phosphate, Phospholipids, Sulfur 4 % of dry weight

Autotrophs Inorganic. Na, K, Ca, Cl


Heterotrophs - Organic. Carbohydrates, Protein, Lipids, Glucose

AEROBIC / ANAEROBIC GROWTH


Oxygen acceptor of Hydrogen
Obligate Aerobes
Oxygen ATP Generation
Pseudomonas spp.
Facultative Anaerobe
With or without Oxygen
E.coli
Obligate Anaerobes
Without Oxygen,
Lacks enzyme ( Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase)
Clostridium
Aero tolerant
Can survive with the presence of oxygen but dont utilize it Lactobacillus spp.
Capnophilic
Extra carbon dioxide (5-10%)
Haemophilus spp.
Microaerophilic
Decrease oxygen
5-6%
Campylobcater spp.

Fermentation and Respiration


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Fermentation
Breakdown of sugar to pyruvic to lactic acid
Enzymes: Beta-galactosidase Essential for breaking/cleaving of glycosyl Catalase to be
Lactose (glut-1)
: Beta-galactosidase permease Transportation of lactose to the cell wall
Three Major Biochemical Pathways
Embden-Meyerhof glycolytic
PPP Pentose Phosphate Pathway
Entner-Duodoroff Pathway
Anaerobic Pathway (Fermentation)
- Pyruvic and Lactic Acid
Alcoholic Fermentation Ethanol
Homolactic Fermentation Lactic Acid (Streptococcus and some Lactobacillus)
Heterolactic Fermentation Lactic, Formic, Alcohol (some Lactobacillus)
Propionic Acid Fermentation Propionic Acid (Propionicbacterium)
Mixed Acid Fermentation Formic Acid, Lactic Acid, Succine ( E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella)
Bustanediol Fermentation Acetoin (MRVP); Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Seriatia
Butyric Acid Fermentation Butyric Acid and Acetic Acid (Clostridium)

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