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2ND INTERNAL ANSWER KEY - EME

PART A
1) ANY 5 LATHE OPERATIONS
Plain Turning
It is an operation in which the workpiece is reduced to the cylindrical section of
required diameter.Operation is carried out with a single point cutting tool.
Work piece is supported between the two centers permit rotation of workpiece.
Tool is fed perpendicular to the axis of workpiece to a known depth and then moved
parallel to axis of work.

Facing
An operation performed on lathe to generate flat surface.
Direction of feed is perpendicular to the axis of the lathe.
Length of the work should not be extended more than 1.5 times the diameter of the
work piece.

Knurling
Operation performed on lathe to generate serrated surface.
Tool used is called as knurling tool.
Tool consist of one upper roller and one lower roller which contains the impression.
Tool is set in such a way that both rollers touch the work.
Low speed of about 60 to 80 rpm and feed is 0.38 to 0.78mm/revolution.

Taper Turning by Swiveling the Compound Rest


Axis of the tool is moved inclined to produce the required taper.
Compound rest which supports tool post is swiveled at required taper angle and
locked.
Suitable for workpieces which require steep taper for short length.

Thread Cutting
A thread is a helical shaped groove formed on cylindrical surface of workpiece.
Thread cutting is an operation performed on lathe to produce threads by using a tool
whose shape will be same as that of thread.
Lead screw enables the tool to move longitudinally at the appropriate linear speed.

(THEORY 5 MARKS, DAIGRAM 5 MARKS)


OR
ANY 5 MILLING PROCESSES

Plain milling
It is a process used to mill flat surfaces of workpieces in such a way that the milling
cutter axis is parallel to the surface that is being milled.

End milling
End milling is a process of milling that is used to mill slots, pockets and keyways in
such a way that the axis of the milling cutter is perpendicular to the surface of the
workpiece.

Slot millingSlot milling is the process of milling slots using a different type of cutter called
slot drill which has the capacity to cut into solid material.

Angular milling

Angular mill is the milling operation used to mill flat surfaces that are neither parallel nor
perpendicular to the milling cutter axis.

Form milling
Form milling is a milling process used to machine special forms/ contours consisting of
curves using a special form mill cutter which is shaped exactly to the contour that is to be
form milled.

(THEORY 5 MARKS, DAIGRAM 5 MARKS)

2) ANY 2 ROBOTIC CONFIGURATION


Spherical configuration/ polar configurationThis configuration consists of a sliding arm (L
joint) actuated relative to the body, that can rotate about a vertical axis (T joint) and a

horizontal axis (R joint)

Cylindrical Configuration
This robot configuration consists of a vertical column, relative to which an arm assembly is
moved up and down. The arm can be moved in and out relative to the axis of the column.
A T joint to rotate the column about its axis. An L joint is used to move the arm assembly
vertically along the column. An O joint is used to achieve radial movement of the arm.

Jointed-arm robot (articulated) Configuration


This robot manipulator has the general configuration of a human arm. The joined arm
consists of a vertical column that swivels about the base using a T joint.

At the top of the column is a shoulder joint (R joint), whose about link connects to an elbow
joint (R joint)

(THEORY 5 MARKS, DIAGRAM 5 MARKS)


OR
DIFFERENT TYPES OF AUTOMATION
Automation of production systems can be classified into three basic types:
1. Fixed automation (Hard Automation)
2. Programmable automation (Soft Automation)
3. Flexible automation.
1. Fixed automation (Hard automation): Fixed automation refers to the use of special
purpose equipment to automate a fixed sequence of processing or assembly operations. Each
of the operation in the sequence is usually simple, involving perhaps a plain linear or
rotational motion or an uncomplicated combination of two. It is relatively difficult to
accomodate changes in the product design. This is called hard automation.
Advantages:
1. Low unit cost
2. Automated material handling
3. High production rate.
Disadvantages:
1. High initial Investment
2. Relatively inflexible in accommodating product changes.

2. Programmable automation: In programmable automation, the production equipment is


designed with the capability to change the sequence of operations to accomodate different
product configurations. The operation sequence is controlled by a program, which is a set of
instructions coded. So that they can be read and interpreted by the system. New programs can
be prepared and entered into the equipment to produce new products.
Advantages:
1. Flexible to deal with design variations.
2. Suitable for batch production.
Disadvantages:
1. High investment in general purpose equipment
2. Lower production rate than fixed automation.
Example: Numerical controlled machine tools, industrial robots and programmable logic
controller.
3. Flexible Automation: Flexible automation is an extension of programmable automation. A
flexible automation system is capable of producing a variety of parts with virtually no time
lost for changeovers from one part style to the next. There is no lost production time while
reprogramming the system and altering the physical set up.
Advantages:
1. Continuous production of variable mixtures of product.
2. Flexible to deal with product design variation.
Disadvantages:
1. Medium production rate
2. High investment.
3. High unit cost relative to fixed automation.
(THEORY 10 MARKS)

PART B
3) WRITE A NOTE ON ANY 2 FERROUS ALLOYS
Material

Composition

Pig iron

Carbon 3.5 to 4.5 %

properties

applications

Very brittle

Used to make wrought


iron, cast iron and steel.

Atleast 90 % iron

Very strong and brittle

Carbon 2 to 4.5%

Low melting point

Silicon 1 to 3%

Wear resistant

Used to manufacture
machine frames, beds and
plates, housing, flywheels,
manhole
covers,
automotive parts and
machine parts which are
not subjected to tension
and shocks.

Silicon - 0.5 to 3%
Sulphur 0.04 to 0.2 %
Manganese 0.5 to 2.5
%
Phosphorus 0.04 to
1%
Cast
iron

Small
amount
of Admirable
sulphur, manganese and machinability
phosphorus
Resistant
deformation

to

( THEORY 10 MARKS)
OR
APPLICATION OF COMPOSITES IN AUTOMOBILES AND AIRCRAFTS.
Various composite components used in aircraft
Airbus A300B2/B4

Components Made of Composite


Materials
Radome, fin leading edge and tip, fin
trailing edge panels, cabin and cargo hold
furnishings. Fairing -pylon, wing/ fuselage
rear.

Airbus A310-300

Rudder, elevator, vertical stabilizer,


spoilers, cowl (inlet & fan), thrust reverser,
main & nose landing gear door of wing
leading & trailing edge panels, nacelles.
Fairings -Ion, flap track, win fuselage.
Airbus A320/A319 & A321
Aileron, horizontal and vertical stabilizer,
elevator, rudder, spoilers, flaps, engine
cowl, radome, landing gear doors (main &
nose), floor panels, wing panels (leading &
trailing edge), other access panels,
nacelles.
Fairings -flap track, wing/fuselage
(forward & rear), and main landing gear
leg.
Airbus A330
Ailerons, rudder, flaps, spoilers, elevator,
horizontal and vertical stabilizer, wing
panels (leading & trailing edge), landing
gear doors (main & nose), nacelles.
Fairings -flap track, wing/fuselage
(forward & rear).
Airbus 340
Ailerons, rudder, flaps, spoilers, elevator,
horizontal and vertical stabilizer, wing
panels (leading & trailing edge), landing
gear doors (main & nose), nacelles.
Fairings -flap track, wing/fuselage
(forward & rear).
In commercial vehicles, appearance is also important as is the functional aspect. Studies have
shown that composite panels may be used as the complete outer skin of the body to give a
unique look.
Reinforced plastic is a boon in the sense that it uses shorter lead times and tooling cost is
considerably cheaper.
Truck bodies and trailers use assemblies and parts made from reinforced plastics to a great
extent. The use of light metals, which lends itself to simple shapes and extrudable forms, is
also found to be economical. The low heat transfer coefficient of composites enables their use
in refrigerated units. Glass reinforced polyester has all the properties that make it ideal for
this purpose and has become the standard material.
The strength-weight ratio is higher than other materials.
(THEORY 10 MARKS)
4) EXPLAIN ELECTRIC ARC WELDING PROCESS
Arc welding is one of several fusion processes for joining metals. By applying intense
heat, metal at the joint between two parts is melted and caused to intermix - directly,
or more commonly, with an intermediate molten filler metal. Upon cooling and
solidification, a metallurgical bond is created. Since the joining is an intermixture of

metals, the final weldment potentially has the same strength properties as the metal of
the parts. This is in sharp contrast to non-fusion processes of joining (i.e. soldering,
brazing etc.) in which the mechanical and physical properties of the base materials
cannot be duplicated at the joint.

Fig. 1 The basic arc-welding circuit

In arc welding, the intense heat needed to melt metal is produced by an electric arc.
The arc is formed between the actual work and an electrode (stick or wire) that is
manually or mechanically guided along the joint. The electrode can either be a rod
with the purpose of simply carrying the current between the tip and the work. Or, it
may be a specially prepared rod or wire that not only conducts the current but also
melts and supplies filler metal to the joint. Most welding in the manufacture of steel
products uses the second type of electrode.
Basic Welding Circuit
The basic arc-welding circuit is illustrated in Fig. 1. An AC or DC power source,
fitted with whatever controls may be needed, is connected by a work cable to the
workpiece and by a "hot" cable to an electrode holder of some type, which makes an
electrical contact with the welding electrode.
An arc is created across the gap when the energized circuit and the electrode tip
touches the workpiece and is withdrawn, yet still with in close contact.
The arc produces a temperature of about 6500F at the tip. This heat melts both the
base metal and the electrode, producing a pool of molten metal sometimes called a
"crater." The crater solidifies behind the electrode as it is moved along the joint. The
result is a fusion bond.
Arc Shielding
However, joining metals requires more than moving an electrode along a joint. Metals
at high temperatures tend to react chemically with elements in the air - oxygen and
nitrogen. When metal in the molten pool comes into contact with air, oxides and
nitrides form which destroy the strength and toughness of the weld joint. Therefore,
many arc-welding processes provide some means of covering the arc and the molten
pool with a protective shield of gas, vapor, or slag. This is called arc shielding. This
shielding prevents or minimizes contact of the molten metal with air. Shielding also
may improve the weld. An example is a granular flux, which actually adds
deoxidizers to the weld.

Fig. 2 This shows how the coating on


a coated (stick) electrode provides a
gaseous shield around the arc and a
slag covering on the hot weld
deposit.

Figure 2 illustrates the shielding of the welding arc and molten pool with a Stick
electrode. The extruded covering on the filler metal rod, provides a shielding gas at
the point of contact while the slag protects the fresh weld from the air.
(THEORY 7 MARKS, DIAGRAMS 3 MARKS)
OR
COMPARISON OF WELDING SOLDERING AND BRAZING.
Welding

Soldering

Brazing

It is a high temperature process Low temperature process. Base Base metals are not melted,
where base metal are heated metals are not melted.
but broadly heated to a
above
their
melting
suitable temperature.
temperature.
Filler metal used is of same Filler metal is not as the same as Filler metal is not as the
material as that of the base that of the base metal.
same as that of the base
metal.
metal.
Joint are formed by the Joint is formed by means of
solidification of the molten diffusion of the filler metal into
filler metal with the molten the base metal.
base metal.

Joint is formed by means of


diffusion of the filler metal
into
the
base
metal
associated with surface
alloying.

Strength of welded joint is Comparatively low


much stronger than the base
metal.

Strength
lies
between
welded and soldered joints.

Welded
joints
finishing operations.

requires Joint can be used without any In some cases brazed joints
finishing operations.
require finishing operations.

Since welding takes place at There is no heat affected zone.


high temperatures, the metal
adjacent to the weld portion
called the heat affected zone is
affected to a large extent.

Heat affected zone is no too


uch compared to welding.

(THEORY 10 MARKS)